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Sample records for angiosperm annona cherimola

  1. Four alkaloids from Annona cherimola.

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    Chen, C Y; Chang, F R; Pan, W B; Wu, Y C

    2001-04-01

    Four alkaloids, annocherine A, annocherine B, cherianoine, and romucosine H, along with one known alkaloid, artabonatine B, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the stems of Annona cherimola. Their structures were identified on the basis of both analysis of their spectral data and from chemical evidence.

  2. A cytotoxic cyclic heptapeptide from the seeds of Annona cherimola.

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    Wélé, Alassane; Zhang, Yanjun; Ndoye, Idrissa; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Pousset, Jean-Louis; Bodo, Bernard

    2004-09-01

    From a methanol extract of the seeds of Annona cherimola, a new cyclic heptapeptide, cherimolacyclopeptide C, has been isolated. The structure was elucidated on the basis of the MS/MS fragmentation using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI source, extensive 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. Cherimolacyclopeptide C exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50) value of 0.072 microM.

  3. Cherimolacyclopeptide D, a novel cycloheptapeptide from the seeds of Annona cherimola.

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    Wélé, Alassane; Ndoye, Idrissa; Zhang, Yanjun; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Bodo, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    In a chemical investigation of the seeds of Annona cherimola, a natural cyclic heptapeptide, cherimolacyclopeptide D, were isolated and purified by HPLC with three known cyclic peptides, cherimolacyclopeptides A, B and C. The structure was established by various analyses including MS/MS fragmentation, spectroscopic and chemical evidences.

  4. Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the fruits of Annona cherimola.

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    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Makiko; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (16R)-ent-kauran-17,19-diol (1), (16R)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), (16S)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and (16R)-17-dimethoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (4) have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Annona cherimola together with eight known compounds. Their structures are determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and optical rotation.

  5. Armazenamento de atemoias (Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola recobertas com filme PVC

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    P. A. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A atemoia, assim como todos os frutos climatéricos, apresenta uma elevada perecibilidade, tornando-se importante a adoção de técnicas pós-colheita. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o armazenamento de atemoias recobertas com filme PVC. Os frutos utilizados foram da variedade ‘Gefner’ apresentando-se em estado de maturação verde-maduro. Estes foram transferidos para o laboratório de Química de Alimentos do IFCE, submetidos à higienização e divididos nos devidos tratamentos. O primeiro tratamento constou no armazenamento de cinco frutos em bandejas de isopor recobertos com filme PVC. O segundo, do recobrimento individual dos frutos em filme PVC, sendo estes acondicionados em bandejas de isopor e os frutos do controle. Estes foram armazenados durante 8 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o DIC em esquema fatorial 3x4 com quatro repetições de cinco frutos por parcela. A cada tempo de armazenamento foram avaliadas: perda de massa, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, Ratio, pH e índice de rachaduras. O uso de filme plástico reduz a perda de massa, porém retarda o amadurecimento de frutos de atemoia. As rachaduras estão diretamente associadas ao amadurecimento dos frutos, ao aumento dos teores de sólidos solúveis e possivelmente a cultivar avaliada. Storage of atemoyas (Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola covered with PVC filmAbstract: The atemoya, as well as all climacteric fruits, is highly perishable, becoming important to adopt post-harvest techniques. This work aimed to evaluate the atemoyas storage covered with plastic wrap. The fruits used were of the variety 'Gefner' presenting itself in a state of green-mature aging. These were transferred to the Food Chemistry Lab IFCE submitted to cleaning and divided in appropriate treatments. The first treatment consisted in five fruit storage in styrofoam trays covered with plastic wrap. The second, the individual coating of the fruits in PVC film, which are packed in

  6. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth and development of micropropagated Annona cherimola plants

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    Concepcion Azcón-Aguilar

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Annona cherimola Mill., cherimoya, is a tropical plantation crop of interest in fruit culture. Micropropagation techniques have been developed due to the need to increase productivity through clonal selection. Because of the mycorrhizal dependence exhibited by this crop for optimal growth and the recognized role of mycorrhiza establishment for the survival and development of most of the plants produced in vitro, the effect of mycorrhiza inoculation on the development of micropropagated plants of Annona cherimola was investigated. Mycorrhizal inoculation was assayed at two different stages of the micropropagation process: (i immediately after the in vitro phase, before starting the acclimatization period, and (ii after the acclimatization phase, before starting the post-acclimatization period under greenhouse conditions. Plantlet survival was about 50 % after the acclimatization period. Plant growth and development profited remarkably from mycorrhiza establishment. Most of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF assayed greatly increased shoot and root biomass and leaf area. Micropropagated Annona plants seem to be more dependent on mycorrhiza formation for optimal growth than plants derived from seeds. The greatest effects of AMF on plant growth were observed when they were introduced after the acclimatization period.

  7. Origen, dispersión y diversidad del chirimoyo (Annona cherimola Mill.) en el continente americano

    OpenAIRE

    Larrañaga González, Nerea

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha profundizado en las razones que pueden explicar la distribución actual de la diversidad genética del chirimoyo (Annona cherimola Mill.), una especie frutal adaptada a climas subtropicales, con claras implicaciones para su uso y conservación. Gracias a un estudio de código de barras, se pudo comprobar el poder de discriminación del gen cloroplastídico maturasa K (matK) entre las especies con mayor importancia agronómica del género. Además, sobre los polimorfismos de nucle...

  8. Micropropagation and determination of the in vitro stability of Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona muricata L.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridg, Hannia

    2000-01-01

    A. cherimola und A. muricata sind als Halblaubbäume in den tropischen Hochländern Südamerikas und besonders auf den Karibischen Inseln endemisch. Beide besitzen ein großes Potential als Handelsfrüchte aufgrund ihrer wohlschmeckenden Früchte und ihrer Eigenschaften als Heilpflanzen. Die Forschung über diese Obstarten wurde in Kolumbien, Peru, Ekuador, Venezuela und in der Dominikanischen Republik vernachlässigt. Deshalb sollte die wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung, das Sammeln, die Konservieru...

  9. A Mesoamerican origin of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Implications for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

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    Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill. and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques

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    WALTER N.L. DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.. The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC and total flavonoids (TF were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI, the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03 °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA, which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  11. Attraction of Pollinators to Atemoya (Annona squamosa × Annona cherimola) in Puerto Rico Using Commercial Lures and Food Attractants.

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    Jenkins, David A; Millan-Hernandez, Christian; Cline, Andrew R; McElrath, Thomas C; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa L. and Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) and has potential to be an important fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically, by beetles in the family Nitidulidae. We used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures in combination with various food attractants, including raw bread dough, apple juice, and malta beverage, a soft drink by-product of the brewing process. The most commonly trapped beetles were, in order of decreasing frequency, Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.), Brachypeplus mutilatus Erichson, Urophorus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and Europs fervidus Blatchley (Coleoptera: Monotomidae). All traps, except the unbaited control traps, caught beetles. In a previous study, we found that combining two commercial lures had a synergistic effect on the attraction of these beetle species. In this study, the addition of food attractants increased the number of beetles trapped compared with traps baited with only the commercial lures. Also, food attractants appear to be key in attracting U. humeralis; only one U. humeralis individual of the 206 caught during the experiment was trapped without a food attractant. The variation between the number of beetles caught in traps containing the same treatments was high and may explain the erratic results reported in other studies of pollination in Annona spp. The results are discussed with respect to the use of nitidulid lures and food attractants to increase fruit set in atemoya and other Annonaceae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. A catechol oxidase AcPPO from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is localized to the Golgi apparatus.

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    Olmedo, Patricio; Moreno, Adrián A; Sanhueza, Dayan; Balic, Iván; Silva-Sanzana, Christian; Zepeda, Baltasar; Verdonk, Julian C; Arriagada, César; Meneses, Claudio; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2018-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids. The present work determined the subcellular localization of a PPO protein from cherimoya (AcPPO). The obtained results revealed that the AcPPO- green fluorescent protein co-localized with a Golgi apparatus marker, and AcPPO activity was present in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions. Likewise, transient expression assays revealed that AcPPO remained active in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions obtained from tobacco leaves. These results suggest a putative function of AcPPO in the Golgi apparatus of cherimoya, providing new perspectives on PPO functionality in the secretory pathway, its effects on cherimoya physiology, and the evolution of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Browning in Annona cherimola fruit: role of polyphenol oxidase and characterization of a coding sequence of the enzyme.

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    Prieto, Humberto; Utz, Daniella; Castro, Alvaro; Aguirre, Carlos; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Valdés, Héctor; Cifuentes, Nicolas; Defilippi, Bruno G; Zamora, Pablo; Zúñiga, Gustavo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2007-10-31

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However, along with its desirable delicate taste, cherimoya shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO). A general lack of knowledge regarding PPO and its role in the oxidative loss of quality in processed cherimoya fruit requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. The work carried out included the cloning of a full-length cDNA, an analysis of its properties in the deduced amino sequence, and linkage of its mRNA levels with enzyme activity in mature and ripe fruits after wounding. The results showed one gene different at the nucleotide level when compared with previously reported genes, but a well-conserved protein, either in functional and in structural terms. Cherimoya PPO gene (Ac-ppo, GenBank DQ990911) showed to be present apparently in one copy of the genome, and its transcripts could be significantly detected in leaves and less abundantly in flowers and fruits. Analysis of wounded matured and ripened fruits revealed an inductive behavior for mRNA levels in the flesh of mature cherimoya after 16 h. Although the highest enzymatic activity was observed on rind, a consistent PPO activity was detected on flesh samples. A lack of correlation between PPO mRNA level and PPO activity was observed, especially in flesh tissue. This is probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and/or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. To our knowledge this is the first report of a complete PPO sequence in cherimoya. Furthermore, the gene is highly divergent from known nucleotide sequences but shows a well conserved protein in terms of its function, deduced structure, and physiological role.

  14. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

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    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  15. Curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner Water absorption curve in seeds of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner, submetidas a três métodos de embebição: sementes submersas em água destilada (MSSA, sementes entre papel de filtro embebido em água destilada acondicionada em caixa tipo gerbox (MPEA e teste-padrão (MTP, com sementes mantidas em rolo de papel de filtro umedecido em água destilada. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, constituídos por três métodos de embebição, empregando-se sementes vivas e mortas. O tempo de embebição entre 27; 34 e 47 horas, nos métodos MTP, MPEA e MSSA, representam indicativo para tratamento de sementes, podendo funcionar como tempo mínimo necessário para embebição em solução com reguladores vegetais. Conclui-se que os métodos que caracterizaram as três fases de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia foram o MTP e MPEA com mudança entre as fases I e II após 27 e 34 horas, respectivamente, atingindo a fase III com 234 horas, o que permite determinar o tempo de imersão para tratamentos pré-germinativos.The present study aimed to characterize the water absorption curve in atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner, submitted to three imbibitions methods: seeds submerged in distilled water (MSSA, seed placed betwen paper filter imbibed with distilled water inside a gerbox box (MPEA and standard test, with seeds kept in roll of filter paper moistened with water (MTP. The experimental delineation was entirely randomized, with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds per parcel. The treatments were submitted to three imbibitions methods, with live and deth seeds. The imbibition time among 27, 34 and 47 hours, in the MTP, MPEA and MSSA methods represented an indicative for seeds treatment, which could possibly function as a

  16. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  17. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3 e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon

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    Marcos Campos de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3, do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. , cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. As concentrações de GA3 empregadas foram: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1.000 mg L-1 i.a.e de ethephon: 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 mg L-1 i.a.. Os tratamentos com os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados na semente por imersão das mesmas nas soluções de GA3 e ethephon por período de 36 horas. As sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel germitest e levadas à câmara de germinação onde permaneceram no escuro, com temperatura alternada entre 20ºC por 8 horas e 30ºC por 16 horas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem, tempo e índice de velocidade de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e percentagem de sementes dormentes. Existe interação da ação dos reguladores vegetais estudados no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia, o que permite concluir que a percentagem de germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' é aumentada com o emprego de 778 mg L-1 de GA3, enquanto a associação entre elevadas concentrações de GA3 e 75 a 100 mg L-1 de ethephon incrementam o índice de velocidade de germinação e a percentagem de plântulas normais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon, besides the interaction of both plant growth regulators, on the germinative process of atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill. X A. squamosa L., cultivar 'Gefner'. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5

  18. Characterization of bioactive compounds of Annona cherimola L. leaves using a combined approach based on HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS and NMR.

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    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Aguilera-Saez, Luis Manuel; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Fernández, Ignacio; Arráez-Román, David

    2018-06-01

    Annona cherimola Mill. (cherimoya) has widely been used as food crop. The leaves of this tree possess several health benefits, which are, in general, attributed mainly to its bioactive composition. However, literature concerning a comprehensive characterization based on a combined approach, which consists of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS), from these leaves is scarce. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the polar profile of full extracts of cherimoya leaves by using these tools. Thus, a total of 77 compounds have been characterized, 12 of which were identified by both techniques. Briefly, 23 compounds were classified as amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, cholines, phenolic acid derivatives, and flavonoids by NMR, while 66 metabolites were divided into sugars, amino acids, phenolic acids and derivatives, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and other polar compounds by HPLC-TOF-MS. It is worth mentioning that different solvent mixtures were tested and the total phenolic content in the extracts quantified (TPC via HPLC-TOF-MS). The tendency observed was EtOH/water 80/20 (v/v) (17.0 ± 0.2 mg TPC/g leaf dry weight (d.w.)) ≥ acetone/water 70/30 (v/v) (16.1 ± 0.7 mg TPC/g leaf d.w.) > EtOH/water 70/30 (v/v) (14.0 ± 0.3 mg TPC/g leaf d.w.) > acetone/water 80/20 (v/v) (13.5 ± 0.4 mg TPC/g leaf d.w.). Importantly, flavonoids derivatives were between 63 and 76% of the TPC in those extracts. Major compounds were sucrose, glucose (α and β), and proline, and chlorogenic acid and rutin for NMR and HPLC-TOF-MS, respectively. Graphical abstract The combined use of LC-HRMS and NMR is a potential synergic combination for a comprehensive metabolite composition of cherimoya leaves.

  19. Effect of Harvest Time and L-Cysteine as an Antioxidant on Flesh Browning of Fresh-Cut Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. Efecto del Momento de Cosecha y L-Cisteína como un Antioxidante en el Pardeamiento de Pulpa de Chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. Precortada

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    Reinaldo Campos-Vargas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Browning development is the most important factor limiting the quality of fresh-cut cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.. However, there is little information available about its causes and methods of control. The effectiveness of L-cysteine (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5% in fresh-cut cherimoya harvested on two occasions (October and November and stored for 6 and 12 days at 0 °C was studied. In order to understand the biological basis of browning, polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme activity and total phenolic content in fresh-cut pieces were measured. Quality measurements and sensory analysis indicated that 0.5% L-cysteine was somewhat effective in reducing browning development, without affecting other quality attributes. In terms of physiological parameters, PPO activity did not show differences between mature (at harvest and ripe fruit (at processing in both harvest times, but cherimoya fruits picked in November presented lower PPO activity than fruit from October. In general, PPO activity and total phenolic content of L-cysteine treated fruits did not show consistent differences with untreated fruit at 6 or 12 days at 0 °C. PPO activity analyses demonstrated that PPO activity was higher in the outer part of cherimoya flesh compared to the middle or inner sector. These results would support the possibility of using L-cysteine as a postharvest treatment to reduce browning development in fresh-cut cherimoya.El desarrollo de pardeamiento es uno de los factores limitantes en la calidad de chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. precortada (fresh-cut. No obstante, existe poca información disponible en relación a sus causas y métodos de control en esta fruta. Se estudió la efectividad de L-cisteína (0,125; 0,25 y 0,5% en chirimoya precortada cosechada en dos oportunidades (octubre y noviembre y almacenada por 6 y 12 días a 0 ºC. Con el objetivo de conocer las bases biológicas del pardeamiento, se estudió la actividad de polifenol oxidasa (PPO y contenido de

  20. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner submetidas a tratamento lento e rápido com auxinas Rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner cuttings subjected to slow and fast treatment with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de concentrações de diferentes auxinas no enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner, empregando-se tratamento lento e rápido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x7 (auxinas x concentrações, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas por parcela, para cada método de aplicação de auxina (lento e rápido. As estacas foram tratadas com os reguladores vegetais, por meio da imersão da base em soluções, contendo IBA, NAA e 2,4-D, durante 24 horas (tratamento lento nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg L-1 de cada regulador e 5 segundos (tratamento rápido nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 mg L-1 de cada regulador. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas, sobreviventes com calos, comprimento de raiz por estaca, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotação e com folhas remanescentes e brotação. Para o enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira cv. 'Gefner' conclui-se que, o tratamento lento, com 200 mg L-1 de NAA, proporcionou incremento ao processo, da mesma forma que o tratamento rápido com IBA, independente da concentração.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different auxin concentrations in the rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner stacks, employing slow and fast treatments. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in 3x7 factorial arrangement (auxins x concentrations, with 5 replicates of 12 stacks per plot, for each auxin application method (slow and fast. Stacks were treated with plant growth regulators by bottom immersion in a solution containing IBA, NAA and 2,4-D for 24 hours (slow treatment at the following concentrations: 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg L-1 of each growth regulator

  1. Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez Encina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and several countries in South and Central America. The cherimoya shows a high degree of heterozygosis, and to obtain homogeneous and productive orchards it is necessary to avoid the propagation by seeds of this species. Additionally, the traditional methods of vegetative propagation were inefficient and inadequate, due to the low morphogenetic potential of this species, and the low rooting rate. The in vitro tissue culture methods of micropropagation can be applied successfully to cherimoya and other Annona sp to overcome these problems. Most of the protocols of micropropagation and regeneration were developed using the cultivar Fino de Jete, which is the major cultivar in Spain. First it is developed the method to micropropagate the juvenile material of cherimoya (ENCINA et al., 1994, and later it was optimized a protocol to micropropagate adult cherimoya genotypes selected by outstanding agronomical traits (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2004 and further it was improved the process through micrografting (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2011.At the present time we are involved in inducing and obtaining new elite genotypes, as part of a breeding program for the cherimoya and other Annonas, using and optimizing different methodologies in vitro: a Adventitious organogenesis and regeneration from cellular cultures (ENCINA, 2004, b Ploidy manipulation of the cherimoya, to obtain haploid, tetraploid and triploid plants (seedless, c Genetic transformation

  2. Annona glabra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Annona glabra L. (MONKEY-APPLE) of Annonaceae is a medium-sized tree with spreading branches. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong in shape, 10 x 5 cm with an acute apex. Flowers are solitary and large. Sepals and petals are fleshy whereas stamens and pistils are small and numerous. Fruit is of apple's size and is ...

  3. Biosistematik species Annona muricata Annona squamosa dan Annona reticulata dengan pendekatan alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Hamidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore kinship Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata on the basis alkaloid content. Study phenotype Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata based alkaloid content. Data alkaloid obtained are thenprocessed by a computer program SPSS version 14. The results of this study indicate that the presence of variations in the characterof the three types of Annona of species alkaloid. From the data analysis it can be seen that there are differences in the variations that occur in Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata by different habitats and is a variation of phenotypic variation.Dendrogram grouping results suggest that Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata fenetic ties closer, so clumped into one large group while Annona muricata split away from the other groups.

  4. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  5. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

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    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  6. Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Camacho, João F; Cordeiro, Nereida; Gouveia, Manuela; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-11-15

    The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars ('Perry Vidal', 'Mateus I', 'Mateus III' and 'Funchal') from Madeira Island, were studied for the first time. The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes (42.2-59.6%), fatty acids (18.0-35.6%) and sterols (9.6-23.7%). Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between 554 and 1350mgkg(-1) of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavan-3-ols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin and procyanidin tetramer. 'Mateus I' and 'Mateus III' cultivars present the highest content of phenolic compounds (6299 and 9603mgkg(-1) of dry weight, respectively). These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estudio preliminar del potencial bioactivo de la Annona cherimola (anona y Prunus domestica (ciruelo cultivadas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos

    2014-06-01

    Se ubicaron plantas de ambas especies, recolectándose los frutos que luego de su debido procesamiento fueron analizados en laboratorio en cuanto a su contenido de polifenoles y a su bioactividad. Asimismo se extrajeron estacas de las plantas para reproducción vegetativa tradicional y se sembraron en las comunidades de Cabuyal de San Pedro de Poás, Alajuela (Damas Verdes y Llano Bonito de León Cortés, San José (PROAL donde se trabajó con grupos de mujeres organizadas que elaboran productos artesanales como champú, cremas y aceites, contribuyendo con ellas en el adiestramiento con las buenas prácticas en laboratorio y la importancia del cuido del germoplasma.

  8. Fatty Acid Profile and Bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca Seeds Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants from Annona (Annonaceae) genus are present in tropical regions, where they have economic and medicinal potential. Information on the fatty acids profile and bioactivity from seed oil of Annona species are incipient. The objective of this work was to investigate Annona hypoglauca seeds oil in terms of its yield, ...

  9. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  10. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  11. Germination ecophysiology of Annona crassiflora Mart. seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Melo, de D.L.B.; Davide, A.C.; Bode, N.; Abreu, G.B.; Faria, J.M.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Little is known about environmental factors that break morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Annonaceae and the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphological and physiological components of dormancy of Annona crassiflora, a tree species

  12. Neuropharmacological evaluation of Annona senegalensis leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neuropharmacological activities of methanol leaf extract (ME) of Annona senegalensis Pers (Annonaceae) and its bioactive fractions (MF and F7) were studied in rodents using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, pentobarbitone-induced sleep, apomorphine-induced stereotypy, open field, elevated plus maze ...

  13. Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jinzhong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of angiosperms has been under debate since the time of Darwin. While there has been much speculation in past decades about pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, including Archaefructus, these reports are controversial. The earliest reliable fossil record of angiosperms remains restricted to the Cretaceous, even though recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest an origin for angiosperms much earlier than the current fossil record. Results In this paper, after careful SEM and light microscopic work, we report fossils with angiospermous traits of the Jurassic age. The fossils were collected from the Haifanggou Formation (middle Jurassic in western Liaoning, northeast China. They include two female structures and an associated leaf on the same slab. One of the female structures is physically connected to the apex of a short shoot. The female organs are borne in pairs on short peduncles that are arranged along the axis of the female structure. Each of the female organs has a central unit that is surrounded by an envelope with characteristic longitudinal ribs. Each central unit has two locules completely separated by a vertical septum. The apex of the central unit is completely closed. The general morphology places these fossils into the scope of Schmeissneria, an early Jurassic genus that was previously attributed to Ginkgoales. Conclusion Because the closed carpel is a character only found in angiosperms, the closed apex of the central unit suggests the presence of angiospermy in Schmeissneria. This angiospermous trait implies either a Jurassic angiosperm or a new seed plant group parallel to angiosperms and other known seed plants. As an angiosperm, the Liassic age (earliest Jurassic of Schmeissneria microstachys would suggest an origin of angiosperms during the Triassic. Although still uncertain, this could have a great impact on our perspective of the history, diversity and systematics of seed plants and angiosperms.

  14. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K

    2017-10-26

    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  15. Bilirubin present in diverse angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Johnson, Jodie V; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David

    2010-01-01

    Bilirubin is an orange-yellow tetrapyrrole produced from the breakdown of heme by mammals and some other vertebrates. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria synthesize molecules similar to bilirubin, including the protein-bound bilins and phytochromobilin which harvest or sense light. Recently, we discovered bilirubin in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the White Bird of Paradise Tree, which was the first example of this molecule in a higher plant. Subsequently, we identified bilirubin in both the arils and the flowers of Strelitzia reginae, the Bird of Paradise Flower. In the arils of both species, bilirubin is present as the primary pigment, and thus functions to produce colour. Previously, no tetrapyrroles were known to generate display colour in plants. We were therefore interested in determining whether bilirubin is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and whether it contributes to colour in other species. In this paper, we use HPLC/UV and HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV/ESI-MS/MS) to search for bilirubin in 10 species across diverse angiosperm lineages. Bilirubin was present in eight species from the orders Zingiberales, Arecales and Myrtales, but only contributed to colour in species within the Strelitziaceae. The wide distribution of bilirubin in angiosperms indicates the need to re-assess some metabolic details of an important and universal biosynthetic pathway in plants, and further explore its evolutionary history and function. Although colour production was limited to the Strelitziaceae in this study, further sampling may indicate otherwise.

  16. Indigenous Angiosperm biodiversity of Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...

  17. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Harald; Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M; Cranfill, Raymond; Magallón, Susana; Lupia, Richard

    2004-04-01

    The rise of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period is often portrayed as coincident with a dramatic drop in the diversity and abundance of many seed-free vascular plant lineages, including ferns. This has led to the widespread belief that ferns, once a principal component of terrestrial ecosystems, succumbed to the ecological predominance of angiosperms and are mostly evolutionary holdovers from the late Palaeozoic/early Mesozoic era. The first appearance of many modern fern genera in the early Tertiary fossil record implies another evolutionary scenario; that is, that the majority of living ferns resulted from a more recent diversification. But a full understanding of trends in fern diversification and evolution using only palaeobotanical evidence is hindered by the poor taxonomic resolution of the fern fossil record in the Cretaceous. Here we report divergence time estimates for ferns and angiosperms based on molecular data, with constraints from a reassessment of the fossil record. We show that polypod ferns (> 80% of living fern species) diversified in the Cretaceous, after angiosperms, suggesting perhaps an ecological opportunistic response to the diversification of angiosperms, as angiosperms came to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. The Sequenced Angiosperm Genomes and Genome Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jiawei; Guo, Xinyue; Chen, Junhao; Wang, Zhengjia; Lin, Zhenguo; Tang, Haibao; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Angiosperms, the flowering plants, provide the essential resources for human life, such as food, energy, oxygen, and materials. They also promoted the evolution of human, animals, and the planet earth. Despite the numerous advances in genome reports or sequencing technologies, no review covers all the released angiosperm genomes and the genome databases for data sharing. Based on the rapid advances and innovations in the database reconstruction in the last few years, here we provide a comprehensive review for three major types of angiosperm genome databases, including databases for a single species, for a specific angiosperm clade, and for multiple angiosperm species. The scope, tools, and data of each type of databases and their features are concisely discussed. The genome databases for a single species or a clade of species are especially popular for specific group of researchers, while a timely-updated comprehensive database is more powerful for address of major scientific mysteries at the genome scale. Considering the low coverage of flowering plants in any available database, we propose construction of a comprehensive database to facilitate large-scale comparative studies of angiosperm genomes and to promote the collaborative studies of important questions in plant biology.

  19. OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY IN Annona macroprophyllata AND Annona purpureaUSING PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELA FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata

  20. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Genetic diversity of Annona senegalensis Pers. populations as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annona senegalensis Pers. is one of the wild fruit tree for domestication in southern Africa. An assessment of the genetic diversity in A. senegalensis would assist in planning for future germplasm collection, conservation and fruit domestication programmes. During 2004 to 2006 nine populations were collected from different ...

  2. Assessment of Potential Abatement provided by Annona Muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    glyceride, total bilirubin, total cholesterol and glucose levels (P<0.05). However, significant ... homeostasis at the level of iron regulatory proteins. Annona muricata Linn .... enhanced protein catabolism and accelerated amino acid deamination ..... (2005).”Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment”. Diabetes.

  3. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona vepretorum Mart (Annonaceae) leaf extracts. Mariana G e Silva, Ana P de Oliveira, Camila de S Araújo, Érica M de Lavor, Juliane C Silva, Rosemairy L Mendes, Cláudia do Ó Pessoa, Marcília P Costa, Jackson R G da S Almeida ...

  4. The allelopathic effects of crude water extracts of Annona muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annona muricata (sour sop) belongs to the family Annonaceae. This plant inhibits the growth of other plants growing around it, a phenomenon called “allelopathic effect”. Allelopathy is the production of specific biomolecules by plant species mostly secondary metabolites that can induce suffering or give benefit to other plant ...

  5. Coumarinolignans from the Seeds of Annona squamosa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations of Annona squamosa seeds have led to the isolation of three lignans consisting of coumarin moiety, cleomiscosin A (1, cleomiscosin B (2 and cleomiscosin C (3. Their structures were arrived at by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Cleomiscosin A and cleomiscosin B are position isomer.

  6. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  7. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  8. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO 2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H 22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H 22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P.; Chansouria, J.P.N.; Khosa, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats. PMID:22556909

  11. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  12. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    OpenAIRE

    Villela,Paula; Batista,Ângela Giovana; Dessimoni-Pinto,Nísia Andrade Villela

    2013-01-01

    Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with...

  13. Why does biparental plastid inheritance revive in angiosperms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2010-03-01

    It is widely believed that plastid and mitochondrial genomes are inherited through the maternal parent. In plants, however, paternal transmission of these genomes is frequently observed, especially for the plastid genome. A male gametic trait, called potential biparental plastid inheritance (PBPI), occurs in up to 20% of angiosperm genera, implying a strong tendency for plastid transmission from the male lineage. Why do plants receive organelles from the male parents? Are there clues in plastids that will help to elucidate the evolution of plants? Reconstruction of the ancestral state of plastid inheritance patterns in a phylogenetic context provides insights into these questions. In particular, a recent report demonstrated the unilateral occurrence of PBPI in angiosperms. This result implies that nuclear cytoplasmic conflicts, a basic driving force for altering the mode of organelle inheritance, might have arisen specifically in angiosperms. Based on existing evidence, it is likely that biparental inheritance may have occurred to rescue angiosperm species with defective plastids.

  14. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Delmas, Chloé E L; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Cochard, Hervé; Jansen, Steven; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; Del Arco, Marcelino; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P 50 ) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P 50 from -0.5 to -7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P 50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of 52 new polymorphic SSR markers from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): transferability to related taxa and selection of a reduced set for DNA fingerprinting and diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, P; Viruel, M A; Hormaza, J I

    2008-03-01

    Fifty-two single locus polymorphic microsatellites were developed using two genomic libraries digested with HaeIII and RsaI of cherimoya cv. Fino de Jete enriched in CT/AG repeats. A total of 222 alleles were detected with the selected simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.73 and from 0.20 to 0.84, respectively. Most of the SSRs were transferable to other species in the Annonaceae. A set of 20 microsatellites was selected to facilitate the exchange of data among laboratories. © 2007 The Authors.

  17. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  18. A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J. de; Eppinga, M.B.; Wassen, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid

  19. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  20. Characterization and development of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was the physical, chemical, and physiological characterization of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart. during its development. The fruits were harvested 12 Km off Itumirim, Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, at 20-d intervals from anthesis to fruit maturity. The first fruits were harvested within 60 days. The total development of the fruit took 140 days starting from anthesis. At 140 days after anthesis, the fruit reached its maximum size, with mass of 1.380g, transverse diameter of 13.0 cm, and longitudinal diameter of 11.5 cm. During its development, the fruit showed increase in mass and in traverse and longitudinal diameters. The changes during maturation and ripening, such as: pH reduction and starch degradation, pectic solubilization, and increase in total sugars, soluble solids (ºB, respiratory rate (CO2, titratable acidity, vitamin C, and β-caroteno were observed from the 120th day of marolo development. A decrease in ability to sequester free radicals was observed up the 120th day, followed by an increase. The volatile compounds identified at the end of the development included the esters group only.

  1. Six cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Sha-Sha; Li, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds had been used in south China as a folk medicine to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and as an insecticide. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol fraction of custard apple seeds led to the isolation of six new annonaceous acetogenins: annosquacins A-D (1-4), annosquatin A (5) and annosquatin B (6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-4 are adjacent bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins. Compounds 5 and 6 are non-adjacent bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins and the first examples in which the tetrahydrofuran ring system is located between C-9 and C-20. The absolute configurations of 1-6 were defined by the application of the Mosher method. Compounds 1-6 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumour cell lines. Compounds 5 and 6 showed a high selectivity toward the MCF-7 and A-549 cell line respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  3. Phytochemicals Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Annona muricata Aqueous Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosniza Razali; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Arapoc, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Annona Muricata belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and many other bio activities. Leaves, twig, fruit and seed of A. muricata were collected from Suhan Biotech and dried. Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared for the preliminary screening of phytochemicals and aqueous extracts of A. muricata were evaluated for total phenolic, scavenging assay (DPPH; 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and cytotoxic activities. Phytochemicals screening of leaves extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoid, reducing sugar, carbohydrate and anthocyanins. While for twig extracts it revealed the presence of coumarine. Antra quinones, terpenoid, flavonoid, reducing sugar, lipids and coumarine were found in fruit and seed extracts. The total phenolic content was found to be 2.372±0.922 μg GAE/ g, 85.85±6.23 μg GAE/ g, 53.56±8.39 μg GAE/ g and 54.67±13.33 μg GAE/ g for leaves, twig, fruit and seed respectively. On the other hand, all extract have showed IC_5_0 value more than 500 μg/ mL in DPPH scavenging assay. Cytotoxic evaluation of all extracts against HTB43, MCF-7 and MDAMB231 cell lines showed IC_5_0 value more than 250 μg/ mL. In conclusion, the results showed that aqueous extract of A.muricata was inappropriate as anticancer agen (author)

  4. Anatomy of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar apple is of great economic importance to the country, however, information on the anatomical and morphological aspects of Annonaceae family seeds is limited to a few species and the anatomical studies refer to very few seeds. Using histological techniques and microscopy, Annona squamosa L. seeds were studied with regard to their anatomical characteristics. In general, they presented the typical anatomical patterns of seeds of the Annonaceae family. The multilayered testa was comprised of exo-, meso- and endotestas, with the presence of longitudinal and oblique fibers. The embryo was small and straight with moderately developed embryonic axis, rudimentary plumule and flat and thin cotyledons, wherein one could observe the procambium. In particular, the perichalaza was observed in the medium longitudinal plane of the endotesta with more than two rows of vascular tissue. The tegmen or inner integument was collapsed. The micropylar plug was tapered, woody and composed of transverse fibers; a fracture line was also observed. The ruminate endosperm interfered with both the inner and external integuments. Oleiferous idioblasts were observed at the outer edges of the ruminations

  5. Bactericidal Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Annona squamosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayavardhanan, R.; Nanda, Anima

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is described as an emerging technology that not only holds promise for society, but also is capable of providing novel approaches to overcome our common problems. The present study focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the metabolites of Annona squamosa seeds. The biological reduction procedure proposed in this method was considered as better one compared to chemical mediated reduction methods. The advantages include nontoxic to the environment, less energy consuming and highly suitable for further biological applications. The seeds were separated from the fruit pulp, grinded into powder and dissolved in distilled water. The suspension was used as reducing agent and treated with silver nitrate at the concentration of 1mM. The reduction reaction was continuously monitored by UV-visible photo spectrometer. Further the samples were subjected to AFM, SEM and XRD analysis for the confirmation of their size, structure, agglomerations and the arrangements of crystals. Finally the antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were tested against clinically important pathogenic microorganisms using disc diffusion method and compared with the activities of standard antibiotics. The combinational effects of nanoparticles with commercial antibiotics also were tested by the same method.

  6. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSR. Benites

    Full Text Available AbstractThe antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2 for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents.

  7. Formin homology 2 domains occur in multiple contexts in angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvrčková, F.; Novotný, M.; Pícková, Denisa; Žárský, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 44 (2004), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : Formin * angiosperms * Arabidopsis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.250, year: 2004

  8. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; van Andel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN SUSU PASTEURISASI HTST DAN LTLT YANG DITAMBAHKAN BERBAGAI LEVEL BUAH SIRSAK (Annona muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA, IRMAYANA AYU

    2015-01-01

    2015 IRMAYANA AYU ANITA (I 111 11 305). Aktivitas Antioksidan Susu Pasteurisasi HTST dan LTLT yang Ditambahkan Berbagai Level Buah Sirsak (Annona muricata L). Dibawah bimbingan WAHNIYATHI HATTA sebagai pembimbing utama dan EFFENDI ABUSTAM sebagai pembimbing anggota. Buah sirsak mengandung vitamin, dan senyawa antioksidan yang dapat berfungsi sebagai senyawa yang dapat menunda, memperlambat dan mencegah proses oksidasi lipid. Penambahan buah sirsak diharapkan dapat mening...

  10. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells

  11. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  12. Application of thermal barrier coating for improving the suitability of Annona biodiesel in a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annona biodiesel was produced from Annona oil through transesterification process. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using a annona methyl ester as a fuel. They are blended together with the Neat diesel fuel such as 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and Neat biodiesel. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption. The emission constituents such as carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke were recorded. Then the piston and both exhaust and intake valves of the test engine were coated with 100 µm of NiCrAl as lining layer. Later the same parts were coated with 400 µm material of coating that was the mixture of 88% of ZrO2, 4% of MgO, and 8% of Al2O3. After the engine coating process, the same fuels is tested in the engine at the same engine operation. The same performance and emission parameters were evaluated. Finally, these parameters are compared with uncoated engine in order to find out the changes in the performance and emission parameters of the coated engine. It is concluded that the coating engine resulting in better performance, especially in considerably lower brake specific fuel consumption values. The engine emissions are lowered both through coating and annona methyl ester biodiesel expect the nitrogen oxides emission.

  13. Dendroecological Analysis of Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum and Annona spraguei in Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; S. Joseph Wright

    1995-01-01

    Several plant communities in central Panama, each community located near a weather station, contain trees with annual growth rings, i.e. Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum, and Annona spraguei. Tree-ring data are particularly valuable when concomitant weather information is readily available. Patterns of...

  14. Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Min; Mao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Tuo; Ye, Jian-Fei; Liu, Bing; Li, Hong-Lei; Sun, Miao; Miller, Joseph T.; Mathews, Sarah; Hu, Hai-Hua; Niu, Yan-Ting; Peng, Dan-Xiao; Chen, You-Hua; Smith, Stephen A.; Chen, Min; Xiang, Kun-Li; Le, Chi-Toan; Dang, Viet-Cuong; Lu, An-Ming; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2018-02-01

    High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon—provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation. However, no detailed phylogenetic study has addressed when and how the major components of the Chinese angiosperm flora assembled to form the present-day vegetation. Here we investigate the spatio-temporal divergence patterns of the Chinese flora using a dated phylogeny of 92% of the angiosperm genera for the region, a nearly complete species-level tree comprising 26,978 species and detailed spatial distribution data. We found that 66% of the angiosperm genera in China did not originate until early in the Miocene epoch (23 million years ago (Mya)). The flora of eastern China bears a signature of older divergence (mean divergence times of 22.04-25.39 Mya), phylogenetic overdispersion (spatial co-occurrence of distant relatives) and higher phylogenetic diversity. In western China, the flora shows more recent divergence (mean divergence times of 15.29-18.86 Mya), pronounced phylogenetic clustering (co-occurrence of close relatives) and lower phylogenetic diversity. Analyses of species-level phylogenetic diversity using simulated branch lengths yielded results similar to genus-level patterns. Our analyses indicate that eastern China represents a floristic museum, and western China an evolutionary cradle, for herbaceous genera; eastern China has served as both a museum and a cradle for woody genera. These results identify areas of high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, and

  15. Uptake of Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Biosorption Using Granulized Annona squmosa Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. A sample of granulized Annona squmosa seeds had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB, methylene red (MR and malachite green (MG. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., contact time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Above the value of initial pH 5, three dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data fitted the Langmuir model in the case of MB sorption and the Freundlich model for all three dyes sorption. The biosorption processes followed the pseudo first order rate kinetics. The results in this study indicated that granulized Annona squmosa seed was an attractive candidate for removing cationic dyes from the dye wastewater.

  16. Categorización de la germinación y la latencia en semillas de chirimoya (Annona cherimola L. y guanábana (Annona muricata L., como apoyo a programas de conservación de germoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Mario

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió la latencia y germinación de semillas de guanábana y chirimoya con el fin de categorizar la latencia de las simientes y desarrollar un protocolo de rompimiento de ésta; conocimiento básico para el establecimiento y monitoreo de un duplicado de seguridad en las colecciones de campo, por la vía de almacenamiento a largo plazo de las unidades de propagación sexuales. No se detectó latencia exógena, a través de la imbibición obtenida por las semillas. Se encontró, a través de pruebas de viabilidad, con tetrazolio, que en cada uno de los taxa existe alrededor de un 20% de unidades no viables en el conjunto de semillas aparentemente normales. La estratificación caliente húmeda, por espacio de 90 días, produjo rompimiento de la latencia, al igual que la imbibición con AG3, con obtención del mejor resultado al imbibir la simiente en 800 ppm de la hormona. En chirimoya se obtuvo efectos sinérgicos al combinar el tratamiento de 800 ppm de AG3 y estratificación caliente húmeda durante 90 días, lo cual no fue evidente en el caso de la guanábana. A partir de los resultados se clasificó el bloqueo de la germinación de las semillas de las dos especies, como latencia morfofisiológica simple, no profunda. La caracterización definida, junto con el protocolo de remoción, apoyan el establecimiento de un duplicado de seguridad de la colección de campo, por la vía de semilla, con un concepto dinámico que se esboza en este escrito.

  17. Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous

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    Lamont Byron B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60−125 million years ago (Ma, and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Results Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae, occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83−94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous. This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade was delayed until 45 Ma. Conclusions Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants.

  18. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Characterization of the chemical composition of the essential oils from Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Girotto Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L. The species were grown in a greenhouse for 18 months, which nutrient solution was applied weekly; the plants were then harvested and the leaves dried to extract the essential oil. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to study its chemical profiles. Eleven substances were found in the essential oil of A. emarginata, primarily (E-caryophyllene (29.29%, (Z-caryophyllene (16.86%, γ-muurolene (7.54%, α-pinene (13.86%, and tricyclene (10.04%. Ten substances were detected in the oil from A. squamosa, primarily (E-caryophyllene (28.71%, (Z-caryophyllene (14.46%, α-humulene (4.41%, camphene (18.10%, α-pinene (7.37%, β-pinene (8.71%, and longifolene (5.64%. Six substances were common to both species: (E-caryophyllene, (Z-caryophyllene, α-humulene, camphene, α-pinene, and β-pinene.

  20. An Evaluation Of Anti Cancer Potential Of Annona Muricata Linn (Durian Belanda) Tea Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurazi Ahmad Fadzil; Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis

    2014-01-01

    Though the number of cancer survivors continues to increase due to the improvements in early detection, cancer incidence and deaths still escalating each year. Even though there are major advancement in medicine technology such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, people in developing countries especially in Asian countries are looking towards natural product as an alternative medicine especially in cancer treatment and prevention; primarily because of the general belief that herbal drugs are without any side effects besides being cheap and locally available. One of them is the leaves of Annona Muricata L. from the Annonaceae family is well known for their anti cancer activity by the local people in Malaysia and is commonly known as Soursoup or in local name of Durian Belanda. In the local market the most of the product of Annona Muricata L. is in the form of tea bag. This present study was aimed to evaluate the anti cancer potential of the extract of Annona Muricata L. The tea bag of Annona Muricata L. was obtain from a local market and was physically identified and confirmed by botanist as the leaves of Annona Muricata L. Sequential extraction was done using hexane, chloroform, methanol and hot aqueous. All of these extracts will be screen for alkaloid, saponin, cardiac glucoside and flavonoid. Then quantitative estimation of phenolics adn flavonoid content was conducted. These extract are also being tested on MDPA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HTB-43 (head and neck cancer) by MTT assay. These extract was also evaluated for their reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The parameters obtained from the test was IC50 values, a value that produce inhibitory cancer cells by 50 % and a value that produce radical scavenging at 50 % for both MTT assay and DPPH assay. Results revealed that the IC50 of hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract for MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) was 35.1μg/ml, 26.8 μg/ml, 19.1

  1. Effects of antioxidant additives on exhaust emissions reduction in compression ignition engine fueled with methyl ester of annona oil

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    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, biodiesel is a cleaner burning alternative fuel to the Neat diesel fuel. However, several studies are pointed out that increase in NOx emission for biodiesel when compared with the Neat diesel fuel. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (p-phenylenediamine on engine emissions of a Diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of annona oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040% (w/w with methyl ester of annona oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+P200 is effective in control of NOx and HC emission of methyl ester of annona oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification.

