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Sample records for angiography remains controversial

  1. Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of angiography is short, with its centennial approaching. A very brief review of milestones begins with the discovery of x-rays in 1895. Only a few months later contrast agents too toxic for human use were being injected into cadavers, severed limbs, and animals. The next major developments came in the late 1970s when percutaneous translumbar aortography and cerebral angiography were described. Contrast agents were now less toxic, and clinically useful angiography was a reality. In 1953 a technique for percutaneous vascular catheterization which formed the basis of many catheterization techniques to follow was described. In the 1970s the development of less invasive diagnostic methods such as computed tomography and diagnostic ultrasound decreased the indications for angiography, but newer interventional techniques such as embolization therapy and angioplasty have taken up the slack. Angiography remains the most important way to demonstrate vascular diseases graphically. Specific techniques such as angioplasty and digital subtraction angiography will be dealt with in other chapters. The authors hope to provide an overview of major areas of angiographic utilization. The basic techniques of arterial puncture and catheterization have been well described elsewhere

  2. Is COX-2 a perpetrator or a protector? Selective COX-2 inhibitors remain controversial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LUO; Ming-liang HE; Lars BOHLIN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: COX-2(cyclooxygenase-2) has sparked a surge in pharmaceutical interest since its discovery at the beginning of the 1990s. Several COX-2 selective inhibitors that avoid gastrointestinal side effects have been successfully launched into the market in recent years. The first selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, entered the market in December 1999. However, there are a few organs that physiologically and functionally express COX-2, particularly the glomeruli of the kidney and the cortex of the brain. Inhibition of COX-2 expression in these organs possibly causes heart attack and stroke in long-term COX-2 inhibitor users. Recently, a USA Food and Drug Agency (FDA) advisory panel re-evaluated COX-2 inhibitors and unanimously concluded that the entire class of COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of cardiovascular problems. Thus the use of COX-2 inhibitors is still controversial, and there is a challenge for not only pharmacologists, but also the pharmaceutical industry, to develop improved painkilling and anti-inflammatory drugs. This may involve exploring a new generation of COX-2 inhibitors with different inhibitory mechanisms through computer-aided design, screening different sources of inhibitors with lower Selectivity, or seeking completely new targets.Synthetic COX-2 inhibitors have high selectivity and the advantage of irreversible inhibition, whereas naturally derived COX-2 inhibitors have lower selectivity and fewer side effects, with the medical effects in general not being as striking as those achieved using synthetic inhibitors. This review discusses the mechanism of COX-2 inhibitor therapy and a possible new way of exploration in the development of anti-inflammatory, analgetic, and antipyretic drugs.

  3. MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR angiography allows the imaging of vessels comparable with the vessels imaged with digital angiography. MR angiograms were also generated by image subtraction. Basis are the different magnetic properties of moved and stationary spins. Contrast media are not required. In recent years the various techniques of image subtraction with the aim of well imaged vessels were developed. The most important are described. (author)

  4. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  5. Fluorescein angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with cataracts. Alternative Names Retinal photography; Eye angiography Images Retinal dye injection References Maguire JI, Federman JL. Intravenous ... Topics Diabetic Eye Problems Eye ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  6. Digital angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of digital angiography and the clinical applications of the method are discussed. The authors review the experience at the Hotel-Dieu de Montreal covering more than 1000 digital examinations. The indications, results and contra-indications are exposed: numerous advantages (decreased invasiveness, diminished examination times, reduced radiation and improved cost efficiency) far outweigh the disadvantages (slight loss in resolution and small field of examination). A prospective appraisal of the potential and of future developments in digital radiography is also presented

  7. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the non-invasive techniques, angiography remains essential. The disadvantages of angiography are the complexity of the procedure and the possibility of complications. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a considerable improvement in the examination of vessels. In DSA, subtraction combined with enhancement of the signals allows the use of intravenous injection to obtain good images of the arteries. However, when the contrast material is supplied intravenously, a rather large amount of contrast material is necessary to obtain images of good quality. Quantities of 30-40 cc of contrast material are required. The advantage of the intravenous injection of contrast material rather than the use of a catheter to deliver the contrast material in loco is that it is almost non-invasive thus circumventing the complications caused by catheter manipulation in the arterial system. This makes it possible to apply this method on an out-patient basis. DSA can also be applied with intra-arterial selective injection of the contrast material. In this case, the strong enhancement with DSA allows the use of a small quantity of contrast material while still obtaining images of the vessels with good contrast definition