  2. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael J; Dhingra, Amit; Soltis, Pamela S; Shaw, Regina; Farmerie, William G; Folta, Kevin M; Soltis, Douglas E

    2006-01-01

    Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20) System (454 Life Sciences Corporation), to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae) and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae). Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy observed in the GS 20 plastid

  3. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmerie William G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy

  4. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DO GÊNERO ANNONA (ANNONACEAE

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    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Annona L. pertence à família Annonaceae e compreende aproximadamente 162 espécies de árvores e arbustos. É considerado o principal gênero desta família, por apresentar espécies frutíferas de importante valor comercial, mas também por apresentar espécies com propriedades biológicas interessantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma prospecção tecnológica do gênero Annona, analisando a participação do país nos depósitos de pedido de patente em bases nacionais e internacionais até o momento. Para isso, a prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes, no banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes e no banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que o Tratado de Cooperação de Patentes (PCT, os Estados Unidos e o Escritório Europeu de Patentes (EPO são os principais depositários de documentos envolvendo espécies de Annona. O maior número de patentes foi depositado em 2010. A classificação internacional mais abundante nessa prospecção foi C12N, seguida por A01H e A61K.

  5. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  6. The Pace and Shape of Senescence in Angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen

    2013-01-01

    1. Demographic senescence, the decay in fertility and increase in the risk of mortality with age, is one of the most striking phenomena in ecology and evolution. Comparative studies of senescence patterns of plants are scarce, and consequently, little is known about senescence and its determinants...... (‘senescence’), decreases (‘negative senescence’) or remains constant over age (‘negligible senescence’). 3. We extract mortality trajectories from ComPADRe III, a data base that contains demographic information for several hundred plant species. We apply age-from-stage matrix decomposition methods to obtain...... age-specific trajectories from 290 angiosperm species of various growth forms distributed globally. From these trajectories, we survey pace and shape values and investigate how growth form and ecoregion influence these two aspects of mortality using a Bayesian regression analysis that accounts...

  7. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Oki Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  8. The evolutionary ecology of cytonuclear interactions in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Christina M; Case, Andrea L; Bailey, Maia F

    2012-11-01

    Interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes have significant evolutionary consequences. In angiosperms, the most common cytonuclear interaction is between mitochondrial genes that disrupt pollen production (cytoplasmic male sterility, CMS) and nuclear genes that restore it (nuclear male fertility restorers, Rf). The outcome of CMS/Rf interactions can depend on whether Rf alleles have negative pleiotropic effects on fitness. Although these fitness costs are often considered to be independent of the ecological context, we argue that the effects of Rf alleles on fitness should be context dependent. Thus, measuring the cost of restoration across a range of environments could help explain geographic and phylogenetic variation in the distribution of Rf alleles and the outcome of CMS/Rf interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The water holding capacity of bark in Danish angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hanne Marie Ellegård; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    The water holding capacity of bark in seven Danish angiosperm trees was examined. The aim of the study was (1) to examine height trends and (2) bark thickness trends in relation to the water holding capacity and (3) to determine interspecific differences. The wet-weight and dry-weight of a total...... number of 427 bark samples were measured. The water holding capacity was calculated as the difference between wet-weight and dry-weight per wet-weight. The water holding capacity increased with elevation in most tree species and contrary to the expectation, thinner bark generally had a higher water...... holding capacity. Differences in the water holding capacity of bark may influence the occurrence and distribution of a wide range of bark-living organisms including the distribution of corticolous lichens....

  10. Leaf economic traits from fossils support a weedy habit for early angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L; Miller, Ian M; Peppe, Daniel J; Hickey, Leo J

    2010-03-01

    Many key aspects of early angiosperms are poorly known, including their ecophysiology and associated habitats. Evidence for fast-growing, weedy angiosperms comes from the Early Cretaceous Potomac Group, where angiosperm fossils, some of them putative herbs, are found in riparian depositional settings. However, inferences of growth rate from sedimentology and growth habit are somewhat indirect; also, the geographic extent of a weedy habit in early angiosperms is poorly constrained. Using a power law between petiole width and leaf mass, we estimated the leaf mass per area (LMA) of species from three Albian (110-105 Ma) fossil floras from North America (Winthrop Formation, Patapsco Formation of the Potomac Group, and the Aspen Shale). All LMAs for angiosperm species are low (240 g/m(2); mean = 291 g/m(2)). On the basis of extant relationships between LMA and other leaf economic traits such as photosynthetic rate and leaf lifespan, we conclude that these Early Cretaceous landscapes were populated with weedy angiosperms with short-lived leaves (<12 mo). The unrivalled capacity for fast growth observed today in many angiosperms was in place by no later than the Albian and likely played an important role in their subsequent ecological success.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K i = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K i = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  12. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Li Lin; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Rosa del C. Ortiz; Yang Liu; Kun-Li Xiang; Sheng-Xiang Yu; Yao-Wu Xing; Zhi-Duan Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We...

  13. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Brodribb

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  14. Vivipary in Ophiorrhiza mungos L. - a rare phenomenon in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintu, K P; Sibi, C V; Ravichandran, P; Satheeshkumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Vivipary, the precocious germination of seeds within the parent plant, is a specialised feature of evolutionary and biological importance that ensures survival of a plant. Reports on vivipary in angiosperms are rare, accounting for <0.1% of flowering plants. Here, we report a remarkable case of occurrence of vivipary in Ophiorrhiza mungos. A study was conducted to collect information on the morphology of the capsules that support vivipary, environmental factors that induce vivipary, survival mode and the survival of viviparous seedlings. The hydroscopic movement of the cup-shaped capsules of O. mungos was found to help in viviparous germination during the rainy season. Of the total seeds in a capsule, 70% showed viviparous germination. The seedlings remaining inside the capsule attain a height of 0.98 ± 0.4 cm and reach the ground when the capsule falls. On the ground, seedlings obtain easy anchorage to the substratum since they have already germinated. Vivipary appears to be an adaptation of O. mungos to the rainy season for ensuring viable offspring. This suggests that vivipary in this species might be artificially induced by continuous spraying with water to rescue seeds in all seasons for use in large-scale propagation to meet increasing market demand and conservation of this valuable anticancer medicinal herb. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. How the climate limits the wood density of angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2017-11-01

    Flowering trees have various types of wood structure to perform multiple functions under their environmental conditions. In addition to transporting water from the roots to the canopy and providing mechanical support, the structure should provide resistance to embolism to maintain soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. By investigating existing data of the resistivity to embolism and wood density of 165 angiosperm species, here we show that the climate can limit the intrinsic properties of trees. Trees living in the dry environments require a high wood density to slow down the pressure decrease as it loses water relatively fast by evaporation. However, building too much tissues will result in the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and moisture concentration around mesophyll cells. To rationalize the biologically observed lower bound of the wood density, we construct a mechanical model to predict the wood density as a function of the vulnerability to embolism and the time for the recovery. Also, we build an artificial system using hydrogel microchannels that can test the probability of embolism as a function of conduit distributions. Our theoretical prediction is shown to be consistent with the results obtained from the artificial system and the biological data.

  16. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  17. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  18. Essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorum: chemical composition and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos

    2012-02-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorun was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Eighteen compounds representing 98.1% of the crude essential oil were identified. The major compounds identified were bicyclogermacrene (43.7%), spathulenol (11.4%), alpha-felandrene (10.0%), alpha-pinene (7.1%), (E)-beta-ocimene (6.8%), germacrene D (5.8%), and p-cymene (4.2%). The trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms, as well as, the antimicrobial and antioxidant proprieties was investigated. The essential oil showed a potent trypanocidal activity with IC50 value of 31.9 +/-1.3 microg x mL(-1). For antimicrobial activity, the best result was observed against Candida tropicalis with a MIC value of 100 microg x mL(-1). For antioxidant capacity the essential oil showed weak activity.

  19. Diversity in the Stem Anatomy and Tissues of Several Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Nigeria

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the stem anatomy of Annona trees was carried out to facilitate identification of taxa when their reproductive parts are not available. Stem specimens of four out of the five species categorized as important under-utilized species were collected and subjected to anatomical studies. Macerated materials followed Schutze�s method of maceration and the transverse sections of the stem were cut using Reichert Sledge Microtome. Intrageneric characters observed are: epidermal layer uniseriate with round, oval to polygonal collenchyma cells. Wood is diffuse-porous, vessel elements are diffuse, vessels are of two types, that is, short/wide with simple pits and long/narrow with bordered pits. Diagnostic characters for the identification of each of the species are also reported.

  20. Diversity in the Stem Anatomy and Tissues of Several Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the stem anatomy of Annona trees was carried out to facilitate identification of taxa when their reproductive parts are not available. Stem specimens of four out of the five species categorized as important under-utilized species were collected and subjected to anatomical studies. Macerated materials followed Schutzes method of maceration and the transverse sections of the stem were cut using Reichert Sledge Microtome. Intrageneric characters observed are: epidermal layer uniseriate with round, oval to polygonal collenchyma cells. Wood is diffuse-porous, vessel elements are diffuse, vessels are of two types, that is, short/wide with simple pits and long/narrow with bordered pits. Diagnostic characters for the identification of each of the species are also reported.

  1. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the submerged aquatic angiosperm Scirpus subterminalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S; Wetzel, R G

    1981-01-01

    Scirpus subterminalis Torr., a submerged angiosperm abundant in many hardwater lakes of the Great Lakes region, was investigated for various photosynthetic carbon fixation properties in relation to available inorganic carbon and levels of carbon fixing enzymes. Photosynthetic experiments were CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ were supplied at various concentrations showed that Scirpus was able to utilize HCO/sub 3//sup -/ at those concentrations close to natural conditions. However, when CO/sub 2/ concentrations were increased above ambient, photosynthetic rates increased markedly. It was concluded that the photosynthetic potential of this plant in many natural situations may be limited by inorganic carbon uptake in the light. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase)/ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (ruBPcase) ratios of the leaves varied between 0.5 and 0.9 depending on substrate concentration during assay. The significance of PEP-mediated carbon fixation of Scirpus (basically a C/sub 3/ plant) in the dark was investigated. Malate accumulated in the leaves during the dark period of a 24-h cycle and malate levels decreased significantly during the following light period. The accumulation was not due to transport of malate from the roots. Carbon uptake rates in the dark by the leaves of Scirpus were lower than malate accumulation rates. Therefore, part of the malate was likely derived from respired CO/sub 2/. Carbon uptake rates in the light were much higher than malate turnover rates. It was estimated that carbon fixation via malate could contribute up to 12% to net photosynthetic rates. The ecological significance of this type of metabolism in submerged aquatics is discussed.

  2. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N Okigbo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L. and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycoflora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39% in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.Keywords: fermentation, fruit yeast, fungi, incidence, rot

  3. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa) Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Heni Prasetyowati; Wisnu Satria

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa) seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a r...

  4. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    OpenAIRE

    Vega,Maria R. G.; Esteves-Souza,Andressa; Vieira,Ivo J. C.; Mathias,Leda; Braz-Filho,Raimundo; Echevarria,Aurea

    2007-01-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3",6"-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6"-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid f...

  5. Ocorrência de mosca-branca em Annona squamosa no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José De Marchi Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é restrito o conhecimento sobre distribuição geográfica e plantas hospedeiras de moscas-brancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, principalmente em plantas cultivadas. Nesta comunicação, é registrada a ocorrência de Aleurodicus mirabilis (Cockerell, 1898 em altas infestações em fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa Linnaeus, 1753 no estado de São Paulo, Brasil.

  6. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D).

  7. REAÇÃO DA PINHA (Annona squamosa L. A TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE FITONEMATÓIDES

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    A.R. Monteiro

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio conduzido em vasos, a céu aberto, estudou-se a reação de Annona squamosa em relação a três nematóides fitoparasitos. As plantas foram inoculadas com 10.000 exemplares de Radopholus similis, Rotylenchulus reniformis ou Meloidogyne exigua por recipiente. Avaliaram-se, após três meses da inoculação, a altura das plantas, o peso fresco do sistema radicular e o número de nematóides nas raízes e no solo. O estudo revelou que a Annona squamosa comportou-se como resistente a Rotylenchulus reniformis e a Meloidogyne exigua, e intolerante a Radopholus similis.The host reaction of custard apple (Annona squamosa to three species of nematodes was studied. The plants were inoculated with 10,000 specimens per plant of Radopholus similis, Rotylenchulus reniformis or Meloidogyne exigua. Nematode population and plant growth parameters were evaluated three months later. The results showed that custard apple was resistent to Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne exigua but intolerant to Radopholus similis.

  8. Low cost guinea fowl bone derived recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for microwave assisted transesterification of Annona squamosa L. seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Veena; Sharma, Yogesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Discarded guinea fowl bone used to derive catalyst for biodiesel production. • High conversion of 95.82 ± 0.2% achieved in 20 min by microwave assisted transesterification of Annona Squamosa L. seed oil. • Catalyst was stable and can be reused up to five times by activation with >80% conversion. • Complete process is cheap, eco-friendly and fulfils ASTM standard limits. - Abstract: Guinea fowl bone derived heterogeneous catalyst was utilized for biodiesel production for the first time on microwave heating system from Annona squamosa (custard apple seed) oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS, BET surface area and basicity. Optimization for various reaction conditions on FAME conversion was explored. Maximum conversion of 95.82 ± 0.2% FAME was attained at 1:18 M ratio of oil: methanol, 4 wt% of catalyst at 800 W microwave power and 65 °C reaction temperatures for 20 min. Custard apple seed oil was studied by GCMS, whereas synthesized FAME was analysed by "1H FTNMR spectroscopy. Catalyst was reused up to five times with maximum conversion of >80%. Physicochemical properties of synthesized FAME were studied as per ASTM standards. Results displayed that catalyst derived from guinea fowl bone showed better reusability and has enormous potential to be used for biodiesel production under microwave irradiated transesterification of Annona squamosa L. (custard apple seed) oil within a short reaction time.

  9. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  10. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica y comportamiento termico del aceite de almendra de guanabana (Annona muricata, L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Amador-Hernandez, C.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    2010-07-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 degree centigrade and ends at -79.0 degree centigrade with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to -16.9 degree centigrade, with a maximum peak at -15 degree centigrade and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 degree centigrade. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N{sub 2} atmosphere starts at 380 degree centigrade and ends at 442 degree centigrade, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 degree centigrade. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 degree centigrade and concludes at 567 degree centigrade. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils. (Author) 28 refs.

  11. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six

  12. Antihyperglycemic and histological effects on the pancreas of the aqueous leaves extract of Annona squamosa L. in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrut Rabintossaporn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of our present study were to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaves extract ofAnnona squamosa L. at different doses and histology of the pancreas in normal and diabetic rats after receiving the extract. The study of antihyperglycemic activities was undertaken by oral administration of vehicle, glibenclamide (3 mg/kg and water leaves extract of Annona squamosa L (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 12 days. Fasting blood glucose levels were recorded on the fifth and twelfth days of administration and the third day after stopping administration. The results showed that diabetic rats receiving the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg leaves extract had statistically significant (pAnnona squamosa L. has an antihyperglycemic effect and is able toimprove the histological appearance of diabetic rat pancreas.

  13. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms.

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    Madeline R Carins Murphy

    Full Text Available Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by "passive dilution" via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the 'passive dilution' mechanism is; (i exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas

  14. The Paleocene Eocene carbon isotope excursion in higher plant organic matter: Differential fractionation of angiosperms and conifers in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Stefan; Woltering, Martijn; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2007-06-01

    A study of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene (P-E) sediments deposited on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean reveals relatively high abundances of terrestrial biomarkers. These include dehydroabietane and simonellite derived from conifers (gymnosperms) and a tetra-aromatic triterpenoid derived from angiosperms. The relative percentage of the angiosperm biomarker of the summed angiosperm + conifer biomarkers was increased at the end of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), different when observed with pollen counts which showed a relative decrease in angiosperm pollen. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of these biomarkers shows that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) during the PETM amounts to 3‰ for both conifer biomarkers, dehydroabietane and simonellite, comparable to the magnitude of the CIE inferred from marine carbonates, but significantly lower than the 4.5‰ of the terrestrial C 29n-alkane [M. Pagani, N. Pedentchouk, M. Huber, A. Sluijs, S. Schouten, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, and the IODP Expedition 302 Expedition Scientists (2006), Arctic's hydrology during global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 442, 671-675.], which is a compound sourced by both conifers and angiosperms. Conspicuously, the angiosperm-sourced aromatic triterpane shows a much larger CIE of 6‰ and suggests that angiosperms increased in their carbon isotopic fractionation during the PETM. Our results thus indicate that the 4.5‰ C 29n-alkane CIE reported previously represents the average CIE of conifers and angiosperms at this site and suggest that the large and variable CIE observed in terrestrial records may be partly explained by the variable contributions of conifers and angiosperms. The differential response in isotopic fractionation of angiosperms and conifers points to different physiological responses of these vegetation types to the rise in temperature, humidity, and greenhouse gases during the PETM.

  15. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  16. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Jeanine; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals

  17. Heterogeneous Rates of Molecular Evolution and Diversification Could Explain the Triassic Age Estimate for Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C; Crane, Peter; Donoghue, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Dating analyses based on molecular data imply that crown angiosperms existed in the Triassic, long before their undisputed appearance in the fossil record in the Early Cretaceous. Following a re-analysis of the age of angiosperms using updated sequences and fossil calibrations, we use a series of simulations to explore the possibility that the older age estimates are a consequence of (i) major shifts in the rate of sequence evolution near the base of the angiosperms and/or (ii) the representative taxon sampling strategy employed in such studies. We show that both of these factors do tend to yield substantially older age estimates. These analyses do not prove that younger age estimates based on the fossil record are correct, but they do suggest caution in accepting the older age estimates obtained using current relaxed-clock methods. Although we have focused here on the angiosperms, we suspect that these results will shed light on dating discrepancies in other major clades. ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Sharafi, M.; Jalili, A.; Diaz, S.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Palmer, C.; Cerabolini, B.; Pierce, S.; Hamzehee, B.; Asri, Y.; Jamzad, Z.; Wilson, P.; Zarrinkamar, F.; Raven, J.; Band, S.R.; Basconcelo, S.; Bogard, A.; Carter, G.; Charles, M.; Castro-Diez, P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Funes, G.; Jones, M.; Khoshnevis, M.; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Perez-Rontome, M.C.; Shirvany, F.A.; Vendramini, F.; Yazdani, S.; Abbas-Azimi, R.; Boustani, S.; Dehghan, M.; Hynd, F.A.; Kowsary, E.; Kazemi-Saeed, F.; Siavash, B.; Villar-Salvador, P.; Cragie, R.; Naqinezhad, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Simmons, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the

  19. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin's 'abominable mystery'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendse, F.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms

  20. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Variations on a theme: changes in the floral ABCs in angiosperms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.

    2010-01-01

    Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the

  2. Variations on a theme: changes in the floral ABCs in angiosperms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the

  3. Seed size and its rate of evolution correlate with species diversification across angiosperms.

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    Javier Igea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL. This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL.

  4. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare,

  5. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga." This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  6. Alkaloid (Meleagrine and Chrysogine) from endophytic fungi (Penicillium sp.) of Annona squamosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, Prasetyawan; Rusman, Yudi; Saepudin, Endang; Suwarso, Wahyudi Priyono; Sumaryono, Wahono

    2014-05-01

    Several endophytic fungal strains from Srikaya plants (Annona squamosa L.) have been isolated and one of them was identified as Penicillium sp. Penicillium has been proven as an established source for a wide array of unique bioactive secondary metabolites that exhibit a variety of biological activities. The aim of this study is isolation of secondary metabolite from Penicillium, an endophytic of A. squamosa L. Penicillium sp. from endophytic of A. squamosa L. was fermented in Wicherham media. The whole extract from both liquid media and mycelium was partitioned by ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain crude ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract was then brokedown using column chromatography with silica as stationary phase and mixture of ethyl acetate/methanol (98%:2%) as mobile phase and then was separated by sephadex column. Structure elucidation of isolated compounds were mainly done by analysis of one and two dimensional NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) data and supported by HPLC (High performance Liquid Chromatography) and MS-TOF (Mass Spectrometer-Time of Flight). Isolated secondary metabolites were tested using in vitro assays for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. For anticancer activity, the metabolites were tested against breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using MTT assay, while for antimicrobial activity was performed using disk diffusion assays. From these physical, chemical and spectral evidences that the secondary metabolites were confirmed as Chrysogine and Meleagrine. Chrysogine and Meleagrine have no activity as anticancer and antimicrobial.

  7. Potential applications for Annona squamosa leaf extract in the treatment and prevention of foodborne bacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Trachoo, Nathanon; Sakee, Uthai; Cushnie, T P Tim

    2013-03-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem. The present study examined Annona squamosa leaves, which are traditionally used to treat diarrhea and other infections, for their potential to be used in modern food safety or medicine. Active constituents were partially purified by ethanol extraction and column chromatography. MICs of the extract were 62.5 to 125 microg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, and 250 microg/mL against Campylobacter jejuni. In time-kill assays, 500 microg/mL of the extract reduced colony forming unit numbers of C. jejuni almost 10 000-fold within 12 hours. Similar decreases were seen against B. cereus, but over a longer time-frame. LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of reticuline and oxophoebine. Assessment of stability by MIC assay showed activity was heat-labile, with loss of activity greatest following high temperature treatments. Activity was relatively stable at refrigeration temperature. These results indicate A. squamosa has broad-spectrum but heat-labile activity against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and bactericidal activity against B. cereus and C. jejuni. This bactericidal activity is not sufficiently rapid for A. squamosa to be used as a food sanitizer, but the extract could potentially be developed as an additive for refrigerated foods, or a modern treatment for foodborne illness.

  8. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  9. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  10. The Effect of Alkaloidal Fraction from Annona squamosa L. against Pathogenic Bacteria with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmushin M. Shami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annona squamosa is used in different places such as India as a general tonic to enrich blood, relieve vomiting, cancer, as a vermicide, for skin complaints and also applied to wounds and ulcers. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties from of the alkaloidal fraction of A. squamosa. Methods: Well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were used to evaluate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA and Helicobacter pylori. DPPH and SOD assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. LC-MS analysis was used to identify alkaloids and scanning electron microscopy studies that revealed mode of action. Results: Alkaloidal fraction of A. squamosa exhibited significant inhibition against the tested bacteria. Extracted alkaloids from the leaves of A. squamosa showed high level of antioxidant activities. LC-MS analyses of alkaloids of the plant were identified as corydine, sanjoinine, norlaureline, norcodeine, oxanalobine and aporphine in the leaves of A. squamosa. SEM analysis of the interaction of these substances with the bacteria showed morphological changes of cell wall and lysis of the targeted bacterial cells. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the alkaloids isolated from A. squamosa showed good antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The results suggest the alkaloids can be a new source of antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria and antioxidant source.

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of various solvents extracts of Annona squamosa L. leaves

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    Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted aiming to evaluate the effect of different solvent extracts on the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Annona squamosa L. leaves. Four solvents were chosen for the study namely; methanol 80%, acetone 50%, ethanol 50% and boiling water. Acetone and boiling water gave the highest extraction yields as compared to methanol and ethanol. Total phenolic contents of the four extracts were significantly different with acetone being the most efficient solvent and water being the least efficient one. Correlation coefficient between the total antioxidant and total phenolic content was found to be R2 = 0.89 suggesting the contribution of phenolic compounds of the extract by 89% to its total antioxidant activity. The extracts were capable of scavenging H2O2 in a range of 43–54%. Reducing power of the extracts increased by increasing their concentration. The extracts were found to exert low to moderate antibacterial activity compared to a standard antibacterial agent. The bacterial inhibition of the extracts was found to positively correlate with their phenolic contents.

  12. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae seed germination: morphological and anatomical changes

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    Fabio Ernesto Martínez-Maldonado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The anon or sugar apple is a species of the Annona genus, widely distributed in the world and in Colombia and a fruit with great potential in domestic and international markets. However, the technical information related to the aspects of propagation and production is limited. In the present study, the morphological and anatomical changes during seed germination of the sugar apple were determined using histological techniques and photographic records. The results show that seed germination is a process that takes place in two stages: testa rupture and endosperm rupture-radicle protrusion. In the post-germination stages, the induction and formation of lateral roots that were endogenously produced from the primary root from the pericycle were seen. The endosperm underwent morphological changes that increased its volume during imbibition and degraded in the final stages of germination, which could be indicative of endosperm weakening and reduction of mechanical strength imposed by embryo growth, which was required to complete germination in A. squamosa

  13. In vitro establishment of nodal segments of Annona muricata L. young plants

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    Leyanis García-Águila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tissue in vitro culture for plant propagation of soursop (Annona muricata L. promissory trees can help increasing the availability of plants for developing field plantations. Considering these aspect, this work aimed to establish in vitro nodal segments of young plants of soursop. Nodal segments with 1.5 cm of length were superficially disinfected with 70% ethanol during one minute and with sodium hypochlorite (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% during 15 minutes. The presence of microbial contamination and the number of segments with axillary buds were evaluated after 15 and 25 days of culture. The length (cm of buds was also determined. Results showed a low incidence of microbial contamination in the explants because the presence of fungi in treatments was not observed. However, 3.8% segments were contaminated with bacteria in the treatment with lower concentration of sodium hypochlorite. Axillary shoots were observed in 73.0% of explants when 1.0% of sodium hypochlorite was used, without significant differences using 1.5%. Shoots development with first expanded leaves and a length ranged between 0.8 and 1.5 cm was observed after 25 days of culture. Increasing culture time, plants showed leaf abscission. These results demonstrate that in vitro culture can be used for the propagation of soursop. However, we must make emphasis in the study of the culture conditions for the multiplication phase. Key words: in vitro culture, microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation, shoot production.

  14. Effect of extracts from araticum (Annona crassiflora on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

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    Roberta Roesler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethanolic extracts of Annona crassiflora on the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes was examined. Extracts of A. crassiflora seeds and peel were administered orally (50 mg of galic acid equivalents.kg-1 to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days followed by a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 2 g.kg-1. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT, cytochromes P450 (CP450 and b5, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the content of glutathione equivalents (GSH were evaluated. The treatment with CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation, the level of GSH equivalents and the content of cytochrome b5 by 44, 140 and 32%, respectively, with concomitant reductions of 23, 34 and 39% in the activities of CAT, SOD, and CP450, respectively. The treatment with A. crassiflora seeds and peel extracts alone inhibited lipid peroxidation by 27 and 22%, respectively without affecting the CP450 content. The pretreatment with the A. crassiflora extracts prevented the lipid peroxidation, the increase in GSH equivalents and the decrease in CAT activity caused by CCl4, but it had no effect on the CCl4-mediated changes in CP450 and b5 and SOD. These results show that A. crassiflora seeds and peel contain antioxidant activity in vivo that could be of potential therapeutic use.

  15. Identification of chemical compounds present in different fractions of Annona reticulata L. leaf by using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Soumya P; Kar, Durga M

    2014-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of fractions prepared from hydro-alcoholic extract of Annona reticulata Linn (Family Annonaceae) leaf revealed the presence of 9,10-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane-9,10-diol; 4-(1,5-dihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one; 3,7-dimethyl-6-nonen-1-ol acetate; 9-octadecenamide,(Z)-; glycerine; D-glucose,6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-; desulphosinigrin and α-methyl-D-mannopyranoside as few of the major compounds in different fractions. The presence of these compounds in the plant has been identified for the first time.

  16. DAYA LARVASIDA EKSTRAK BIJI SRIKAYA (ANNONA SQUAMOSA DENGAN RENTANG WAKTU PENYIMPANAN YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP LARVA CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

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    Wisnu Satria A.K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide. Key Word: Sugar apple (Annona squamosa, seeds, larvicide, Culex quinquefasciatus, length of storage Abstrak. Insektisida sintetik telah banyak digunakan untuk mengontrol Culex quinquefasciatus, tetapi penggunaan insektisida sintetik terus-menerus berdampak buruk terhadap lingkungan dan mengakibatkan resistensi. Fakta ini menjadi alasan biji srikaya (Annona squamosa yang mengandung alkaloid digunakan sebagai insektisida alternatif yang aman bagi lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji srikaya dengan perbedaan lama penyimpanan terhadap larva C. quinquefasciatus. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan desain rancangan acak kelompok. Bahan uji adalah ekstrak biji srikaya yang telah disimpan selama 0, 1, 2, dan 3 minggu. Sampel penelitian ini adalah larva instar ketiga

  17. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  18. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

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    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.Primeiro registro e redescrição morfológica de Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae em Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae no Brazil. Este é o primeiro registro de um ataque severo de Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae em árvores de Annona squamosa L. (pinheira ou fruta-do-conde, resultando em perdas de aproximadamente 80% das plantas infestadas. Com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação deste inseto-praga, foi feita a redescrição da fêmea adulta de T. morio com base em espécimes coletados em Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brasil.

  19. In vitro seed germination and seedling development of Annona crassiflora Mart. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento in vitro de plântulas de Annona crassiflora Mart.

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    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora Mart known as 'araticum', 'marolo' or 'field araticum' is a typical fruit from the Cerrado biome of Brazil with socio-economic and medicinal importance. Normally, Annona crassiflora is propagated through seeds. However, due to a deep dormancy that the seeds display at dispersion and the difficulty to obtain uniform plants in a short time period, micropropagation may be a feasible alternative. Concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA and their interactive effects on in vitro seed germination and seedling development of Annona crassiflora were studied. Mature fruits of Annona crassiflora were depulped and the seeds washed in clear water and dried at room temperature. Seed coat was removed and the seeds were placed on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3 and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 30 g L-1 sucrose and 6 g L-1 agar-agar. Seeds were kept under these conditions for 30 days. After this period, seedlings were kept for another 90 days on Wood Plant Medium (WPM with 20 g L-1 sucrose and 5 g L-1 agar-agar supplemented with the same GA3 and NAA concentrations. Cultures were incubated under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2°C temperature, 16: 8 (light: dark photoperiod of 32 µmol m-2 s-1 irradiance provided by cool white fluorescent tubes (Philips. Use of WPM medium supplemented with 25-32 mg L-1 GA3 or MS with 26-30 mg L-1 GA3 and 2 mg L-1 NAA promoted rooting and plant growth.O araticum ou marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. é uma fruta típica de Cerrado com grande importância sócio-econômico e medicinal. Sua propagação pode ser feita através de sementes, porém devido à dormência das sementes e dificuldade de se obterem plantas uniformes e em curto espaço de tempo, a micropropagação poderá ser uma alternativa. Estudaram-se os efeitos do GA3 associado ao ANA sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento in vitro de marolo. Frutos maduros foram

  20. Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ângela Pinheiro Carneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20% was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus.La enfermedad de Chagas se convirtió en un problema de salud debido a su importancia epidemiológica, es producida por el protista Trypanosoma cruzi, cuyos insectos vectores son del género Triatoma y Panstrongylus. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad biocida del extracto de Annona coriacea en las ninfas de Rhodnius neglectus y en sus adultos. Se evaluaron 14 concentraciones de 25, 50, 100 y 200mg/ml del extracto etanólico, así como el control, en este caso agua de DMSO (20%. Se utilizo un diseño completamente

  1. Cytotaxonomic investigations in some Angiosperms collected in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradiso »

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.; Kliphuis, E.

    1970-01-01

    The chromosome number of 53 species of Angiosperms, occurring in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradise » was determined. Some notes on the taxonomy of some species are presented in this paper.

  2. PENGHAMBATAN PEMASAKAN BUAH SRIKAYA (Annona squamosa L. DENGAN SUHU RENDAH DAN PELAPISAN KITOSAN

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    Widya Mudyantini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa L.is one of the perishable climateric fruit. The aims of this research were to study the ethylene levels, physiological and biochemical characters with application of temperatures and chitosan during storage. The research had been performed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors, the variations in storage temperature (5°C, 15°C, 25°C and the variation in chitosan (0%, 2%, 3%, 4% with five replicates. The treatment of temperature 25°C and chitosan 0% was used as controls. The parameters observed included in respiration rate, weight loss, levels of ethylene, pigments, fruit hardness, ascorbic acid content and sugar reduction. Sugarapple fruit were taken from the same tree. The fruit were coated by chitosan and were stored at storage temperature. Observations were made in everyday until the controls were ripe. Data collected were analyzed using Anava followed byDMRTat 5% test level. The result showed that the combination of storage temperatures and chitosanconcentrationshadsignificant effect on the shelf life and quality of sugar apple fruit measured by several parameters. The treatments wereable to decrease weightloss and respiration rate, to maintain the content of water, the levels of sugar reduction, ascorbic acid content, the levels of a chlorophylls, b chlorophylls, total chlorophylls, and carotenoids were remained still high. The higher temperature is the lower the ethylene levels. The best combination treatment to extend the shelf life and to maintain quality of sugar apple fruit was chitosan 3% at temperatures 15°C.

  3. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  4. Evaluation of substrates on the emergence of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a substrate is the determinant factor for the seedling producer; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of substrates on the emergence of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and the experimental design was in randomized blocks, with three treatments and five replicates of 72 seeds per plot. The treatments consisted of the following substrates: coconut fiber, vermiculite and Plantmax® Citrus. The number of emerged seedlings was weekly counted for 105 days. Data regarding seedling height were obtained, and the emergence velocity index and mean time, besides total emergence percentage and that over time were calculated. Results from total mean emergence percentage, seedling height, emergence velocity index (EVI, and mean emergence time (MET were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey's test at 5% significance. The curves concerning the emergence percentage over time were fit by the logistic growth equation for each treatment and the means of each parameter (A, B, C were compared by the Duncan's test at 5% significance. The substrates vermiculite led to the highest values of emergence percentage differing from the PlantMax® Citrus, but not of the coconut fiber, however the vermiculite promoted seedling height in a shorter time; therefore, this substrate is recommended for the initial development of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings.

  5. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  6. Impact of whole-genome duplication events on diversification rates in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Jacob B; Soltis, Douglas E; Li, Zheng; Marx, Hannah E; Barker, Michael S; Tank, David C; Soltis, Pamela S

    2018-03-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication (WGD) pervades the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Despite extensive progress in our understanding of WGD, the role of these events in promoting diversification is still not well understood. We seek to clarify the possible association between WGD and diversification rates in flowering plants. Using a previously published phylogeny spanning all land plants (31,749 tips) and WGD events inferred from analyses of the 1000 Plants (1KP) transcriptome data, we analyzed the association of WGDs and diversification rates following numerous WGD events across the angiosperms. We used a stepwise AIC approach (MEDUSA), a Bayesian mixture model approach (BAMM), and state-dependent diversification analyses (MuSSE) to investigate patterns of diversification. Sister-clade comparisons were used to investigate species richness after WGDs. Based on the density of 1KP taxon sampling, 106 WGDs were unambiguously placed on the angiosperm phylogeny. We identified 334-530 shifts in diversification rates. We found that 61 WGD events were tightly linked to changes in diversification rates, and state-dependent diversification analyses indicated higher speciation rates for subsequent rounds of WGD. Additionally, 70 of 99 WGD events showed an increase in species richness compared to the sister clade. Forty-six of the 106 WGDs analyzed appear to be closely associated with upshifts in the rate of diversification in angiosperms. Shifts in diversification do not appear more likely than random within a four-node lag phase following a WGD; however, younger WGD events are more likely to be followed by an upshift in diversification than older WGD events. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...

  8. Divergence of RNA polymerase ? subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP ? subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled an...

  9. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Background New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time informat...

  10. Leaf hydraulic capacity in ferns, conifers and angiosperms: impacts on photosynthetic maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Tim J; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Palma, Beatriz

    2005-03-01

    * The hydraulic plumbing of vascular plant leaves varies considerably between major plant groups both in the spatial organization of veins, as well as their anatomical structure. * Five conifers, three ferns and 12 angiosperm trees were selected from tropical and temperate forests to investigate whether the profound differences in foliar morphology of these groups lead to correspondingly profound differences in leaf hydraulic efficiency. * We found that angiosperm leaves spanned a range of leaf hydraulic conductance from 3.9 to 36 mmol m2 s-1 MPa-1, whereas ferns (5.9-11.4 mmol m-2 s-1 MPa-1) and conifers (1.6-9.0 mmol m-2 s-1 MPa-1) were uniformly less conductive to liquid water. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) correlated strongly with stomatal conductance indicating an internal leaf-level regulation of liquid and vapour conductances. Photosynthetic capacity also increased with Kleaf, however, it became saturated at values of Kleaf over 20 mmol m-2 s-1 MPa-1. * The data suggest that vessels in the leaves of the angiosperms studied provide them with the flexibility to produce highly conductive leaves with correspondingly high photosynthetic capacities relative to tracheid-bearing species.

  11. Identification, expression, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidases in non-angiosperm plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E

    2013-09-10

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Targeted Enrichment Strategy for Massively Parallel Sequencing of Angiosperm Plastid Genomes

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    Gregory W. Stull

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots, which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×, even for the two monocots. Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving 50× mean coverage. However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96 available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms.

  13. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from multiple genes as a tool for comparative biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, P S; Soltis, D E; Chase, M W

    1999-11-25

    Comparative biology requires a firm phylogenetic foundation to uncover and understand patterns of diversification and evaluate hypotheses of the processes responsible for these patterns. In the angiosperms, studies of diversification in floral form, stamen organization, reproductive biology, photosynthetic pathway, nitrogen-fixing symbioses and life histories have relied on either explicit or implied phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, to understand the evolution of specific genes and gene families, evaluate the extent of conservation of plant genomes and make proper sense of the huge volume of molecular genetic data available for model organisms such as Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum, maize, rice and wheat, a phylogenetic perspective is necessary. Here we report the results of parsimony analyses of DNA sequences of the plastid genes rbcL and atpB and the nuclear 18S rDNA for 560 species of angiosperms and seven non-flowering seed plants and show a well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic tree for the angiosperms for use in comparative biology.

  14. Disentangling environmental and spatial effects on phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin; Zhang, Jin-Long

    2017-07-17

    Niche-based and neutrality-based theories are two major classes of theories explaining the assembly mechanisms of local communities. Both theories have been frequently used to explain species diversity and composition in local communities but their relative importance remains unclear. Here, we analyzed 57 assemblages of angiosperm trees in 0.1-ha forest plots across China to examine the effects of environmental heterogeneity (relevant to niche-based processes) and spatial contingency (relevant to neutrality-based processes) on phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree assemblages distributed across a wide range of environment and space. Phylogenetic structure was quantified with six phylogenetic metrics (i.e., phylogenetic diversity, mean pairwise distance, mean nearest taxon distance, and the standardized effect sizes of these three metrics), which emphasize on different depths of evolutionary histories and account for different degrees of species richness effects. Our results showed that the variation in phylogenetic metrics explained independently by environmental variables was on average much greater than that explained independently by spatial structure, and the vast majority of the variation in phylogenetic metrics was explained by spatially structured environmental variables. We conclude that niche-based processes have played a more important role than neutrality-based processes in driving phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree species in forest communities in China.

  15. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  16. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-06-02

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

  17. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer i Cols, Jofre

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenolog...

  18. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Jofre eCarnicer; Adria eBarbeta; Dominik eSperlich; Dominik eSperlich; Marta eColl; Josep ePenuelas

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenolog...

  19. Atualidades e perspectivas das Anonáceas no mundo

    OpenAIRE

    São José,Abel Rebouças; Pires,Mônica de Moura; Freitas,Afonso Lúcio Gomes Estrela de; Ribeiro,Denis Pereira; Perez,Luis Alfonso Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Várias espécies da família Annonaceae produzem frutos comestíveis cultivados em pomares comerciais ou coletados de forma extrativista, em diversas partes do mundo. O gênero Annona possui elevado número de espécies nativas, no entanto poucas produzem frutos comestíveis. Algumas são cultivadas comercialmente, outras são obtidas de forma extrativista. As principais anonáceas cultivadas no mundo são: Annona muricata, Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola, com destaque também para a atemoia (híbrido ...

  20. Influence of Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Annona Methyl Ester Operated DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Ramalingam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the optimum performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR engine with different blends of Annona methyl ester (AME as fuel. The performance parameters such as specific fuel consumption (SFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE, and emission levels of HC, CO, Smoke, and NOx were compared with the diesel fuel. It is found that, at compression ratio of 17: 1 for A20 blended fuel (20% AME + 80% Diesel shows better performance and lower emission level which is very close to neat diesel fuel. The engine was operated with different values of compression ratio (15, 16, and 17 to find out best possible combination for operating engine with blends of AME. It is also found that the increase of compression ratio increases the BTE and reduces SFC and has lower emission without any engine in design modifications.

  1. Renewable Oil Extracted from Indonesian Srikaya’s (Annona squamosa sp. Seed: Another Potent Source for Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruri Masruri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at the wastes derived from Indonesian fruit as prospect for biofuels. This report investigates the chemical composition of Srikaya (Annona squamosal sp. seed, which is disposed as waste products from traditional markets. The seeds were extracted with various extraction methods and the oil obtained was analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC/FID, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS, infra-red spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible spectrometry. It was found 2 h extraction using soxhlet apparatus with diethyl ether as solvent gave the optimum time extraction. Moreover, five major components were isolated from i.e.: ethyl hexadecanoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, ethyl octadecanoate, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl hexadecanoate, octadec-9-enaldehyde, and unknown compound, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  3. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the Annona squmosa seed by adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of low -cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the Annona squmosa seed for the removal of malachite green (MG dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent is increased, the percentage of dye removal increase accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min from the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second –order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushekevich (D-R and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 86.11% for adsorbent dose of 0.2 g/ 50 mL and 25 mg L -1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of MG was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second –order kinetics with a good correlation (R2 > 0.99 with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from the Annona squmosa seed can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG.

  4. Antiproliferative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on the prostate, BPH-1 cells, and some target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Dan; Ngala, Robert A; Abutiate, Harry; Doku, Derek; Mahmood, Seidu A; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata L. has been reported to possess antitumor and antiproliferative properties. Not much work has been done on its effect on BPH-1 cell lines, and no in vivo studies targeting the prostate organ exist. The study determined the effect of A muricata on human BPH-1 cells and prostate organ. The MTT assay was performed on BPH-1 cells using the aqueous leaf extract of A muricata. Cells (1 × 10(5) per well) were challenged with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL extract for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell proliferation and morphology were examined microscopically. BPH-1 cells (1 × 10(4) per well) were seeded into 6-well plates and incubated for 48 hours with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL A muricata extract. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using mRNA extracted from the cells. Possible target genes, Bax and Bcl-2, were examined. Twenty F344 male rats (≈200 g) were gavaged 30 mg/mL (10 rats) and 300 mg/mL (10 rats) and fed ad libitum alongside 10 control rats. Rats were sacrificed after 60 days. The prostate, seminal vesicles, and testes were harvested for histological examination. Annona muricata demonstrated antiproliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL. Best results were obtained after 48 hours, with near cell extinction at 72 hours. Bax gene was upregulated, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. Normal histological architecture was observed for all testes. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups (P BPH-1 cells and reduces prostate size, possibly through apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  6. The Genomes of All Angiosperms: A Call for a Coordinated Global Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Galbraith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biological instrumentation and associated experimental technologies now permit an unprecedented efficiency and scale for the acquisition of genomic data, at ever-decreasing costs. Further advances, with accompanying decreases in cost, are expected in the very near term. It now becomes appropriate to discuss the best uses of these technologies in the context of the angiosperms. This white paper proposes a complete genomic census of the approximately 500,000 species of flowering plants, outlines the goals of this census and their value, and provides a road map towards achieving these goals in a timely manner.

  7. Synergistic Cytotoxicity Effect by Combination Treatment of Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves and Doxorubicin as Potential Anticancer Material on Raji Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Fisma, R.; Prihapsara, F.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharynx cancer is one of the most deadly cancer. The main priority of nasopharynx cancer treatment is the use of chemotherapeutic agents, especially doxorubicin. However, doxorubicin might also lead to diverse side effect. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of doxorubicin is to used of combined chemotherapeutic agent. One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on nasopharynx cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on raji cell line. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (14,4 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on raji cell line with CI value from 0.13 – 0.65.

  8. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Microsatellite Distribution in Plants: Insight from the Comparison of Sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and Other Angiosperm Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqin Shi

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences. The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type the angiosperm species (aside from a few species all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Ampelopsis: gene organization, comparative analysis and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

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    Gurusamy eRaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of

  12. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of ferns. PMID:19223592

  13. Hummingbird pollination and the diversification of angiosperms: an old and successful association in Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha Liliana; Rolland, Jonathan; Clark, John L; Salamin, Nicolas; Perret, Mathieu

    2017-04-12

    The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 583 species from the Gesneriaceae family and detected diversification shifts through time, inferred the timing and amount of transitions among pollinator functional groups, and tested the association between hummingbird pollination and speciation and extinction rates. We identified a high frequency of pollinator transitions, including reversals to insect pollination. Diversification rates of the group increased through time since 25 Ma, coinciding with the evolution of hummingbird-adapted flowers and the arrival of hummingbirds in South America. We showed that plants pollinated by hummingbirds have a twofold higher speciation rate compared with plants pollinated by insects, and that transitions among functional groups of pollinators had little impact on the diversification process. We demonstrated that floral specialization on hummingbirds for pollination has triggered rapid diversification in the Gesneriaceae family since the Early Miocene, and that it represents one of the oldest identified plant-hummingbird associations. Biotic drivers of plant diversification in the Neotropics could be more related to this specific type of pollinator (hummingbirds) than to shifts among different functional groups of pollinators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Brian C; Smith, Stacey D; Armbruster, W Scott; Harder, Lawrence D; Hardy, Christopher R; Hileman, Lena C; Hufford, Larry; Litt, Amy; Magallón, Susana; Smith, Stephen A; Stevens, Peter F; Fenster, Charles B; Diggle, Pamela K

    2016-05-11

    Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others. Our analysis reveals that three character states (corolla present, bilateral symmetry, reduced stamen number) act synergistically as a key innovation, doubling diversification rates for lineages in which this combination occurs. However, this combination is currently less common than predicted at equilibrium because the individual characters evolve infrequently. Simulations suggest that angiosperms will remain far from the equilibrium frequencies of character states well into the future. Such non-equilibrium dynamics may be common when major innovations evolve rarely, allowing lineages with ancestral forms to persist, and even outnumber those with diversification-enhancing states, for tens of millions of years. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2016-01-27

    Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  16. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

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    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion.A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini.The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage.Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  17. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaey, David; Lens, Frederic; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Jansen, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare, Pittosporum tenuifolium, and Vaccinium myrtillus in order to determine whether these plasmodesmata associated thickenings have a similar developmental pattern across flowering plants. At early ontogenetic stages, the formation of a primary thickening was observed, resulting from swelling of the pit membrane in fibre-tracheids and vessel elements. Since plasmodesmata appear to be frequently, but not always, associated with these primary pit membrane thickenings, it remains unclear which ultrastructural characteristics control the formation of pseudo-tori. At a very late stage during xylem differentiation, a secondary thickening is deposited on the primary pit membrane thickening. Plasmodesmata are always associated with pseudo-tori at these final developmental stages. After autolysis, the secondary thickening becomes electron-dense and persistent, while the primary thickening turns transparent and partially or entirely dissolves. The developmental patterns observed in the species studied are similar and agree with former ontogenetic studies in Rosaceae, suggesting that pseudo-tori might be homologous features across angiosperms.

  18. Re-evaluating the isotopic divide between angiosperms and gymnosperms using n-alkane δ13C values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms

  19. Fertilización en frutales con énfasis en el cultivo de guanábano Annona muricata L. Fruit tree fertilization with enmphasis on soursop Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zárate Reyes Rubén Darío

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se da la información general sobre la importancia de los frutales y específicamente del guanábano (Annona muricata L.. Se relacionan los elementos nutricionales indispensables para los frutales y sus funciones. Se describe el proceso de absorción de agua y nutrientes. Se plantean los casos de sinergismo y antagonismo y su importancia en la fertilización de las especies frutícolas. Se aclara lo relativo a la distribución del fertilizante y la respuesta de la planta. Se discute sobre el mecanismo de absorción foliar. Se relacionan las dificultades para determinar los requerimientos nutricionales en frutales y aplicar la Ley de Restitución. Se precisa que en guanábano el orden posible de requerimientos nutricionales es K > N > Ca > P > Mg. Se describen los síntomas de deficiencias de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S en plántulas de guanábano en soluciones nutritivas y se comparan los análisis de tejidos de plantas con síntomas y plantas en el campo. Se determinan como etapas importantes para fertilizar guanábano: vivero, transplante, desarrollo en huerto y etapa productiva. Se dan recomendaciones generales para cada una de ellas. Se hacen recomendaciones con base en el diámetro de la copa del árbol y la profundidad de raíces; el contenido de M.O, de P205 y K2O del suelo y la edad de los árboles y la región donde se establezca el cultivo.A general survey of the importance of fruit crops, especially soursop (Annona muricata L. is presented. The roles of essential elements and water absortion are described chemical synergisms and antagonisms are discussed in relation to plant nutrition. The absortion mechanism is discussed, so are the difficulties te determine nutritional requirements’ in fruit trees in order to apply the restitution law. Priority of elernent absortion is probably K > N > Ca > P > Mg. Deficiency sympton as they appear in nutrient solutions and in the field are described for seedlings and mature trees and are related to

  20. Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

    2006-08-31

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats > or = 30 bp with a sequence identity > or = 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These

  1. Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhlman Tracey

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carrot (Daucus carota is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ≥ 30 bp with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap for the sister relationship of

  2. Hydraulic safety margins and embolism reversal in stems and leaves: Why are conifers and angiosperms so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Johnson; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and coniferous tree species utilize a continuum of hydraulic strategies. Hydraulic safety margins (defined as differences between naturally occurring xylem pressures and pressures that would cause hydraulic dysfunction, or differences between pressures resulting in loss of hydraulic function in adjacent organs (e.g., stems vs. leaves) tend to be much greater...

  3. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Silva Costa

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52-56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this

  4. Gene Conversion in Angiosperm Genomes with an Emphasis on Genes Duplicated by Polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Yin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm genomes differ from those of mammals by extensive and recursive polyploidizations. The resulting gene duplication provides opportunities both for genetic innovation, and for concerted evolution. Though most genes may escape conversion by their homologs, concerted evolution of duplicated genes can last for millions of years or longer after their origin. Indeed, paralogous genes on two rice chromosomes duplicated an estimated 60–70 million years ago have experienced gene conversion in the past 400,000 years. Gene conversion preserves similarity of paralogous genes, but appears to accelerate their divergence from orthologous genes in other species. The mutagenic nature of recombination coupled with the buffering effect provided by gene redundancy, may facilitate the evolution of novel alleles that confer functional innovations while insulating biological fitness of affected plants. A mixed evolutionary model, characterized by a primary birth-and-death process and occasional homoeologous recombination and gene conversion, may best explain the evolution of multigene families.

  5. Angiosperms, Hydrophytes of five ephemeral lakes of Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document the Angiosperm diversity of five ephemeral lakes of ThiruvallurDistrict of Tamil Nadu South India. Qualitative floristic surveys were carried out during 2005-2007. Herbarium specimenswith voucher number, taxonomical and ecological information were deposited to the herbarium, Pachaiyappa’s College(PCH Chennai, Tamilnadu. Forty five species of hydrophytes belonging to 21 families and 34 genera were documented.Most speciose families were Poaceae with 5 species followed by Polygalaceae and Nymphaeaceae (4 Cyperaceae,Hydrocharitaceae, Najadaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (3 species each. Mean depth of all five lakes shrinking gradually dueto severe anthropogenic pressure. Conservation of wetlands is the need of the hour to protect the biota as well as quality ofdrinking water.

  6. Divergent regeneration-competent cells adopt a common mechanism for callus initiation in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Guifang; Liu, Wu; Shi, Jianmin; Wang, Hua; Qi, Meifang; Li, Jiqin; Qin, Peng; Ruan, Ying; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yijing; Xu, Lin

    2017-06-01

    In tissue culture, the formation of callus from detached explants is a key step in plant regeneration; however, the regenerative abilities in different species are variable. While nearly all parts of organs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana are ready for callus formation, mature regions of organs in monocot rice ( Oryza sativa ) and other cereals are extremely unresponsive to tissue culture. Whether there is a common molecular mechanism beyond these different regenerative phenomena is unclear. Here we show that the Arabidopsis and rice use different regeneration-competent cells to initiate callus, whereas the cells all adopt WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 11 ( WOX11 ) and WOX5 during cell fate transition. Different from Arabidopsis which maintains regeneration-competent cells in mature organs, rice exhausts those cells during organ maturation, resulting in regenerative inability in mature organs. Our study not only explains this old perplexity in agricultural biotechnology, but also provides common molecular markers for tissue culture of different angiosperm species.

  7. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610

  8. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J G; Sharafi, M; Jalili, A; Díaz, S; Montserrat-Martí, G; Palmer, C; Cerabolini, B; Pierce, S; Hamzehee, B; Asri, Y; Jamzad, Z; Wilson, P; Raven, J A; Band, S R; Basconcelo, S; Bogard, A; Carter, G; Charles, M; Castro-Díez, P; Cornelissen, J H C; Funes, G; Jones, G; Khoshnevis, M; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Pérez-Rontomé, M C; Shirvany, F A; Vendramini, F; Yazdani, S; Abbas-Azimi, R; Boustani, S; Dehghan, M; Guerrero-Campo, J; Hynd, A; Kowsary, E; Kazemi-Saeed, F; Siavash, B; Villar-Salvador, P; Craigie, R; Naqinezhad, A; Romo-Díez, A; de Torres Espuny, L; Simmons, E

    2010-04-01

    Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven.

  9. Analysis of the pumpkin phloem proteome provides insights into angiosperm sieve tube function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lee, Young-Jin; Lough, Tony J; Phinney, Brett S; Lucas, William J

    2009-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that proteins present in the angiosperm sieve tube system play an important role in the long distance signaling system of plants. To identify the nature of these putatively non-cell-autonomous proteins, we adopted a large scale proteomics approach to analyze pumpkin phloem exudates. Phloem proteins were fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography using both anion and cation exchange columns and then either in-solution or in-gel digested following further separation by SDS-PAGE. A total of 345 LC-MS/MS data sets were analyzed using a combination of Mascot and X!Tandem against the NCBI non-redundant green plant database and an extensive Cucurbit maxima expressed sequence tag database. In this analysis, 1,209 different consensi were obtained of which 1,121 could be annotated from GenBank and BLAST search analyses against three plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa), and poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses identified sets of phloem proteins that function in RNA binding, mRNA translation, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and macromolecular and vesicle trafficking. Our findings indicate that protein synthesis and turnover, processes that were thought to be absent in enucleate sieve elements, likely occur within the angiosperm phloem translocation stream. In addition, our GO analysis identified a set of phloem proteins that are associated with the GO term "embryonic development ending in seed dormancy"; this finding raises the intriguing question as to whether the phloem may exert some level of control over seed development. The universal significance of the phloem proteome was highlighted by conservation of the phloem proteome in species as diverse as monocots (rice), eudicots (Arabidopsis and pumpkin), and trees (poplar). These results are discussed from the perspective of the role played by the phloem proteome as an integral component of the whole plant communication system.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn. Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata Linn. (soursop is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds, also to study about the utilization of soursop parts which is usually not used. This research began with maceration to extract leaves and seeds with 96% ethanol. Ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and seeds were then tested for antioxidant capacity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The result showed that antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds are 85,66875% and 39,0166, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of leaves is higher than seeds due to seed’s extraction difficulty so its antioxidant compound could not be extracted optimally. However, either leaves or seeds extract in this study are potential as antioxidant resources because there are no significant differences between antioxidant capacity of both extract.

  11. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae using SOS-Inductest and Ames test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB. Vilar

    Full Text Available Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05 positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work.

  12. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-11-17

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%-46.8%), ultrasonic time (33.2-66.8 min), and temperature (43.2-76.8 °C) for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R²=0.9524, pextraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g) of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW). The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  13. Identificación de temperatura y humedad en un prototipo deshidratador de pulpa de Annona Muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Torres Amaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La industria de alimentos, es considerada como una de las actividades económicas con mayor participación en Colombia, la cual para continuar con su proceso de producción, se han enfrentado con problemas de desperdicios debido a falta de infraestructura y métodos de conservación de alimentos que no altere las propiedades físico – químicas del producto a comercializar. Por ende, se ha presentado la necesidad de desarrollar metodologías orientadas a la extracción de agua, sin alterar sus nutrientes y así prolongar el periodo de degradación del fruto. En el presente artículo, se expone los resultados del análisis en temperatura y humedad que son necesarios para realizar el proceso de deshidratación de la Annona Muricata, la cual presenta un alto contenido de agua (83 por cada 100 gramos de fruta. El desarrollo de este proyecto se enfocó en permitir a los productores frutícolas, tener la capacidad de ofrecer frutos tropicales de degradación rápida, a mercados nacionales y posiblemente internacionales. Cuyos resultados se observan en la conservación de alimentos por largos periodos de tiempo, disminuyendo las perdidas, fomentando el consumo y el desarrollo económico del productor agrícola.

  14. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-01-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-β- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  15. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  16. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide.

  17. Production of Nutritious Flour from Residue Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L. for the Development of New Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Thiago Caldeira Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit processing industry generates a high volume of waste in fruits that have not reached a quality standard for consumption or by-products generated throughout the production process. To reduce this waste, mitigating measures, such as reuse in food formulations, have been proposed. In this work the custard apple bagasse flour (Annona squamosa L. (CAB was produced and incorporated into cookie formulations in different proportions (5 to 50% evaluating its acceptability. The CAB flour was characterized by physicochemical analysis, proximate composition, mineral analysis, determination of the phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity. The results of the physicochemical and proximate characterizations show that the processed flour presents values and specifications suitable for food formulations. The mineral composition of the CAB flour responds to more than 20% of the daily intake of nutrients, highlighting the Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg. The composition of phenolic compounds for CAB flour and cookies formulations presented values ranging from 200 to 658 mg GAE/100 g, similar to flour and formulations prepared of residues tropical fruit, while DPPH• inhibition showed a variation of 9.68–10.75%. Cookies made from the CAB flour showed high acceptability making the flour promising in the nutritional incorporation in food formulations.

  18. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  19. Structural Characterisation of Acetogenins from Annona muricata by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Bonneau, Natacha; Champy, Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David

    2017-11-01

    Acetogenins are plant polyketides known to be cytotoxic and proposed as antitumor candidates. They are also suspected to be alimentary neurotoxins. Their occurrence as complex mixtures renders their dereplication and structural identification difficult using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and efforts are required to improve the methodology. To develop a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method, involving lithium post-column cationisation, for the structural characterisation of Annonaceous acetogenins in crude extracts. The seeds of Annona muricata L. were extracted with methanol. Supercritical fluid chromatography of the extract, using a 2-ethylpyridine stationary phase column, was monitored using a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Lithium iodide was added post-column in the make-up solvent. For comparison, the same extract was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to the same mass spectrometer, with a column based on solid core particles. Sensitivity was similar for both HPLC and SFC approaches. Retention behaviour and fragmentation pathways of three different isomer groups are described. A previously unknown group of acetogenins was also evidenced for the first time. The use of SFC-MS/MS allows the reduction of the time of analysis, of environmental impact and an increase in the chromatographic resolution, compared to liquid chromatography. This new methodology enlightened a new group of acetogenins, isomers of montanacin-D. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

  1. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  2. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  3. Isolation of a novel xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (OsXET9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... according to the GeneChip® Expression Analysis Technical Manual .... its secondary structure (Figure 2), and there were 1 .... GenBank: AAG00902.1,), Annona cherimola (AcXET, GenBank: ACK36945.1), Sagittaria pygmaea.

  4. Métodos de análise de dados longitudinais no melhoramento genético da pinha (Annona squamosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariguele, Keny Henrique

    2010-01-01

    A pinha ou fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L.) é uma fruteira importante para o Brasil, especialmente na Região Nordeste. Nessa espécie, os caracteres são avaliados repetidas vezes no decorrer da vida do organismo e são denominados infinitamente dimensionais, no sentido de que, em cada unidade de tempo ou idade, o caráter pode ser avaliado, gerando um conjunto multidimensional de dados. O interesse na análise desse tipo de dados geralmente reside na predição de valores dos indivíduos e progên...

  5. Coadjuvant hypoglycemiant effect of Annona muricata L (guanabana) leaves ethanolic extract in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving glibenclamide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Martínez, Jaime; Ronceros, Gerardo; Palomino, Robert; Villarreal, Aníbal; Bonilla, Pablo; Palomino, Christian; Quino, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia y seguridad de cápsulas de extracto etanólico de hojas de Annona muricata L (guanábana) más glibenclamida para un mejor control de los niveles glicemia comparado con la administración de glibenclamida sola, en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Diseño: Estudio clínico, aleatorio, grupo paralelo, doble ciego. Lugar: Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital I EsSalud, ciudad de Tingo María, Departamento de Huánuco. Pacientes: Pacientes con diagnóstico de diab...

  6. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  7. Viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira (Annona squamosa em diferentes horários Viability of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa pollen grains at different hours of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No manejo do cultivo da pinha (Annona squamosa, a polinização artificial é uma prática preconizada para, obter maior pegamento dos frutos bem como uniformização do formato dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira em diferentes horários de coleta. O pólen foi obtido a partir de flores no estádio funcionalmente estaminada. Foram avaliados oito horários de coleta de pólen: zero hora, 1 hora, 2 horas, 3 horas, 4 horas, 5 horas, 6 horas e 7 horas da manhã. Foi utilizado meio de cultura padrão para germinação de pólen, com concentração de 10% de sacarose. As flores foram coletadas nos horários estabelecidos e os grãos de pólen foram retirados das anteras com auxílio de um pincel número 2 e em seguida inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela experimental constituída por duas placas Petri. Foram contados 100 grãos de pólen por placa. Após 6 horas de inoculação, os grãos de pólen foram visualizados sob lupa. Foram considerados germinados os grãos de pólen que possuíam tubo polínico com tamanho igual ou superior ao diâmetro do próprio pólen. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre o horário de coleta dos grãos de pólen. A percentagem média da germinação variou de 46,75% a 53,62% dos grãos de pólen germinados.In the management of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa crop, the artificial pollination is a preconized practice to obtain higher establishment of the fruits as well as their standardization. This study was carried out to evaluate the viability of sugar apple pollen grains at different collecting times. The pollens were obtained from the flowers at the functional staminate stage. The pollen grains were collected every hour, starting from 00:00am and ending at 07:00am, totalizing 8

  8. Biological control agents (Arthropoda - Insecta associated with cultivation of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. = Agentes de controle biológico (Arthropoda - Insecta associados ao cultivo da pinha (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise Malaspina Rossi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of biological control agents occurring naturally in agricultural areas is of great importance in adopting methods of integrated pest management. The aim of this work therefore, was to undertake a population survey of biological control agents (Insecta associated with cultivation of Annona squamosa. The research was carried out during the 2015/2016 harvest in a conventional orchard of A. squamosa, located in the town of Tabatinga in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The biological control agents were captured using yellow sticky traps. The following faunistic indices were calculated: dominance, abundance, frequency and constancy. Population fluctuations in the natural enemies sampled were analysed by histogram. The coccinellid predators, Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae were the principal biological control agents sampled during the study, and considered superdominant, superabundant, superfrequent and constant. As for population fluctuation of predominant natural enemies, high population density was seen in Scymnus sp. between September and January 2015, whereas there were three population peaks for C. sanguinea during the study, in September 2015 and January and July 2016. The coccinellids, Scymnus sp. and C. sanguinea, were the predominant biological control agents in the cultivation of A. squamosa, with a higher population density for the genus Scymnus seen in the spring and summer seasons, and no distribution pattern for C. sanguinea observed. = O conhecimento acerca dos agentes de controle biológico presentes naturalmente em áreas agrícolas apresenta grande importância na adoção de metodologias voltadas ao manejo integrado de pragas. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o levantamento da ocorrência populacional de agentes de controle biológico (Insecta associado ao cultivo de Annona squamosa. A pesquisa foi realizada na safra agrícola 2015/2016 em pomar

  9. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.

  10. Uso de vermicomposto favorece o crescimento de mudas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' associadas a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Use of earthworm manure improves growth of soursop seedlings (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Karla Alves da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A gravioleira, cujos frutos apresentam elevado potencial para exportação, é de fácil adaptação ao Semi-Árido nordestino, e a sua produção, economicamente importante, vem sendo estimulada. O uso de adubos orgânicos associados à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA pode ser útil na formação de mudas frutíferas, porém o efeito da adição de adubo na simbiose com gravioleira (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' não é conhecido. Foi investigado o efeito de FMA multiplicado em substrato com resíduo orgânico na formação de mudas de gravioleira mantidas em substratos com fertilizante. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 2×5: 2 substratos (solo sem ou com 10% de vermicomposto e cinco tratamentos de inoculação (Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck e Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith produzidos em substratos com ou sem resíduo orgânico e controle não inoculado, com quatro repetições. Após 102 dias, avaliou-se: massa seca da parte aérea e radicular, altura, diâmetro do caule, taxa de crescimento, produção de esporos de FMA e de glomalina, atividade enzimática do solo, respiração microbiana, colonização micorrízica total, arbuscular e hifálica. Em geral, a inoculação com FMA estimulou o crescimento, mas no tratamento adubado as mudas em simbiose com G. albida não foram beneficiadas pela associação. O uso de vermicomposto estimulou a colonização micorrízica, a respiração microbiana, a atividade enzimática e a produção de glomalina no solo, porém reduziu a esporulação de A. longula. A utilização de FMA e vermicomposto pode constituir alternativa na produção de mudas de gravioleira, pois reduziu à metade o tempo de formação das mudas e pode reduzir em 75% a dose de adubo a ser aplicada. No entanto, a escolha de FMA compatíveis com o hospedeiro é indispensável para garantir respostas positivas. A aplicação conjunta de FMA e adubo orgânico também pode

  11. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Barbeta, Adrià; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC), wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines.

  12. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofre eCarnicer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit, xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC, wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines.

  13. Ecpagloxylon mathiesenii gen. nov. et sp. nov., a Jurassic wood from Greenland with several primitive angiosperm features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippe, Marc; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Bashforth, Arden Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fossil wood specimens from the late Early–early Middle Jurassic of Jameson Land, Eastern Greenland, have several unexpected features: tracheids of irregular size and shape, thinly pitted ray cell walls, heterogeneous rays, partially scalariform radial pitting, both areolate and simple pits, and p...... is an early bench-mark in the evolution that led from homoxylous conifer-like wood to that of the angiosperms. Its particular biogeography (Arctic) could renew the discussion about the area of origin of the angiosperms....

  14. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viru? National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, ?buritizais? and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herb...

  15. A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccolo, Andrea; Bowers, John E; Estill, James C; Xiong, Zhiyong; Luo, Meizhong; Sebastian, Aswathy; Goicoechea, Jos? Luis; Collura, Kristi; Yu, Yeisoo; Jiao, Yuannian; Duarte, Jill; Tang, Haibao; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Rounsley, Steve; Kudrna, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome....

  16. The last step of syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms is regulated by a novel gene encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Cheng, X F; Leshkevich, J; Umezawa, T; Harding, S A; Chiang, V L

    2001-07-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) has been thought to mediate the reduction of both coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde into guaiacyl and syringyl monolignols in angiosperms. Here, we report the isolation of a novel aspen gene (PtSAD) encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is phylogenetically distinct from aspen CAD (PtCAD). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based enzyme functional analysis and substrate level-controlled enzyme kinetics consistently demonstrated that PtSAD is sinapaldehyde specific and that PtCAD is coniferaldehyde specific. The enzymatic efficiency of PtSAD for sinapaldehyde was approximately 60 times greater than that of PtCAD. These data suggest that in addition to CAD, discrete SAD function is essential to the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol in angiosperms. In aspen stem primary tissues, PtCAD was immunolocalized exclusively to xylem elements in which only guaiacyl lignin was deposited, whereas PtSAD was abundant in syringyl lignin-enriched phloem fiber cells. In the developing secondary stem xylem, PtCAD was most conspicuous in guaiacyl lignin-enriched vessels, but PtSAD was nearly absent from these elements and was conspicuous in fiber cells. In the context of additional protein immunolocalization and lignin histochemistry, these results suggest that the distinct CAD and SAD functions are linked spatiotemporally to the differential biosynthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in different cell types. SAD is required for the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in angiosperms.

  17. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

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    Alessandra eMoscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.

  18. The chromosomal distribution of histone methylation marks in gymnosperms differs from that of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jörg; Jovtchev, Gabriele; Schubert, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of seven histone methylation marks (H3K4me2, H3K9me1,2,3 and H3K27me1,2,3) was analysed in the gymnosperm species Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. Similarly to the situation in other investigated eukaryotes, dimethylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 is restricted to euchromatin in gymnosperms. Surprisingly, also H3K9me1-a mark classified as heterochromatin-specific in angiosperms-labels the euchromatin in P. sylvestris and P. abies. The other investigated methylation marks are either equally distributed along the chromosomes, as H3K9me2 and H3K27me1 (in both species) and H3K9me3 (in P. abies), or enriched at specific types of heterochromatin, as H3K9me3 (in P. sylvestris) and H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 in both species. Although the methylation marks themselves are apparently conserved, their functional specificity within the frame of the 'epigenetic code' might have diverged during evolution.

  19. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

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    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  20. A putative role for fusaric acid in biocontrol of the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouizgarne, Brahim; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Madiona, Karine; Biligui, Bernadette; Monestiez, Michèle; Pennarun, Anne Marie; Amiar, Zahia; Rona, Jean Pierre; Ouhdouch, Yedir; El Hadrami, Ismaïl; Bouteau, François

    2006-05-01

    Fusarium spp. are ubiquitous fungi found in soil worldwide as both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. The signals leading to disease or the absence of disease are poorly understood. We recently showed that fusaric acid (FA), a nonspecific toxin produced by most Fusarium spp., could elicit various plant defense responses at 100 nM without toxic effect. In this study, we checked for the effect of FA on root and root hairs, probable first site of contact between the fungi and the host. Large FA concentrations reduce root and root-hair growth and induce a rapid transient membrane hyperpolarization, followed by a large depolarization, due to the inhibition of H(+)-ATPase currents. Nanomolar concentrations of FA induced only an early transient membrane hyperpolarization of root hairs compatible with the induction of a signal transduction pathway. FA at 10(-7) M failed to induce salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent defense-related genes but inhibited the germination of the angiosperm parasite Orobanche ramosa in contact of FA-pretreated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. These data suggest that FA at nontoxic concentrations could activate signal transduction components necessary for plant-defense responses that could contribute to biocontrol activity of Fusarium spp.

  1. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-04-08

    New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis.

  2. Does the globally invasive marine angiosperm, Halophila stipulacea, have high genetic diversity or unique mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquillo, K.; Campese, L.; Barber, P. H.; Willette, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems, and support a wide diversity of marine life. However, invasive seagrasses like Halophila stipulacea can have pronounced negative impacts on an ecosystem by displacing native seagrasses and changing the community composition of the reef. Endemic to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, Halophila stipulacea has become invasive in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, presumably as a result of the opening of the Suez Canal and international ship traffic. However, it is unclear why this marine angiosperm has become invasive in parts of its range and not others. It is hypothesized that invasive forms may have evolved rapidly in response to natural selection in new and novel environments. Alternatively, genetic variation of introduced populations may be uniquely suited to thrive in regions where it is invasive. In this study, we use RAD next-generation sequencing to screen thousands of SNPs to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation in both native and invasive populations. We test whether genes under selection in the native range are the same as in the invasive range, or whether new genes have arisen with the invasion of each marine basin. The comparison of SNP frequencies unique among basins and environmental variables will aid in predicting new areas of invasion, assisting in improved management strategies to combat this invasive seagrass.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  4. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  5. Functionalized liposomes and phytosomes loading Annona muricata L. aqueous extract: Potential nanoshuttles for brain-delivery of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Simona; Nardo, Luca; Gregori, Maria; Ribeiro, Inês; Mantegazza, Francesco; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Masserini, Massimo; Grosso, Clara

    2018-03-15

    Multi-target drugs have gained significant recognition for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as depression. Under a screening study of multi-potent medicinal plants with claimed antidepressant-like activity, the phenolic-rich Annona muricata aqueous extract (AE) emerged as a moderate monoamine oxidase A (hMAO-A) inhibitor and a strong hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) scavenger. In order to protect this extract from gastrointestinal biotransformation and to improve its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), four phospholipid nanoformulations of liposomes and phytosomes functionalized with a peptide ligand promoting BBB crossing were produced. AE and nanoformulations were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n , HPLC-DAD, spectrophotometric, fluorescence and dynamic light scattering methods. Cytotoxicity and permeability studies were carried out using an in vitro transwell model of the BBB, composed of immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3), and in vitro hMAO-A inhibition and H 2 O 2 scavenging activities were performed with all samples. The encapsulation/binding of AE was more efficient with phytosomes, while liposomes were more stable, displaying a slower extract release over time. In general, phytosomes were less toxic than liposomes in hCMEC/D3 cells and, when present, cholesterol improved the permeability across the cell monolayer of all tested nanoformulations. All nanoformulations conserved the antioxidant potential of AE, while phosphatidylcholine interfered with MAO-A inhibition assay. Overall, phytosome formulations registered the best performance in terms of binding efficiency, enzyme inhibition and scavenging activity, thus representing a promising multipotent phenolic-rich nanoshuttle for future in vivo depression treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  7. Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indic and Custard Apple (Annona reticulata Diets on Sterility of House Rat (Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Nidhi Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different plant products diets – i neem (Azadirachta indic A. Juss oil mixed diet (neem oil mixed @ 80 ml/kg of normal diet, ii neem seed powder mixed diet (neem seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet and iii custard apple (Annona reticulata L. seed powder mixed diet (custard apple seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet were separately fed to mature rats (Rattus rattus with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair in a day on 13th week-age during the experimenting years, 2012/013 and 2013/014. In control group only normal diet without neem and custard apple constituents were fed. Sterility test of rat was conducted up to 38 and 28 weeks-age in first and second year, respectively. The test rats were fed normal diet during whole experimenting periods except the one day when they were fed only the neem or custard apple mixed diet on the age of 13th week. Efficacy of the mixed diets on rat-sterility was determined based on pregnancy and parturition by the rats. The two years' results confirmed that all the tested three mixed diets – neem oil mixed diet, neem seed powder mixed diet, and custard apple seed powder mixed diet were effective to stop pregnancy and parturition in rats during whole experimenting periods up to 38 and 28 weeks-age with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair (40 gm/rat in a day on 13th week-age of the rats; whereas the pregnancy and parturition were observed in the rats that were fed only the normal diet. It is expected, neem and custard apple mixed diets can be utilized in reducing the economically important rodent populations in rice-wheat cropping system in future.

  8. Produção do porta-enxerto (Annona squamosa L. com o uso de reguladores vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Gisela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A redução do período de formação do porta-enxerto para qualquer espécie frutífera é desejável sob o ponto de vista da diminuição dos custos de produção para o viveirista. Desta forma, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de reguladores vegetais no crescimento e desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições de 15 plantas. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela pulverização com diferentes concentrações de reguladores vegetais: - Testemunha (sem pulverização; - GA3 (25, 50, 75 mg.L-1; - GA4+7 + fenilmetil-aminopurina (25, 50, 75 mg.L-1. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: - comprimento do caule (Cc; - número de folhas (Nf; - diâmetro do caule a 20 cm da base das plantas; - massa seca da parte aérea e da parte radicular. Os resultados de Cc demonstram que a aplicação de reguladores vegetais afetou positivamente o crescimento do porta-enxerto, pois ocorreu resposta quadrática e linear, para os tratamentos com GA3 e GA4+7 + fenilmetil-aminopurina, respectivamente. Quanto ao diâmetro do caule, observou-se somente resposta quadrática com a aplicação de GA3, o que também foi verificado no parâmetro massa seca da parte aérea.

  9. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa , flowers of Cordia lutea , and leaves of Annona muricata . Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund's adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group ( P <0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa , flowers of C. lutea , and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits.

  10. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

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    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  11. Gas exchange, phisiological indexes and ionic accumulation in Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings in nutrients solution

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    Daniel Baron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available "Araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer has been consider a good alternative in rootstock production for the main commercial Annonaceae species. Although this species develops in different soil and climate conditions, there is no understanding by the physiological responses of this species at different nutritional levels. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ionic strengths on development of vegetative species known as "Araticum-de-terra-fria". It was evaluated in seedlings grown in different ionic strengths (25% I, 50% I, 75% I and 100% I of the complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, for 140 days, the following characteristics: Gas Exchange (CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, Rubisco carboxylation efficiency; Vegetative growth characteristics (diameter, leaf number, dry matter; Physiological Indexes (leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf weight ratio and Ionic Accumulation (nutrients leaf analysis. Seedlings grown under 50% I showed the highest values of Leaf CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, growth, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and ionic accumulation in the total dry matter. So it is concluded that "Araticum-de-terra-fria" seedlings grown under intermediate nutrient concentrations of complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, explored more adequately their physiological potential that justify their adaptation in different nutritional conditions and allow reducing the amount of mineral nutrition of seedlings production.

  12. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF FIRMNESS IN SOURSOP FRUITS (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita DURING POSTHARVEST

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    CARLOS J. MARQUEZ-CARDOZO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv Elita en diferentes etapas de maduración fueron evaluados, determinando sus características físico-químicas: sólidos solubles totales (SST, acidez y pH. La firmeza se encontró mediante la aplicación de pruebas de penetración uniaxial. El modelado y la simulación de la firmeza se llevó a cabo por el software Autodesk Inventor Professional 11.0 (ANSYS® Technology. Los frutos mostraron una tendencia creciente con respecto a los SST y la acidez, alcanzando valores máximos de 12,8°Brix y acidez de 0,74%, y un pH inferior a 3,43, valores que coinciden con la madurez de consumo, tal como se observa para el día 6. La Firmeza mostró una tendencia decreciente durante todo el período de poscosecha, con valores de 79,43 N para el día 0 y 3,62 N para el día 9. La simulación por elementos finitos de la fuerza de firmeza presentó alta correlación (>90 % con respecto a los datos experimentales. La simulación por elementos finitos se convierte en una alternativa no destructiva para la evaluación de la firmeza, útil para el almacenamiento, transporte, consumo en fresco, envasado y procesamiento de éstas frutas.

  13. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

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    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  14. Foliar phosphite application has minor phytotoxic impacts across a diverse range of conifers and woody angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter; Bader, Martin Karl-Friedrich; Williams, Nari Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Phytophthora plant pathogens cause tremendous damage in planted and natural systems worldwide. Phosphite is one of the only effective chemicals to control broad-scale Phytophthora disease. Little work has been done on the phytotoxic effects of phosphite application on plant communities especially in combination with plant physiological impacts. Here, we tested the phytotoxic impact of phosphite applied as foliar spray at 0, 12, 24 and 48 kg a.i. ha(-1) . Eighteen-month-old saplings of 13 conifer and angiosperm species native to New Zealand, and two exotic coniferous species were treated and the development of necrotic tissue and chlorophyll-a-fluorescence parameters (optimal quantum yield, Fv /Fm ; effective quantum yield of photosystem II, ΦPSII ) were assessed. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs ) was measured on a subset of six species. Significant necrosis assessed by digital image analysis occurred in only three species: in the lauraceous canopy tree Beilschmiedia tawa (8-14%) and the understory shrub Dodonaea viscosa (5-7%) across phosphite concentrations and solely at the highest concentration in the myrtaceous pioneer shrub Leptospermum scoparium (66%). In non-necrotic tissue, Fv /Fm , ΦPSII and gs remained unaffected by the phosphite treatment. Overall, our findings suggest minor phytotoxic effects resulting from foliar phosphite application across diverse taxa and regardless of concentration. This study supports the large-scale use of phosphite as a management tool to control plant diseases caused by Phytophthora pathogens in plantations and natural ecosystems. Long-term studies are required to ascertain potential ecological impacts of repeated phosphite applications. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides. PMID:22958331

  16. Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, C J; Rumsey, F J; Hiscock, S J

    2009-05-01

    Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host-parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host-parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates.

  17. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of “gene duplicability” is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. PMID:26744215

  18. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Defoort, Jonas; Tasdighian, Setareh; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-02-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of "gene duplicability" is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Stable isotopes estimate the dependence of the parasitic angiosperm striga hermonthica on its maize host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflakpui, G.K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the root hemi-parasitic angiosperm striga hermonthica on its host for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was estimated by labeling the leaves of maize (grown in sand culture at three rates of nitrogen) with 13 C and 15 N. The Striga x N interaction on the responses measured was not significant. The dependence of the parasite on host nitrogen varied from 75 to 83 percent in the leaf, and from 70 to 80 percent in the stem compared with a total dependence of between 74 and 82 per cent. The dependence of the parasite on its host for nitrogen was not affected by the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied. The heterotrophic carbon derived by S. hermonthica from its maize host varied from 20 to 32 per cent in the leaf, 23 to 41 per cent in the stem, with a total dependence of 22 to 36 per cent. The heterotrophic carbon in the leaf increased as the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied increased (P<0.05). The total dependence of the parasite on the host for carbon also increased (P<0.05). The total dependence of the parasite on the host for carbon also increased as the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied increased (P<0.01). The presence of S. hermonthica reduced the shoot biomass of its maize host by about 40 percent (P<0.001), whilst the root biomass was unaffected. Infected plants also partitioned about 41 percent of their total biomass compared with 27 per cent for the uninfected (P<0.001). The application if nitrogen increased the shoot and root biomass (P<0.001) but did not affect the proportion of the total biomass partitioned to the root. The results show that (i) the dependence of striga on its maize host of C and N can be estimated with stable isotopes of C and N and (ii) Striga derives more nitrogen than carbon from the host. (author)

  20. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (pavocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (pavocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model fitted to the data obtained in this study and to the growth data available in the literature for other tropical low acid fruits indicated high variability in μ and λ of Salmonella. The results obtained in this study show that whole low acid tropical fruits can harbor Salmonella, and that this foodborne pathogen can not only survive but also grow both on the

  1. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  2. Estudo fitoquímico e atividades leishmanicida, anticolinestarásica e antioxidante de extratos de Annona glabra L. (araticum panã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Adailson de Sousa Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as principais classes de compostos químicos presentes em Annona grabra L. (Araticum panã, e avaliar o seu potencial biológico analisando suas atividades antioxidante, antiacetilcolinesterase e leishmanicida. Para tanto, a entrecasca e sementes foram submetidas à extração em aparelho de soxhlet com os solventes orgânicos hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e metanol, obtendo-se os respectivos extratos. Com os extratos foram realizados testes de prospecção fitoquímica, determinação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição do radical livre DPPH e inibição da acetilcolinesterase em ensaio de cromatografia em camada delgada. Os testes de atividade leishmanicida in vitro em formas promastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi foram realizados em placa de 96 poços em aparelho ELISA. Os extratos foram testados a 100 μg/ mL. Os testes fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de esteroides, triterpenos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e saponinas. Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição da acetilcolinesterase e os extratos hexânicos de ambas partes mostraram maior percentual de inibição de L. infantum chagasi. Nestes extratos, compostos apolares como esteroides e triterpenos podem contribuir para a atividade leishmanicida. Os extratos de melhor atividade antioxidante foram o acetato de etila e metanólico da entrecasca e metanólico das sementes que correspondem aos que contem compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que A. glabra constitui uma fonte potencial de agentes leishmanicida com possível mecanismo de ação pela inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase das membranas da L. infantum chagasi, causador da leishmaniose visceral.Phytochemical study and leishmanicidal, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Annona glabra L. (araticum panã extracts ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the main types of chemical constituents present in Annona grabra L. (araticum pan

  3. Barcoding success as a function of phylogenetic relatedness in Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms

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    Clement Wendy L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chloroplast genes matK and rbcL have been proposed as a “core” DNA barcode for identifying plant species. Published estimates of successful species identification using these loci (70-80% may be inflated because they may have involved comparisons among distantly related species within target genera. To assess the ability of the proposed two-locus barcode to discriminate closely related species, we carried out a hierarchically structured set of comparisons within Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms containing ca. 170 species (some 70 of which are currently used in horticulture. For 112 Viburnum species, we evaluated rbcL + matK, as well as the chloroplast regions rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, trnK, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS. Results At most, rbcL + matK could discriminate 53% of all Viburnum species, with only 18% of the comparisons having genetic distances >1%. When comparisons were progressively restricted to species within major Viburnum subclades, there was a significant decrease in both the discriminatory power and the genetic distances. trnH-psbA and nrITS show much higher levels of variation and potential discriminatory power, and their use in plant barcoding should be reconsidered. As barcoding has often been used to discriminate species within local areas, we also compared Viburnum species within two regions, Japan and Mexico and Central America. Greater success in discriminating among the Japanese species reflects the deeper evolutionary history of Viburnum in that area, as compared to the recent radiation of a single clade into the mountains of Latin America. Conclusions We found very low levels of discrimination among closely related species of Viburnum, and low levels of variation in the proposed barcoding loci may limit success within other clades of long-lived woody plants. Inclusion of the supplementary barcodes trnH-psbA and nrITS increased discrimination rates but

  4. Evolutionary history of a keystone pollinator parallels the biome occupancy of angiosperms in the Greater Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-02-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes. We find that the oldest M. capensis lineages originated in Fynbos during the Miocene, while younger Succulent Karoo lineages diverged in the Pliocene and correspond to the proposed age of this recent biome. A strong signature of population expansion is also recovered for flies in this arid biome, consistent with recent colonization. Our first investigation into the evolutionary history of GCFR pollinators thus supports a recent origin of the SK biome, as inferred from angiosperm phylogenies, and suggests that plants and pollinators may have co-diverged within this remarkable area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228–273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210–165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  6. Stem water transport and freeze-thaw xylem embolism in conifers and angiosperms in a Tasmanian treeline heath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Tim

    2001-05-01

    The effect of freezing on stem xylem hydraulic conductivity and leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured in 12 tree and shrub species from a treeline heath in Tasmania, Australia. Reduction in stem hydraulic conductivity after a single freeze-thaw cycle was minimal in conifers and the vessel-less angiosperm species Tasmannia lanceolata (Winteraceae), whereas mean loss of conductivity in vessel-forming angiosperms fell in the range 17-83%. A positive linear relationship was observed between percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity by freeze-thaw and the average conduit diameter across all 12 species. This supports the hypothesis that large-diameter vascular conduits have a greater likelihood of freeze-thaw cavitation because larger bubbles are produced, which are more likely to expand under tension. Leaf frost tolerances, as measured by a 50% loss of maximum PSII quantum yield, varied from -6 to -13°C, indicating that these species were more frost-sensitive than plants from northern hemisphere temperate forest and treeline communities. There was no evidence of a relationship between frost tolerance of leaves and the resilience of stem water transport to freezing, suggesting that low temperature survival and the resistance of stem water transport to freezing are independently evolving traits. The results of this study bear on the ecological importance of stem freezing in the southern hemisphere treeline zones.