  8. Controversies in Screening Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Monique; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    The utility and effectiveness of screening mammography in diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages and reducing disease-specific mortality remain controversial especially as to when to start and stop routine mammographic screening, and whether mammograms should be performed annually or biennially in average-risk women. This manuscript will analyze the available moderate and high-quality data to analyze both the benefits (lives saved and life-years saved) and inconveniences/harms (additional views, extra biopsies/overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ) of different mammography screening guidelines to assist the practitioner in counseling their patients in clinical practice. PMID:27101240

  9. Coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to progressive improvements in catheter design, radiographic imaging, and contrast media, as well as the development of effective options for the treatment of coronary artery disease (bypass surgery and angioplasty), diagnostic coronary angiography has grown into a safe and widely practiced component of cardiac catheterization. It is estimated that more than 200,000 coronary angiographic procedures are performed each year in the United States, with a procedure-related mortality of 0.1%. In each procedure, the objective is to examine the entire coronary tree, recording details of coronary anatomy, including individual variations in arterial distribution, anatomic or functional pathology (atherosclerosis, thrombosis, congenital anomalies, or focal coronary spasm), and the presence of inter- and intracoronary collateral connections. With repeat intracoronary contrast injections in a series of angulated views, a high resolution image intensifier, and 35 mm cine-angiographic film or other recording media, it is possible to define all portions of the coronary arterial circulation down to vessels as small as 0.2 mm, and to eliminate artifacts due to vessel overlap or foreshortening

  10. MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of the application of the recently developed MR techniques, the diagnosis of the morphology and the function has been possible. MR angiography (MRA) is one of these new techniques, and provides vascular anatomy and hemodynamics. At present, there is the limitation in the indication of MRA for pediatric cerebral vascular diseases. However, the frequency of clinical application of MRA is expected to increase by rapidly progressed MR techniques. Of these MRA, time-of flight (TOF) MRA, and phase contrast (PC) MRA are now being examined clinically as main MRA methods for evaluating cerebrovascular diseases, such as Moyamoya disease, arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral aneurysm. During our study, 2D and 3D TOF MRA, and 2D PC and 3D PC MRA were performed for evaluating cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of this paper is to explain the methods of these MRA, and clinical indications of MRA by showing representative clinical cases of cerebrovascular diseases. We consider that MRA ia a useful method for detecting and following-up pediatric cerebrovascular diseases at present time. It is necessary for radiologists to know the basis and clinical indications of MRA. (author)

  11. Carotid angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Torkildsen

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the history of cerebral angiography, some of the most important points concerning the percutaneous angiographic technique have been described. The value of the angiographic examination in cases of cerebral gliomas has been studied, based upon a consecutive series of 127 verified cases of hemispherical gliomas. Of 31 cases of frontal glioma, 28 could be diagnosed by the angiographic method; of 33 cases of parietal glioma, the angiograms revealed the neoplasm in 27 instances; of 39 cases of temporal glioma, the tumor could be localized in 38 cases; of 13 cases of occipital glioma, the angiographic localization of the tumor was successfull in 9 instances; of 11. cases of glioma infiltrating the corpus callosum and (or the basal ganglia, the angiographic examination was successful in only 3 cases. The angiographic examination in cases of cerebral glioma, in my experience, yields a more satisfactory result as to the localization than does the pneumography. The only exception concerns the gliomas growing in the thalamus or in the basal ganglia. These are more easily localized by means of ventriculography. As to the differential diagnosis of the gliomas, tumor vessels could, be seen both in astrocytomas and in glioblastomas. Most cases of astrocytomas were however devoid of specific tumor vessels. When present they could not be definitely distinguished from those seen in glioblastomas, but the abnormal findings were far less numerous and definitely less pronounced in astrocytomas than in glioblastomas. In most cases the astrocytomas were characterized only by displacement of blood vessels of normal appearance, while the glioblastomas frequently-presented both displacement of normal appearing blood vessels and new formed blood vessels within the neoplasm itself. The pathological blood vessels in the tumor were frequently abnormal both regarding their topographical appearance and their type. Frequent findings were arterio