  7. Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae of angiosperms: The interaction between Boletus rubropunctus (Boletaceae) and Quercus species (Fagaceae) in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H

    2009-09-01

    Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae (TECM) are unique structures in which aggregates of ectomycorrhizal roots are encased in a covering of fungal hyphae. The function of TECM is unknown, but they probably enhance the nitrogen nutrition and disease resistance of host plants. Trees in the Pinaceae form TECM with species of Rhizopogon and Suillus (Suillineae, Boletales). Similar tubercules are found with diverse angiosperms, but their mycobionts have not been phylogenetically characterized. We collected TECM in Mexico and the USA that were similar to TECM in previous reports. We describe these TECM and identify both the plant and fungal symbionts. Plant DNA confirms that TECM hosts are Quercus species. ITS sequences from tubercules and sclerotia (hyphal aggregations that serve as survival structures) matched sporocarps of Boletus rubropunctus. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that this fungus belongs to the suborder Boletineae (Boletales). This is the first published report of TECM formation in the Boletineae and of sclerotia formation by a Boletus species. Our data suggest that the TECM morphology is an adaptive feature that has evolved separately in two suborders of Boletales (Suillineae and Boletineae) and that TECM formation is controlled by the mycobiont because TECM are found on distantly related angiosperm and gymnosperm host plants.

  8. Single-copy nuclear genes place haustorial Hydnoraceae within piperales and reveal a cretaceous origin of multiple parasitic angiosperm lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Naumann

    Full Text Available Extreme haustorial parasites have long captured the interest of naturalists and scientists with their greatly reduced and highly specialized morphology. Along with the reduction or loss of photosynthesis, the plastid genome often decays as photosynthetic genes are released from selective constraint. This makes it challenging to use traditional plastid genes for parasitic plant phylogenetics, and has driven the search for alternative phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary markers. Thus, evolutionary studies, such as molecular clock-based age estimates, are not yet available for all parasitic lineages. In the present study, we extracted 14 nuclear single copy genes (nSCG from Illumina transcriptome data from one of the "strangest plants in the world", Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae. A ~15,000 character molecular dataset, based on all three genomic compartments, shows the utility of nSCG for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in parasitic lineages. A relaxed molecular clock approach with the same multi-locus dataset, revealed an ancient age of ~91 MYA for Hydnoraceae. We then estimated the stem ages of all independently originated parasitic angiosperm lineages using a published dataset, which also revealed a Cretaceous origin for Balanophoraceae, Cynomoriaceae and Apodanthaceae. With the exception of Santalales, older parasite lineages tend to be more specialized with respect to trophic level and have lower species diversity. We thus propose the "temporal specialization hypothesis" (TSH implementing multiple independent specialization processes over time during parasitic angiosperm evolution.

  9. Formation and function of a new pollen aperture pattern in angiosperms: The proximal sulcus of Tillandsia leiboldiana (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie

    2010-02-01

    Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.

  10. Early evidence of xeromorphy in angiosperms: stomatal encryption in a new eocene species of Banksia (Proteaceae) from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Raymond J; McLoughlin, Stephen; Hill, Robert S; McNamara, Kenneth J; Jordan, Gregory John

    2014-09-01

    • Globally, the origins of xeromorphic traits in modern angiosperm lineages are obscure but are thought to be linked to the early Neogene onset of seasonally arid climates. Stomatal encryption is a xeromorphic trait that is prominent in Banksia, an archetypal genus centered in one of the world's most diverse ecosystems, the ancient infertile landscape of Mediterranean-climate southwestern Australia.• We describe Banksia paleocrypta, a sclerophyllous species with encrypted stomata from silcretes of the Walebing and Kojonup regions of southwestern Australia dated as Late Eocene.• Banksia paleocrypta shows evidence of foliar xeromorphy ∼20 Ma before the widely accepted timing for the onset of aridity in Australia. Species of Banksia subgenus Banksia with very similar leaves are extant in southwestern Australia. The conditions required for silcrete formation infer fluctuating water tables and climatic seasonality in southwestern Australia in the Eocene, and seasonality is supported by the paucity of angiosperm closed-forest elements among the fossil taxa preserved with B. paleocrypta. However, climates in the region during the Eocene are unlikely to have experienced seasons as hot and dry as present-day summers.• The presence of B. paleocrypta within the center of diversity of subgenus Banksia in edaphically ancient southwestern Australia is consistent with the continuous presence of this lineage in the region for ≥40 Ma, a testament to the success of increasingly xeromorphic traits in Banksia over an interval in which numerous other lineages became extinct. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM SEEDLINGS IN SUBSTRATA WITH SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM EM SUBSTRATOS COM CINZA DE BAGAÇO DE CANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Luiza Salgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of five growing media, in different proportions of subsoil, limestone, and sugar cane bagasse ash, in the height, stem diameter, and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and roots of araticum seedlings (Annona crassiflora Mart. was analyzed. The five growing media were

  12. Evaluación morfológica y molecular de accesiones de anonáceas (anón, chirimoya y atemoya) en condiciones in situ, de las regiones Andina y Caribe Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Garzón, Sandra Liliana

    2014-01-01

    A través de la prospección de los recursos fitogenéticos de especies de la familia Annonaceae en Colombia (2009 y 2011), se conformó una población in situ compuesta por 167 accesiones, de cinco especies y un híbrido interespecífico (Annona cherimola, A. glabra, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, Rollinia sp. y A. squamosa x A. cherimola), distribuidas en 13 departamentos y 48 municipios de las regiones Andina y Caribe. Estableciendo y enriqueciendo tres colecciones de trabajo, conform...

  13. Efek antigenotoksik ekstrak etanolik daun sirsak (Annona muricata Linn terhadap frekuensi mikronukleus mukosa bukal tikus Sprague Dawley

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    Tyas Prihatiningsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soursop leaves (Annona uricata linn ethanolic extract on micronucleus frequency  of buccal mucosa epithelium of Sprague dawley rats. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is one of the largest  groups of carcinogen in environment. 7,12-Dimetillbez (α antransena is a compound of PAH class that has genotoxic carcinogen potency. One of the most frequently applied genotoxicity tests is micronucleus test. Soursop is a plant that can grow well in Indonesia. Its leaves contain avonoid and acetogenin assumed to have potential chemopreventive and anticancer activities. The aim of this study was to assess the antigenotoxic effect soursop leaves ethanolic extraction the micronucleus frequency of DMBA-induced buccal mucosa of rat. This research was conducted on 24 male Sprague Dawley rats aged 5 weeks and divided into six groups. Carcinogenesis on the lingual dorsum of group I-III were induced by DMBA topically 3 times a week for 16 weeks, group II and III were not only induced by carcinogenesis, but also were given soursop leaves ethanolic extract of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 18 weeks, group IV was given soursop leaves ethanolic extract 200 mg/kg body weight, group V was given DMSO 1% and group VI was given no treatment. After 18th week, buccal mucosa swab for micronucleus test was conducted and stained with Feulgen-Rossenbeck method. The number of micronucleus is calculated under a light microscope, data were analized using using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD. The result showed that the average of buccal micronucleus frequency of group II (13 ± 0.82 and group III (12 ± 0.96 were decrease signicantly (p<0,05 than group I (24 ± 1.71. From the experiment,   it is concluded that the soursop leaves ethanolic extract has antigenotoxic effect shown by decreasing of the buccal micronucleus frequency of rat. ABSTRAK Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon atau PAH merupakan salah satu kelompok karsinogen terbesar di lingkungan. 7

  14. From Gene Trees to a Dated Allopolyploid Network: Insights from the Angiosperm Genus Viola (Violaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Thomas; Heier, Lise; Brysting, Anne K.; Oxelman, Bengt; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploidization accounts for a significant fraction of speciation events in many eukaryotic lineages. However, existing phylogenetic and dating methods require tree-like topologies and are unable to handle the network-like phylogenetic relationships of lineages containing allopolyploids. No explicit framework has so far been established for evaluating competing network topologies, and few attempts have been made to date phylogenetic networks. We used a four-step approach to generate a dated polyploid species network for the cosmopolitan angiosperm genus Viola L. (Violaceae Batch.). The genus contains ca 600 species and both recent (neo-) and more ancient (meso-) polyploid lineages distributed over 16 sections. First, we obtained DNA sequences of three low-copy nuclear genes and one chloroplast region, from 42 species representing all 16 sections. Second, we obtained fossil-calibrated chronograms for each nuclear gene marker. Third, we determined the most parsimonious multilabeled genome tree and its corresponding network, resolved at the section (not the species) level. Reconstructing the “correct” network for a set of polyploids depends on recovering all homoeologs, i.e., all subgenomes, in these polyploids. Assuming the presence of Viola subgenome lineages that were not detected by the nuclear gene phylogenies (“ghost subgenome lineages”) significantly reduced the number of inferred polyploidization events. We identified the most parsimonious network topology from a set of five competing scenarios differing in the interpretation of homoeolog extinctions and lineage sorting, based on (i) fewest possible ghost subgenome lineages, (ii) fewest possible polyploidization events, and (iii) least possible deviation from expected ploidy as inferred from available chromosome counts of the involved polyploid taxa. Finally, we estimated the homoploid and polyploid speciation times of the most parsimonious network. Homoploid speciation times were estimated by

  15. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Brbeta, Adria; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Penuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of

  16. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance...... present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of tree species can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs......, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of tree species. Biomass production...

  17. Measuring chlorophyll a and 14C-labeled photosynthate in aquatic angiosperms by the use of a tissue solubilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, S.; Stewart, A.J.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    A compound that quantitatively correlated with chlorophyll a could be measured fluorometrically in the extracts of leaves of three aquatic angiosperms (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx., Potamogeton crispus L., Elodea canadensis Michx.) treated with the tissue solubilizer BTS-450. Fluorescent characteristics of the solubilized plant tissues were stable for several weeks in the dark at temperatures up to 60 0 C but rapidly degraded in sunlight or when acidified. 14 C-Labeled photosynthate, which had been fixed by leaf discs during 1- to 10-hour exposure to H 14 CO 3 , was also readily extracted by the tissue solubilizer. Solubilizer extraction can, therefore, be use to determine both chlorophyll a content and 14 C incorporation rates in the same leaf sample. The method is practical, because no grinding is required, the fluorescent characteristics of the extracts are stable, and analyses can be performed with very little plant material

  18. A Combination of Histological, Physiological, and Proteomic Approaches Shed Light on Seed Desiccation Tolerance of the Basal Angiosperm Amborella trichopoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegente, Matthieu; Marmey, Philippe; Job, Claudette; Galland, Marc; Cueff, Gwendal; Godin, Béatrice; Rajjou, Loïc; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Fogliani, Bruno; Sarramegna-Burtet, Valérie; Job, Dominique

    2017-07-28

    Desiccation tolerance allows plant seeds to remain viable in a dry state for years and even centuries. To reveal potential evolutionary processes of this trait, we have conducted a shotgun proteomic analysis of isolated embryo and endosperm from mature seeds of Amborella trichopoda , an understory shrub endemic to New Caledonia that is considered to be the basal extant angiosperm. The present analysis led to the characterization of 415 and 69 proteins from the isolated embryo and endosperm tissues, respectively. The role of these proteins is discussed in terms of protein evolution and physiological properties of the rudimentary, underdeveloped, Amborella embryos, notably considering that the acquisition of desiccation tolerance corresponds to the final developmental stage of mature seeds possessing large embryos.

  19. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  20. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Castaño, Enrique; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families. PMID:26569117

  1. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pereira-Santana

    Full Text Available NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families.

  2. A classification scheme for alternative oxidases reveals the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the enzyme in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José Hélio; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2014-11-01

    A classification scheme based on protein phylogenies and sequence harmony method was used to clarify the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the alternative oxidase (AOX) in angiosperms. A large data set analyses showed that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies were distributed into 4 phylogenetic clades: AOX1a-c/1e, AOX1d, AOX2a-c and AOX2d. High diversity in AOX family compositions was found. While the AOX2 subfamily was not detected in monocots, the AOX1 subfamily has expanded (AOX1a-e) in the large majority of these plants. In addition, Poales AOX1b and 1d were orthologous to eudicots AOX1d and then renamed as AOX1d1 and 1d2. AOX1 or AOX2 losses were detected in some eudicot plants. Several AOX2 duplications (AOX2a-c) were identified in eudicot species, mainly in the asterids. The AOX2b originally identified in eudicots in the Fabales order (soybean, cowpea) was divergent from AOX2a-c showing some specific amino acids with AOX1d and then it was renamed as AOX2d. AOX1d and AOX2d seem to be stress-responsive, facultative and mutually exclusive among species suggesting a complementary role with an AOX1(a) in stress conditions. Based on the data collected, we present a model for the evolutionary history of AOX in angiosperms and highlight specific areas where further research would be most beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous flow cytometric quantification of plant nuclear DNA contents over the full range of described angiosperm 2C values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry provides a rapid, accurate, and simple means to determine nuclear DNA contents (C-value) within plant homogenates. This parameter is extremely useful in a number of applications in basic and applied plant biology; for example, it provides an important starting point for projects involving whole genome sequencing, it facilitates characterization of plant species within natural and agricultural settings, it allows facile identification of engineered plants that are euploid or that represent desired ploidy classes, it points toward studies concerning the role of C-value in plant growth and development and in response to the environment and in terms of evolutionary fitness, and, in uncovering new and unexpected phenomena (for example endoreduplication), it uncovers new avenues of scientific enquiry. Despite the ease of the method, C-values have been determined for only around 2% of the described angiosperm (flowering plant) species. Within this small subset, one of the most remarkable observations is the range of 2C values, which spans at least two orders of magnitude. In determining C-values for new species, technical issues are encountered which relate both to requirement for a method that can provide accurate measurements across this extended dynamic range, and that can accommodate the large amounts of debris which accompanies flow measurements of plant homogenates. In this study, the use of the Accuri C6 flow cytometer for the analysis of plant C-values is described. This work indicates that the unusually large dynamic range of the C6, a design feature, coupled to the linearity of fluorescence emission conferred by staining of nuclei using propidium iodide, allows simultaneous analysis of species whose C-values span that of almost the entire described angiosperms. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R J; Barrett, P M; Kenrick, P; Penn, M G

    2009-03-01

    Palaeobiologists frequently attempt to identify examples of co-evolutionary interactions over extended geological timescales. These hypotheses are often intuitively appealing, as co-evolution is so prevalent in extant ecosystems, and are easy to formulate; however, they are much more difficult to test than their modern analogues. Among the more intriguing deep time co-evolutionary scenarios are those that relate changes in Cretaceous dinosaur faunas to the primary radiation of flowering plants. Demonstration of temporal congruence between the diversifications of co-evolving groups is necessary to establish whether co-evolution could have occurred in such cases, but is insufficient to prove whether it actually did take place. Diversity patterns do, however, provide a means for falsifying such hypotheses. We have compiled a new database of Cretaceous dinosaur and plant distributions from information in the primary literature. This is used as the basis for plotting taxonomic diversity and occurrence curves for herbivorous dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Stegosauria, Ankylosauria, Ornithopoda, Ceratopsia, Pachycephalosauria and herbivorous theropods) and major groups of plants (angiosperms, Bennettitales, cycads, cycadophytes, conifers, Filicales and Ginkgoales) that co-occur in dinosaur-bearing formations. Pairwise statistical comparisons were made between various floral and faunal groups to test for any significant similarities in the shapes of their diversity curves through time. We show that, with one possible exception, diversity patterns for major groups of herbivorous dinosaurs are not positively correlated with angiosperm diversity. In other words, at the level of major clades, there is no support for any diffuse co-evolutionary relationship between herbivorous dinosaurs and flowering plants. The diversification of Late Cretaceous pachycephalosaurs (excluding the problematic taxon Stenopelix) shows a positive correlation, but this might be spuriously related to

  5. Uso de ácido giberélico em sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L. visando à produção de mudas em diferentes embalagens Giberellic acid use on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds aiming seedling production in different packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELA FERREIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de sementes e casa de vegetação da UNIOESTE -- Câmpus de Marechal Cândido Rondon -- PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 na germinação de sementes e na emergência de plântulas de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L., em diferentes recipientes, visando à produção de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela embebição das sementes em sete concentrações de ácido giberélico (0; 50; 100; 250; 500; 750 e 1000 mg.L-1, por 5 horas, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. No campo, os tratamentos foram constituídos das sete concentrações de GA3 e dois tipos de embalagens (bandejas de isopor e sacolas de polietileno, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. As avaliações do laboratório constaram de porcentagem total de sementes germinadas, dormentes e mortas; porcentagem total de plântulas normais e anormais, e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e do campo, pela porcentagem total de plântulas emergidas; índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas (IVE; altura de plântulas e número de folhas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que o GA3 promoveu o incremento na germinação de sementes de Annona squamosa e que as sacolas de polietileno foram mais adequadas do que as bandejas no desenvolvimento das plântulas na fase inicial.The objetive of this experiment, was to evaluate the effect of giberellic acid (GA3 concentrations, on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds germination and seedlings emergence. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. The treatments were composed of seeds soaking in 7 GA3 concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1.000 mg.L-1 of GA3, for 5 hours, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds, and kept at

  6. Fitonematóides associados à gravioleira (Annona muricata no sul da Bahia Phytonematodes associated to soursop tree (Aannona muricata in the south of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Silveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematóides têm sido reportados, em alguns Estados do Brasil, causando danos à gravioleira (Annona muricata L.. No sul da Bahia, o cultivo da graviola é bastante recente; portanto, há carência de informações sobre os problemas fitossanitários. O presente estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento dos fitonematóides associados a gravioleiras dos municípios de Una e Ilhéus, sul da Bahia (BA. Subamostras de solo e raízes de 10 diferentes plantas foram coletadas, ao acaso, e misturadas para formar uma amostra composta representativa de cada pomar. As análises nematológicas foram realizadas nos Laboratórios de Fitopatologia e Nematologia da Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC, Ilhéus-BA, e Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV, Viçosa-MG. Os nematóides encontrados associados à gravioleira foram: Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Rotylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp. e Tylenchus sp. Futuramente, serão conduzidos estudos para avaliar a patogenicidade desses nematóides à gravioleira.Nematodes have been reported in some States of Brazil causing damage to soursop (Annona muricata L.. In the South of Bahia, the soursop growing is very recent; therefore there is a lack of information regarding its phytosanitary problems. The present study aimed the survey of plant nematodes associated with soursop in the municipal district of Una and Ilhéus, South of Bahia (BA. Soil and root subsamples from 10 distinct soursop plants were randomly collected and mixed to form a representative composite sample of each orchard. The nematodes analyses were carried out in the Laboratories of Plant Pathology and Nematology of the University of Ilhéus, BA (UESC and Viçosa, MG (UFV. The nematodes found associated with soursop were: Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Mesocriconema spp., Rotylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp. and Tylenchus sp. Future studies will be conducted to evaluate the

  7. Influência de substratos na formação de porta-enxerto de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Influence of substrates on soursop rootstock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de um substrato para cada tipo de planta é um fato importante que determina condições adequadas para a germinação e bom desenvolvimento das mudas. Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos na formação de porta-enxerto de gravioleira (Annona muricata L., foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. As mudas foram formadas em sacolas de polietileno, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos correspondem aos substratos: Plantmax®; Substrato-A (esterco de curral, solo, areia e vermiculita na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v; Substrato-B (Plantmax®; solo, areia e vermiculita - 1:1:1:1 v/v e Substrato-C (Plantmax®, esterco de curral, solo e areia - 1:1:1:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que, nas condições em que foi desenvolvido este trabalho, o substrato A contendo esterco de curral, solo, areia e vermiculita na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v e o C contendo Plantmax®, esterco de curral, solo e areia - 1:1:1:1 v/v são adequados para a formação de mudas de gravioleira.The use of adequate substratum is an important factor to proportion appropriate conditions for germination and good development of seedlings. With the objective of evaluating different substrata for soursop rootstock (Annona muricata L. production, an experiment was done in the Department of Phytotecny of the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The substrate were conditioned in polyethylene bags, in which de seeds were sown. A randomized block experimental design entirely with four treatments, five repetitions and five plants for portion were applied. The evaluated substrate were Plantmax; Substratum-A (bovine manure, soil, sand and vermiculite in the proportion of 2:1:1:1 v/v; Substratum-B (Plantmax, soil, sand and vermiculite - 1:1:1:1 v/v and Substratum-C (Plantmax

  8. Antibacterial effect (in vitro of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Efeito antibacteriano (in vitro de Moringa oleifera (moringa e Annona muricata (graviola frente a bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes Viera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera and pods of soursop (Annona muricata in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 µL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.Para avaliação do efeito bactericida frente à Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolada de pescados e ambiente aquático e Salmonella Enteretidis, foram testados extratos aquosos e etanólicos de sementes de moringa (Moringa oleifera e casca de graviola (Annona muricata na concentração de 1:5 e 1:10, nos volumes de 50, 100, 150 e 200 µL. Os resultados mostraram efeito antibacteriano (halo de inibição > 13mm dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos de moringa frente a S. aureus, V. cholerae e E. coli isoladas de camarão cinza Litopenaeus vannmaei. A cepa de E. coli isolada do pescado Oreochromis niloticus apresentou sensibilidade frente ao extrato etanólico de moringa. Os extratos aquosos de graviola apresentaram efeito bactericida frente a S. aureus e V. cholerae, entretanto, os extratos etanólicos dessa planta não mostraram atividade antibacteriana.

  9. CRECIMIENTO, RELACIONES HÍDRICAS E INTERCAMBIO GASEOSO DE PLANTAS JÓVENES DE ILAMA (Annona diversifolia Saff. EN CONDICIONES DE ESTRÉS HÍDRICO

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    M. A. Otero-Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron algunas características morfológicas y fisiológicas de Annona diversifolia Saff. con relación a condiciones de disponibilidad de agua del suelo. El nivel de humedad del suelo afectó el área foliar y la distribución de materia seca. El potencial hídrico de la hoja disminuyó a medida que se redujo el potencial hídrico del suelo, registrándose valores de -1.26, -1.51, 1.73, 1.76 y 2.36 MPa, en el testigo, sequía 1, sequía 2, sequía 3 y tratamiento sin riego, respectivamente. La tasa de intercambio gaseoso también fue reducida significativamente en los tres niveles de humedad del suelo. La concentración de prolina registró una correlación negativa con potencial osmótico, sin embargo, el análisis de regresión no presentó ninguna tendencia definida. Después de 10 días del riego de recuperación, se registró el restablecimiento casi completo de la tasa de intercambio gaseoso en los tratamientos de estrés moderado.

  10. HS-SPME optimization and extraction of volatile compounds from soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp with emphasis on their characteristic impact compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leticia de SANTANA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma and taste are decisive factors in the selection of any food. The aim of this study was to extract the volatile compounds present in soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp by Solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/ PDMS, CAR/PDMS and PDMS/DVB. An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were adsorption temperature, ionic strength and pulp concentration. The separation of volatiles was performed in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar while volatile compounds were identified by analysis in high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the capture of about 40 compounds. The CAR/PDMS fiber was more efficient for the capture of esters and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber for terpenes. The optimum conditions for capture of higher number of volatiles for polar column were 45 °C for extraction, 15% of ionic strength and 50% of pulp concentration which resulted in separation of 87 compounds. Among the principal character impact compounds from soursop are (E-2-hexenoate, methyl hexenoate and linalool.

  11. Green synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata Linn and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezealisiji, K. M.; Noundou, X. S.; Ukwueze, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    In recent time, various phytosynthetic methods have been employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles; these unique metal nanoparticles are used in several applications which include pharmaceuticals and material engineering. The current research reports a rapid and simple synthetic partway for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata and the evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms. The root bark extract was treated with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Silver ions were reduced to silver atoms which on aggregation gave Silver nanoparticles; the biosynthesized AgNPs were characteristically spherical, discreet and stabilized by phytochemical entities and were characterized using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photon correlation microscopy. The aqueous plant extract-AgNPs suspension was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM result for the average particle size is 22 ± 2 nm. The polydispersity index and zeta-potential were found to be 0.44 ± 0.02 and - 27.90 ± 0.01 mV, respectively (Zeta-Sizer). The antimicrobial evaluation result showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles at different concentration were very active against the Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis, S. aureous) and Gram-negative bacteria ( K. Pneumonia, E. Coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), P. aeruginosa being most susceptible to the anti microbial effect of the silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity were obtained through biosynthesis.

  12. Antioxidant (A-tocopherol acetate) effect on oxidation stability and NOx emission reduction in methyl ester of Annona oil operated diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-05-01

    There is a major drawback while using biodiesel as a alternate fuel for compression ignition diesel engine due to lower heating value, higher viscosity, higher density and higher oxides of nitrogen emission. To minimize these drawbacks, fuel additives can contribute towards engine performance and exhaust emission reduction either directly or indirectly. In this current work, the test was conducted to investigate the effect of antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) on oxidation stability and NOx emission in a of Annona methyl ester oil (MEAO) fueled diesel engine. The A-tocopherol acetate is mixed in different concentrations such as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% with 100% by vol MEAO. It is concluded that the antioxidant additive very effective in increasing the oxidation stability and in controlling the NOx emission. Further, the addition of antioxidant additive is slight increase the HC, CO and smoke emissions. Hence, A-tocopherol acetate is very effective in controlling the NOx emission with MEAO operated diesel engine without any major modification.

  13. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  14. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

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    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  15. Biologia floral e sistema de reprodução de Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae na região de Petrolina-PE

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    Kiill Lúcia Helena Piedade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Annona squamosa L. foram estudados em Petrolina-PE, nordeste do Brasil, no período de junho de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000, entre 6:00 e 18:00h. As flores de A. squamosa são hermafroditas, axilares, com cálice e corola carnosos, formando uma câmara floral, que funciona como abrigo, fonte alimentar e/ou local de acasalamento para os visitantes florais. As flores apresentam características da síndrome de cantarofilia, tais como pétalas carnosas, de coloração clara e emissão de odores fortes e desagradáveis. A antese é crepuscular, iniciando por volta das 17 horas e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente dois dias. As flores se apresentam em fase feminina nas primeiras 20 horas e em fase masculina nas 20 horas seguintes, caracterizando a dicogamia. Carpophilus hemipterus, Carpophilus sp e Haptoncus ochraceus (Nitidulidae são os principais visitantes, sendo considerados como polinizadores desta anonácea. A espécie é autocompatível, contudo, os testes de germinação indicam que as sementes obtidas por polinização cruzada apresentam maior viabilidade do que as resultantes de geitonogamia.

  16. Efecto hipoglicemiante coadyuvante del extracto etanólico de hojas de Annona muricata L (guanábana, en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 bajo tratamiento de glibenclamida

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    Jorge Arroyo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia y seguridad de cápsulas de extracto etanólico de hojas de Annona muricata L (guanábana más glibenclamida para un mejor control de los niveles glicemia comparado con la administración de glibenclamida sola, en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Diseño: Estudio clínico, aleatorio, grupo paralelo, doble ciego. Lugar: Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital I EsSalud, ciudad de Tingo María, Departamento de Huánuco. Pacientes: Pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, tratados con glibenclamida. Intervenciones: Entre mayo y setiembre de 2007, 60 pacientes fueron asignados a 6 grupos de manera aleatoria; 3 grupos recibieron cápsulas conteniendo 180 mg de extracto etanólico de hojas de Annona muricata L [CEAM] más 5 mg de glibenclamida y los otros 3 grupos continuaron solo con glibenclamida. Principales medidas de resultados: Evaluación de los niveles de glicemia. Resultados: El rango de edad de los pacientes estuvo entre 38 y 54 años de edad. Se encontró disminución del nivel de glicemia, siendo mayor el efecto en aquellos que recibieron guanábana más glibenclamida. Se presentó efectos adversos en 5 pacientes; dos de ellos refirieron dolor urente en epigastrio asociado en uno a náuseas, y en otros 3 solo náuseas. No se observó alteración de los exámenes de laboratorio. Conclusiones: El uso de las cápsulas conteniendo extracto etanólico de Annona muricata L más glibenclamida durante 30 días produjo una mayor disminución de los niveles de glicemia en diabéticos tipo 2.

  17. Conservation of the abscission signaling peptide IDA during Angiosperm evolution: withstanding genome duplications and gain and loss of the receptors HAE/HSL2

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    Ida M. Stø

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA, which signals through the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2, controls different cell separation events in Arabidopsis thaliana. We hypothesize the involvement of this signaling module in abscission processes in other plant species even though they may shed other organs than A. thaliana. As the first step towards testing this hypothesis from an evolutionarily perspective we have identified genes encoding putative orthologues of IDA and its receptors by BLAST searches of publically available protein, nucleotide and genome databases for angiosperms. Genes encoding IDA or IDA-LIKE (IDL peptides and HSL proteins were found in all investigated species, which were selected as to represent each angiosperm order with available genomic sequences. The 12 amino acids representing the bioactive peptide in A. thaliana have virtually been unchanged throughout the evolution of the angiosperms; however, the number of IDL and HSL genes varies between different orders and species. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that IDA, HSL2 and the related HSL1 gene, were present in the species that gave rise to the angiosperms. HAE has arisen from HSL1 after a genome duplication that took place after the monocot - eudicots split. HSL1 has also independently been duplicated in the monocots, while HSL2 has been lost in gingers (Zingiberales and grasses (Poales. IDA has been duplicated in eudicots to give rise to functionally divergent IDL peptides. We postulate that the high number of IDL homologs present in the core eudicots is a result of multiple whole genome duplications. We substantiate the involvement of IDA and HAE/HSL2 homologs in abscission by providing gene expression data of different organ separation events from various species.

  18. 14C fixation by leaves and leaf cell protoplasts of the submerged aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens: Carbon dioxide or bicarbonate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens L. The leaves utilize bicarbonate as a carbon source for photosynthesis, and show polarity; that is acidification of the periplasmic space of the lower, and alkalinization of the space near the upper leaf side. At present there are two models under consideration for this photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization process: conversion of bicarbonate into free carbon dioxide as a result of acidification and, second, a bicarbonate-proton symport across the plasma membrane. Carbon fixation of protoplasts was studied at different pH values and compared with that in leaf strips. Using the isotopic disequilibrium technique, it was established that carbon dioxide and not bicarbonate was the form in which DIC actually crossed the plasma membrane. It is concluded that there is probably no true bicarbonate transport system at the plasma membrane of these cells and that bicarbonate utilization in this species apparently rests on the conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide. Experiments with acetazolamide, an inhibitor of periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, and direct measurements of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact leaves indicate that in this species the role of this enzyme for periplasmic conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide is insignificant

  19. Impact of gene molecular evolution on phylogenetic reconstruction: a case study in the rosids (Superorder Rosanae, Angiosperms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilu, Khidir W; Black, Chelsea M; Oza, Dipan

    2014-01-01

    Rate of substitution of genomic regions is among the most debated intrinsic features that impact phylogenetic informativeness. However, this variable is also coupled with rates of nonsynonymous substitutions that underscore the nature and degree of selection on the selected genes. To empirically address these variables, we constructed four completely overlapping data sets of plastid matK, atpB, rbcL, and mitochondrial matR genes and used the rosid lineage (angiosperms) as a working platform. The genes differ in combinations of overall rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. Tree robustness, homoplasy, accuracy in contrast to a reference tree, and phylogenetic informativeness are evaluated. The rapidly evolving/unconstrained matK faired best, whereas remaining genes varied in degrees of contribution to rosid phylogenetics across the lineage's 108 million years evolutionary history. Phylogenetic accuracy was low with the slowly evolving/unconstrained matR despite least amount of homoplasy. Third codon positions contributed the highest amount of parsimony informative sites, resolution and informativeness, but magnitude varied with gene mode of evolution. These findings are in clear contrast with the views that rapidly evolving regions and the 3rd codon position have inevitable negative impact on phylogenetic reconstruction at deep historic level due to accumulation of multiple hits and subsequent elevation in homoplasy and saturation. Relaxed evolutionary constraint in rapidly evolving genes distributes substitutions across codon positions, an evolutionary mode expected to reduce the frequency of multiple hits. These findings should be tested at deeper evolutionary histories.

  20. Moisture availability constraints on the leaf area to sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian evergreen angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Henrique; Prentice, Colin; Evans, Bradley; Forrester, David; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. Pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease towards drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. We found considerable scatter in LA:SA among species. However quantile regression showed strong (0.2

  1. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range—A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320

  2. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  3. Ultrastructural Changes in Cherimoya Fruit Injured by Chilling

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Margarita; Mar Sola, Maria del; Pascual, Luis; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Vargas, Alberto M.

    1992-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is an important fruit crop that is grown in the South of Spain. Ultrastructural modifications of cherimoya fruit were studied after low-temperature storage. When cherimoya was stored at 4 oc for 6 days, the starch grains did not suffer degradation and the cell walls remained intact. The membrane systems were severely damaged , result ing in a loss of cell compartmentalization. Cherimoya rewarmed to 22 0 C after 9 days of low temperature storage is not able t...

  4. Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant activity and in vitro anticancer potential of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (Graviola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Abou-Elella, Faten; Wamunyokoli, Fred; AEl-Shemy, Hany

    2014-09-01

    To determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (A. muricata) from the Eastern Uganda. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard qualitative methods and a Chi-square goodness of fit test was used to assign the relative abundance of the different phytochemicals. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power methods whereas the in vitro anticancer activity was determined using three different cell lines. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that they were rich in secondary class metabolite compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins and lactones, anthraquinones, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols and phytosterols. Total phenolics in the water extract were (683.69±0.09) μg/mL gallic acid equivalents (GAE) while it was (372.92±0.15) μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. The reducing power was 216.41 μg/mL in the water extract and 470.51 μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. In vitro antioxidant activity IC50 was 2.0456 mg/mL and 0.9077 mg/mL for ethanolic and water leaves extracts of A. muricata respectively. The ethanolic leaves extract was found to be selectively cytotoxic in vitro to tumor cell lines (EACC, MDA and SKBR3) with IC50 values of 335.85 μg/mL, 248.77 μg/mL, 202.33 μg/mL respectively, while it had no cytotoxic effect on normal spleen cells. The data also showed that water leaves extract of A. muricata had no anticancer effect at all tested concentrations. The results showed that A. muricata was a promising new antioxidant and anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of seed kernel aqueous extract from Annona squamosa against three mosquito vectors and its impact on non-target aquatic organisms

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    Ravichandran Ramanibai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity of Annona squamosa (A. squamosa aqueous (physiological saline seed soluble extract and its control of mosquito population. Methods: Ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of A. squamosa crude soluble seed kernel extract was determined according to World Health Organization. The mortality of each mosquito stage was recorded after 24 h exposured to plant material. Toxicity assay was used to assess the non-target organisms with different concentrations according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Results: The aqueous solubilized extracts of A. squamosa elicit the toxicity against all stages of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus, and the LC50 values against stages of egg, 1st-4th larvae were (1.45 and 1.26–2.5 mg/mL, (1.12 and 1.19–2.81 mg/ mL and (1.80 and 2.12–3.41 mg/mL respectively. The pupicidal activity also brought forth amended activity against all three mosquitoes species, and the LC50 values were consider to be 3.19, 2.42 and 4.47 mg/mL. Ultimately there was no mortality observed from non-target organism of Chironomus costatus. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the study, it suggests that the use of A. squamosa plant extract can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes without affecting the non-target aquatic insect. Further investigation to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms of action is recommended.

  6. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  7. AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. DAN DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica L.Urb TERHADAP KELARUTAN KALSIUM BATU GINJAL SECARA IN VITRO

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    Ni Wayan Swintari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soursop (Annona muricata L. and gotu kola (Centella asiatica L.Urb is a plant that can be used as a laxative medicine kidney stones. This is because of the content of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, especially the leaf section. The use of a combination of soursop leaf extract and gotu kola can improve their effectiveness in order to remove calcium kidney stones. Therefore, this study aims to determine the activity and to determine dose combination soursop leaf ethanol extract (SS and gotu kola leaf (GK which is effective for dissolving potassium kidney stones. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96% then subsequently tested phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography profiles on each extract. Results chromatogram showed the extract containing flavonoids. Testing the activity of the combination of soursop and gotu kola extract performed using seven treatments, combination 1 (SS 1% + GK 7.5% , a combination of 2 (SS  0.5% + GK 3.75%, the combination of 3 (SS 0, 25% + GK 1.875%, single soursop leaf extract (1%, single gotu kola extract (7.5%, negative control (aquadest and positive control (Batugin elixir. Kidney stones are then put as much as 100 mg in each treatment and incubated for 6 hours (37 ℃. Results filtrate then didestruksi and dissolved calcium levels measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed the combination soursop leaf ethanol extract and gotu kola leaf extract with a combination of 2 (SS 0.5% + GK 3.75% is an effective combination of the ability to dissolve calcium kidney stones in vitro.

  8. Anxiolytic-like actions of the hexane extract from leaves of Annona cherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: possible involvement of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubalcava, C; Piña-Medina, B; Estrada-Reyes, R; Heinze, G; Martínez-Vázquez, M

    2006-01-11

    A hexane extract of leaves of Annona cherimolia produced anxiolytic-like actions when administered to mice and tested in two animal models of anxiety: the mouse avoidance exploratory behavior and the burying behavior tests. In order to discard unspecific drug-actions on general activity, all treatments studied in the anxiety paradigms were also analyzed in the open field test. Results showed that A. cherimolia induced anxiolytic-like actions at the doses of 6.25, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg. Picrotoxin (0.25 mg/kg), a GABA-gated chloride ion channel blocker, antagonized the anxiolytic-like actions of A. cherimolia, while a sub-effective dose of muscimol (0.5 mg/kg), a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, facilitated the effects of a sub-optimal dose of A. cherimolia (3.12 mg/kg). Thus, the involvement of the GABA(A) receptor complex in the anxiolytic-like actions of A. cherimolia hexane extract is suggested. In addition the extract was also able to enhance the duration of sodium pentobarbital induced sleeping time. Taken together, results indicate that the hexane extract of A. cherimolia has depressant activity on the Central Nervous System and could interact with the GABA(A) receptor complex. On the other hand, the chromatographic separation of this extract led to the isolation of palmitone, and beta-sitosterol as major constituents. In addition a GC-MS study of some fractions revealed the presence of several compounds such beta-cariophyllene, beta-selinene, alpha-cubebene, and linalool that have been reported to show effects on behavior that could explain some of the extract effects.

  9. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

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    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  10. Repellent activity of the creams formulated from Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions and essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Lame Younoussa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the repellent efficacy of the creams formulated from methanol extract and n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions as well as essential oils of Annona senegalensis (A. senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii (B. dalzielii leaves against the malarial vector Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae in the laboratory. Methods: The efficacies of 25% w/w active ingredient creams formulated from the plant-based products were tested. Different concentrations of the creams, ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 mg/ cm²were applied on the exposed dorsal hand area (25 cm2 of volunteers. The treated hands were submitted to 50 caged blood-starved females of An. gambiae for 3 min after every 30 min until 180 min. Results: Total protection of up to 120 and 60 min without bites of An. gambiae were recorded with n-hexane creams applied at 12 mg/cm2 respectively for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielii. The essential oil creams of the two tested plants applied at 6 mg/cm2 protected volunteers up to 120 min without mosquito bites. The commercial Odomos cream (12% N,N-diethyl- 3-methylbenzamide tested as the positive control at 6 mg/cm2 protected volunteers from mosquito bites up to180 min. Conclusions: These results suggest that the cream formulated from the n-hexane fraction of A. senegalensis and essential oil creams of A. senegalensis and B. dalzielii leaves have the potential of a natural herbal source for the development of new, safe and eco-friendly repellent products to prevent An. gambiae bites.

  11. A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L. The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.

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    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L., quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de cinco repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. Foram analisados: massa do fruto, massa da casca, massa das sementes e o número de sementes por fruto, o teor de sólidos solúveis e o pH da polpa. De modo geral, a presença da cobertura morta proporcionou incremento de massa aos frutos, o que promove aumento de receita, uma vez que, quanto maior for o fruto, melhor será seu preço. Não ocorreu aumento do pH da polpa, e o tratamento com casca de café proporcionou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Quanto às demais características, não foram encontradas diferenças.The application of vegetal wastes to soil have a beneficial effects on soil nutrient, physical conditions, biological activities and on the culture performance, the main objective of this study was to evaluate three kinds of vegetable byproducts: sugar cane bagasse, coffee chaff, and Buffel straw, regarding to the effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of custard apple (Annona squamosa L..The experimental design used completely randomid plots with five repplications, and two plants per plot. The total fruit mass, the peel mass, the seed mass per fruit were evaluated. The pulp level of soluble solids was measured, as well as its pH. The presence of this mulching provided an increase in the fruit mass, thereby, increasing the commercial profit, as larger the fruit is, the greater the value per weight

  12. Divergence of the phytochrome gene family predates angiosperm evolution and suggests that Selaginella and Equisetum arose prior to Psilotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolukisaoglu, H U; Marx, S; Wiegmann, C; Hanelt, S; Schneider-Poetsch, H A

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-two partial phytochrome sequences from algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms (11 of them newly released ones from our laboratory) were analyzed by distance and character-state approaches (PHYLIP, TREECON, PAUP). In addition, 12 full-length sequences were analyzed. Despite low bootstrap values at individual internal nodes, the inferred trees (neighbor-joining, Fitch, maximum parsimony) generally showed similar branching orders consistent with other molecular data. Lower plants formed two distinct groups. One basal group consisted of Selaginella, Equisetum, and mosses; the other consisted of a monophyletic cluster of frond-bearing pteridophytes. Psilotum was a member of the latter group and hence perhaps was not, as sometimes suggested, a close relative of the first vascular plants. The results further suggest that phytochrome gene duplication giving rise to a- and b- and later to c-types may have taken place within seedfern genomes. Distance matrices dated the separation of mono- and dicotyledons back to about 260 million years before the present (Myr B.P.) and the separation of Metasequoia and Picea to a fossil record-compatible value of 230 Myr B.P. The Ephedra sequence clustered with the c- or a-type and Metasequoia and Picea sequences clustered with the b-type lineage. The "paleoherb" Nymphaea branched off from the c-type lineage prior to the divergence of mono- and dicotyledons on the a- and b-type branches. Sequences of Piper (another "paleoherb") created problems in that they branched off from different phytochrome lineages at nodes contradicting distance from the inferred trees' origin.

  13. Citogenética de angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco: IV Cytogenetics of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco: IV

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    Gianna Maria Griz Carvalheira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os números cromossômicos observados em 22 espécies pertencentes a 19 gêneros de angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco. Os dados principais foram resumidos em uma tabela incluindo referências de herbário, locais de coleta, números diplóides e determinações cromossômicas prévias. Para oito espécies não encontramos nenhuma referência anterior na literatura específica. Por outro lado, alguns autores têm relatado números cromossômicos diferentes para uma mesma espécie. Nossas observações sugerem que essas discordâncias, em geral, podem ser atribuídas à ocorrência, nessas espécies, de cromossomos satelitados com constrições secundárias elásticas. Características citogenéticas especiais, observadas em algumas espécies, são também apresentadas e discutidas.Chromosome numbers are reported for 22 species belonging to 19 genera of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco. A table with the herbarium voucher, collecting sites, diploid numbers and previous chromosomes counts for all the species is presented. Eight of the species have no previous counts. For some species, two or more different chromosome numbers have been presented in the literature. Our data suggest that most of such disagreements might be due to the presence of satellited chromosomes with elastic secondary constriction. Furthermore, special cytogenetics features of every species are hereby presented and discussed.

  14. Citogenética de Angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco: V Cytogenetics of Angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco: V

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    Andrea Pedrosa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 33 espécies, entre nativas e introduzidas, pertencentes a 20 famílias de angiospermas ocorrentes no Estado de Pernambuco. A caracterização cariotípica da maioria das espécies foi baseada no número e morfologia cromossômica, padrão de condensação de cromossomos profásicos e estrutura de núcleo interfásico. Cinco espécies tiveram seus números cromossômicos determinados pela primeira vez, sendo elas: Cereus jamacaru (2n=22, Clitoria fairchildiana (2n=22, Eugenia luschnathiana (2n=22, Licania tomentosa (2n=22 e Spondias tuberosa (n=16. No caso de Licania tomentosa esta é a primeira citação de número cromossômico para o gênero. Das outras 28 espécies, três (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; e Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 apresentaram números cromossômicos diferentes dos registrados previamente na literatura.Thirty three native and introduced species from 20 families of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco were analysed. The karyotype description of the majority of the species was based on chromosome number and morphology, condensation pattern of prophase chromosomes as well as interphase nuclear structure. In five species (Cereus jamacaru, 2n=22; Clitoria fairchildiana, 2n=22; Eugenia luschnathiana, 2n=22; Licania tomentosa, 2n=22; and Spondias tuberosa, n=16 the chromosome number is reported here for the first time. In the case of Licania tomentosa, this is also the first report for the genus. Among the other 28 species, three (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; and Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 showed chromosome numbers different from what has previously been reported.

  15. The plastid genome of Najas flexilis: adaptation to submersed environments is accompanied by the complete loss of the NDH complex in an aquatic angiosperm.

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    Elena L Peredo

    Full Text Available The re-colonization of aquatic habitats by angiosperms has presented a difficult challenge to plants whose long evolutionary history primarily reflects adaptations to terrestrial conditions. Many aquatics must complete vital stages of their life cycle on the water surface by means of floating or emergent leaves and flowers. Only a few species, mainly within the order Alismatales, are able to complete all aspects of their life cycle including pollination, entirely underwater. Water-pollinated Alismatales include seagrasses and water nymphs (Najas, the latter being the only freshwater genus in the family Hydrocharitaceae with subsurface water-pollination. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of Najas flexilis. The plastid genome of N. flexilis is a circular AT-rich DNA molecule of 156 kb, which displays a quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IR separating the large single copy (LSC from the small single copy (SSC regions. In N. flexilis, as in other Alismatales, the rps19 and trnH genes are localized in the LSC region instead of within the IR regions as in other monocots. However, the N. flexilis plastid genome presents some anomalous modifications. The size of the SSC region is only one third of that reported for closely related species. The number of genes in the plastid is considerably less. Both features are due to loss of the eleven ndh genes in the Najas flexilis plastid. In angiosperms, the absence of ndh genes has been related mainly to the loss of photosynthetic function in parasitic plants. The ndh genes encode the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, believed essential in terrestrial environments, where it increases photosynthetic efficiency in variable light intensities. The modified structure of the N. flexilis plastid genome suggests that adaptation to submersed environments, where light is scarce, has involved the loss of the NDH complex in at least some photosynthetic angiosperms.

  16. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial–interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody Steven; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic edemism, patterns of unique lineages in restricted ranges is also related to glacial...... to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: i) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages towards lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. ii) Long-term climate stability...

  17. Controle de Cerconota anonella (Sepp. (Lep.: Oecophoridae e de Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab. (Hym.: Eurytomidae em frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L.

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    Letice Souza da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pinha, Annona squamosa L., é uma frutífera tropical da família anonácea, cujo mercado tem-se ampliado a cada ano, sendo cultivada expressivamente na região Nordeste, onde pequenos produtores a têm como principal fonte de renda. Entretanto, problemas causados pelas duas pragas-chave, Cerconota anonella (Sepp.,1830 (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae e Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab.,1808 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, têm limitado a produção e, consequentemente, a comercialização dos frutos. No intuito de minimizar essas perdas, um experimento de campo foi realizado em Maceió, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, para avaliar diferentes formas de controle para estas pragas. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada repetição correspondeu a quatro frutos, totalizando dezesseis frutos por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram: frutos sem proteção (testemunha; saco de papel branco impermeável aberto; saco plástico microperfurado; saco de TNT (tecido não tecido branco aberto; saco de TNT vermelho aberto; gaiola de arame revestida com tecido voile; inseticida Profenofós (12g/L-1 + Cipermetrina (1,2 g/L-1 e caulim (10 g/ 100 mL-1. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis nos frutos: números de orifícios causados pelas pragas, peso, comprimento, diâmetro, percentagem de frutos colhidos e o custo do tratamento por unidade. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o saco de TNT vermelho aberto, obtendo-se 87,50% de frutos comercializáveis. O saco plástico microperfurado teve o menor custo, porém sua fragilidade impede a reutilização nas safras seguintes. Assim, indica-se o saco de TNT vermelho aberto como o mais econômico e eficiente.

  18. Biología floral y polinización artificial del guanábano Annona muricata L. en condiciones del Valle del Cauca, Colombia

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    Escobar T. William

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la flor es hermafrodita presenta protoginia y existe un período de 36 a 48 horas durante el cual pueden encontrarse maduros ambos órganos sexuales, la disposición apretada del cuerpo de estambres, aún estando dehiscentes, no permite disponibilidad de polen. Los insectos asociados con las flores no tienen influencia en el proceso de polinización. Se presume que los frutos se forman a partir de autopolinización (autogamia que ocurre al retener los estambres desprendidos algunos pétalos interiores. En razón a que esta forma es esporádica ya que el tiempo desde la polinización de los estigmas hasta su desprendimiento en muchos casos puede no ser suficiente para que ocurra la fecundación, se presenta bajo prendimiento o cuajamiento de las flores. La polinización manual de las flores aumenta la producción. El tamaño y la velocidad del crecimiento de los frutos están en relación directa con el número de pistilos fecundados.A field study was conducted on floral biology and artificial pollination in soursop (Annona muricata L.. Although flowers are apparently adapted to cross pollination despite being anatomically hermaphrodite, the bunched arrangement of stamens does not results in available fertil pollen. There is a period from 36 to 48 hours in which both sexual organs are simultaneusly, however guanabana flowers functions as physiologically protogineous. None insect genera has any influency on poIlination. It is assumed that generally fruits are formed by autogamy after stigmas get in contact with stamens retained by lower petals. Because this way of pollination is rather sporadic and sometimes stigmas shed after pollination but before fertilization, only a low number of fruit setting is observed as many flowers fall out due to the low number that get fertilized. Manual poIlination resulted in an effective way to increase production. The size and growth rate of these fruits are correlated with the number of pistiIs get

  19. Metabólitos secundários presentes na Annona muricata L e suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais em oncologia

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    Erlania Carmo Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição funcional tem ganhado espaço nos últimos anos por sua ação terapêutica, com destaque para o fruto graviola. Vários estudos bem conduzidos sugerem que o fruto possui quantidades consideráveis de minerais, fibras, compostos antioxidantes e substancias que atuam contra células cancerígenas, com destaque para a ação das acetogeninas. Contudo objetivou-se realizar a quantificação dos compostos fenólicos presentes em polpas da graviola in natura e congelada e realizar uma revisão de trabalhos que justifiquem o uso da graviola na diminuição da proliferação do câncer. Foram identificadas quantidades bastante significativas de compostos fenólicos nas amostras de graviola, porém sem diferenciação do tratamento congelado ou in natura. Logo sugere seu uso na prevenção do câncer e necessitam de mais estudos para a sua utilização no tratamento de pacientes oncológicos. ABSTRACT Secondary Metabolitics Present at Annona Muricata L and Its Nutritional and Functional Properties in Oncology Functional nutrition has gained ground in recent years for its therapeutic action, especially the soursop fruit. Several well-conducted studies suggest that the fruit has considerable amounts of minerals, fiber, antioxidants and substances that act against cancer cells, highlighting the action of acetogenins. However it aimed to perform the quantification of the phenolic compounds present in soursop pulp of fresh and frozen and conduct a review of studies that justify the use of soursop in reducing cancer proliferation. They were identified fairly significant amounts of phenolic compounds in the samples of soursop, however no differentiation of treatment or frozen raw. Logo suggests its use in preventing cancer and need further studies for its use in the treatment of cancer patients.

  20. Reconsidering the generation time hypothesis based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence comparisons in annual and perennial angiosperms

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    Fiz-Palacios Omar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in plant annual/perennial habit are hypothesized to cause a generation time effect on divergence rates. Previous studies that compared rates of divergence for internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA in angiosperms have reached contradictory conclusions about whether differences in generation times (or other life history features are associated with divergence rate heterogeneity. We compared annual/perennial ITS divergence rates using published sequence data, employing sampling criteria to control for possible artifacts that might obscure any actual rate variation caused by annual/perennial differences. Results Relative rate tests employing ITS sequences from 16 phylogenetically-independent annual/perennial species pairs rejected rate homogeneity in only a few comparisons, with annuals more frequently exhibiting faster substitution rates. Treating branch length differences categorically (annual faster or perennial faster regardless of magnitude with a sign test often indicated an excess of annuals with faster substitution rates. Annuals showed an approximately 1.6-fold rate acceleration in nucleotide substitution models for ITS. Relative rates of three nuclear loci and two chloroplast regions for the annual Arabidopsis thaliana compared with two closely related Arabidopsis perennials indicated that divergence was faster for the annual. In contrast, A. thaliana ITS divergence rates were sometimes faster and sometimes slower than the perennial. In simulations, divergence rate differences of at least 3.5-fold were required to reject rate constancy in > 80 % of replicates using a nucleotide substitution model observed for the combination of ITS1 and ITS2. Simulations also showed that categorical treatment of branch length differences detected rate heterogeneity > 80% of the time with a 1.5-fold or greater rate difference. Conclusion Although rate homogeneity was not rejected

  1. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

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    Kasia Ziemińska

    Full Text Available Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications.Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3. Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm, vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity.Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001. Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.35, P < 0.05 or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P < 0.05. However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P < 0.001. Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component.Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  2. Allelopathic effects of microcystin-LR on the germination, growth and metabolism of five charophyte species and a submerged angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Carmen; Segura, Matilde; Cortés, Francisco; Rodrigo, María A

    2013-11-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and adversely affect macrophytes at very high concentrations. However, the effects of MC on macrophytes at concentrations of environmental relevance are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to analyze the allelopathic effects of MC-LR at natural concentrations (1, 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L) on five charophyte species (Chara aspera, C. baltica, C. hispida, C. vulgaris and Nitella hyalina) and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum. Macrophyte specimens were obtained from a restored area located in Albufera de València Natural Park, a protected coastal Mediterranean wetland. Two different experiments were conducted involving (i) the addition of MC-LR to natural sediment to evaluate its effects on seed germination and (ii) the addition of MC-LR to water cultures of macrophytes to evaluate its effects on growth and metabolic functions. In water, the MC-LR concentration decreased by 84% in two weeks; the loss was not significant in sediment. The first seedlings (all C. hispida) emerged from the wetland sediment following a delay of a few days in the presence of MC-LR. The germination rates in 8 and 16 μg MC-LR/L treatments were 44% and 11% of that occurring in the absence of MC, but these differences disappeared over time. The final density was 6-7 germlings/dm(3). Final germling length was unaffected by MC-LR. Rotifers (Lecane spp.) emerging from the natural sediment during the experiment were favored by MC-LR; the opposite pattern was observed in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The growth rates of C. vulgaris, C. baltica and N. hyalina were unaffected by MC exposure, whereas those of C. hispida and C. aspera were reduced in the MC treatments relative to the control treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll-a and the in vivo net photosynthetic rate were lower in the presence of MC-LR, even at the lowest concentration, for all of the characeans tested. M. spicatum was sensitive to the

  3. Observations on the Early Establishment of Foliar Endophytic Fungi in Leaf Discs and Living Leaves of a Model Woody Angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa (Salicaceae

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    Yu-Ling Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few studies have visualized endophytic fungi in leaf tissues, and the process through which most endophytes colonize leaves has not been studied thoroughly. We inoculated leaf discs and the living leaves of a model woody angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa, which has endophytes that represent three distantly-related genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma. We used scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to evaluate the timeline and processes by which they colonize leaf tissue. Under laboratory conditions with high humidity, conidia germinated on leaf discs to yield hyphae that grew epiphytically and incidentally entered stomata, but did not grow in a directed fashion toward stomatal openings. No cuticular penetration was observed. The endophytes readily colonized the interiors of leaf discs that were detached from living leaves, and could be visualized within discs with light microscopy. Although they were difficult to visualize within the interior of living leaves following in vivo inoculations, standard methods for isolating foliar endophytes confirmed their presence.

  4. Caracterización fisicoquímica y comportamiento térmico del aceite de “almendra” de guanábana (Annona muricata, L

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    Durán-de-Bazúa, M. C.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata seed “almond” oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base. The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 °C and ends at -79.0 °C with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to +16.9 °C, with a maximum peak at -15 °C and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 °C. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N2 atmosphere starts at 380 °C and ends at 442 °C, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 °C. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 °C and concludes at 567 °C. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils.En esta investigación se estudiaron las propiedades físicoquímicas y el comportamiento térmico, mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido y termogravimetría, del aceite extraído de las “almendras” de las semillas de guanábana (Annona muricata, L. Los resultados mostraron que las almendras de las semillas de guanábana contienen 2.5% de cenizas, 17.9% de fibra cruda, 15.7% de proteínas, 26.0% de carbohidratos y 37.7% de aceite (base seca. El aceite de las almendras de guanábana mostró una composición con predominio de

  5. Conifers, angiosperm trees, and lianas: growth, whole-plant water and nitrogen use efficiency, and stable isotope composition ({delta}13C and {delta}18O) of seedlings grown in a tropical environment.

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    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Turner, Benjamin L

    2008-09-01

    Seedlings of several species of gymnosperm trees, angiosperm trees, and angiosperm lianas were grown under tropical field conditions in the Republic of Panama; physiological processes controlling plant C and water fluxes were assessed across this functionally diverse range of species. Relative growth rate, r, was primarily controlled by the ratio of leaf area to plant mass, of which specific leaf area was a key component. Instantaneous photosynthesis, when expressed on a leaf-mass basis, explained 69% of variation in r (P physiological models of tropical forest trees.

  6. DIVERSIDADE GENÉTICA EM POPULAÇÕES NATURAIS DE ARATICUNZEIRO (Annona crassiflora Mart. POR MEIO DA ANÁLISE DE SEQÜÊNCIAS DE cpDNA GENETIC DIVERSITY OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF Annona crassiflora (MART. BY cpDNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS

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    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    A forte degradação do bioma Cerrado, aliada ao extrativismo predatório a que muitas espécies vêm sendo submetidas, justifica a necessidade de pesquisas que subsidiem a sua conservação. O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart. È uma espécie de árvore frutífera nativa do bioma Cerrado, com elevado potencial de utilização econômica. Objetivando obter informações que indiquem o status genético desta espécie e orientem futuras estratégias de conservação, 82 indivÌduos provenientes de onze populações naturais foram analisados geneticamente. A análise do polimorfismo presente em sequências da região trnL do genoma cloroplastidial e posterior aplicação dos modelos associados à teoria da coalescência permitiram a detecção de elevados níveis de diversidade genética na espécie. Os resultados indicam que, embora as populações amostradas tenham demonstrado elevada similaridade genÈtica entre si, há uma incipiente, mas significativa diferenciação genética entre elas, que tende a aumentar progressivamente devido ao efeito do isolamento geográfico e à força da deriva. O coeficiente de diferenciação genética entre as populações foi de 7,3%. A análise espacial de divergência entre as populações não revelou correlação entre distâncias genéticas e geográficas, sugerindo ausência de fluxo gênico atual entre elas. Dentre as populações amostradas, identificaram-se desde aquelas em bom estado de conservação até populações com baixíssimos níveis de diversidade genética.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Araticum; diversidade genética; cpDNA.

    The severe degradation of Cerrado and the predatory extractivism that threatens many species calls for research to support future conservation programs. The ";araticunzeiro"; Annona crassiflora Mart. is a

  7. Estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro de Annona glabra L., I. desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e da parte aérea Stimulus of the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting of Annona glabra L., I. development of root system and shoot

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    José Raniere Ferreira de Santana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de induzir a estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro em brotações de Annona glabra L. Brotações oriundas de cultivo em tubos fechados com tampa e película de PVC (cultivo sem aeração, com tampa sem a película de PVC e tampão de algodão (cultivo com aeração foram inoculadas em meio WPM suplementado com 4,9 µ M de AIB e 164,4mM de carvão ativado na presença (58,42mM ou ausência de sacarose. Durante o enraizamento, foram mantidas as mesmas condições de vedação dos tubos de ensaio em que as brotações foram induzidas. Após a inoculação, os tubos contendo os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento sob radiação fotossintética ativa de 45-56 µ mol.m-2.s-1 a 25±3ºC. Os resultados mostraram que o enraizamento das brotações de A. glabra não dependeu do suprimento de sacarose no meio de cultura, em tubos fechados com o tampão de algodão ou tampa plástica sem PVC. A aeração dos tubos de ensaio trouxe incrementos de significativos (até 250% na matéria seca radicular. A indução de raízes secundárias (laterais em A. glabra só ocorreu em culturas com aeração, independentemente da presença ou ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura. Com os resultado desse experimento, conclui-se que o estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico em A.glabra pode ser obtido com sucesso durante a fase de enraizamento in vitro.The objective of the present work was to evaluate whether Annona glabra L. shoots are able to acquire the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting. In vitro A. glabra shoots originated from cultures in vessels sealed with cap and PVC film (culture without aeration, cap without PVC film or cotton tampon (cultures with aeration, were inoculated in WPM medium supplemented with 4.9 µ M IBA and 164,4mM activated charcoal in the presence (58.42mM or absence of sucrose. During rooting, the same conditions in which shoots

  8. Florivory and sex ratio in Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae in the Pantanal at Nhecolândia, southwestern Brazil Florivoria e razão sexual em Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Brazil

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    Hipólito Ferreira Paulino Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona dioica St. Hil. is a species that grows to approximately 2 m tall and is very widespread in the cerrados. Individual plants of this androdioecious species produce numerous hermaphroditic or male flowers, but few fruits. The aim of this study was to determine the sex ratio among the plants and to compare the frequency of herbivory between male and hermaphroditic flowers. The fieldwork was done by studying flowering plants in grasslands used as pasture for cattle at Fazenda Nhumirim. One hundred and forty-seven male plants and 71 hermaphroditic plants were examined and produced a total of 194 and 94 flowers, respectively, during the study period. The male:hermaphrodite sex ratio was 2.07:1, and was similar to the male:hermaphrodite flower ratio of 2.06:1. The frequency of florivory rate in hermaphrodites was significantly higher than in male flowers (33.0%, n = 31, and 25.7%, n = 50, respectively; G = 14.83; d.f. = 1; p Annona dioica é uma espécie arbustiva de até dois metros de altura, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados. Esta espécie é conhecida por oferecer muitas flores, mas produzir poucos frutos. Enquadra-se como androdióica, possuindo indivíduos machos e hermafroditas na população. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar a razão sexual e comparar a taxa de florivoria entre flores masculinas e hermafroditas. A coleta de dados ocorreu em campos de pastagem da Fazenda Nhumirim, consistindo na observação de arbustos floridos. Foram registrados 147 indivíduos masculinos e 71 hermafroditas, os quais apresentavam um total de 194 e 94 flores durante o período de estudo, respectivamente. A razão sexual observada foi de 2,07 indivíduos masculinos para cada hermafrodita, bem como 2,06 flores masculinas para cada flor hermafrodita. A taxa de florivoria foi significativamente maior em flores hermafroditas que em masculinas, com 33,0% (n = 31 e 25,7% (n = 50, respectivamente (G = 14,83; 1gl; p < 0,001. A média do peso fresco de 50

  9. Estructura y diversidad genética de Annona squamosa en huertos familiares mayas de la península de Yucatán Genetic structure and diversity of Annona squamosa in Mayan homegardens of Yucatán Peninsula

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    Carmen Salazar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los huertos familiares del sureste de México son sitios donde se ha domesticado y conservado una alta diversidad de especies y variedades, lo cual ha generado cambios en su variabilidad genética. Con el fin de conocer la relación entre la actividad económica en una región y la distribución de la variabilidad genética de Annona squamosa L. —uno de los árboles frutales más representativos en estos sistemas—, se analizaron árboles en huertos de los estados de Yucatán y Quintana Roo mediante el uso de marcadores isoenzimáticos. El estudio se llevo a cabo en 14 poblaciones de 5 regiones que diferían en su principal actividad económica. Los resultados muestran que todos los marcadores fueron polimórficos con 3 o 4 alelos. El número promedio de alelos y de alelos en loci polimórficos fueron altos respecto a otros árboles cultivados, lo que sugiere que los efectos de la deriva génica no han sido importantes. La heterocigosis promedio observada fue de 0.373 ± 0.03 y la esperada de 0.470 ± 0.023. El análisis de la distribución jerárquica de la variación indica que el mayor nivel de variación (85% se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. La variación entre poblaciones de una misma región fue del 12% y menos importante entre regiones, donde fue del 2%, lo que indica que no hay un efecto de las actividades socioeconómicas en la distribución de la variabilidad genética.Many plant and animal species have been domesticated in southeastern Mexican homegardens, resulting in changes in their genetic variability. One of the most representative fruit trees in these systems is Annona squamosa L. We wanted to know if the predominant type of economic activity in a given area affects the distribution of genetic variability in A. squamosa. In order to answer this question, we analyzed 14 populations in 5 different socioeconomic regions in the states of Yucatán and Quintana Roo, using isozyme analysis. All the enzyme markers were

  10. Análise do custo de produção e lucratividade na cultura de pinha (Annona squamosa L. na região de Jales-SP, ano agrícola 2001-2002 Production costs and profitability analyze for the anona (Annona squamosa L. in Jales region, São Paulo State, 2001-2002

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    Gilberto José Batista Pelinson

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na região de Jales-SP, com objetivo de analisar economicamente o cultivo da pinha. Para estimar a matriz de coeficientes técnicos, os custos de produção, os indicadores de lucratividade e os dados foram levantados com cinco produtores de pinha, no ano de 2001-2002. Apesar do custo superior do sistema de produção tecnificado quando comparado com o convencional na cultura da pinha, o sistema tecnificado apresentou-se mais rentável para os produtores rurais da região de Jales, com um lucro operacional por hectare de R$5.301,07 (US$2.031,06 e para o convencional de R$1.720,48 (US$659,19. Isto se deve principalmente por proporcionar benefícios, como antecipação da colheita para períodos de melhores preços, melhoria na qualidade e na quantidade dos frutos.This work was conduced in Jales region, São Paulo State, Brazil, intending to analyze economically the Anona (Annona squamosa L. crops cultivation. For the technical matrix coefficients, the production costs and the profitability indicators data were collected in 5 (five farmers which produced sugar apple in 2001/2002 harvest. Besides the cost of the intensive production system being higher than the conventional one, the intensive production system showed better profitability to the sugar apple farmers in Jales region with an operational profit per hectare of US$ 2,031.06 while the conventional was of US$ 659.19. The reason of this difference is related with the benefits such as harvest anticipation to a better prices period, increase in the fruits quantity and quality.

  11. Phylogeny and expression analyses reveal important roles for plant PKS III family during the conquest of land by plants and angiosperm diversification

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    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPolyketide synthases (PKSs utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, type I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity. In this study, we mined type III PKS gene sequences from the genomes of six aquatic algae and twenty-five land plants (one bryophyte, one lycophyte, two basal angiosperms, sixteen core eudicots, and five monocots. PKS III sequences were found relatively conserved in all embryophytes, but not exist in algae. We also examined gene expression patterns by analyzing available transcriptome data, and identified potential cis regulatory elements in upstream sequences. Phylogenetic trees of dicots angiosperms showed that plant type III PKS proteins fall into three clades. Clade A contains CHS/STS-type enzymes coding genes with diverse transcriptional expression patterns and enzymatic functions, while clade B is further divided into subclades b1 and b2, which consist of anther-specific CHS-like enzymes. Differentiation regions, such as amino acids 196-207 between clades A and B, and predicted positive selected sites within α-helixes in late appeared branches of clade A, account for the major diversification in substrate choice and catalytic reaction. The integrity and location of conserved cis-elements containing MYB and bHLH binding sites can affect transcription levels. Potential binding sites for transcription factors such as WRKY, SPL or AP2/EREBP may contribute to tissue- or taxon-specific differences in gene expression. Our data shows that gene duplications and functional

  12. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-11-01

    Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1aα,4aα, 7β, 7 a, β, 7bα)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1α,4aβ,5α,8aα) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1α, 4aα, 5α(E), 8aβ] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13β-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1α,4aβ.4bα,7β, 10aα)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against

  13. Darwin-Wallace Demons: survival of the fastest in populations of duckweeds and the evolutionary history of an enigmatic group of angiosperms.

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    Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary biology, the term 'Darwinian fitness' refers to the lifetime reproductive success of an individual within a population of conspecifics. The idea of a 'Darwinian Demon' emerged from this concept and is defined here as an organism that commences reproduction almost immediately after birth, has a maximum fitness, and lives forever. It has been argued that duckweeds (sub-family Lemnoideae, order Alismatales), a group containing five genera and 34 species of small aquatic monocotyledonous plants with a reduced body plan, can be interpreted as examples of 'Darwinian Demons'. Here we focus on the species Spirodela polyrhiza (Great duckweed) and show that these miniaturised aquatic angiosperms display features that fit the definition of the hypothetical organism that we will call a 'Darwin-Wallace Demon' in recognition of the duel proponents of evolution by natural selection. A quantitative analysis (log-log bivariate plot of annual growth in dry biomass versus standing dry body mass of various green algae and land plants) revealed that duckweeds are thus far the most rapidly growing angiosperms in proportion to their body mass. In light of this finding, we discuss the disposable soma and metabolic optimising theories, summarise evidence for and against the proposition that the Lemnoideae (family Araceae) reflect an example of reductive evolution, and argue that, under real-world conditions (environmental constraints and other limitations), 'Darwin-Wallace Demons' cannot exist, although the concept remains useful in much the same way that the Hardy-Weinberg law does. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Location of Heitz's Zerstaeubungsstadium (Dispersion phase) in the mitotic cycle of Phaseolus coccineus and the concept of angiosperm endomitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, A.; Cionini, P.G.; D' Amato, F. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Inst. di Genetica)

    1981-01-01

    DNA microdensitometry and autoradiography after treatment with /sup 3/H-thymidine were used to study the phase of dispersion of chromocenters (Z phase) in parallel with chromocentric nuclei in Phaseolus coccineus. In all materials studied, two types of chromocentric nuclei were present. In radicle apices of dry seeds, two classes of nuclear DNA contents were measured, 2 C (G/sub 1/) and 4 C (G/sub 2/). The 2 C DNA class comprised all chromocentric type I nuclei, the 4 C class included Z phases and chromocentric type II nuclei. The 4 C (G/sub 2/) condition of Z phases implies that Z phases maintain their nuclear structure for some time after the end of DNA replication. Shoot apices also contain 2 C (G/sub 1/) and 4 C (G/sub 2/) nuclei but 4 C nuclei (Z phases and chromocentric type II nuclei) are rare. In seedling root apices, Z phases are from 1.02 to 4.08 times as frequent as prophases. This excludes that Z phase as a very early prophase. DNA microdensitometry shows that the chromocentric type I includes 2 C (G/sub 1/) nuclei in the first part of the S phase, Z phases include 4 C (G/sub 2/) nuclei and nuclei in the last stage of the S phase and chromocentric type II includes mainly 4 C (G/sub 2/) nuclei and nuclei in the second part of S. After 90 minutes of treatment with /sup 3/H-thymidine all Z phase nuclei are labeled. This result and the microdensitometric data demonstrate unequivocally that Z phase is located at the end of S. The present results and those of previous authors on Z phase are discussed in relation to Geitler's concept of Angiosperm endomitosis. It is concluded that the term 'Angiosperm endomitosis' must be abandoned and substituted by the term 'chromosome endoreduplication'.

  15. Determination of Soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Fruit Volatiles during Ripening by Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectroscopy / Determinación de Compuestos Volátiles en Frutos de Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, d

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La guanábana (Annona muricata L. es una frutatropical exótica que se cultiva comercialmente en Colombia. Su condición altamente perecedera justifica los estudios de manejo en poscosecha. Por esta razón, la evaluación de la maduración se hizo en primer lugar, por un sistema de medición de compuestos volátiles conocido como nariz electrónica (NE y por otro lado mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas mediante microextracción en fase sólida del espaciode cabeza (CG-EM/MEFS. El estudio del perfil de sustanciasvolátiles en las frutas es uno de los principales indicadores de los atributos sensoriales que tipifica la calidad organoléptica de los vegetales. La NE se constituye en una alternativa rápida, novedosa, económica y relativamente simple para determinar grupos de sustancias volátiles en frutos de interés comercial, bien sea enteros o en fracciones. En contraste, el uso de laCGEM/MEFS puede verse limitado por su alto costo, no obstante ser una técnica altamente selectiva. Con base en la evaluación de la pulpa realizada con NE fue posible clasificar el estado de madurez de las frutas así: inmaduro, madurez intermedia, maduro y sobremaduro, siendo los sensores de mayor impacto el 2 (reactivo con óxidos de nitrógeno, el 6 (sensible al metano y el 8 (sensiblea alcoholes y compuestos parcialmente aromáticos. Por CG-EM/ MEFS, se logró establecer que durante la etapa de poscosecha, la mayor proporción de compuestos volátiles pertenece al grupo de los ésteres, predominando el Hexanoato de metilo. De manera particular en frutas sobremaduras, la presencia de compuestosalcohólicos, coincide con la evaluación hecha con la NE, lacual mostró sensibilidad a alcoholes y compuestos aromáticos de amplio rango para las frutas evaluadas. El estudio realizado aporta a la caracterización en poscosecha de los volátiles, uno de los principales atributos sensoriales en las frutas tropicales. /As an exotic

  16. Variability among the Most Rapidly Evolving Plastid Genomic Regions is Lineage-Specific: Implications of Pairwise Genome Comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae) and Other Angiosperms for Marker Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Voskanyan, Hasmik; Allgaier, Martin; Borsch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae)—a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC–trnV, trnR–atpA, ndhF–rpl32, psbM–trnD, and trnQ–rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters). Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid), Olea (asterids) and Cymbidium (monocots) showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF–rpl32 and trnK–rps16) were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations

  17. Variability among the most rapidly evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific: implications of pairwise genome comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae and other angiosperms for marker choice.

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    Nadja Korotkova

    Full Text Available Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae-a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR-atpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters. Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid, Olea (asterids and Cymbidium (monocots showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16 were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing

  18. Efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos da Annona squamosa L. (fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Annona squamosa L. (sweetsop on the nematode Ascaridia galli

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    M.Z.L.C.M. Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas são fontes importantes de produtos naturais biologicamente ativos. Dentre as plantas usadas na medicina popular a Anonna squamosa conhecida como fruta-do-conde é citada como tendo várias ações medicinais, dentre elas a atividade inseticida e anti-helmíntica. Dentro desta perspectiva, objetivou-se determinar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquosos (EA e etanólicos (EE das folhas da fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide de aves Ascaridia galli, in vitro e in vivo. No primeiro, os nematóides foram colocados em placa de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos extratos e no segundo foram utilizadas seis galinhas poedeiras por grupo, as quais foram administrados10 mL Kg-1 dos extratos. No teste in vitro o EA da A. squamosa nas concentrações 2,4 e 9,6 mg mL-1 foi capaz de matar 63,33% e 53,33% dos nematóides, respectivamente. O EE não produziu efeito significativo. No teste in vivo, o percentual de eliminação do EA foi de 39% e do EE de 20%. Estes dados sugerem que neste caso a substância responsável pela mortalidade dos parasitos esteja em maior concentração na fração aquosa. Desta maneira, acredita-se que o EA de A. squamosa apresenta uma atividade anti-helmíntica potencial sobre o A. galli.Plants are important sources of biologically active natural products. Among the plants used in popular medicine, Annona squamosa, known as sweetsop, is reported to have several medicinal actions such as insecticidal and anthelmintic activity. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic (EE extracts from sweetsop leaves on the chicken roundworm Ascaridia galli, both in vitro and in vivo. In the former, nematodes were placed on a Petri plate containing different concentrations of the extracts; in the in vivo test, six egg-laying chickens per group received 10 mL Kg-1 of the extracts. In vitro results indicated that A. squamosa AE at the concentrations 2.4 and 9.6 mg mL-1

  19. Understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in wood formation in angiosperm trees: hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) as a model species

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    Chaffey, N.; Barlow, P. [Bristol Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Long Ashton, (United Kingdom); Sundberg, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umea (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The involvement of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs) in the development of the radial and axial components of secondary wood in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula X P. tremuloides) was studied by indirect immunofluorescent localization techniques in order to elucidate a consensus view of the roles of the cytoskeleton during wood formation in angiosperm trees. Early and late vessel elements, axial parenchyma, normal-wood fibres and contact and isolation cells were included in addition to cambial cells. Microfilaments were found to be rare in cambial cells, but were abundant and axially arranged in their derivatives once cell elongation begun. Microtubules were randomly oriented in ray and fusiform cells of the cambial zone. Ellipses of microfilaments were associated with pit development in fiber cells and isolation ray cells. Rings of localized microtubules and microfilaments were associated with developing inter-vessel bordered pits and vessel-contact ray cell contact pits. Although only microtubules were seen in the periphery of the perforation plate of vessel elements, a prominent meshwork of microfilaments overlaid the perforation plate itself. These observations indicate that there are corresponding subcellular control points whose manipulation could lead to the development of 'designer wood'. However, such development would require a better understanding of the physiological basis for the behaviour of microtubule and microfibre cytoskeletons during wood formation. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Contradiction between plastid gene transcription and function due to complex posttranscriptional splicing: an exemplary study of ycf15 function and evolution in angiosperms.

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    Chao Shi

    Full Text Available Plant chloroplast genes are usually co-transcribed while its posttranscriptional splicing is fairly complex and remains largely unsolved. On basis of sequencing the three complete Camellia (Theaceae chloroplast genomes for the first time, we comprehensively analyzed the evolutionary patterns of ycf15, a plastid gene quite paradoxical in terms of its function and evolution, along the inferred angiosperm phylogeny. Although many species in separate lineages including the three species reported here contained an intact ycf15 gene in their chloroplast genomes, the phylogenetic mixture of both intact and obviously disabled ycf15 genes imply that they are all non-functional. Both intracellular gene transfer (IGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT failed to explain such distributional anomalies. While, transcriptome analyses revealed that ycf15 was transcribed as precursor polycistronic transcript which contained ycf2, ycf15 and antisense trnL-CAA. The transcriptome assembly was surprisingly found to cover near the complete Camellia chloroplast genome. Many non-coding regions including pseudogenes were mapped by multiple transcripts, indicating the generality of pseudogene transcriptions. Our results suggest that plastid DNA posttranscriptional splicing may involve complex cleavage of non-functional genes.

  1. A gene encoding starch branching enzyme I (SBEI) in apple (Malusxdomestica, Rosaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship to Sbe genes from other angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuepeng; Gasic, Ksenija; Sun, Fengjie; Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-06-01

    An apple starch-branching enzyme SbeI gene (GenBank Accession No. DQ115404) has been isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The SbeI is a single copy gene in the apple genome, consisting of 14 exons and 13 introns, and covering 6075bp. As detected by RT-PCR, the apple SbeI is expressed at very low levels during early stages of fruit development; while, the highest levels of mRNA transcripts are observed at approximately 44 days post-pollination. Besides fruits, the apple SbeI is also expressed in buds and flowers, and very weakly in leaves. The genomic structure of SbeI in apple is strikingly similar to those reported so far in grasses (Poaceae), with exons 4 through 13 being of identical lengths in both apple and grasses. Moreover, structure similarities in exon lengths have also been detected in SbeII genes of both grasses and eudicots. These findings prompted the investigation of the evolutionary process of the Sbe gene family in angiosperms. A total of 26 Sbe sequences, representing an array of monocots and eudicots, are investigated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis has suggested that Sbe genes have duplicated into SbeI and SbeII prior to the divergence of moncots from eudicots. The SbeII gene is further duplicated into SbeIIa and SbeIIb prior to the radiation of grasses; however, it is not yet clear whether this duplication event has occurred before or after the radiation of the eudicots.

  2. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Smidt, Eric de Camargo; Brotto, Marcelo Leandro; Silva-Pereira, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL) and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL). The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  3. Getting ready for host invasion: elevated expression and action of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases in developing haustoria of the holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Stian; Striberny, Bernd; Hollmann, Julien; Schwacke, Rainer; Popper, Zoë; Krause, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    Changes in cell walls have been previously observed in the mature infection organ, or haustorium, of the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta, but are not equally well charted in young haustoria. In this study, we focused on the molecular processes in the early stages of developing haustoria; that is, before the parasite engages in a physiological contact with its host. We describe first the identification of differentially expressed genes in young haustoria whose development was induced by far-red light and tactile stimuli in the absence of a host plant by suppression subtractive hybridization. To improve sequence information and to aid in the identification of the obtained candidates, reference transcriptomes derived from two species of Cuscuta, C. gronovii and C. reflexa, were generated. Subsequent quantitative gene expression analysis with different tissues of C. reflexa revealed that among the genes that were up-regulated in young haustoria, two xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes were highly expressed almost exclusively at the onset of haustorium development. The same expression pattern was also found for the closest XTH homologues from C. gronovii. In situ assays for XTH-specific action suggested that xyloglucan endotransglucosylation was most pronounced in the cell walls of the swelling area of the haustorium facing the host plant, but was also detectable in later stages of haustoriogenesis. We propose that xyloglucan remodelling by Cuscuta XTHs prepares the parasite for host infection and possibly aids the invasive growth of the haustorium. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

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    Mônica Bolson

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL. The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  5. Understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in wood formation in angiosperm trees: hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) as the model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffey, Nigel; Barlow, Peter; Sundberg, Björn

    2002-03-01

    The involvement of microfilaments and microtubules in the development of the radial and axial components of secondary xylem (wood) in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) was studied by indirect immunofluorescent localization techniques. In addition to cambial cells, the differentiated cell types considered were early- and late-wood vessel elements, axial parenchyma, normal-wood fibers and gelatinous fibers, and contact and isolation ray cells. Microfilaments were rare in ray cambial cells, but were abundant and axially arranged in their derivatives once cell elongation had begun, and persisted in that orientation in mature ray cells. Microfilaments were axially arranged in fusiform cambial cells and persisted in that orientation in all xylem derivatives of those cells. Microtubules were randomly oriented in ray and fusiform cells of the cambial zone. Dense arrays of parallel-aligned microtubules were oriented near axially in the developing gelatinous fibers, but at a wide range of angles in normal-wood fibers. Ellipses of microfilaments were associated with pit development in fiber cells and isolation ray cells. Rings of co-localized microtubules and microfilaments were associated with developing inter-vessel bordered pits and vessel-contact ray cell contact pits, and, in the case of bordered pits, these rings decreased in diameter as the over-arching pit border increased in size. Although only microtubules were seen at the periphery of the perforation plate of vessel elements, a prominent meshwork of microfilaments overlaid the perforation plate itself. A consensus view of the roles of the cytoskeleton during wood formation in angiosperm trees is presented.

  6. Evaluación de medios de cultivo para la producción in vitro de Annona muricata mediante la técnica de microinjertación seriada

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    Aleyda Maritza Acosta Rangel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata (guanábana es una planta cultivada por la calidad nutritiva y organoléptica de su fruto. No obstante el carácter recalcitrante de las yemas vegetativas de esta especie ha dificultado la micropropagación de material seleccionado por su alta productividad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar medios de cultivo combinados con la técnica de microinjertación seriada para promover el desarrollo vegetal in vitro de A. muricata. En medios de cultivo específicos para cada material vegetal, se sembraron semillas y estacas para la formación de microinjertos; luego se aplicaron tres tratamientos de microinjertación (M1, M2, M3 y un control, donde el número indica las veces en las que una estaca es injertada en un portainjerto. M1 es una microinjertación monofásica o estacas microinjertadas en un portainjerto. M2 son estacas microinjertadas dos veces, es decir, permanecen en dos portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. M3 son estacas microinjertadas tres veces, es decir, permanecen en tres portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. Las estacas fueron separadas del portainjerto y sembradas en medio de cultivo para evaluar su revigorización; se realizaron pruebas de Anova y Freedman para los datos paramétricos y no paramétricos, respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la microinjertación monofásica es suficiente para estimular el desarrollo in vitro de material adulto de A. muricata; sin embargo, en los tratamientos no se logró el desarrollo de un sistema radicular adecuado.

  7. Evaluación de medios de cultivo para la producción in vitro de Annona muricata mediante la técnica de microinjertación seriada

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    Castro Restrepo Dagoberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata (guanábana es una planta cultivada por la calidad nutritiva y organoléptica de sufruto. No obstante el carácter recalcitrante de las yemas vegetativas de esta especie ha dificultado lamicropropagación de material seleccionado por su alta productividad. Esta investigación tuvo comoobjetivo evaluar medios de cultivo combinados con la técnica de microinjertación seriada para promoverel desarrollo vegetal in vitro de A. muricata. En medios de cultivo específicos para cada material vegetal,se sembraron semillas y estacas para la formación de microinjertos; luego se aplicaron tres tratamientosde microinjertación (M1, M2, M3 y un control, donde el número indica las veces en las que una estacaes injertada en un portainjerto. M1 es una microinjertación monofásica o estacas microinjertadas enun portainjerto. M2 son estacas microinjertadas dos veces, es decir, permanecen en dos portainjertosdiferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. M3 son estacas microinjertadas tres veces,es decir, permanecen en tres portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso.Las estacas fueron separadas del portainjerto y sembradas en medio de cultivo para evaluar surevigorización; se realizaron pruebas de Anova y Freedman para los datos paramétricos y no paramétricos,respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la microinjertación monofásica es suficiente paraestimular el desarrollo in vitro de material adulto de A. muricata; sin embargo, en los tratamientos nose logró el desarrollo de un sistema radicular adecuado.

  8. Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Andreas; Michael, Todd P.; Rivadavia, Fernando; Sousa, Aretuza; Wang, Wenqin; Temsch, Eva M.; Greilhuber, Johann; Müller, Kai F.; Heubl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Some species of Genlisea possess ultrasmall nuclear genomes, the smallest known among angiosperms, and some have been found to have chromosomes of diminutive size, which may explain why chromosome numbers and karyotypes are not known for the majority of species of the genus. However, other members of the genus do not possess ultrasmall genomes, nor do most taxa studied in related genera of the family or order. This study therefore examined the evolution of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in Genlisea in a phylogenetic context. The correlations of genome size with chromosome number and size, with the phylogeny of the group and with growth forms and habitats were also examined. Methods Nuclear genome sizes were measured from cultivated plant material for a comprehensive sampling of taxa, including nearly half of all species of Genlisea and representing all major lineages. Flow cytometric measurements were conducted in parallel in two laboratories in order to compare the consistency of different methods and controls. Chromosome counts were performed for the majority of taxa, comparing different staining techniques for the ultrasmall chromosomes. Key Results Genome sizes of 15 taxa of Genlisea are presented and interpreted in a phylogenetic context. A high degree of congruence was found between genome size distribution and the major phylogenetic lineages. Ultrasmall genomes with 1C values of sections of the genus. The smallest known plant genomes were not found in G. margaretae, as previously reported, but in G. tuberosa (1C ≈ 61 Mbp) and some strains of G. aurea (1C ≈ 64 Mbp). Conclusions Genlisea is an ideal candidate model organism for the understanding of genome reduction as the genus includes species with both relatively large (∼1700 Mbp) and ultrasmall (∼61 Mbp) genomes. This comparative, phylogeny-based analysis of genome sizes and karyotypes in Genlisea provides essential data for selection of suitable species for comparative

  9. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

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    Chen Jun

    2012-11-01

    09and 1.1 × 10−09 is an order of magnitude smaller than values reported for angiosperm herbs. However, if one takes generation time into account, most of this difference disappears. The estimates of the dN/dS ratio (non-synonymous over synonymous divergence reported here are in general much lower than 1 and only a few genes showed a ratio larger than 1.

  10. FLORÚLA, CLAVE Y ESTRUCTURA COMUNITARIA DE LAS ANGIOSPERMAS DE ISLA LARGA, PARQUE NACIONAL MOCHIMA, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA I FLORULA, IDENTIFICATION KEY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE ANGIOSPERMS PRESENTS IN ISLA LARGA, MOCHIMA NATIONAL PARK, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

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    Roger Velásquez Arenas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mochima National Park comprises a group of islands, as well as a mountainous area that has been well documented from the floristic point of view, registering1124 species of angiosperms. However, the limited knowledge of the vascular flora of the island area, was proposed as the objective of describing the flora and community structure of Isla Larga. A set of 28 quadrats of 100 m 2 was established, and all individuals within them were measured, identified and quantified, and ecological indices were determined. A total of 2.225 individuals were registered, distributed in 59 species of angiosperms, including 54 genera belonging to 33 families. The best represented families were Euphorbiaceae (9 spp., Cactaceae (5 spp., Poaceae (5 spp. and Mimosaceae (4 spp. which accounted for 38.98% of the total number of species in the area. The diversity was 2.84 bits/inds; however, evenness was low 0.59 reflecting an inequitable distribution of species in the area. The highest value of importance value index (IVI, was for Rhizophora mangle (262,78, Croton pungens (172,82, Caesalpinia coriaria (139.36 and Opuntia caracassana (125.45. The dominance of these species may be related to the morpho-anatomical changes developed in these species to survive in the environmental conditions of the area, which allowed them to adapt more effectively than other species. Furthermore, they are species characteristic of the types of vegetation present in the area (tropophyle and mangrove forests

  11. Hydrogen Apparent Fractionation between Precipitation and Leaf Wax n-Alkanes from Conifers and Deciduous Angiosperms along a Longitudinal Transect in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Fisher, Katherine; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    D/H composition of individual organic compounds derived from leaf wax may provide a wealth of information regarding plant-water relations in studies of plant ecology and climate change. Extracting that information from the organic D/H signal requires a thorough understanding of hydrogen isotope fractionation between environmental water and organic compounds. The purpose of this project is to investigate the importance of plant types and local climatic conditions on hydrogen apparent fractionation in higher terrestrial plants. We determined D/H composition of n-alkanes derived from leaf wax extracted from several extant plants representing common evergreen and deciduous conifer (Pinus and Larix) and deciduous angiosperm (Betula, Salix, and Sorbus) genera along a longitudinal transect from the UK to central Siberia at 10 different locations. These data were used to calculate the apparent fractionation factor (epsilon) between source water, estimated using the Online Isotopes in Precipitation Calculator, and n-alkanes. Our initial results show the following. First, we found large differences in the epsilon values among different genera at each location, e.g. Betula -63‰ vs. Salix -115‰ in Norwich, UK, and Betula -86‰ vs. Salix -146‰ in Novosibirsk, Russia. Assuming the plants at individual locations utilized soil water of very similar deltaD values, variations in the epsilon values are likely to be explained by differences in plant physiology and biochemistry. Second, we identified extensive shifts in the epsilon values in individual species along the transect from the UK to central Siberia, e.g. Betula -63‰ in Norwich vs. -104‰ in Zotino, Krasnoyarsk Krai, central Siberia and Salix -115‰ in Norwich vs. -164‰ in Sodankyla, Finland. With the exception of Sorbus, there is a positive relationship between the MAT (mean annual temperature) and epsilon values at locations above 2 °C MAT, suggesting a possible climatic effect on isotopic fractionation

  12. Armazenamento de sementes de Annona squamosa L.

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    Otoniel Magalhães Morais

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n4p33 A pinheira é uma espécie de grande importância econômica. É reproduzida principalmente por sementes, apesar disso, trabalhos experimentais enfocando as condições ideais de armazenamento de suas sementes, principalmente no tocante a embalagem e ambiente, são quase inexistentes. Diante do exposto, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência dos diferentes tipos de embalagens e ambientes, e do período de armazenamento sobre sua germinação e vigor. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Sementes da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia – UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, BA. As sementes foram acondicionadas em embalagens de papel e de plástico e mantidas em ambiente natural e na geladeira. As sementes foram armazenadas por zero, três, seis, nove e doze meses após a instalação do experimento. Foram avaliados o teor de água, a germinação e o vigor das sementes. Dentre os principais resultados, pode-se constatar que o período máximo de armazenamento das sementes de pinheira foi de seis meses. A embalagem de papel foi considerada a mais adequada independente do ambiente. Os maiores valores de germinação foram obtidos em embalagem de papel em condições ambientais.

  13. Colecta y establecimiento de anonáceas en El Salvador

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    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El Centro Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria y Forestal (CENTA, a través de la Unidad de Recursos Fitogenéticos, inició en 1998 un diagnóstico geográfico de especies de anonáceas, con el objetivo de explorar, recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de campo en las Estaciones Experimentales. Las características evaluadas para frutos fueron: peso, largo y diámetro, número de semillas, textura de cáscara y pulpa; forma de fruto y cárpelos, daño por plagas y enfermedades y un análisis bromatológico. Como resultado de este trabajo se estableció la colección de anonáceas con las siguientes especies: squamosa, cherimola, reticulata, muricata, purpurea, diversifolia, holosericea y glabra. En la caracterización morfológica preliminar Annona muricata obtuvo un promedio de 175 semillas/fruto y 1,319 g en peso del fruto. A. cherimola con pulpa muy arenosa y carpelos no prominentes. A. squamosa con pulpa dulce, blanca y cárpelos muy prominentes. De la caracterización bromatológica se determinó que Annona muricata dio contenidos de humedad superiores a 82,8%; fibra cruda de 1,84% y fósforo con 367 ppm. En Annona diversifolia con menor grasa 0,01%. La mayor incidencia por plagas en frutos y semillas fue causado por el perforador Bephrateloides sp. La antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. en frutos y follaje fue la enfermedad más observada

  14. Secondary metabolismin in Annonaceae: potencial source of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martínez-Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Annona (Annonaceae are used in traditional Mexican medicine by their anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant and tranquilizing properties. It has been reported that the alkaloids isolated from some species of the Annona have affinity to serotonergic 5-HT1A receptors and modulate dopaminergic transmission, which is involved in depressive disorders. In this review it is showed the results of the antidepressant-like effect of an alkaloid extract from the aerial parts of Annona cherimola (TA in mice. The antidepressant-like effect was evaluated in the forced swimming test. To elucidate a possible mechanism of action, experiments of synergism with antidepressant drugs, such as imipramine (IMI, clomipramine (CLIMI, and fluoxetine (FLX, were carried out. The neurotransmitter content (DA: dopamine, 5HT: serotonin and its metabolites, HVA: homovanillic acid and 5HIAA:5-hydroxyindoleacetic in the whole brain of mice were also determined by HPLC method. The results showed that repeated treatment with TA produced antidepressant-like effects in mice. This effect was not related to an increase in locomotor activity. Administration of TA facilitated the antidepressant effect of IMI and CLIMI as well as increased the turnover of DA and 5-HT. The alkaloids: 1,2-dimethoxy-5, 6.6 to 7-tetrahydro-4H-dibenzoquinoline-3,8,9,10-tetraol, anonaine, liriodenine, and nornuciferine were the main constituents of TA.

  15. NATURAL PESTICIDES FROM SEEDS OF CHIRIMOYA (Annona cherimolia Mill.) AND GUANABANA (Annona muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera C., D.; Ale B., N.; Huamán M., J.; Muñoz H., P.; Rodríguez B., M.; Bravo A., M.; Delmás R., D.

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of chirimoya and guanabana from the communities of Cumbe and Callahuanca - Yauyos, Lima were analyzed. The extraction of natural toxic was realized using ethanol as the optimal solvent, after several solvent tests, phytochemicals analysis identified :saponins, coumarins, tannins, quinones and essential oils, mostly castor oil which was confirmed by FTIR spectra. Qualitative analysis results identified: PO4(3-), AsO4(3-) and others. Toxicological tests extracts applied on larvae and frui...

  16. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...

  17. Molecular basis of angiosperm tree architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Dardick, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The architecture of trees greatly impacts the productivity of orchards and forestry plantations. Amassing greater knowledge on the molecular genetics that underlie tree form can benefit these industries, as well as contribute to basic knowledge of plant developmental biology. This review describes the fundamental components of branch architecture, a prominent aspect of tree structure, as well as genetic and hormonal influences inferred from studies in model plant systems and from trees with non-standard architectures. The bulk of the molecular and genetic data described here is from studies of fruit trees and poplar, as these species have been the primary subjects of investigation in this field of science. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais Freezing points of various tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor o efeito das baixas temperaturas sobre as frutíferas de clima tropical e possibilitar o desenvolvimento de novas variedades, mais tolerantes, simularam-se geadas em câmaras frigoríficas para a determinação da temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais. Os resultados permitiram classificar as espécies em três grupos: Grupo I - moderada tolerância (-4°C: condessa (Annona reticulata; goiaba (Psidium guajava; acerola (Malpighia glabra e abacate (Persea americana var. Geada; Grupo II - média tolerância (-5°C: conde (A. squamosa; araticum-mirim (Rollinea spp.; anona-do-brejo (A. glabra; falsa-gravioleira (A. montana; araticum-de-folha-miúda (R. ermaginata e maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Grupo III - acentuada tolerância (-6°C: cherimóia (A. cherimola.The effect of low temperature on tropical fruits was studied in order to guide future developments of frost resistant varieties. Simulations of frost were done in a freezing chamber to determine the freezing points of various fruit plants. On the basis of the results the studied species can be classified into three groups according to their tolerance to low temperatures: Group I - little tolerance (-4°C: Annona reticulata; Psidium guajava; Malpighia glabra and Persea americana (var. Geada; Group II - medium tolerance (-5°C: A. squamosa; Rollinea spp.; A. glabra; A. montana; R. ermaginata and Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Group III - high tolerance (-6°C: A. cherimola.

  19. Superação da dormência em sementes de atemóia e fruta-do-conde Overcoming atemoya and custard apple seed dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As anonáceas cultivadas comercialmente têm sido propagadas através de enxertia, sendo o porta-enxerto obtido por sementes. Entretanto, as sementes dessas plantas apresentam substâncias inibidoras de germinação que, juntamente com um tegumento resistente e impermeável, dificultam a germinação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L. e dos cultivares de atemóia 'PR-1', 'PR-3' e 'Gefner' (Annona cherimola Mill. X Annona squamosa L., que foram escarificadas com lixa e submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos por 24 horas: ácido giberélico (GA3 a 50 ppm; GA3 a 100 ppm; água a 5ºC; água a 30ºC. A testemunha não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento. As sementes das cultivares de atemóia tratadas a 50 e 100 ppm de GA3 não apresentaram diferença entre si, proporcionando 55 a 67 % de germinação para 'Gefner' e 'PR-3', significativamente superiores aos demais tratamentos, que tiveram de 1 a 21 %. Para 'PR-1' esta diferença também foi verificada, com germinação de 35 a 36 % para os tratamentos com GA3 e 1,25 a 2,5 % para os demais. O tratamento de 50 ppm de GA3 foi significativamente superior aos demais tratamentos para a fruta-do-conde, com 75 % de germinação, enquanto que em 100 ppm de GA3 apresentou 44 % e os demais tiveram de 2,5 a 3,7 %. O índice de velocidade de germinação foi significativamente maior para sementes tratadas com GA3 a 50 e 100 ppm.Annonas are propagated mainly by grafting and rootstocks are obtained usually by seeds. Their seeds have substances that inhibit germination and the seed coat also difficults seedling emergence. This trial evaluated the germination of seeds of custard apple (Annona squamosa L. and of atemoya cultivars 'PR-1', 'PR-3', and 'Gefner' (Annona cherimola Mill. X Annona squamosa L. with treatments as follows (soaking during 24 hours: gibberellic acid (GA3 50 ppm; GA3 100 ppm; water 5ºC; water 30ºC; and control. All treatments

  20. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: a synergistic approach using multiple nitidulid lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Cline, Andrew R; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Atemoya, a hybrid between Annona squamosa (L.) and A. cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to fruit production throughout the world is low fruit-set because of inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We identified beetle visitors to atemoya flowers in an orchard in Puerto Rico and used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures. The most common visitors to atemoya flowers were an unidentified Europs species (Coleoptera: Monotomidae), followed by Loberus testaceus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), neither of which have been previously reported as visitors to Annona flowers. The commercial lures attracted few or no beetles when used separately, but attracted a large number of beetles, especially Carpophilus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Europs, when used in combination. This attraction is synergistic and increases with dose at the doses assayed (0-4 lures), and decreases over time with >50% of trap captures occurring in the first week and no beetles collected after 5 wk. This is the first report of aggregation pheromone lures in nitidulids acting synergistically to attract other species, including beetles not in the Nitidulidae. The results are discussed as they pertain to increasing fruit set, as well as the potential for altering fruit size and shape in atemoya.

  1. Las plantas americanas en la obra de Charles de l'Écluse: primeras citas en las cartas de Juan de Castañeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón-Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Flemish botanist Charles de l'Écluse's works contain abundant references to American plants, for example the avocado (Persea americana Mill., the sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and the tobáceo (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Although some of these plants were observed by L'Écluse himself during his expedition to the Iberian Península between 1564 and 1565, the majority of the American plants quoted in his works are related with shipments received from several agents around Europe. In the case of Spain, L'Écluse obtained seeds from Seville thanks to the help of Simón de Tovar and Juan de Castañeda. The latter offers in his letters important innovations: Annona cherimola Mill., Indigofera añil LJI. tinctoria L., Annona muricata L., Mammea americana L.. Annona reticulata L., Dioscorea sp., Aloysia citrodora Palau or Manihot spj M. esculenta Crantz. In most of the cases the mention of these plants represente the first record of cultivation in the Old World. A percentage of this material was used by L'Écluse in his Exoticorum libri decem, published in Antwerp in l605.Las obras del botánico flamenco Charles de l'Écluse contienen infinidad de referencias a plantas americanas, destacando entre ellas el aguacate (Persea americana Mill., las batatas [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], las patatas (Solanum tuberosum L. o el tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. . Algunas de ellas fueron observadas por L'Écluse durante la expedición llevada a cabo por la Península Ibérica entre 1564 y 1565. La mayor parte de plantas americanas citadas en sus obras están relacionadas sin embargo con envíos realizados por diversos corresponsales repartidos por Europa. En el caso de España, L'Écluse recibió semillas desde Sevilla gracias a Simón de Tovar y Juan de Castañeda. Este último ofrece en sus cartas importantes novedades, como el "anón" (Annona cherimola Mill., el "añil" (Indigofera añil L./I. tinctoria L., la "guan

  2. Pólen de gimnospermas e angiospermas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Gymnosperm and angiosperm pollen in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests on the Rio Grande do Sul State eastern plateau, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Scherer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Catálogos polínicos de material contido em sedimentos servem como referência em estudos de reconstituição paleoambiental dos últimos milênios. Nesse contexto, a análise palinológica de dois perfis sedimentares do interior de matas com Araucária do estado do Rio Grande do Sul foi realizada. São apresentadas descrições dos grãos de pólen e dados ecológicos dos respectivos táxons de gimnospermas e angiospermas. A análise envolveu amostras de dois perfis sedimentares do Quaternário Tardio de São Francisco de Paula (perfil 1: Alpes de São Francisco, 29º29'S-50º37'W, perfil 2: Banhado Amarelo, 29º18'S-50º08'W, coletados com o Amostrador de Hiller. O processamento químico das amostras seguiu o método padrão, com HCl, HF, KOH, acetólise e montagem das lâminas em gelatina-glicerinada. A análise foi realizada em microscopia óptica. A descrição de cada material é acompanhada de ilustrações. São apresentados palinomorfos de três gimnospermas e 65 angiospermas. A grande riqueza do espectro polínico mostra a potencialidade deste material em oferecer informações ambientais relevantes no estudo da gênese e dinâmica da mata com Araucária.Sedimentary pollen catalogues are aids in the study of paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last millennia. In this context, palynological analysis of two sedimentary profiles from inside Araucaria forests of Rio Grande do Sul state was done. Descriptions of gymnosperm and angiosperm pollen and ecological data of the respective taxa are presented. The analysis involved samples of two sedimentary profiles from the Late Quaternary of São Francisco de Paula (profile 1: Alpes de São Francisco, 29º29'S-50º37'W, profile 2: Banhado Amarelo, 29º18'S-50º08'W, collected with a Hiller Sampler. Chemical processing of the samples followed standard methodology, using HCl, HF, KOH, acetolysis and slide mounts in glycerol-jelly. The analysis was done by light microscopy. All material is

  3. Genomic DNA extraction method from Annona senegalensis Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    SDS) or cetyl-methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The released DNA should be protected from endogenous nuclease. Ethylenediaminetetra acetate. (EDTA) is often included in the extraction buffer to chelate magnesium ions ...

  4. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-01-31

    Jan 31, 2015 ... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license .... The bac- terial plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and fungal plates .... In search of effective antimicrobial agent, current research is focusing over plants ...

  5. Chemical composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Key words: Seed, nutrition, composition, screening. INTRODUCTION ... of food stuffs which play a basic role in nutrition and healthy body .... hemoglobin. Lysine insures .... WHF (2005). World Hunger Facts, education service.

  6. NATURAL ACID IN OVERCOMING PINHA SEED DORMANCY (ANNONA SQUAMOSA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of good quality seedlings becomes essential strategy for those who wish to become production that is more competitive. To induce dormancy breaking and germination and emergence of these, the imbibing of natural acid in seeds can be an alternative for the optimization of this process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the dormancy breaking in Anonna seeds squamosa immersed in different natural acid in times through the lemon juice Rangpur (Citrus limonia Osbeck. This work is being conducted in Biotecnogia laboratory greenhouse at the Federal Institute Goiano campus Urutaí where the seeds were soaked in lemon juice Rangpur (C. limonia in five different times, each time constituting a treatment: seeds without soaking in lemon groove variety Cravo '(T1; soaked for 8 hours (T2; soaked for 16 hours (T3; soaked for 24 hours (T4; soaked for 32 hours (T5. The seeds were sown in plastic boxes with dimensions 40 x 27 x 10 cm, containing washed sand substrate, 2 cm deep in spacing of 2 x 2 cm. The germination percentage data were determined up to 45 days after sowing (DAS, and survival to 73 (DAS. After 73 DAS were evaluated after 73 days of sowing, they were evaluated; germination and survival; emergence speed index (EVI; total length of seedlings; shoot length of seedlings and radicle length (cm; Stem diameter (mm; pair of leaf number (MPN; total fresh mass changes (MFT; dry matter of shoot and radicle (g. There was not statistical diseases among treatments. T4 treatment in comparison to others on the numerical difference CTM, NPF, DC and CPA.

  7. Genetic diversity of Annona senegalensis Pers. populations as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... geographical range of natural distribution of A. senegalensis in. Malawi. Young .... teen alleles and was the most polymorphic while M11 was the least ... samples were used, private allelic richness is affected by size of the ...

  8. Efficacy of Jatropha, Annona and Parthenium biowash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rot in chickpea) and Macrophomina phaseolina (causes charcoal rot in sorghum). ... crude biowash was also passed through C18 solid phase extraction cartridges and ... When the organic fraction of Jatropha biowash was further fractionated by ... Hence, it was concluded that one of these three bands could be the active

  9. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.B. Minari

    2014-05-24

    May 24, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of can- cer death in ... vical cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, prostate can- cer, and so on ..... Androgen receptor activity is.

  10. Genomic DNA extraction method from Annona senegalensis Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction of DNA in many plants is difficult because of the presence of metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation procedures and downstream applications such as DNA restriction, replications, amplification, as well as cloning. Modified procedure based on the hexadecyltrimethyl ammoniumbromide (CTAB) method is ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 2001: 1-13. 18. Almeida RN, Falcão ACGM, Diniz RST, Quintans-Júnior. LJ, Polari RN, Barbosa-Filho JM, Agra MF, Duarte JC,. Ferreira CD, Antoniolli AR, Araújo CC. Metodologia para avaliação de plantas com atividade no sistema nervoso.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and cerebrospinal fluid infectivity (CSF) tests were done to confirm cure of infection. Results: Hexane extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight and aqueous extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight, cured the experimental infection in mice. Blood and CSF infectivity tests confirmed cure of infected animals.

  13. Ocular toxicity by seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Nagaraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6-12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid.

  14. Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    structures have attracted considerable attention. Since the initial discovery of ... cause apoptotic cell death in the pathogenesis of diverse human diseases ..... Gong J, Traganos F and Darzynkie W Z 1994 A selective pro- cedure for DNA ...

  15. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. Breast cancer and cancer related diseases have been treated using surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Despite these therapeutic options, cancer remains associated with high ...

  16. Fatty acid profile and bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... INTRODUCTION. The Annonaceae family consists of about 112 genera and ..... patients with cancer, diabetes, surgery, among, others, have increased risk of ... Strelkov S E, McLaren DL, Gossen BD. (2015). First report of.

  17. Effects of packaging and temperature on postharvest of atemoya Efeito do tipo de embalagem e da temperatura na conservação de atemóias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Yamashita

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of refrigerated storage and different packages on postharvest behaviour of fruits of atemoya (Annona cherimola x A. squamosa cv. PR3 were investigated. Fruits were individually sealed in copolymer (PD-955 and low-density polyethylene (LDPE bags and stored for 21 days at 15°C or 25°C. Then they were unwrapped and maintained at 25°C, for ripening. Weight loss and firmness of fruits were both affected by storage time, temperature and packaging. Weight loss in packaged atemoyas was lower than in the control, non-wrapped fruits. A non-trained panel scored the atemoyas for overall eating quality and appearance. Fruits sealed in LDPE did not ripen, probably due to an injurious atmosphere developed inside the package. Atemoyas packaged in PD-955 film had a shelf-life of 17 days against 13 days of the control ones, both stored at 15°C, an increase of 30% on shelf-life.Testou-se o comportamento da atemóia (Annona cherimola x A. squamosa cv. PR3 frente a armazenagem refrigerada e a utilização de diferentes embalagens. Os frutos foram embalados individualmente em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD ou em sacos feitos de um copolímero (PD-955, e armazenados por 21 dias, a 15ºC ou 25ºC, quando foram então desembalados e mantidos a 25ºC para amadurecerem. Tanto a perda de massa como a firmeza dos frutos foram afetadas pela embalagem, tempo e temperatura de armazenagem. A perda de massa pelas atemóias embaladas foi significativamente menor do que naquelas sem embalagem, que serviram de controle. Provadores não treinados ordenaram as atemóias em função do sabor e aparência. Frutos embalados com PEBD não amadureceram, provavelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de uma atmosfera tóxica ao fruto no interior da embalagem. As atemóias embaladas com PD-955 apresentaram vida de prateleira de 17 dias contra 13 dias dos frutos-controle, ambos a 15ºC, que representam um aumento de 30% na vida de prateleira.

  18. Recurrent loss of specific introns during angiosperm evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous instances of presence/absence variations for introns have been documented in eukaryotes, and some cases of recurrent loss of the same intron have been suggested. However, there has been no comprehensive or phylogenetically deep analysis of recurrent intron loss. Of 883 cases of intron presence/absence variation that we detected in five sequenced grass genomes, 93 were confirmed as recurrent losses and the rest could be explained by single losses (652 or single gains (118. No case of recurrent intron gain was observed. Deep phylogenetic analysis often indicated that apparent intron gains were actually numerous independent losses of the same intron. Recurrent loss exhibited extreme non-randomness, in that some introns were removed independently in many lineages. The two larger genomes, maize and sorghum, were found to have a higher rate of both recurrent loss and overall loss and/or gain than foxtail millet, rice or Brachypodium. Adjacent introns and small introns were found to be preferentially lost. Intron loss genes exhibited a high frequency of germ line or early embryogenesis expression. In addition, flanking exon A+T-richness and intron TG/CG ratios were higher in retained introns. This last result suggests that epigenetic status, as evidenced by a loss of methylated CG dinucleotides, may play a role in the process of intron loss. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of recurrent intron loss, makes a series of novel findings on the patterns of recurrent intron loss during the evolution of the grass family, and provides insight into the molecular mechanism(s underlying intron loss.

  19. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  20. Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2016), s. 31-51 ISSN 2194-7953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22720S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32292S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2611; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16050S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14109 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Pollen development * Male gametophyte * Pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  1. Contrasting evolutionary dynamics between angiosperm and mammalian genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejnovský, Eduard; Leitch, I.J.; Leitch, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2009), s. 572-582 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : genomes * evolutionary dynamics * recombination Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 11.564, year: 2009

  2. A cutin fluorescence pattern in developing embryos of some angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cuticle visualized by auramine O fluorescence appears on the developing embryos of 9 species belonging to Cruciferae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantaginaceae, Linaceae and Papilionaceae. In the investigated species the formation and extent of fluorescing and non-fluorescing embryonic areas follow a similar pattern. At first the cutin fluorescing layer is formed on the apical part of the proembryo without delimited protoderm. This layer extends and at the late globular stage envelops the embryo proper, except for a cell adjoining the suspensor. Fluorescing cutin persists during the heart stage but disappears from the torpedo embryo. During these stages there is no cutine fluorescence on suspensorial cells. Continuous cutin fluorescence appears again on the surface of the whole embryo by the late torpedo stage. Then fluorescence disappears from the radicular part of U-shaped embryos, but persists on the shoot apex, cotyledons and at least on the upper part of hypocotyl. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by cuticular changes.

  3. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira ‘Gefner’ tratadas com auxinas Rooting of atemoya ‘Gefner’ cuttings treated with auxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação da atemóia deve ser feita assexuadamente e, nesse contexto, a estaquia surge como alternativa. Dessa forma, objetivou-se determinar a parte do ramo de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' mais apropriada para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (reguladores x tipos de estaca, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas. Os reguladores utilizados foram AIB 0,5% e ANA 0,5%, aplicados na forma de talco na base das estacas, além da testemunha. Os diferentes tipos de estacas foram retirados de 3 regiões do caule (apical, mediana e basal. As estacas tratadas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de poliestireno contendo substrato comercial Plantmax® e levadas para câmara de nebulização intermitente, onde permaneceram durante 136 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas vivas, porcentagem de estacas vivas com enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotações e com folhas remanescentes + brotações, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas sem folhas, número, comprimento médio e massa da matéria seca de raízes por estaca enraizada, área foliar e massa da matéria seca de folhas remanescentes e brotações. A atemoieira apresenta maior potencial para formação de mudas por estaquia empregando-se estacas apicais sem tratamento e medianas tratadas com ANA (0,5%.Atemoya propagation must be done asexually; in this context, cutting represents an alternative. This work aimed to verify the most appropriate branch part of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' for cutting. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (plant growth regulators x cutting types, with 5 replicates of 12 cuttings. The plant growth regulators IBA 0.5% and NAA 0.5% were applied as talc in the base of cuttings, besides the control. The different cutting types were

  4. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT AND CALCIUM ON POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF ATEMOYA FRUITS*

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    LIZ MARIA ABI RACHED TORRES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postharvest warm dipping with calcium chloride (CaCl2 on atemoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. storage. Fruits were immersed in 6% CaCl2 solution at 20 and 40°C for 20 min followed by storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of its impact on peel and fl esh appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, pH, ascorbic acid content, total phenolics, and enzyme activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. Treatment at 40°C preserved eatable conditions up to 6 days, although calcium affected the appearance of the peel as soon as 4 days. Flesh browning was detected only on the 8th day in untreated fruits, after an increase in PPO and POD activities and total phenolics, and a decrease in ascorbic acid content. The weight loss was continuous throughout the storage period, with no signifi cant difference between treatments. TTA and TSS contents increased and pH decreased during the experiment. Results suggest that CaCl2 dipping had a positive effect on fl esh browning, which was reduced, while heat treatment showed a synergic effect, which could be related broadly with a fall in PPO activity. The variations in ascorbic acid content during storage suggest that the warm dipping combined with CaCl2, contributed to the antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  5. PODER CALORÍFICO Y MATERIAL INORGÁNICO EN LA CORTEZA DE SEIS ÁRBOLES FRUTALES

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    Ricardo Martínez-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El poder calorífico y el contenido de sustancias minerales (cenizas se determinaron en la corteza de seis especies arbóreas frutales (Annona cherimola Mill., Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, Malus domestica Borkh., Psidium guajava L., Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb y Tamarindus indica L.. Las cenizas obtenidas fueron analizadas mediante rayos X. Los valores encontrados de poder calorífico variaron de 3,453.49 kcal•kg-1 en T. indica a 4,076.10 kcal•kg-1 en P. guajava. En el caso de las cenizas, los resultados fluctuaron de 5.76 % en P. guajava a 21.93 % en T. indica. Se observó que un contenido mayor de minerales en las cortezas tiende a disminuir su poder calorífico. Los elementos químicos comunes en las muestras analizadas fueron calcio, potasio, magnesio, fósforo y azufre. No se detectaron metales pesados en las muestras de la corteza.

  6. El efecto antisenescente del resveratrol reduce la tasa de ablandamiento poscosecha de chirimoya

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    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chirimoya (Annona cherimolaMill. es muy susceptible al deterioroposcosechadebido a sunaturaleza climatérica. Con el fin de observar el efecto antisenescente del resveratrol (RVS, éste bioreguladorvegetal se aplicó en frutos de ‘Fino de Jete’ y ‘Bronceada’ a 1,6; 0,16; 0,016 y 0 mM a los 0, 8 y 15 días antesde la cosecha (DAC. A los 1, 7 y 15 días después de la cosecha (DDC se analizaron variables bioquímicas ybiofísicas. Al termino de 15 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente, en relación al control, 1,6 mMRVS, aplicado 15 DAC, disminuyó el ablandamiento del fruto 78% para chirimoya ‘Fino de Jete’ y 54% para‘Bronceada’. A los 15 DDC se realizó la evaluación sensorial a frutos tratados 8 y15 DAC, los resultadosmostraron que los frutos de mayor aceptación fueron los tratados con 1,6 mM RVS ya sea a los 8 y 15 DAC,al ser calificados como de mejor aspecto, aroma y sabor.

  7. The anti-senescence effect of resveratrol reduces postharvest softening rate in cherimoya fruit

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    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its climateric behavior, the cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill. is a very perishable commodity. Present research aimed to observe the anti-senescence effect of resveratrol (RVS; this plant bioregulator was applied at 1.6, 0.16, 0.016 and 0 mM at 0, 8 and 15 days before harvest (DBH. At 1, 7 and 15 days of postharvest life, several physical and biochemical determinations were performed on the cherimoya fruit. After 15 days under room temperature conditions, in relation to control fruit, those fruit with 1.6 mM RVS applied 15 DBH reduced skin softening rate 78% and 54% for ‘Fino de Jete’ and ‘Bronceada’, respectively. Similarly, after 15 days of storage, a non-trained group of tasters preferred those fruit treated with 1.6 mM RVS 15 DBH; they qualified the fruit as better than the control fruit in presentation, aroma and taste.

  8. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae

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    Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  9. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

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    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  10. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

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    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  11. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

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    Susi Endrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. Methods This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. Results Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 ìg/ml and 14.678 mg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 mg/ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 mg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  12. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds

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    DAIANE M. DRESCH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH, 5°C (34% RH, 15°C (60% RH and 25°C (34% RH, during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L−1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L−1 for 144 hours.

  13. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours).

  14. Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.: a study of value chain and processing

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    Síntia Carla Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the needs and problems of marolo value chain, as well as to evaluate the rehydration process of this fruit as a possibility of using it as a by-product during the interharvest growth periods. The study of the value chain included interviews with producers, handlers, and fruit and by-product sellers. In order to evaluate the rehydration process of this fruit, marolo was dehydrated using a conventional procedure and freeze-drying. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design and a triple factorial scheme (2 × 2 × 6. ANOVA was performed, followed by the Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Regression models were generated and adjusted for the time factor. The precariousness of the value chain of marolo was observed. The best procedure for marolo dehydration should be determined according to the intended use of the dehydrated product since the water-absorption capacity of the flour is higher and convective hot-air-drying is more effective in retaining soluble solids and reducing damage to the fruit. These results aim at contributing to the marolo value chain and to the preservation of native trees in the Brazilian savanna biome and can be used to analyze other underutilized crops.

  15. Influence of Annona muricata (soursop) on biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria de Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia Experimental e Ensaios Antiparasitarios; Barbosa, Delianne Azevedo; Demeda, Vanessa Favero; Bandeira, Flora Tamires Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Medeiros, Hilkea Carla Souza de; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Bioquimica; Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Cirurgia Experimental

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. muricata on biodistribution of two radiopharmaceuticals: sodium phytate and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), both labeled with {sup 99m}technetium. Methods: twenty four Wistar rats were divided into two treated groups and two controls groups. The controls received water and the treated received 25mg/kg/day of A. muricata by gavage for ten days. One hour after the last dose, the first treated group received {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and the second sodium {sup 99m}Tc-phytate (0.66MBq each group), both via orbital plexus. Controls followed the same protocol. Forty min later, all groups were sacrificed and the blood, kidney and bladder were isolated from the first treated group and the blood, spleen and liver isolated from the second treated group. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated using a gamma counter. Results: the statistical analysis showed that there was a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the uptake of %ATI/g in bladder (0.11±0.01and1.60±0.08), kidney (3.52±0.51and11.84±1.57) and blood (0.15±0.01and 0.54±0.05) between the treated group and control group, respectively. Conclusion: the A. muricata hydroalcoholic extract negatively influenced the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in bladder, kidney and blood of rats (author)

  16. Cura Annonae-Chemically Boosting Crop Yields Through Metabolic Feeding of a Plant Signaling Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocadlo, David J

    2017-05-22

    The cream of the crop: With the world facing a projected shortfall of crops by 2050, new approaches are needed to boost crop yields. Metabolic feeding of plants with photocaged trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) can increase levels of the signaling metabolite Tre6P in the plant. Reprogramming of cellular metabolism by Tre6P stimulates a program of plant growth and enhanced crop yields, while boosting starch content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Relationship between fruit traits of custard apple trees (Annona squamosa L.

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    Keny Henrique Mariguele

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate simple and partial coefficients of correlation, as well as to divide their effects into direct and indirect using path analysis for custard apple tree traits. Twenty half-sibling progenies were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replicates, and plots consisting of four plants. Six traits were evaluated in the first cropping season (mean number of seeds per fruit and mean weight of the pericarp, pulp, pedicel, seeds per fruit, and the whole fruit, while five traits were evaluated in the first three cropping seasons (mean fruit length and width, total number of fruits ha-1, mean fruit weight (in both types of analyses, and fruit yield in kg ha-1. The results of this work led to the conclusion that doing selection based on simple correlation estimates may not be convenient, since not always a cause and effect relationship can be verified between two traits. Positive correlations were obtained between number of seeds and seed weight, and between number of fruits and yield. The greatest direct effects were those obtained for pulp weight on fruit weight and for mean number and weight of fruits on fruit yield. The most important indirect effects were obtained for number of seeds and pericarp weight, obtained via pulp weight, on fruit weight, and for fruit length and width, obtained via mean fruit weight, on fruit yield.

  18. Fungos endofíticos em Annona spp.: isolamento, caracterização enzimática e promoção do crescimento em mudas de pinha (Annona squamosa L. Endophytic fungi of Annona spp.: isolation, enzymatic characterization of isolates and plant growth promotion in Annona squamosa L. seedlings

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    Roberta Lane de Oliveira Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de folhas, caules e raízes de plantas de pinha e graviola coletadas em Pernambuco foram obtidos 110 e 90 isolados fúngicos endofíticos, respectivamente. Vinte e nove isolados foram selecionados e avaliados quanto à produção de enzimas extracelulares, através do método qualitativo em placas com meios sólidos específicos, e à capacidade de estimular o crescimento de mudas de pinha. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes aos gêneros Acremonium (10,34%, Aspergillus (3,45%, Chaetomium (3,45%, Colletotrichum (10,34%, Cylindrocladium (13,8%, Fusarium (31,03%, Glomerella (3,45%, Nigrospora (6,9%, Penicillium (6,9% e Phomopsis (10,34%. Dezenove isolados apresentaram atividade lipolítica, cinco atividade proteolítica e nenhum deles atividades celulolítica ou amilolítica. Onze isolados dos gêneros Acremonium (GFR6 e GRR1, Colletotrichum (GFR4 e PFR4, Phomopsis (PFR3 e GCR4, Cylindrocladium (GRR4, Chaetomium (GRR7 e Fusarium (GRR5, PRR1 e PRR6 promoveram eficientemente o crescimento vegetal. Os índices de aumento da biomassa seca da parte aérea de mudas de pinha variou de 23,2 a 32,7%, sendo que nenhum isolado promoveu a biomassa seca da raiz. Destaca-se também que 20 isolados apresentaram efeito deletério significativo (P = 0,05 na biomassa seca da raiz das mudas de pinha. Em tecidos aparentemente sadios de plantas de pinha e graviola são encontrados alguns fungos que podem promover o crescimento da parte aérea, como também reduzir o crescimento da raiz e outros sem efeito no crescimento de mudas de pinha.Endophytic isolates of fungi were obtained from leaves, stems and roots of 110 sweetsop and 90 soursop plants from Pernambuco. Twenty-nine isolates were analyzed for production of extracellular enzymes by qualitative assay in Petri dishes containing specific solid media, and for the capacity to promote growth of sweetsop seedlings. These isolates were identified as Acremonium (10.34%, Aspergillus (3.45%, Chaetomium (3.45%, Colletotrichum (10.34%, Cylindrocladium (13.8%, Fusarium (31.03%, Glomerella (3.45%, Nigrospora (6.9%, Penicillium (6.9% and Phomopsis (10.34%. Nineteen isolates showed lypolytic activity while five showed proteolytic activity; cellulolytic and amylolytic activity were not detected. Eleven isolates of the genera Acremonium (GFR6 and GRR1, Colletotrichum (GFR4 and PFR4, Phomopsis (PFR3 and GCR4, Cylindrocladium (GRR4, Chaetomium (GRR7 and Fusarium (GRR5, PRR1 and PRR6 efficiently improved plant growth. Increase in shoot dry matter of sweetsop seedlings ranged from 23.2 to 32.7%; there was no increase in root dry matter. It is worthy of note that 20 isolates caused significant (P = 0.05 reduction in root dry matter of sweetsop seedlings. In apparently healthy tissues of sweetsop and soursop plants, some fungi promote shoot growth or reduce root growth, while others have no effect on growth of sweetsop seedlings.

  19. Genetic diversity in sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. by using RAPD markers

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    João Filipi Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in a collection of 64 sugar apple accessions collected from different municipalities in northern Minas Gerais was assessed by RAPD analysis. Using 20 selected RAPD primers 167 fragments were generated, of which 48 were polymorphic (28.7% producing an average of 2.4 polymorphic fragments per primer. Low percentage of polymorphism (< 29% was observed by using the set of primers indicating low level of genetic variation among the 64 accessions evaluated. Genetic relationships were estimated using Jaccard's coefficient of similarity. Accessions from different municipalities clustered together indicating no correlation between molecular grouping and geographical origin. The dendrogram revealed five clusters. The first cluster grouped C19 and G29 accessions collected from the municipalities of Verdelândia and Monte Azul, respectively. The second cluster grouped G16 and B11 accessions collected from the municipalities of Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus, respectively. The remaining accessions were grouped in three clusters, with 8, 15 and 37 accessions, respectively. In summary, RAPD showed a low percentage of polymorphism in the germplasm collection.

  20. Annona muricata leaves have strongest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells

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    Susi Endrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plant-derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine throughout the world for thousands of years and are providing mankind with new remedies. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves and pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L. Lam. on the hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 cell line. METHODS This study used two types of solvents (water and ethanol in the extraction process and two incubation times (24 hours and 48 hours in the MTT assays to analyze the cytotoxic effects of both plants. RESULTS Preliminary results showed that the ethanolic extract of soursop leaves (SE displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 on 24- and 48-hour incubation times with IC50 values of 88.788 μg/ml and 14.678 μg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic pearl grass extract (PE showed similar results, with IC50 values of 65.011 μg/ ml on 24-hour incubation time and 52.329 μg/ml on 48-hour incubation time against MCF-7 cell line. However, the water extract of both plants displayed lower cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSION The ethanolic extract of both plants displayed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7. Soursop (Anona muricata Linn leaves have the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  1. Annona crassiflora Mart. fruit pulp effects on biochemical parameters and rat colon carcinogenesis

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    Vinícius Paula Venâncio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A. crassiflora Mart. a Brazilian savannah fruit, is a source of phytochemical compounds that possess a wide array of biological activities, including free radical scavenging. This native fruit proved to potentialize the mutagenic process in previous in vivo investigations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake on colonic cell proliferation and on the development of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF in male Wistar rats. The animals were fed with either a commercial diet or a diet supplemented with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp mixed in 1%, 10% or 20% (w/w for 4 weeks or 20 weeks. The carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (4 doses, 40 mg kg-1 each was used to induce colonic ACF. After euthanasia, the blood, liver and colon samples were collected for biochemical determinations, oxidative stress or ACF development analysis, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of the colonic mucosa were performed using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in normal-appearing colonic crypt and β-catenin in ACF. There was no ACF development in the colon from groups treated with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp. Also, the biochemical and oxidative stress analysis, PCNA labeling and ACF development (number, multiplicity or cellular localization of β-catenin were unchanged as a result of marolo pulp intake. Thus, the present results suggest that A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake did not exert any protective effect in the colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats.

  2. Pre-harvest deterioration of Sour sop (Annona muricata) at Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPEY A.

    were then plated on to potato dextrose agar (PDA) in petri dishes and incubated for six days under alternating 12-hour light and dark periods at 26°C. Fungal cultures ... mounts of hyphal/asexual structures obtained from these infected materials were stained with lactophenol in cotton blue and viewed under the compound ...

  3. Potencial estabilizante de éster de sacarose em suco de graviola (Annona muricata, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Neta, N.; Gallão, M. I.; Rodrigues, S.; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros; Rodrigues, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Esteres de sacarose são compostos com propriedades tensoativas (biosurfactantes), isto é, capazes de reduzir a tensão superficial e promover a emulsificação de líquidos imiscíveis. Como todas as emulsões, o suco de graviola não é fisicamente estável e é propenso a uma separação de fases. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação do éster de sacarose na estabilização de emulsões de suco de graviola. O éster de sacarose foi adicionado às amostras de suco de graviola nas proporções...

  4. PENGARUH PROSES FERMENTASI KOMBUCHA DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN C

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    Ike Apriani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented beverage of tea and sugar with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast, consumed for its beneficial effect on human health.  Kombucha contains antioxidant activity compounds.Yet, many research studies have shown that Soursop leaves contain vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta carotene, and flavoloids.  The purpose of this study was to determine the activity levels of vitamin C kombucha tea leaves of the soursop, The research was conducted in September 2016 in Chemistry Laboratory of Biology Education Study Program, Teaching Training and  Ilmu Tarbiyah Faculty UIN Raden Fatah Palembang. The research method was an experimental laboratory using a Completly Randomized Design (CRD with 2 factors, the first factor was fermentation days (0 day (F1, 4 day (F2, 8 day (F3 and 12 day (F4, and the second factor was the levels of soursop leaf tea is used (0 gr (K1, 20 gr (K2, 40 gr (K3, and 60 gr (K4 with 3 replications. The results showed that there is a very real influence and interaction between fermentation days and content of soursop leaf tea is used to the levels of vitamin C. The highest levels of vitamin C present in the sample F4K4 (12 day / 60 gr of 343.79 mg / 100 mL, and lowest vitamin C levels in samples F4K1 (12 day / without leaves of the soursop amounted to 36.37 mg / 100 mL. The conclusion of this research is long fermentation and content of soursop leaves influence on the vitamin C activity.

  5. Conservação refrigerada de cherimóia embalada em filme plástico com zeolite Cold storage of cherimoya packed with zeolit film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da embalagem plástica "zeolite" no retardamento da maturação de cherimóias, mantidas sob armazenamento refrigerado, colheram-se frutos de cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill., cv. Fino de Jete, de pomar comercial de Conceição dos Ouros (MG, no início de março de 2000. Selecionaram-se frutos de boa qualidade, os quais foram submetidos a dois tratamentos: a embalados com filme de polietileno coextrusado com incorporação de mineral tipo zeólito (zeolite e b controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram colocados em caixas de papelão e submetidos ao armazenamento refrigerado (12 ± 1 ºC; 90% a 95% de umidade relativa - UR no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas (SP. Avaliaram-se nos frutos: a perda de massa, a coloração externa, a aparência e a firmeza. Determinaram-se na polpa, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, o pH, o teor de acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT, ao longo de quatro semanas. Observou-se que os frutos do controle começaram a apresentar alterações físicas e químicas a partir do intervalo entre a segunda e a terceira semana de avaliação, apresentando-se consideravelmente depreciados na terceira semana, enquanto o tratamento com "zeolite" proporcionou melhor conservação dos frutos, até a quarta e última avaliação, tanto no aspecto estético, quanto nos atributos internos. Concluiu-se que os frutos não embalados podem ser conservados até por duas semanas em câmara a 12 ºC e 90% a 95% de UR e os embalados em "zeolite", mantidos sob essa temperatura até por quatro semanas.Fruits of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. cv. Fino of Jete were harvested from an orchard situated in Conceição dos Ouros - MG, Brazil, in March 2000. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the post harvest conservation of fruits packed with zeolite films. Fruits with better quality were selected and divided into two treatments: a packed with polyethylene coextrused

  6. Dinámica de las concentraciones de carbono y nitrógeno en la descomposición de hojarascas de cultivos subtropicales del sureste de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rocío Rodríguez Pleguezuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La descomposición de la hojarasca es una de las principales vías de consumo de energía en un ecosistema y uno de los pilares básicos en el ciclo de nutrientes. Por otro lado, en las últimas décadas, los cultivos subtropicales se han expandido de forma considerable en la costa de Granada (sureste de España. Para evaluar dichos ciclos se llevó a cabo un ensayo con bolsas utilizando para ello hojas de mango (Mangifera indica L., chirimoyo (Annona cherimola Mill., aguacate (Persea americana Mill. y níspero (Eriobotrya japonica L.. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un seguimiento de la dinámica de descomposición de las hojarascas producidas por el mango, aguacate, chirimoyo y níspero, y de la evolución de su contenido en carbono y nitrógeno en condiciones de clima mediterráneo subtropical. Las bolsas fueron enterradas y se recuperaron cada cierto tiempo para evaluar la concentración de carbono y nitrógeno, así como la pérdida de masa en cada una de ellas. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron de forma evidente que los agricultores pueden beneficiarse del conocimiento de la dinámica de nutrientes en hojarasca para mejorar la materia orgánica en el suelo a largo plazo y la incorporación de nitrógeno. En este sentido, el níspero y el mango mostraron las mayores tasas de acumulación de nitrógeno y, por lo tanto, la biomasa de estas especies podría ser utilizada como enmiendas de tipo orgánico a largo plazo. Por el contrario, el chirimoyo acumuló mayores cantidades de carbono que el resto de los cultivos estudiados.

  7. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  8. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  9. Conservación y uso de los recursos genéticos de Annonaceae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis sobre la conservación y el uso de los recursos genéticos de especies frutales de la familia Annonaceae en México. El diagnóstico realizado en 2010 por la Red de Anonáceas (REMA del Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI sirvió para tal fin y fue complementado por estudios recientes. Partimos de una revisión de registros de herbarios de la Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (REMIB además de recoger información con productores de comunidades rurales y recorridos de campo en estados del país donde las anonáceas se distribuyen. En México se encuentran 14 géneros y 63 especies de Annonaceae distribuidas principalmente en regiones tropicales del Sureste de México. La conservación in situ es esporádica, se está dando en huertos de traspatio para la guanábana (Annona muricata, chirimoya (A. cherimola, chincuya (A. purpurea y saramuyo (A. squamosa principalmente. La anona (A. reticulata, ilama (A. diversifolia y chincuya (A. purpurea son fomentadas pero no multiplicadas. La conservación ex situ se mantiene en bancos de germoplasma in vivo o colecciones de trabajo para guanábana (30 colectas, chirimoya (70 colectas e ilama (100 colectas solamente. Las semillas de estas especies no son ortodoxas y su conservación a mediano y largo plazo no está resuelta en México. El potencial de cultivo para este grupo de frutales es alto pero problemas de falta de variedades, fitosanidad, falta de tecnología y mercados reducidos limitan el cultivo comercial.

  10. Identificação de espécies de Colletotrichum associados à antracnose em plantas de atemóia e colonização do fungo nos frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A atemóia é um híbrido Annona cherimola com A. squamosa. A antracnose, causada por Colletotrichum sp., é uma importante doença da atemóia, causando danos em diferentes órgãos da planta, destacando àqueles causados nos frutos, tanto na pré como na pós-colheita. Diante deste problema, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a identificação de espécies de Colletotrichum associados à antracnose em plantas de atemóia através do seqüenciamento de diferentes regiões do DNA deste fungo e acompanhar as etapas de colonização de frutos de atemóia por este fungo através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Após extração de DNA, foi realizado o seqüenciamento dos genes da β-tubulina e α-elongase e da região do ITS-5.8S rDNA do DNA dos fungos. Das 15 amostras sequenciadas seis foram identificadas como Colletotrichum acutatum e as outras foram identificadas como C. boninense. A espécie C. acutatum foi encontrada somente em amostras obtidas de folhas de atemóia, enquanto que a espécies C. boninense foi identificada de amostras obtidas de frutos, ramos e folhas doentes. Todas as etapas da doença ocorreram nas 48 horas, sendo que foi observada a germinação dos esporos entre duas e quatro horas após a inoculação

  11. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  12. por aplicación de 6-bencilaminopurina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaran A. Morales P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. es climatérica, su vida poscosecha se acorta por el bronceado de cáscara y ablandamiento del fruto. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto poscosecha de la aplicación de 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP en chirimoya ‘Fino de Jete’. Los frutos se seleccionaron aleatoriamente de la parte media y basal de la copa de seis árboles y se les aplicó 1,0 mM o 0 mM BAP. Los frutos permanecieron en el árbol 8 y 15 días después de la aplicación; después de la cosecha se transportaron por 1,5 h y se almacenaron en refrigeración (TR (6 °C o temperatura ambiente (TA (16 ± 2 °C. A partir de 1 y hasta 15 días después de cosecha (DDC, cada tercer día se analizó pérdida de peso, color L*, a* y b*, firmeza y deformación de fruto. Después de 15 días de almacenamiento a TA, 1 mM BAP aplicado en cualquier fecha redujo el oscurecimiento poscosecha de la cáscara, conservando el color L* más de 35% en relación al control (ρ ≤ 0,05.

  13. The role of ABC genes in shaping perianth phenotype in the basal angiosperm Magnolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, M; Dołzbłasz, A; Zagórska-Marek, B

    2016-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the genus Magnolia is characterised by an undifferentiated perianth, typically organised into three whorls of nearly identical tepals. In some species, however, we encountered interesting and significant perianth modifications. In Magnolia acuminata, M. liliiflora and M. stellata the perianth elements of the first whorl are visually different from the others. In M. stellata the additional, spirally arranged perianth elements are present above the first three whorls, which suggests that they have been formed within the domain of stamen primordia. In these three species, we analysed expression patterns of the key flower genes (AP1, AGL6, AP3, PI, AG) responsible for the identity of flower elements and correlated them with results of morphological and anatomical investigations. In all studied species the elements of the first whorl lacked the identity of petals (lack of AP3 and PI expression) but also that of leaves (presence of AGL6 expression), and this seems to prove their sepal character. The analysis of additional perianth elements of M. stellata, spirally arranged on the elongated floral axis, revealed overlapping and reduced activity of genes involved in specification of the identity of the perianth (AGL6) but also of generative parts (AG), even though no clear gradient of morphological changes could be observed. In conclusion, Magnolia genus is capable of forming, in some species, a perianth differentiated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). Spirally arranged, additional perianth elements of M. stellata, despite activity of AG falling basipetally, resemble petals. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eDattolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in the shallow (-5m and a deep (-25m portions of a single meadow, (i we generated two reciprocal EST (Expressed Sequences Tags libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear o be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed.

  15. Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabath, Niv; Goldberg, Emma E; Glick, Lior; Einhorn, Moshe; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Ming, Ray; Otto, Sarah P; Vamosi, Jana C; Mayrose, Itay

    2016-02-01

    Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious and nondioecious species. We then applied a probabilistic approach that accounts for differential speciation, extinction, and transition rates between states to examine whether there is an association between dioecy and lineage diversification. We found a bimodal distribution, whereby dioecious lineages exhibited higher diversification in certain genera but lower diversification in others. Additional analyses did not uncover an ecological or life history trait that could explain a context-dependent effect of dioecy on diversification. Furthermore, in-depth simulations of neutral characters demonstrated that such bimodality is also found when simulating neutral characters across the observed trees. Our analyses suggest that - at least for these genera with the currently available data - dioecy neither consistently places a strong brake on diversification nor is a strong driver. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  17. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattolo, Emanuela; Gu, Jenny; Bayer, Philipp E; Mazzuca, Silvia; Serra, Ilia A; Spadafora, Antonia; Bernardo, Letizia; Natali, Lucia; Cavallini, Andrea; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in shallow (-5 m) and deep (-25 m) portions of a single meadow, (i) we generated two reciprocal Expressed Sequences Tags (EST) libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii) we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM) engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear to be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed.

  18. Theoretical and experimental determination of phloem translocation speeds in gymnosperm and angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, K.; Minchin, P.

    2013-01-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Carbohydrate translocation in the phloem is a fundamental aspect of tree physiology with relevance for tree...... crop performance and climate change. In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental data on the carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem....

  19. Retention of lignin in seagrasses: angiosperms that returned to the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, V.A.; Hemminga, M.A.; Boon, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using Curie-point Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Direct Temperature-resolved Mass Spectrometry (DT-MS), lignin was detected in highly purified preparations (Milled Wood Lignin = MWL) of various tissues of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Posidonia oceanica. The results

  20. Roots of angiosperm formins: The evolutionary history of plant FH2 domain-containing proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grunt, M.; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, Art_115 (2008), s. 1-19 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0268; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT * TYROSINE-PHOSPHATASE * SWISS-MODEL Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.050, year: 2008

  1. The Use of Arabidopsis to Study Interactions between Parasitic Angiosperms and Their Plant Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwasser, Y.; Westwood, J. H.; Yoder, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    Parasitic plants invade host plants in order to rob them of water, minerals and nutrients. The consequences to the infected hosts can be debilitating and some of the world's most pernicious agricultural weeds are parasitic. Parasitic genera of the Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae directly invade roots of neighboring plants via underground structures called haustoria. The mechanisms by which these parasites identify and associate with host plants present unsurpassed opportunities for studying chemical signaling in plant-plant interactions. Seeds of some parasites require specific host factors for efficient germination, thereby insuring the availability of an appropriate host root prior to germination. A second set of signal molecules is required to induce haustorium development and the beginning of heterotrophy. Later stages in parasitism also require the presence of host factors, although these have not yet been well characterized. Arabidopsis is being used as a model host plant to identify genetic loci associated with stimulating parasite germination, haustorium development, and parasite support. Arabidopsis is also being employed to explore how host plants respond to parasite attack. Current methodologies and recent findings in Arabidopsis – parasitic plant interactions will be discussed. PMID:22303205

  2. Angiosperm flora and biogeography of the páramo region of Colombia, northern Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, C.; Cleef, A.; Madriñan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Páramo is the neotropical high elevation ecosystem in the northern Andes and Central America consisting of multiple dissected open areas above 3000 m a.s.l. Complex evolutionary processes that occurred within these ecosystems gave rise to a unique tropical Andean flora. Previous phytogeographical

  3. Continued expansion of the trans-Atlantic invasive marine angiosperm Halophila stipulacea in the Eastern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willette, D.A.; Chalifour, J.; Debrot, A.O.; Engel, M.S.; Miller, J.; Oxenford, H.A.; Short, F.T.; Steiner, S.; Vedie, F.

    2014-01-01

    Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) is reported for the first time from Aruba, Curaçao, Grenadines (Grenada), St. Eustatius, St. John (US Virgin Islands), St. Martin (France), and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, bringing the total number of known occurrences from eastern Caribbean islands to 19.

  4. Floral phenology, secondary pollen presentation and pollination mechanism in Inula racemosa (Angiosperms: Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Shabir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa Hook. f. is protandrous, discharges pollen grains inside the anther tube and presents pollen secondarily onto the sweeping hairs of the style. The style and stigmatic branches present the yellow clumped pollen grains for pollination. This study describes floral functional morphology and phenology, anther dehiscence and pollen presentation, growth and behaviour of style during anthesis and pollination mechanism of I. racemosa. The species is entomophilous and is characterized by a highly asynchronous sexual phase. A large degree of asynchrony from floret to floret in a capitulum, and capitulum to capitulum in a plant, keeps the pollen dispersed for a longer duration. Two insect families were represented in the pollinator survey: Hymenoptera and Diptera. A significant correlation was observed between the number of capitula visited per bout and foraging time. We discuss morphological features of the ?owers which may enhance the pollen removal rate per bee visit and consequently cause a high visitation and pollination rate.

  5. The architecture of the chloroplast trnH-psbA non-coding region in angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena; Olson, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 268, 1-4 (2007), s. 235-256 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Grant - others:ESPSCor Visiting Scholar Research Grant(US) NSF DEB 0317115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Chloroplast DNA * psbA-trnH intergenic region * Silene * deletions * insertions and inversions in stem-loop region * psbA 3´untranslated region * RNA secondary structure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2007

  6. Integration of vessel traits, wood density, and height in angiosperm shrubs and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Schenk, H Jochen; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R S; Jones, Cynthia S

    2011-05-01

    Trees and shrubs tend to occupy different niches within and across ecosystems; therefore, traits related to their resource use and life history are expected to differ. Here we analyzed how growth form is related to variation in integration among vessel traits, wood density, and height. We also considered the ecological and evolutionary consequences of such differences. In a sample of 200 woody plant species (65 shrubs and 135 trees) from Argentina, Mexico, and the United States, standardized major axis (SMA) regression, correlation analyses, and ANOVA were used to determine whether relationships among traits differed between growth forms. The influence of phylogenetic relationships was examined with a phylogenetic ANOVA and phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs). A principal component analysis was conducted to determine whether trees and shrubs occupy different portions of multivariate trait space. Wood density did not differ between shrubs and trees, but there were significant differences in vessel diameter, vessel density, theoretical conductivity, and as expected, height. In addition, relationships between vessel traits and wood density differed between growth forms. Trees showed coordination among vessel traits, wood density, and height, but in shrubs, wood density and vessel traits were independent. These results hold when phylogenetic relationships were considered. In the multivariate analyses, these differences translated as significantly different positions in multivariate trait space occupied by shrubs and trees. Differences in trait integration between growth forms suggest that evolution of growth form in some lineages might be associated with the degree of trait interrelation.

  7. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO 2 reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO 2 for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO 2 , but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO 2 on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO 2 , at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO 2 on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO 2 on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid

  8. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.; Rouzé , Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Tö pel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boströ m, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W.; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T.; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J.; Pearson, Gareth A.; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  9. Genome size variation in Macaronesian Angiosperms: Forty Percent of Canarian Endemic Flora Completed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suda, Jan; Kyncl, Tomáš; Jarolímová, Vlasta

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 252, 3-4 (2005), s. 215-238 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/1445; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0081; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : genome size * cytometry * Macaronesia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2005

  10. Divergent Evolutionary Patterns of NAC Transcription Factors Are Associated with Diversification and Gene Duplications in Angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Jin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC proteins constitute one of the biggest plant-specific transcription factor (TF families and have crucial roles in diverse developmental programs during plant growth. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed both conserved and lineage-specific NAC subfamilies, among which various origins and distinct features were observed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that there should be divergent evolutionary patterns of NAC TFs both between dicots and monocots, and among NAC subfamilies. In this study, we compared the gene duplication and loss, evolutionary rate, and selective pattern among non-lineage specific NAC subfamilies, as well as those between dicots and monocots, through genome-wide analyses of sequence and functional data in six dicot and five grass lineages. The number of genes gained in the dicot lineages was much larger than that in the grass lineages, while fewer gene losses were observed in the grass than that in the dicots. We revealed (1 uneven constitution of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs and contrasting birth/death rates among subfamilies, and (2 two distinct evolutionary scenarios of NAC TFs between dicots and grasses. Our results demonstrated that relaxed selection, resulting from concerted gene duplications, may have permitted substitutions responsible for functional divergence of NAC genes into new lineages. The underlying mechanism of distinct evolutionary fates of NAC TFs shed lights on how evolutionary divergence contributes to differences in establishing NAC gene subfamilies and thus impacts the distinct features between dicots and grasses.

  11. Enhanced thermal stability of the thylakoid membranes from spruce. A comparison with selected angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Václav; Kurasová, Irena; Ptáčková, B.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 130, 1-3 (2016), s. 357-371 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * Thermal stability * Circular dichroism * Photosystem II organization * Thylakoid membrane Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  12. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dexter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin.

  13. Floristic composition and growth of weeds under custard apple (Annona squamosa progenies Composição florística e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de progênies de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Weeds have a negative influence on several fruit tree characteristics, such as yield, making it difficult to management practices in orchards. Alternative weed management methods, aiming to reduce the use of herbicides, have become attractive since herbicides are costly and cause environmental degradation. The use of cultivars with greater competitive ability against weeds has attracted international attention. The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition and growth of weeds under the canopies of irrigated custard apple tree progenies. Twenty halfsibling progenies around three years of age were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. A circle with a 0.5 m² area was established around the trunk of each plant. Floristic composition, fresh matter, and dry matter mass of the above-ground part of the weeds, were evaluated in this area. Root collar and canopy diameters, as well as leaf area of the progenies were also evaluated. Fifty-eight weed species were recorded. The five weed families with the most species were Leguminosae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae and Sterculiaceae, in decreasing order. The number of weed species per plot ranged from 6 to 18, but there was no difference between the mean percentages of different weeds under the canopies of the progenies. The lowest weed fresh and dry matter masses occurred in progenies JG1 and SM8, respectively. There were no differences between progenies with regard to root collar diameter and leaf area; however, one of the lowest weed dry matter yields was observed under the canopy of progeny FE4, which showed the largest canopy diameter.As plantas daninhas (PD afetam várias características das fruteiras, inclusive o rendimento, e podem dificultar a execução de tratos culturais nos pomares. Existe interesse em métodos alternativos de manejo das PD, visando reduzir o uso de herbicidas, que são caros e causam degradação ambiental. Dentre esses métodos, a adoção de cultivares com maior habilidade competitiva com as PD tem despertado atenção internacional. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a composição florística e o crescimento de PD sob a copa de progênies de pinheira irrigadas. Vinte progênies de meias-irmãs, com idade aproximada de três anos, foram avaliadas no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Ao redor do caule de cada planta estabeleceu-se um círculo com área de 0,5 m². Nessa área, foram avaliadas a composição e as massas das matérias fresca e seca da parte aérea das PD. Avaliaram-se também os diâmetros do colo e da copa e a área da folha das progênies. Ocorreram 58 espécies de PD. As famílias com maior número de espécies, em ordem decrescente, foram Leguminosae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae e Sterculiaceae. O número de espécies de PD/parcela variou de 6 a 18, porém não houve diferença entre a porcentagem média de diferentes PD sob a copa das progênies. As menores massas de matérias fresca e seca de PD ocorreram nas progênies JG1 e SM8, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças entre progênies quanto a diâmetro do colo e área foliar, mas sob a copa da progênie FE4, que apresentou o maior diâmetro da copa, observou-se um dos menores rendimentos de matéria seca de PD.

  14. Efeito de horários de polinização artificial no pegamento e qualidade de frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L. Effect of artificial polllination improving fruit set and quality of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem se destacado como grande produtor de frutas, especialmente a pinha. A cultura é encontrada desde o norte do país até o estado de São Paulo. Atualmente, o cultivo desta fruteira se espalhou, com a ocorrência de grandes áreas em vários estados brasileiros. A polinização inadequada é um dos fatores limitantes na produção comercial destes frutos. Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da polinização artificial foram utilizadas 20 plantas provenientes de um pomar comercial de pinha localizado no município de Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. As flores foram polinizadas no estádio de fêmea por meio do uso de um pincel número dois. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos de seis horários de polinização (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10 horas, com cinco repetições, utilizando-se 10 flores por parcela. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de pegamento dos frutos, o comprimento, o diâmetro e o peso dos frutos, a porcentagem de frutos desuniformes, o peso da casca, polpa e sementes, o número de sementes e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Os melhores tratamentos para as características de peso de frutos e porcentagem de pegamento foram obtidos entre 6 e 10 horas. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais não foi afetado. Foram detectadas correlações positivas e significativas para os seguintes pares de caracteres: peso de fruto e diâmetro e peso de fruto e peso de casca.Nowadays Brazil is an important productor of tropical fruits, especially sugar apple. The sugar apple is widely grown in all Brazilians states. An inadequate pollination is one of the factors limiting the commercial production of sugar apple fruits. In order to study the effects of artificial pollination were used 20 plants from a commercial orchad of sugar apple originated from Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. The flowers were pollinated in the female stage using a number two brush. The experiment was performed in a randomized design, with six treatments composed by different times of artificial pollination (5:00, 6:00, 7:00, 8:00, 9:00 and 10:00 o'clock. Three months after pollination the fruits were harvest and store at room temperature. The following characteristics were evaluated: soluble solids content; pulp, skin and seed mass; seed number; fruit uniformity; fruit set percentage; lenght, diameter and mass of fruit. The most efficient treatments to fruit set and fruit mass were obtained between 6:00 and 10:00 o'clock. Soluble solids content was not affected. Positive and significant phenotypic correlations were observed for the traits pairs: fruit mass and diameter and fruit mass and skin mass.

  15. Produção de porta-enxertos em tubetes e enxertia precoce da pinheira (Annona squamosa L. Production of rootstocks in tubettes and early grafting of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Eduardo Pinto de Lemos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo para a enxertia precoce de pinheira em porta-enxertos produzidos em tubetes como substituto do tradicional sistema de enxertia que utiliza porta-enxertos de 12 meses produzidos em sacolas plásticas. O trabalho foi conduzido com três métodos de enxertia (borbulhia em escudo, garfagem de topo em fenda cheia e garfagem lateral em fenda cheia e quatro idades dos porta-enxertos (3; 5; 7 e 9 meses. Os porta-enxertos foram avaliados durante nove meses com relação às variáveis: comprimento da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar. Cada procedimento de enxertia foi avaliado por 30 dias através da percentagem de pegamento. Os porta-enxertos produzidos nos tubetes maiores apresentaram-se mais desenvolvidos para todas as variáveis, todavia a percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos foi mais influenciada pelo método de enxertia do que pelo tamanho de tubete. A garfagem de topo em fenda cheia mostrou-se como o melhor método para a enxertia precoce, pois já aos três meses de idade dos porta-enxertos apresentou taxa de pegamento de 96,69%. O método de garfagem lateral em fenda cheia apresentou taxas semelhantes a partir dos cinco meses de idade dos porta-enxertos. O método de borbulhia apresentou baixo pegamento inicial (The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for early grafting in sugar apple seedlings developed in small capacity plastic tubettes as a substitute for the traditional grafting system that uses 12 months-old seedlings developed in plastic bags. The work was carried out with three budding/grafting methods (chip budding, split graft and side-stub graft and four rootstocks ages (3, 5, 7 and 9 months. The rootstocks were evaluated for 9 months with regard to the following variables: length of the plant, diameter of stem, leaf number and leaf area. Each budding/grafting procedure was evaluated after 30 days and the percentage of union. The rootstocks produced in bigger tubetes showed to be more developed for all variables during the evaluated period. The success of the union did not vary between the two types of containers. The split graft revealed to be the best method as it presented a 96,69% union success in the early 3 month-old rootstocks. The method side-stub graft presented similar percentage rates from 5 months-old rootstocks. The chip budding method initially presented a low success union rate (<50%, but it increased at each new budding date and reached 80% union success in 7 months-old rootstocks.

  16. Aspectos da biologia floral relacionados à produção de frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L. = Floral biology aspects related to the production of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Generosa Sousa Ribeiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O Estado da Bahia é o maior produtor de pinha no Brasil, apresentando uma área produtiva que ultrapassa os 5.400 ha. Para a boa produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, estudos relacionados à polinização são fundamentais e fornecem dados que subsidiamprogramas de fitomelhoramento. Este trabalho objetivou o estudo de aspectos da biologia floral relacionados à produção de frutos de pinha. O estudo foi realizado em dois pomares comerciais da região Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia, compreendendo: observação dodesenvolvimento floral; coleta e armazenamento dos grãos de pólen em duas condições de temperatura; análise da viabilidade e germinabilidade do pólen e polinização manual em cinco horários após a coleta do pólen. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi ointeiramente casualizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a antese ocorre às 5 horas da manhã nas condições edafoclimáticas avaliadas; os grãos de pólen permanecem viáveis por até 12 horas, permitindo a produção de frutos com peso comercial.The State of Bahia is the largest producer of sugar apple inBrazil, reaching a production area of 5,400 ha. In order to ensure good fruit productivity and quality, studies related to pollination are essential, and provide data that subsidize phyto-improvement programs. The objective of this work was the study of floral biologyaspects linked to the production of sugar apple. The study was carried out in two commercial orchards in the Southwestern region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, comprising the following steps: observation of the morphological characteristics of the flowers;collection and storage of pollen grains under two temperature conditions; analysis of the viability and pollen germinability; and manual pollination at five different times after collecting the pollen grains. The experimental design used was entirely randomized blocks. The results provided by the regression analysis and by the variance analysis enabled the conclusion that: Anthesis occurs at 5 a.m., and that the pollen grains preserved in a refrigerator (5 to 7ºC are still viable up to 12 hours after collected, enabling the production of fruits with commercially accepted weight.

  17. Effects of Soursop flowers (Annona muricata L. extract on chemical changes of refined palm olein stored at frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonfack Djikeng Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant activity of soursop flowers extract in delaying palm olein oxidation at frying temperature was assessed. The oil was supplemented with the extract at concentrations 200–1800 ppm, and stored in the oven at 180 °C for 6 days (4 h heating per day. Palm olein containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT served as positive control while the same oil without antioxidant (Control served as negative one, in order to monitor changes in oils. After each two heating days, oil samples were collected, and their chemical indexes were determined. Peroxide, para-anisidine, TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid and iodine values were the parameters evaluated. Additionally, the evolution of the fatty acid composition of each oil sample during the storage was assessed by gas-chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. Generally, palm olein samples containing the natural extract have exhibited the lowest rate of oxidation, and were efficient in limiting the destruction of unsaturated fatty acids in oil at frying temperature. The order of effectiveness in inhibiting oil oxidation was the following: PO + AnM1800ppm> PO + AnM1400ppm> PO + AnM1000ppm > PO + An.M600ppm> PO + An.M200ppm> PO + BHT200ppm = Control. From these results, it can be concluded that soursop flowers are a potent sources of natural antioxidants for stabilization of palm olein. Keywords: Soursop flowers, Stabilization, Natural antioxidant, Palm olein, Frying, Oxidative stability

  18. The effect of CMC and arabic gum stabilizer combination on the characteristics of soursop velva (Annona muricata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnanto, N. H. R.; Yudhistira, B.; Pertiwi, S. R.; Pangestika, A.

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of the combination of CMC and Arabic Gum stabilizer toward the soursop velva characteristics and to determine the best stabilizer combination of soursop velva. This study was performed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor: combination of CMC and Arabic Gum stabilizer using two sample replications and the analysis was repeated three times. The result showed that the use of the combination of CMC and Arabic Gum stabilizer gave a significant effect on the overrun value, melting power, total dissolved solids, moisture content, dietary fiber, taste, texture and overalls. Moreover, there were no significant effect on color and flavor of the soursop velva. The experiment showed that soursop velva F4 (3:1) was the best formula with overrun value 9.93%, the melting power was 22 minutes 52 seconds, the total dissolved solids 19,10°Brix, the moisture content 71.508%, dietary fiber 3.301% and it has sensory values of color, taste, flavor, texture, overall at 3.66, 3.267, 3.33, 4.06, 3.10 respectively.

  19. Antioxidant activities of some local bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubir, Titov

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health.

  20. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  1. Under Cover at Pre-Angiosperm Times: A Cloaked Phasmatodean Insect from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maomin; Béthoux, Olivier; Bradler, Sven; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.; Cui, Yingying; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Fossil species that can be conclusively identified as stem-relatives of stick- and leaf-insects (Phasmatodea) are extremely rare, especially for the Mesozoic era. This dearth in the paleontological record makes assessments on the origin and age of the group problematic and impedes investigations of evolutionary key aspects, such as wing development, sexual size dimorphism and plant mimicry. Methodology/Principal Findings A new fossil insect species, Cretophasmomima melanogramma Wang, Béthoux and Ren sp. nov., is described on the basis of one female and two male specimens recovered from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous, ca. 126±4 mya; Inner Mongolia, NE China; known as ‘Jehol biota’). The occurrence of a female abdominal operculum and of a characteristic ‘shoulder pad’ in the forewing allows for the interpretation of a true stem-Phasmatodea. In contrast to the situation in extant forms, sexual size dimorphism is only weakly female-biased in this species. The peculiar wing coloration, viz. dark longitudinal veins, suggests that the leaf-shaped plant organ from the contemporaneous ‘gymnosperm’ Membranifolia admirabilis was used as model for crypsis. Conclusions/Significance As early as in the Early Cretaceous, some stem-Phasmatodea achieved effective leaf mimicry, although additional refinements characteristic of recent forms, such as curved fore femora, were still lacking. The diversification of small-sized arboreal insectivore birds and mammals might have triggered the acquisition of such primary defenses. PMID:24646906

  2. Apps for Angiosperms: The Usability of Mobile Computers and Printed Field Guides for UK Wild Flower and Winter Tree Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated usability of mobile computers and field guide books with adult botanical novices, for the identification of wildflowers and deciduous trees in winter. Identification accuracy was significantly higher for wildflowers using a mobile computer app than field guide books but significantly lower for deciduous trees. User preference…

  3. Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. n. sp., a putative monocotyledon angiosperm from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (northeast Brazil contains plant remains, here described as Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. and n. sp., consisting of shoot fragments with jointed trifurcate axes, each axis bearing a single amplexicaul serrate leaf at the apex. The leaves show a flabellate acrodromous to parallelodromous venation pattern, with several primary, secondary and higher order cross-veins. This very unique fossil taxon shares many characters with monocots. However, this fossil taxon exhibits additional features which point to a partly reduced, and specialized plant, which probably enabled this plant to grow in (seasonally dry, even salty environments. In der unterkretazischen Cratoformation (Nordostbrasilien sind Pflanzenfossilien erhalten, die hier als Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. n. sp. beschrieben werden. Sie bestehen aus trifurcaten Achsen, mit einem apikalen amplexicaulen fächerförmigen serraten Blatt. Diese Blätter zeigen eine flabellate bis acrodrome-paralellodrome Aderung mit Haupt- und Nebenadern und transversale Adern 3. Ordnung. Diese Merkmale sind typisch für Monocotyledone. Allerdings weist dieses Taxon einige Merkmale auf, die weder bei rezenten noch fossilen Monocotyledonen beobachtet werden. Sie müssen als besondere Anpassungen an einen (saisonal trockenen und vielleicht übersalzenen Lebensraum dieser Pflanze interpretiert werden. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050121

  4. Genetic diversity of a clonal angiosperm near its range limit: The case of Cymodocea nodosa at the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, Filipe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrao, Ester Álvares

    2006-01-01

    The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa forms a unique community in the Canary Islands, where it is classified as an endangered species. Biogeographic theory predicts that clonal species on islands near their distributional limits might show lower proportions of sexual (versus clonal) reproduction, lower genetic diversity, and higher differentiation. We addressed these hypotheses by comparing the genetic structure of C. nodosa from 10 meadows in the 4 main Canary Islands with 2 Iberian sites (Atlantic ...

  5. Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Pagès, Jordi F.; Arthur, Rohan; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    While large herbivores can have strong impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, much less is known of their role in aquatic systems. We reviewed the literature to determine: (1) which large herbivores (>10 kg) have a (semi-)aquatic lifestyle and are important consumers of submerged vascular plants, (2)

  6. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Casta?o, Enrique; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plan...

  7. Potential arms race in the coevolution of primates and angiosperms: brazzein sweet proteins and gorilla taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Elaine E; Veilleux, Carrie C; Saltonstall, Kristin; Caccone, Adalgisa; Mundy, Nicholas I; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    We explored whether variation in the sweet taste receptor protein T1R3 in primates could contribute to differences in sweet taste repertoire among species, potentially reflecting coevolution with local plants. Specifically, we examined which primates are likely to be sweet "tasters" of brazzein, a protein found in the fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana that tastes intensely sweet to humans, but provides little energy. Sweet proteins like brazzein are thought to mimic the taste of sugars to entice seed dispersers. We examined the evolution of T1R3 and assessed whether primates are likely "deceived" by such biochemical mimicry. Using published and new sequence data for TAS1R3, we characterized 57 primates and other mammals at the two amino acid sites necessary to taste brazzein to determine which species are tasters. We further used dN/dS-based methods to look for statistical evidence of accelerated evolution in this protein across primate lineages. The taster genotype is shared across most catarrhines, suggesting that most African primates can be "tricked" into eating and dispersing P. brazzeana's seeds for little caloric gain. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), however, exhibit derived mutations at the two brazzein-critical positions, and although fruit is a substantial portion of the western gorilla diet, they have not been observed to eat P. brazzeana. Our analyses of protein evolution found no signature of positive selection on TAS1R3 along the gorilla lineage. We propose that the gorilla-specific mutations at the TAS1R3 locus encoding T1R3 could be a counter-adaptation to the false sweet signal of brazzein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identifying hidden rate changes in the evolution of a binary morphological character: the evolution of plant habit in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    The growth of phylogenetic trees in scope and in size is promising from the standpoint of understanding a wide variety of evolutionary patterns and processes. With trees comprised of larger, older, and globally distributed clades, it is likely that the lability of a binary character will differ significantly among lineages, which could lead to errors in estimating transition rates and the associated inference of ancestral states. Here we develop and implement a new method for identifying different rates of evolution in a binary character along different branches of a phylogeny. We illustrate this approach by exploring the evolution of growth habit in Campanulidae, a flowering plant clade containing some 35,000 species. The distribution of woody versus herbaceous species calls into question the use of traditional models of binary character evolution. The recognition and accommodation of changes in the rate of growth form evolution in different lineages demonstrates, for the first time, a robust picture of growth form evolution across a very large, very old, and very widespread flowering plant clade.

  9. Conserved-peptide upstream open reading frames (CPuORFs are associated with regulatory genes in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upstream open reading frames (uORFs are common in eukaryotic transcripts, but those that encode conserved peptides (CPuORFs occur in less than 1% of transcripts. The peptides encoded by three plant CPuORF families are known to control translation of the downstream ORF in response to a small signal molecule (sucrose, polyamines and phosphocholine. In flowering plants, transcription factors are statistically over-represented among genes that possess CPuORFs, and in general it appeared that many CPuORF genes also had other regulatory functions, though the significance of this suggestion was uncertain (Hayden and Jorgensen, 2007. Five years later the literature provides much more information on the functions of many CPuORF genes. Here we reassess the functions of 27 known CPuORF gene families and find that 22 of these families play a variety of different regulatory roles, from transcriptional control to protein turnover, and from small signal molecules to signal transduction kinases. Clearly then, there is indeed a strong association of CPuORFs with regulatory genes. In addition, 16 of these families play key roles in a variety of different biological processes. Most strikingly, the core sucrose response network includes three different CPuORFs, creating the potential for sophisticated balancing of the network in response to three different molecular inputs. We propose that the function of most CPuORFs is to modulate translation of a downstream major ORF (mORF in response to a signal molecule recognized by the conserved peptide and that because the mORFs of CPuORF genes generally encode regulatory proteins, many of them centrally important in the biology of plants, CPuORFs play key roles in balancing such regulatory networks.

  10. Deep sequencing of the Mexican avocado transcriptome, an ancient angiosperm with a high content of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Claudia Anahí; Albert, Victor A; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Kilaru, Aruna; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Cervantes-Luevano, Jacob Israel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-08-13

    Avocado (Persea americana) is an economically important tropical fruit considered to be a good source of fatty acids. Despite its importance, the molecular and cellular characterization of biochemical and developmental processes in avocado is limited due to the lack of transcriptome and genomic information. The transcriptomes of seeds, roots, stems, leaves, aerial buds and flowers were determined using different sequencing platforms. Additionally, the transcriptomes of three different stages of fruit ripening (pre-climacteric, climacteric and post-climacteric) were also analyzed. The analysis of the RNAseqatlas presented here reveals strong differences in gene expression patterns between different organs, especially between root and flower, but also reveals similarities among the gene expression patterns in other organs, such as stem, leaves and aerial buds (vegetative organs) or seed and fruit (storage organs). Important regulators, functional categories, and differentially expressed genes involved in avocado fruit ripening were identified. Additionally, to demonstrate the utility of the avocado gene expression atlas, we investigated the expression patterns of genes implicated in fatty acid metabolism and fruit ripening. A description of transcriptomic changes occurring during fruit ripening was obtained in Mexican avocado, contributing to a dynamic view of the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and the fruit ripening process.

  11. ANGIOSPERM FLAG SPECIES FOR MANGROVE CONSERVATION IN San AndrÉs Island (colombia ARE HIGHLY VULNERABLE AND locally rare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Murcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de especies bandera ha sido empleado en proyectos de conservación por 50 años. Se proponen aquí cinco especies nativas de la Isla de San Andrés como especies bandera para la conservación de los pocos remanentes de manglar en esta Isla: Bontia daphnoides (Myoporaceae, Canella winterana (Canellaceae, Eustoma exaltatum (Gentianaceae, Rhabdadenia biflora (Apocynaceae y Selenicereus grandiflorus (Cactaceae. Cuatro de estas especies son documentadas aquí por primera vez para el Archipiélago, y tres representan los primeros reportes para la Flora de Colombia, dos de ellos (Canellaceae y Myoporaceae a nivel de familia.

  12. Intraspecific variation in mitochondrial genome sequence, structure, and gene content in Silene vulgaris, an angiosperm with pervasive cytoplasmic male sterility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloan, D.B.; Müller, Karel; McCauley, D.; Taylor, D.R.; Štorchová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 4 (2012), s. 1228-1239 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0261; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA MŠk ME09035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) * gynodioecy * intracellular gene transfer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  13. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L.) PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L.) NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE; PASTORE, GLÁUCIA MARIA; BARBERY, SANDRA DRINA FERNANDEZ; GARCIA, NELSON HORÁCIO PEZOA; BRITO, EDY SOUSA DE; LIMA, CARLOS ALBERTO DE ALBUQUERQUE

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a obtenção e a utilização da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO) extraída de polpa de pinha madura na redução do teor de compostos polifenólicos com a finalidade de diminuir a adstringência e o amargor das amêndoas de cacau processadas na forma de "nibs". A PPO foi extraída com tampão fosfato de potássio 0,025M (pH 7,5), adicionando sulfato de amônio para a precipitação da enzima. O material em pó obtido foi denominado de enzima parcialmente purificada...

  14. Estudo do melhoramento do sabor de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) utilizando polifenoloxidase extraida da pinha (Annona squamosa L.) e tratamento termico não convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Drina Fernandez Barbery

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Existem grandes diferenças no sabor de cacau dependendo de sua origem de produção, certas regiões produzem amêndoas com excessivo sabor ácido e amargo e forte adstringência. Em geral as amêndoas de cacau produzidas no Brasil e na Malásia, têm apresentado teores excessivos de acidez comparados com amêndoas provenientes do leste africano, por este motivo estas amêndoas são utilizadas em quantidades limitadas nas formulações. A presença do ácido acético e láctico seja de forma individual...

  15. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  16. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  17. Uso combinado de 1-Meticiclopropeno y emulsiones de cera en la conservación de guanábana (Annona muricata)

    OpenAIRE

    González,Efigenia Montalvo; Fernández,Andres Eloy León; Paez,Hernani Rea; Oca,Miguel Mata Montes de; Gómez,Beatriz Tovar

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la combinación del 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) y emulsiones de cera sobre la conservación de guanábana. Las condiciones de almacenamiento fueron: 25 ºC y 16 ºC, frutos con emulsiones a base de cera de candelilla o cera de abeja diluídas con agua (10:90 v/v y 15:85 v/v) almacenados a 16 ºC, frutos tratados con 1-MCP (1500 nL L-1, 12 h). En los frutos a 16 ºC con y sin emulsiones se observó daño por frío y no maduraron. En los frutos con la aplicación de ...

  18. Determinação da qualidade e do teor de sólidos solúveis nas diferentes partes do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA JAEVESON DA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar algumas características qualitativas e estimar o teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS nas porções basal (ligada ao pedúnculo, mediana e apical do fruto da pinheira. Para a estimação desse teor, três pinhas de cada uma de dez árvores, de pomares localizados em Mossoró-RN e Aracati-CE, com idade entre seis e oito anos, foram utilizadas. As árvores foram consideradas repetições (blocos, os frutos foram considerados parcelas e as porções dos frutos, subparcelas. Três frutos de cada árvore foram descascados e divididos em três porções aproximadamente iguais, da base para o ápice. O material foi triturado e filtrado. No suco obtido, foram feitas três leituras em um refratômetro. A média destas três leituras representou o valor de cada subparcela. A análise de variância conjunta indicou efeitos de locais, blocos em locais, porções e da interação locais x frutos x porções. O peso do fruto variou de 226 a 418 g e o rendimento de polpa, de 45 a 54 %. O TSS na porção basal (26,49 % foi inferior aos teores das porções mediana (28,02 % e apical (27,53 %, mas não diferiu significativamente daquele da porção apical.

  19. Identification and characterization of a new Bacillus atrophaeus strain B5 as biocontrol agent of postharvest anthracnose disease in soursop (Annona muricata) and avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Valdivia, Lizeth; Tovar-Pérez, Erik; Chacón-López, Alejandra; López-García, Ulises; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; Stoll, Alexandra; Aguilera, Selene

    2018-05-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous fruit, including soursop and avocado. The use of fungicides to maintain the high quality of fruit creates a potential health risk. One alternative to this problem is the biological control, which has been applied successfully during postharvest. The Bacillus species are one of the most studied biological agents against postharvest pathogens because accomplish their biocontrol performance by producing a variety of metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the activity of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant, obtained from Bacillus strain B5 culture, against micelial growth and spore germination of two virulent strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from soursop and avocado. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. A preventive treatment using cell free supernatant, reduced severity and incidence of anthracnose disease on harvested soursop and avocado fruit. B. atrophaeus strain B5 harbors genes involved in the production of antibiotics such as surfactin, bacillomycin and iturin, which could be contributing to the efficiency of the preventive treatment during postharvest. The antagonistic role of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant against anthracnose disease, provide a new approach by which to attack this problem and can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides, environmental pollution, leading to the safer fruit preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Efecto citotóxico selectivo in vitro de muricin H (acetogenina de Annona muricata en cultivos celulares de cáncer de pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Quispe M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la actividad citotóxica selectiva de muricin H en la línea celular H460 (cáncer de pulmón de células grandes. Materiales y métodos: Las líneas H460 y 3T3 (fibroblastos normales de ratón, fueron expuestas a seis concentraciones de muricin H (62,5, 15,6, 3,9, 0,98, 0,24, 0,06 µg/mL, e iguales concentraciones de 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU usado como control positivo. Se hallaron los porcentajes de crecimiento en 48 horas, luego se determinó la concentración inhibitoria de crecimiento 50 (CI50 mediante análisis de regresión linear y se obtuvieron los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson. Finalmente se calculó el índice de selectividad de cada muestra. Resultados: Los CI50 en µg/mL de muricin H fueron <0,06 (r = -0,96; p<0,005 para H460; y 6,16 (r = -0,96; p<0,025 para 3T3. Los CI50 de 5-fluorouracilo fueron 0,46 (r = -0,95; p<0,005 para H460 y 0,29 (r = -0,88; p =0,01 para 3T3. Los índices de selectividad para muricin H y 5-FU fueron: 102,6 y 0,63 respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se demostró la acción citotóxica selectiva in vitro del muricin H, porque tuvo mayor efecto citotóxico para la línea H460, y menor para la línea 3T3 en relación con el 5-fluorouracilo.

  1. Propuesta de un plan de desarrollo integral del guanábano (Annona muricata L. en el estado de Veracruz México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Librado Vidal Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Veracruz tiene una superficie de 71' 227 km². Cuenta con una zona potencialmente apta para el cultivo del guanábano de 18' 440 ha, (0.21%, una zona medianamente propicia de 3' 645 324 ha (51.30% y una zona no apropiada de 3' 458 862 ha, (48.44%. Existen 20 municipios productores de guanábano en el estado de Veracruz. Actualmente la demanda por este producto ha permitido su incremento en superficie estimándose en 800 ha, en estos últimos años. Con un rendimiento aproximado de 5.0 ton/ha, por debajo de la media nacional que es de 6.5 ton/ha, esto refleja la poco tecnología empleada en el manejo del cultivo. Lamentablemente el desarrollo de este frutal en Veracruz se ha realizado de una manera desordenada. Todo ello, sin ninguna planeación y sin un estudio sobre un ordenamiento agroecológico a fin de detectar áreas potencialmente aptas para este cultivo. A pesar de toda esta complejidad se ha llegado a considerar como un frutal digno de atención por las posibilidades agroindustriales que representa. En general son tres los principales puntos prioritarios a tomar en cuenta para esta estrategia de desarrollo: Primero las características genéticas del material de propagación. Segundo las condiciones de sanidad de las plantas, principal factor que podría ser limitativo para el desarrollo del guanábano. Tercero la tecnología de producción. Existe desconocimiento en la lámina e intervalo riego, época; dosis y fuente de fertilización; época y tipo de poda. Existe una gran fortaleza en su aprovechamiento integral de este frutal: comercial, industrial, medicinal, farmacéutico, fitotóxico, alimenticio, entre otras propiedades.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of root activity of Ramphal (Annona reticulata) seedlings and their grafts with 'Arka Sahan' scion determined using isotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    In both seedlings and grafts of Ramphal, early rainy season showed the highest intensity of root activity followed by late rainy season and winter. During early rainy season, the active roots were predominantly surface oriented and clustered towards the trunk in both seedlings and grafts. During later seasons, however, the roots migrated from 20cm to 40cm depth and from 40cm to 80 and 120cm radial distance that resulted in a uniform distribution of active roots throughout the rooting volume. The grafts of 'Arka Sahan' scion on Ramphal rootstocks showed deeper root activity which had nearly one-half of active roots close to the trunk at 40cm distance, that may be more drought tolerant than the seedlings. (author)

  3. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, J.P.; Escobar, I.; Garcia Tapia, F.J.; Aranda, G.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  4. Pengaruh Berbagai Dosis Jus Buah Sirsak (Annona muricata L. Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Kolesterol Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Dislipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti Dwi Tia

    2014-09-01

    There was the effect of various doses of soursop juice to decrease LDL’s cholesterol levels in dyslipidemia white rat serum. The greater the dose of soursop juice given, the greater the reduction in LDL’s cholesterol levels in the serum of dyslipidemia white rat.

  5. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  6. OBTENÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA POLIFENOLOXIDASE EXTRAÍDA DE POLPA DE PINHA (Annona squamosa L. MADURA NO MELHORAMENTO DO SABOR DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L. PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L. NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE LIMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a obtenção e a utilização da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO extraída de polpa de pinha madura na redução do teor de compostos polifenólicos com a finalidade de diminuir a adstringência e o amargor das amêndoas de cacau processadas na forma de "nibs". A PPO foi extraída com tampão fosfato de potássio 0,025M (pH 7,5, adicionando sulfato de amônio para a precipitação da enzima. O material em pó obtido foi denominado de enzima parcialmente purificada, sendo que a análise de atividade enzimática foi realizada, utilizando-se de catecol como substrato. As características bioquímicas apresentadas foram pH de estabilidade de 6,0 a 6,5 e temperatura de estabilidade de 10 a 30°C. Os "nibs" foram autoclavados (121°C por 15 minutos e não autoclavados de amêndoas cruas insuficientemente fermentadas e secas, da mesma origem, sendo embebidas em 25 mL de uma solução da enzima contendo 200 unidades/min/mL, durante 30; 60; 90; 210 e 360 minutos, a 23°C e pH 6,0. Os "nibs" foram homogeneizados com a solução de enzima a cada 15 minutos, secos, moídos e desengordurados. Após o tratamento enzimático durante 210 minutos realizado nos "nibs" de cacau desengordurado não autoclavados foi possível observar diminuição de 15% nas concentrações de fenóis totais, 15% de taninos, 10% de flavan-3-ois e 18% de antocianidinas. Os "nibs" de cacau desengordurado autoclavados apresentaram diminuição de 25% nas concentrações de fenóis totais, 26% de taninos, 23% de flavan-3-ois e 51% de antocianidinas.The present work had as aim to study the obtaining and the uses of polyphenoloxidase enzyme (PPO extracted from ripe custard apple pulp on the reduction of polyphenolic compounds with decrease adstringency and bitterness of cocoa nuts processed at nibs form. The PPO was extracted with 0.025M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5, adding ammonium sulfate to the enzyme precipitation. The powdered material obtained was called partially purified enzyme, being the analyses of activity carried out with catechol as substract, showing biochemical characteristics of 5.0 to 6.5 stability pH and 10 to 30°C stability temperature the nibs were autoclaved (121°C for 15 minutes and non-autoclaved from the same origin, raw nuts insuficiently fermented and dried were soaked in a solution of the enzyme containing 200 units/min/mL, for 30, 60, 90, 210 and 360 minutes, at 23°C and pH 6.0 . The nibs were homogeneized with the enzyme solution each 15 minutes, dried, ground and became unfatted. After enzymatic treatment over 210 minutes carried out on the non-autoclaved unfatted cocoa nibs, it was possible to observe diminishing of 15% in the total phenol, 15% tannin content, 10% of flavan-3-ois and 18% of anthocyanidins concentrations. The nibs of autoclaved unfatted cacao showed diminishing of 25% in the total phenol, 26% of tannins 23% of flavan-3-ois, and 51% of anthocyanidins concentrations.

  7. Caracterização física e química de frutos de três tipos de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Physical-chemical characterization of fruit of three types of soursop trees (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Kersul do Sacramento

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de gravioleira dos tipos 'Morada', 'Lisa' e 'Comum', produzidos na região Sul do Estado da Bahia, foram avaliados quanto às características físicas e químicas. Com relação às características físicas, não foram detectadas diferenças de peso entre os tipos Morada (3,21kg, Lisa (2,82kg e Comum (2,39kg. Os frutos do tipo 'Lisa' apresentaram maior rendimento de polpa (85,85% em relação aos frutos dos tipos 'Morada' (83,57% e 'Comum' (83,12%. A menor razão entre o comprimento e o diâmetro, dos frutos tipos 'Morada' e 'Lisa', os caracteriza como cordiformes. Quanto às características químicas, não houve diferença entre os frutos, à exceção do maior valor de açúcares solúveis totais apresentado pelos frutos do tipo Lisa (14,55g/100g. Os valores médios apresentados foram: ºBrix 13,11; acidez 0,94 g/100g; pH 3,46, e vitamina C 37,25mg/100g. Estes valores, com exceção do pH, superaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos no Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade do Ministério da Agricultura, para polpa de graviola.Soursop fruit of types 'Morada', 'Lisa' and 'Comum' produced in the South of the state of Bahia, Brazil, were evaluated as to physical and chemical characteristics. It wasn't detected mean weight differences among the types 'Morada' (3,21kg, 'Lisa' (2,82kg and 'Comum' (2,39kg. Fruits of 'Lisa' presented higher pulp percentage (85,85% in relation to 'Morada' (83,57% and 'Comum' (83,12%. The minor ratio among length and diameter observed on fruits types 'Morada' and 'Lisa', characterize them as cordiforme shape. Except the bigger value of total soluble sugars presented by 'Lisa' fruit (14,55g/100g, it was not significant the difference among soursop fruit types in respect to their chemical characteristics evaluated. which presented the following averages: ºBrix 13,11; acidity 0,94 g/100g, pH 3,46 and vitamin C 37,25mg/100g. These values, except the pH, overcame the minimum values established in the Pattern of Identity and Quality of the Ministry of Agriculture, for soursop pulp.

  8. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras (Annona muricata Effect of macronutrient omission in growth, symptoms of nutricional deficiency and mineral composition in soursop plants (Annona muricata

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    Magnalda Maria Fernandes Batista

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e com omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As omissões dos macronutrientes afetaram o crescimento em altura, diâmetro das plantas e produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g/kg dos macronutrientes nas folhas, encontraram-se os seguintes valores adequados nos tratamento completo e com omissão: N = 14,70 e 8,82; P = 0,92 e 0,47; K = 12,35 e 2,62; Ca = 14,11 e 3,44; Mg = 3,59 e 1,09; S = 5,32 e 2,30.This work had the objective of evaluating the effect of macronutrient omission in growth, symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in soursop plants. It was carried out an experiment in greenhouse conditions, using the missing element technique. It was developed a randomized experiment with four repetition and seven treatments being completed (N, P, K, Ca. Mg, S and micronutrients and with the omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S from a complete solution. Omissions related to all macronutrients affected plant growth in height, diameter and dry matter yield compared to the complete treatment. Based on the contents in g/kg found in leaves, the levels to adequate (complete and deficient nutrient were defined as following: N = 14,70 and 8,82; P = 0,92 and 0,47; K = 12,35 and 2,62; Ca = 14,11 and 3,44; Mg = 3,59 and 1,09; S = 5,32 and 2,30, respectively.

  9. Study of the shelf-life of a mixed araça (Psidium guineensis Sw. and marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. jam Estudo da vida útil de geleia mista de araçá (Psidium guineensis Sw. e marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.

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    Clarissa Damiani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to add value to araça and marolo fruits by developing jams and verifying changes in their physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during storage. The analyses were carried out every 2 months. From the results, it was shown that the levels of moisture (35.89 - 26.34%, lipids (0.43 - 0.27%, sucrose (30.62 - 28.98%, total pectin (0.83 - 0.50%, soluble pectin (0.52 - 0.38%, total phenolic compounds (180.31 - 135.52 mg.GAE 100 g-1, and organic acids (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 citric acid decreased during storage. However, the levels of protein (0.83 - 0.95%, carbohydrate (62.52 - 72.5%, calories (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, fiber (0.72 - 1.4%, total soluble sugar (62.52 - 70.44%, reducing sugar (32.05 - 41.41%, soluble solids (68.4 - 72.18 °Brix, consistency (0.33 - 0.44 N, total antioxidant potential (11.3 - 22.63%, and color (a* 7.56 - 9.49, and b* 8.63 - 10.49 increased during 1-year storage. The quality of the fruit jams studied was in accordance with the microbiological standards established by the Brazilian legislation. It was concluded that the mixed araça and marolo jam can be stored for 1 year without the addition of additives.O objetivo do trabalho foi agregar valor ao araçá e marolo com o desenvolvimento de geleias e verificar as mudanças ocorridas em variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas, durante o seu armazenamento. As análises foram realizadas, a cada 2 meses. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se que os teores de umidade (35,89 - 26,34%, lipídios (0,43 - 0,27%, sacarose (30,62 - 28,98%, pectina total (0,83 - 0,50%, pectina solúvel (0,52 - 0,38%, compostos fenólicos totais (180,31 - 135,52 mg.EAG 100 g-1 e ácidos orgânicos (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 de ácido cítrico reduziram durante o armazenamento. Contudo os teores de proteínas (0,83 - 0,95%, carboidratos (62,52 - 72,5%, valor calórico (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, teores de fibras (0,72 - 1,4%, açúcar solúvel total (62,52 - 70,44%, açúcar redutor (32,05 - 41,41% e sólidos solúveis (68,4 - 72,18 °Brix, bem como a consistência (0,33 - 0,44 N, o potencial antioxidante total (11,3 - 22,63% e os parâmetros de coloração (a* 7,56 - 9,49 e b* 8,63 - 10,49, apresentaram ascensão durante 1 ano de estocagem. As geleias estudadas conservaram-se dentro das normas microbiológicas estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira. A geleia mista de araçá e de marolo, portanto, pode ser armazenada por 1 ano, sem qualquer conservante químico.

  10. Uso de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pinheira (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to promote the growth of sugar apple seedlings (Annona squamosa L. Annonaceae

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    Ieda Ribeiro Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem ser usados na formação de mudas frutíferas, porém o seu efeito na pinheira não é conhecido. Foi investigado o papel de dois isolados de FMA (Acaulospora longula e Gigaspora albida na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pinheira. O delineamento experimental foi tipo inteiramente casualizado em seis tratamentos: 1 Controle não inoculado em solo; 2 Controle não inoculado em solo adubado; 3 Inoculado com A. longula em solo; 4 Inoculado com A. longula em solo adubado; 5 Inoculado com G. albida em solo; 6 Inoculado com G. albida em solo adubado, em quatro repetições, totalizando 24 unidades. Plântulas com duas folhas foram inoculadas na região das raízes com solo-inóculo fornecendo 200 esporos de G. albida ou de A. longula. Após 140 dias em casa de vegetação avaliou-se: altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e radicular, colonização micorrízica e produção de esporos de FMA. Em solo não adubado, os benefícios da micorrização foram evidenciados nas mudas formando simbiose com G. albida. Em solo com vermicomposto, a micorrização não incrementou o crescimento da mudas. A micorrização com G. albida pode ser alternativa para produção de mudas de pinheira, dispensando a fertilização.Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can be used to promote seedling growth of fruit trees, but their effect on sugar apple is not known. We investigated the role of two isolates of AMF (Acaulospora longula and Gigaspora albida in promoting the growth of sugar apple seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and four replicates (totaling 24 units: 1 uninoculated control; 2 uninoculated control in fertilized soil; 3 inoculated with A. longula in soil, 4 inoculated with A. longula in fertilized soil, 5 inoculated with G. albida in soil; 6 inoculated with G. albida in fertilized soil. Seedlings with two leaves were inoculated in the region of the roots with soil-inocula with 200 spores of G. albida or A. longula. After 140 days in a greenhouse the height, leaf number, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, root colonization and production of spores were evaluated. The seedlings benefited from G. albida mycorrhiza when grown in unfertilized soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not increase the growth of seedlings in soil with vermicompost. The use G. albida is an alternative in the production of sugar apple seedlings, instead of fertilizers.

  11. High transcript abundance, RNA editing, and small RNAs in intergenic regions within the massive mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, Z.; Stone, James D.; Štorchová, Helena; Sloan, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 14 (2015), s. 938 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antisense RNA * Junk DNA * mtDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  12. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Primary and Secondary Biosynthetic Pathways in Angiosperms: Comparative Metabonomics and Applications of Hyphenated LC-NMR and LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Kayla Anne

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to advance plant metabolomics through optimization of biological experimental design, sampling and sample preparation, data acquisition and pre-processing, and multivariable data analysis. The analytical platform most employed for comparative metabonomics was nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) extended metabolic profile coverage from primary into secondary metabolic pathways. Comparative p...

  14. Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Mellor, Karolina E; Paul, Shom N; Lawson, Mark J; Mackey, Aaron J; Timko, Michael P

    2012-08-17

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301-SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful attempted parasitism by Striga. Induction of specific defense related genes and pathways defines components of a unique resistance mechanism. Some genes and pathways up-regulated in the host resistance response to SG3 are repressed in the susceptible interactions, suggesting that the parasite is targeting specific components of the host's defense. These results add to our understanding of plant-parasite interactions and the evolution of resistance to parasitic weeds.

  15. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts. PMID:22741546

  16. New data about the suspensor of succulent angiosperms: Ultrastructure and cytochemical study of the embryo-suspensor of Sempervivum arachnoideum L. and Jovibarba sobolifera (Sims) Opiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Bohdanowicz, Jerzy

    2012-07-01

    The development of the suspensor in two species - Sempervivum arachnoideum and Jovibarba sobolifera - was investigated using cytochemical methods, light and electron microscopy. Cytological processes of differentiation in the embryo-suspensor were compared with the development of embryo-proper. The mature differentiated suspensor consists of a large basal cell and three to four chalazal cells. The basal cell produces haustorial branched invading ovular tissues. The walls of the haustorium and the micropylar part of the basal cell form the wall ingrowths typical for a transfer cells. The ingrowths also partially cover the lateral wall and the chalazal wall separating the basal cell from the other embryo cells. The dense cytoplasm filling the basal cell is rich in: numerous polysomes lying free or covering rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), active dictyosomes, microtubules, bundles of microfilaments, microbodies, mitochondria, plastids and lipid droplets. Cytochemical tests (including proteins, insoluble polysaccharides and lipids are distributed in the suspensor during different stages of embryo development) showed the presence of high amounts of macromolecules in the suspensor cells, particularly during the globular and heart-shaped phases of embryo development. The protein bodies and lipid droplets are the main storage products in the cells of the embryo-proper. The results of Auramine 0 indicate that a cuticular material is present only on the surface walls of the embryo-proper, but is absent from the suspensor cell wall. The ultrastructural features and cytochemical tests indicate that in the two species - S. arachnoideum and J. sobolifera - the embryo-suspensor is mainly involved in the absorption and transport of metabolites from the ovular tissues to the developing embryo-proper.

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) reveals a significant expansion of the inverted repeat and phylogenetic relationship with other angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Wang, Xumin

    2013-10-10

    Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) is a frequently-used traditional Chinese medicinal plant with efficient anti-inflammatory ability. This plant is one of the sources of berberine, a new cholesterol-lowering drug with anti-diabetic activity. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of M. bealei. The complete cp genome of M. bealei is 164,792 bp in length, and has a typical structure with large (LSC 73,052 bp) and small (SSC 18,591 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs 36,501 bp) of large size. The Mahonia cp genome contains 111 unique genes and 39 genes are duplicated in the IR regions. The gene order and content of M. bealei are almost unarranged which is consistent with the hypothesis that large IRs stabilize cp genome and reduce gene loss-and-gain probabilities during evolutionary process. A large IR expansion of over 12 kb has occurred in M. bealei, 15 genes (rps19, rpl22, rps3, rpl16, rpl14, rps8, infA, rpl36, rps11, petD, petB, psbH, psbN, psbT and psbB) have expanded to have an additional copy in the IRs. The IR expansion rearrangement occurred via a double-strand DNA break and subsequence repair, which is different from the ordinary gene conversion mechanism. Repeat analysis identified 39 direct/inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Analysis also revealed 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T, contributing to a distinct bias in base composition. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with ESTs reveals 9 putative RNA edits and 5 of them resulted in non-synonymous modifications in rpoC1, rps2, rps19 and ycf1. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) was performed on a dataset composed of 65 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa, which yields an identical tree topology as previous plastid-based trees, and provides strong support for the sister relationship between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae. Molecular dating analyses suggest that Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae diverged between 90 and 84 mya, which is congruent with the fossil records and with recent estimates of the divergence time of these two taxa. © 2013.

  18. Angiosperms Are Unique among Land Plant Lineages in the Occurrence of Key Genes in the RNA-Directed DNA Methylation (RdDM) Pathway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, L.; Hatlen, A.; Kelly, L.J.; Becher, H.; Wang, W.C.; Kovařík, Aleš; Leitch, I. J.; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2015), s. 2648-2662 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : chromatin modification * DNA methylation * evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.098, year: 2015

  19. Progress and gaps in understanding mechanisms of ash tree resistance to emerald ash borer, a model for wood-boring insects that kill angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Herms, Daniel A; Whitehill, Justin G A; Cipollini, Don; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on host resistance of ash to emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive species that causes widespread mortality of ash. Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), which coevolved with EAB, is more resistant than evolutionarily naïve North American and European congeners. Manchurian ash was less preferred for adult feeding and oviposition than susceptible hosts, more resistant to larval feeding, had higher constitutive concentrations of bark lignans, coumarins, proline, tyramine and defensive proteins, and was characterized by faster oxidation of phenolics. Consistent with EAB being a secondary colonizer of coevolved hosts, drought stress decreased the resistance of Manchurian ash, but had no effect on constitutive bark phenolics, suggesting that they do not contribute to increased susceptibility in response to drought stress. The induced resistance of North American species to EAB in response to the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate was associated with increased bark concentrations of verbascoside, lignin and/or trypsin inhibitors, which decreased larval survival and/or growth in bioassays. This finding suggests that these inherently susceptible species possess latent defenses that are not induced naturally by larval colonization, perhaps because they fail to recognize larval cues or respond quickly enough. Finally, we propose future research directions that would address some critical knowledge gaps. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Disentangling ecological, allometric and evolutionary determinants of the relationship between seed mass and elevation: insights from multiple analyses of 1355 angiosperm species on the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Shuqing; Chen, Xuelin; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Bu, Haiyan; Du, Guozhen; Cui, Xianliang; Li, Wenjin; Liu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Variation in abiotic conditions along altitudinal gradients may sort plant species from regional species pools according to their seed mass. With increasing elevation, seed mass is expected to be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment in stressful high-elevation environments

  1. Untangling interacting mechanisms of see variation with elevation: insights from the comparison of interspecific and intraspecific studies on eastern Tibetan angiosperm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wei; Bu, Haiyan; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Zhang, Chunhui; Guo, Shuqing; Wang, Juhong; Zhou, Xianhui; Li, Wenjin; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    With increasing elevation, seed mass is expected to be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment in stressful high-elevation environments (“stress-tolerance” mechanism) or smaller due to energy constraints. Based on the combination of inter- and intra-specific analyses on 4,023

  2. Angiosperm disjunction "Campos rupestres - restingas": a re-evaluation Disjunção de Angiospermas Campos Rupestres - Restingas: uma reavaliação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy José Válka Alves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A disjunct distribution pattern between the extrazonal formations of the campos rupestres (rocky grasslands in the Espinhaço mountain range and the restingas (coastal strand vegetation in Brazil has been proposed repeatedly for several flowering-plant species. In order to validate this distribution pattern, available data from the literature and major herbaria were compiled and evaluated. Some of these species also occur in campos rupestres on mountain ranges in Goiás state, campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands of the Serra do Mar, and on geologically homologous rocky formations of the Guyana shield. Species that were also recorded for distinct zonal formations like cerrado, caatinga and forests were excluded from the pattern. The campo rupestre-restinga disjunction proved valid for 9 of 56 investigated species (16%. Explanations put forth by different authors for this unusual disjunction pattern are compared in the light of geological and climatological evidence.Um padrão de distribuição disjunta entre as formações extrazonais conhecidas por campos rupestres na cadeia do Espinhaço e as restingas do litoral brasileiro vem sendo repetidamente proposto para algumas espécies de fanerógamas. Para averiguar a validade deste padrão, foram reunidos dados disponíveis em literatura e nos principais herbários. Verificou-se que algumas espécies aparecem adicionalmente nos campos rupestres das Serras de Goiás, campos de altitude da Serra do Mar, em formações rupestres geologicamente homólogas do Escudo das Guianas. Foram excluídas do padrão as espécies cuja ocorrência foi verificada também em vegetação zonal, tal como cerrado, caatinga e matas. O padrão campo rupestre-restinga se mostrou válido para 9 de 56 espécies investigadas (16%. As razões apresentadas por distintos autores para explicar este padrão peculiar de disjunção são comparadas à luz de evidências geológicas e climatológicas.

  3. Polinização artificial da atemóia com diversas fontes de pólen comparada com a natural Natural and artificial pollination of Atemoya in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a polinização da atemóia (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola e determinar a técnica de polinização que produz frutos em maior quantidade e melhor qualidade, montou-se um experimento de polinização. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar Gefner, no período de novembro de 2000 a março de 2001, em pomar comercial, localizado em Lins (SP, a 424 metros de altitude. As plantas apresentavam 13 anos de idade. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 1 polinização manual (pólen de A. squamosa L.; 2 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar Gefner; 3 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar African Pride; 4 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar PR-3; 5 polinização natural ou aberta. A avaliação do vingamento dos frutos ocorreu dez dias após a polinização e da quantidade dos frutos com conformação perfeita ou defeituosa, aos 40 dias. Os frutos foram colhidos 120 dias após a polinização e pesados individualmente. Amostraram-se, também, três frutos para as seguintes determinações: massa de sementes e da polpa, número de sementes por 100 gramas de polpa, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total e relação sólidos solúveis/acidez. Para a atemóia, a polinização com pólen de A. squamosa L. foi mais efetiva, aumentando o vingamento de frutos (80,5%, comparado com outros quatro tratamentos, que foi menos de 22%, a produção e a porcentagem de frutos perfeitos.An experiment was carried out to study atemoya pollination and to determine the pollination method that produces fruits in larger amount and quality. The experiment was accomplished with cultivar Gefner, in the period of November 2000 to March 2001, in a commercial orchard located in the county of Lins - SP, at an altitude of 424 meters. The plants were 13 years old. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with 5 treatments and

  4. Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Varón López

    2000-01-01

    outstanding categories we mention: Fiber 21.2%, medicinal 18.2%, construction 16.8% and nutritional 11.7%. The more recognized species for their use and potential are Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsis veneficiorum, Annona dolichophylla y Annona muricata.

  5. Análise de extratos de plantas por CCD: uma metodologia aplicada à disciplina "química orgânica" Analysis of extracts of plants by tlc: a methodology applied in the "organic chemistry" discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana H. Chaves

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available extracts of the regional plants Annona squamosa and Annona muricata were analysed by silica gel thin-layer chromatography using adequate systems of solvents and spray reagents. Carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were detected in both species. These data agree with those on the literature about phytochemistry of the Annonaceae.

  6. OBTENÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA POLIFENOLOXIDASE EXTRAÍDA DE POLPA DE PINHA (Annona squamosa L.) MADURA NO MELHORAMENTO DO SABOR DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA,ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE; PASTORE,GLÁUCIA MARIA; BARBERY,SANDRA DRINA FERNANDEZ; GARCIA,NELSON HORÁCIO PEZOA; BRITO,EDY SOUSA DE; LIMA,CARLOS ALBERTO DE ALBUQUERQUE

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a obtenção e a utilização da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO) extraída de polpa de pinha madura na redução do teor de compostos polifenólicos com a finalidade de diminuir a adstringência e o amargor das amêndoas de cacau processadas na forma de "nibs". A PPO foi extraída com tampão fosfato de potássio 0,025M (pH 7,5), adicionando sulfato de amônio para a precipitação da enzima. O material em pó obtido foi denominado de enzima parcialmente purificada...

  7. Efecto bioinsecticida del extracto etanólico de las semillas de Annona cherimolia Miller “chirimoya” Y A. muricata Linneaus “guanábana” sobre larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla Álvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En vista del incremento de la resistencia a los insecticidas químicos frente al control de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades metaxénicas, es que se viene realizando la búsqueda de métodos alternativos, utilizando extractos de plantas con actividad larvicida debido a su capacidad de biodegradación generando menor daño ambiental. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la mortalidad de larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp. mediante el extracto etanólico de las semillas de A. cherimolia (E1 y A. muricata (E2. Los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad, corregidos por la fórmula de Abbott, fueron de 100% a las 24 horas de exposición a la concentración de 0,8 y 0,12 ml/100 mL en E1 y E2, respectivamente, observándose un mayor efecto tóxico larvario a favor de E2 sobre E1 en 4,58% de mortalidad. El análisis probit mostró un patrón de respuesta heterogéneo de las larvas a las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a lo largo de todos los tiempos de evaluación y una mayor homogeneidad a los tiempos letales al 50% (TL50 y al 90% (TL90 a medida que aumentaban las concentraciones de los extractos. Asimismo, la forma de las rectas de regresión muestran individuos larvarios con diferentes susceptibilidades a los extractos, lo que establece diferentes poblaciones o genotipos intervinientes. El trabajo permitió demostrar el efecto larvicida de ambas semillas y subraya la necesidad de realizar mayores ensayos in vitro como alternativa al control de insectos de importancia en salud pública.

  8. Efecto Preventivo del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Annona muricata L. (Guanábana) sobre el síndrome metabólico inducido en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino Flores, Christian Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Evalúa el efecto preventivo del extracto etanólico de hojas de guanábana (EEA) administrado en ratas con síndrome metabólico. El diseño del estudio fue experimental, pre-clínico, “in vivo”. El lugar de estudio fue el Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental de la Facultad de Medicina Humana-UNMSM, Lima, Perú. El material biológico estuvo conformado por hojas de guanábana, ratas machos de 2 meses, cepa Holtzmann de 175±25g. Las intervenciones fueron: la mezcla de colesterol 200mg/kg y fructos...

  9. Produtividade da cultura da pinha (Annona squamosa L. em função de níveis de adubação nitrogenada e formas de aplicação de boro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTA SELMA LOPES DA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência da adubação com 4 doses de N (0; 100; 200 e 400 g planta-1, utilizando a uréia, e 3 formas de aplicação do boro (via foliar, via solo e sem B, utilizando o ácido bórico, na produtividade, no número, peso médio, diâmetro e comprimento dos frutos, no crescimento e no diâmetro dos ramos, na percentagem de frutos brocados e rachados. As adubações com boro e nitrogênio aumentaram a produtividade e o número de frutos, não se observando variação no diâmetro e no comprimento dos frutos. Houve variação no peso médio de fruto em função do N. O adubo nitrogenado aumentou o número de flores e de frutos e a porcentagem de frutos. As doses de N e as formas de aplicação de B não influenciaram as porcentagens de frutos brocados e rachados.

  10. AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR A FRUTOS DE ATA ATRAVÉS DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE NÉCTAR MISTO DE MARACUJÁ (PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS E ATA (ANNONA SQUAMOSA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARESSA CALDEIRA MORZELLE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente, observa-se uma nova tendência no consumo alimentar, com uma demanda cada vez maior por alimentos com elevadas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais. Pelo crescente interesse em produtos saudáveis, houve uma expansão na agroindústria de frutas, principalmente aquelas com características sensoriais exóticas. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral desenvolver um néctar misto, à base dos frutos de ata e maracujá, que atendesse ao requerimento de aceitação pelo público; considerando assim essa mistura de frutas uma saída para um melhor aproveitamento tecnológico dessas matérias-primas com agregação de valor. Avaliou-se as características sensoriais, microbiológicas e físico-químicas: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis. Foram estudadas duas formulações de néctar variando o teor de polpa (50% polpa de ata e 50% polpa de maracujá e 30% polpa de maracujá com 70% polpa de ata de cada fruta, as quais foram avaliadas por 100 consumidores utilizando a escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos para a aceitabilidade e escala estruturada de cinco pontos de intenção de compra. Os resultados de aceitação global não diferiram signifi cativamente (p< 0,05, sendo que as duas formulações foram bem aceitas com média de aceitação 8, equivalente ao termo “gostei muito”, o que sugere alto potencial para mercado.

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... CYTOTOXICITY AND ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ANNONA .... has been suggested that aqueous and ethanolic extracts from plants used in allopathic medicine .... muricata (Annonaceae): A review of its traditional uses, isolated ...

  12. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics - Vol 14, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Annona senegalenses Leaf · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. TO Johnson, RS Olatoye, 91-95 ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 9901 - 9950 of 11090 ... Vol 6, No 6 (2007), Studies on the chemical composition and ... solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell, Abstract PDF ... stability of soursop (Annona muricata L.) juice, Abstract PDF.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles ... Impact sedimentation to community structure macrozoobenthos in Segara Anakan Lagoon ... Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Annona muricata aqueous leaves extract against ...

  15. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.L. PENUEL

    Terminalia albida, Ziziphus spina-christi, Sena siamea, Annona senegalensis, Terminalia glaucescens, Guiera senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and Grewia venusta while the abundant grass species are: Cenchrus species, Sena obtusifolia, Sida acuta, Hibiscus asper, Tridax procumbens, Croton lobatus and Portulaca.

  16. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  17. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3 ...

  18. Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of Annona Comosus linn. ... Therapeutic plants, and the drugs derived from them, are the most important ... also as treatment to: diarrhea, indigestion, pneumonia, bronchitis, arthritis, ...

  19. Secondary metabolites and In-vitro Antioxidant Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ... cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, flavoniods and phenols in all the fruits ... The highest reducing power was also observed in Annona senegalensis extract compared to other fruits extract.

  20. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... essential oils from organs of Annona senegalensis ..... rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils, J. Essent. Oil Res. 10 : 618-27. Bouquet A ... antibacterial activity of plant volatile oil, J. Appl. Microbiol. 88: 308-. 316.

  1. Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with extracts of plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of some commercial botanicals (Biospark, Phytophrate, Exodos, Biodos and Neemgold) and of solvent extracts of Syndrella nodiflora, Premna tomentosa, Vitex negundo, Ipomea carnea, Pteridium aquilinum (leaves) and Annona squomosa (seeds) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil., Isaria ...

  2. Estrutura floral das angiospermas usadas por Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Flower structure of angiosperms used by Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine A. Corrêa

    Full Text Available A field survey of flowering plants used as food resource by the adults of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 was carried out in four sites located in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Samples were taken in preserved areas of the Atlantic Rain and Myrtaceae forests, an Eucalyptus plantation, and an urban park. Adult feeding frequencies on flowers were registered monthly from December 1996 to May 1997, on plants located on previously marked 200 m long transects. Flowers on which H. erato phyllis fed in the field were collected, drawn and morphometrically characterized. Feeding was registered on flowers of twenty-three species, of which seventeen are new records for H. erato in Brazil . The use of a given plant varied among localities, as a function of its corresponding abundance. The most visited flowers were those of Lantana camara L. and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, followed by Dahliapinnata Voss in the urban site. The data suggest the existence of size and shape convergence between the proboscis and the small, tubular flowers upon which H. eratophyllis feeds. They also indicate that H. eratophyllis adults have an opportunistic nectar feeding / pollen gathering habit, using several of those flowers available in a given time and locality that fit such a morphometrical pattern. Since plant species of both primitive and derived families are used, there is no indication that phylogenetic constraints play a major role in this association, nor that color of flowers, growth pattern or size of the plants are relevant in determining their use by H. erato phyllis.

  3. Estimativa por infravermelho da concentração da unidade estrutural b-O-4 em ligninas de angiospermas tropicais Infrared estimates of the concentration of the b-o-4 structural unit in lignins of tropical angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber dos Santos Abreu

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Five Björkman lignins, codified as AM, LL, GG, PP and AP, were isolated from wood species of Aspidosperma macrocarpum Mart., Lophanthera lactescens Ducke, Gallesia gorazema (Vell. Miq., Peltogyne paniculata Bth. and Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg., respectively. Analyses of the lignins were carried out by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy using an experimental technique, Diffusely Reflected Infrared Fourier Transformed (DRIFT, admitting in the original spectra a band at 1500 cm-1 as an internal reference. Application of a deconvolution technique made possible to estimate the percentage per mol of b-O-4 unit content around 65.5% to AM, 68.0% to LL, 71.0% to GG. 73.4% to PP and 75.0% to AP, toward AM

  4. Variations in the stable carbon isotope compositions of individual lipids from the leaves of modern angiosperms: implications for the study of higher land plant-derived sedimentary organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheart, M.J.; Bergen, P.F. van; Evershed, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal changes in δ 13 C values for individual lipids from the leaves of several species of tree have been studied in order to provide essential background information for use in future investigations of the isotopic signatures of terrigenous sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkanes of Betula ermanii, Quercus castaneifolia and Fagus japonica revealed increased δ 13 C in autumn leaves compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season. Samples taken from Q. castaneifolia and F. sylvatica at monthly intervals showed gradual depletion of 13 C in bulk tissues and n-alkanes through the growing season. This may be a consequence of either recycling of depleted internal carbon in order to replace weathered waxes, or increased fractionation against 13 C by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in response to increasing summer temperatures. Sitosterol exhibited similar isotopic trends as the n-alkanes in F. sylvatica, but showed the opposite behaviour in Q. castaneifolia. The effect of sunlight intensity on δ 13 C was investigated in foliage sampled at different compass positions around two trees, Q. robur and F. sylvatica. Bulk tissue and lipids from inner shade leaves were consistently more depleted in 13 C than those from the corresponding sun leaf. The leaves receiving the highest sunlight irradiance on average, i.e. southern foliage, exhibited the lowest δ 13 C in lipids and bulk tissues. The variability of δ 13 C values with irradiance level may be due to changes in photosynthetic assimilation rates and the adaptation of the leaf epidermis and stomata in response to its light environment. Lipids and bulk tissues from leaves of Quercus species were found to possess slightly more depleted δ 13 C values than those in Fagus species, although interspecies variability was quite large. This study has important implications for the study of terrestrially derived organic matter preserved in ancient sediments. The results demonstrate the importance of elucidating the environmental factors that influence δ 13 C values of individual lipids in modern leaves prior to using isotopic shifts in sedimentary and fossil lipids as indicators of palaeoenvironmental change. (author)

  5. Situação amostral e riqueza de espécies das Angiospermas do estado do Ceará, Brasil Sampling effort and species richness of Angiosperms in the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celli Araújo de Freitas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O estado do Ceará, situado no nordeste brasileiro, apresenta predomínio do clima semi-árido. Objetivando um delineamento para futuros inventários florísticos, realizou-se uma averiguação preliminar do esforço de coleta em seu território. Para isto, o estudo da amostragem e da riqueza de espécies das famílias Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae foram analisadas. Assim como, a distribuição geográfica das amostras foi correlacionada às sete unidades fitoecológicas do estado do Ceará: caatinga arbustiva, caatinga arbórea, carrasco, cerradão, complexo litorâneo, mata seca e mata úmida. Os dados utilizados foram obtidos da coleção do Herbário Prisco Bezerra (EAC, sendo reunidos através do software BRAHMS. Desde 1933 até agosto de 2008, foram registradas na coleção: 11.551 exsicatas (exs. representando 1.209 espécies (spp.. Este total de exsicatas está distribuído da seguinte forma entre as unidades fitoecológicas: mata úmida 27% exs. e 33% spp., complexo litorâneo 24% exs. e 24% spp., caatinga arbustiva 16% exs. e 19% spp., carrasco 13% exs. e 17% spp., mata seca 10% exs. e 9% spp., caatinga arbórea 8% exs. e 12%; e cerradão 2% exs. e 3% spp. Os dados evidenciam um maior esforço de coleta e riqueza de espécies nas áreas de mata úmida e no complexo litorâneo, seguidos das áreas da caatinga arbustiva e arbórea. Com apenas 5% do território cearense, a mata úmida supera a amostragem das caatingas, que detêm 70% do estado do Ceará. Portanto, observamos a ocorrência satisfatória de coletas na mata úmida, em detrimento das outras unidades, tornando necessária a elaboração de novos projetos visando um maior esforço de coleta nessas áreas subamostradas.The state of Ceará, located in northeast Brazil, has a predominantly semi-arid climate. To guide future inventories of the flora, a preliminary survey of collections in the state was made, where we analyzed sampling effort and species richness of Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae and Rubiaceae. Geographic distribution of the samples was correlated to the seven phytoecological units of Ceará state: caatinga arbustiva, caatinga arbórea, carrasco, cerradão, complexo litorâneo, mata seca and mata úmida. The data were obtained from the Prisco Bezerra Herbarium (EAC collection and were combined using the software BRAHMS. From 1933 to August 2008, this collection registered the following: 11,551 exsiccatae (exs. representing 1,209 species (spp.. This total number of exsiccatae is distributed as follows among the phytoecological units: mata úmida 27% exs. and 33% spp., complexo litorâneo 24% exs. and 24% spp., caatinga arbustiva 16% exs. and 19% spp., carrasco 13% exs. and 17% spp., mata seca 10% exs. and 9% spp., caatinga arbórea 8% exs. and 12% and cerradão 2% exs. and 3% spp. These data reveal greater collection effort and species richness in areas of mata úmida and complexo litorâneo, followed by areas of caatinga arbustiva and caatinga arbórea. With only 5% of Ceara's territory, sampling in mata úmida surpasses that in caatingas, the latter with 70% of the state's territory. Therefore, a satisfactory number of collections in mata úmida was observed to the detriment of other units, making it necessary to draw up new projects aimed at a greater effort in these sub-sampling collection areas.

  6. Influência das inundações na distribuição de espécies arbóreas ao longo do Rio Massaguaçu (Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brasil), e potencial alelopático de Annona glabra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Sadao Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    A vegetação estuário do rio Massaguaçu está sujeita a alagamentos periódicos. Esse regime de alagamento pode ser um fator importante na distribuição e composição da flora arbórea local. O presente trabalho objetivou a determinação da distribuição de espécies arbóreo-arbustivas do estuário do rio Massaguaçu, relacionado ao seu regime de inundações. A partir da foz sentido a montante, foram determinadas 5 bancos de vegetação inundável (A, B, C, D, e E). Em cada área, foram sorteadas 80 parcelas...

  7. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  8. 143 - 148_Makeri et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Yuan et al., 2003), antimicrobial activity (Sundarrao et al., 1993; Betancur-Galvis et al., 1999; Takashi et al., 2006), anti-parasitic, anti-malarial activities (Alali et al., 1998; Jaramillo et al., 2000; Luna et al.,. 2005). This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of extract of stem –bark and leaf extracts of Annona.

  9. Identification and field and laboratory tests of the sex pheromone of Cerconota anonella Sepp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pires, E. V.; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Serra, M. S. J.; da Silva, R. C. C.; dos Santos, D. C.; Campos, R. S.; Santana, A. E. G.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, 1/2 (2016), s. 72-80 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Annona fruit borer * GC x GC-TOFMS * GC-EAD * sex pheromone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  10. Root Rot Disease of Five Fruit Tree Seedlings in the Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of root rot disease in the nursery of Chrysophyllum albidun Dacryodes edulis, persea Americana, Irvingia gabonensis and Annona muricala was assessed. Ten fungal pathogen were isolated using serial dilution and pathogenicity tests were carried out on the 5 fruit trees with the 10 isolated fungi. The 5 fruit ...

  11. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  12. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  13. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and Elucidation of 15-Acetylguanacone from Soursop (Annona muricata Linn) Fruit and Molecular Docking Experiments · EMAIL .... Computational Simulation of the Impact of System Perturbation on ... Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) and Density-Based Clustering Algorithm ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-20

    Jun 20, 2005 ... that the fruits have high sugar content and low acidity. The air dried seeds of Annona squamosa L. ... Coefficient of similarity was computed using the formula of Sokal and Sneath. (1963). .... Pino, J.A., Rosado, A., Roncal, E., Marbot, R., Aguaro J. and. Gonzalez, G., 1998. Study of the aromatic and flavour.

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    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annona reticulata L. (English: Bullock's heart; Hindi: Ramphal) of Annonaceae is a medium-size tree that is often cultivated, but generally grows wild and yields an edible fruit. The leaves are shiny and dark-green. The branches are dark-brown. Flowers are unimpressive, both sepals and petals being sepal-like. The.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wahab, N.Z.A.. Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles In vitro antiviral activity of Orthosiphon stamineus extract against dengue virus type 2. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Annona muricata aqueous leaves extract against dengue virus type 2

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim, N. Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles In vitro antiviral activity of Orthosiphon stamineus extract against dengue virus type 2. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Annona muricata aqueous leaves extract against dengue virus type 2. Abstract PDF.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Annona muricata aqueous leaves extract against dengue virus type 2. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles Aquatic insect larvae as an indicator of ecological integrity of Panasen Upstream, Tondano Watershed, north Sulawesi Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867.

  19. Effects of oil exploration on the anatomy and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria flares much natural gas associated with oil exploration like many other countries of the world. A major problem of gas flaring is the release of large amounts of methane, which has the potential to affect medicinal plants. The effects of gas flaring on the anatomy and antimicrobial activities of Annona muricata, used by ...

  20. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...