  12. Peripheral MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremities is a common disorder in western society. Its debilitating nature calls for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The gold standard for diagnosing this disease by depiction of vessel morphology is X-ray angiography (either conventional or digital subtraction angiography). However, the invasive nature of this technique and the possible harmful effects of iodinated contrast agents have led to the idea that non-invasive MR angiography might be a good alternative for acquiring information about vessel morphology. Most extensively studied was time-of-flight MR angiography. Although first results with this technique were encouraging, it is now apparent that time-of-flight MR angiography is hampered by the virtue of which it exists, since blood flow not only generates vessel-to-background contrast, but is also the cause of disturbing artifacts. However, with the introduction of minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography, using gadolinium chelates to reduce the T1 of blood, image quality has improved dramatically. Moreover, using contrast-enhanced MR angiography, high-resolution three-dimensional data about the entire peripheral vascular tree can be obtained within several minutes, which might make MR angiography a true competitor of X-ray angiography as a diagnostic tool in the clinical work-up of a patient with complaints of peripheral atherosclerosis. The purpose of this article is to explain working mechanisms and usefulness of both time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. (orig.)

  13. Peripheral MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.Y.J.A.M.; Leiner, T.; Haan, M.W. de; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van [University Hospital Maastricht (AZM) (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-07-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremities is a common disorder in western society. Its debilitating nature calls for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The gold standard for diagnosing this disease by depiction of vessel morphology is X-ray angiography (either conventional or digital subtraction angiography). However, the invasive nature of this technique and the possible harmful effects of iodinated contrast agents have led to the idea that non-invasive MR angiography might be a good alternative for acquiring information about vessel morphology. Most extensively studied was time-of-flight MR angiography. Although first results with this technique were encouraging, it is now apparent that time-of-flight MR angiography is hampered by the virtue of which it exists, since blood flow not only generates vessel-to-background contrast, but is also the cause of disturbing artifacts. However, with the introduction of minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography, using gadolinium chelates to reduce the T1 of blood, image quality has improved dramatically. Moreover, using contrast-enhanced MR angiography, high-resolution three-dimensional data about the entire peripheral vascular tree can be obtained within several minutes, which might make MR angiography a true competitor of X-ray angiography as a diagnostic tool in the clinical work-up of a patient with complaints of peripheral atherosclerosis. The purpose of this article is to explain working mechanisms and usefulness of both time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. (orig.)

  14. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. PMID:27113562

  15. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  16. Magnetic resonance angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRA; Angiography - magnetic resonance ... Kwong RY. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . ...

  17. Pediatric digital substraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of intravenous and intraarterial digital substraction angiography (DSA) in childhood, involving various vascular territories, are analyzed and summed up. The characteristic features of the methods used in DSA are outlined - quantity of contrast medium, modes and routes of introduction, angiographic sequence and possibilities for processing. Various groups of diseases (volumetric processes, anomalies and variants, vascular lesions) are discussed, and the diagnostic implications of cerebral angiography, angiography of the cervical region, aortic arc, thoracic and abdominal aorta, abdominal angiography, angiopulmography, angiography of the upper and lower extremities are assayed. Advantages and shortcomings of the procedures in various anatomical regions are evaluated. In conclusion, proceeding from the specificity of examination in pediatrics, emphasis is laid on the necessity of individual approach to each single case with a special reference to the indications of including DSA in the general diagnostic scheme. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (orig.)

  18. Television's "Soap" Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Brent

    The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…

  19. Renal Artery Stenting Using CO2 Gas Angiography in Combination with Iodinated Contrast Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yuya; Endo, Akihiro; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman was hospitalized repeatedly due to unexplained heart failure. On admission, she had hypertensive acute heart failure. Her symptoms disappeared promptly after the initial treatment; however, her systolic blood pressure remained at over 160 mmHg despite her taking three antihypertensive drugs. Closer examination revealed hemodynamically significant right renal artery stenosis and a lack of left kidney function. We performed percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty using CO2 angiography in combination with iodinated contrast agents. The patient's renal function and blood pressure improved, however, CO2 gas-induced mild ischemic colitis occurred. We discuss the possibility of the use of combined iodinated contrast angiography and CO2 angiography to avoid contrast-induced nephropathy and the complications peculiar to CO2 angiography. PMID:27580543

  20. Obstetric controversies in thyroidology

    OpenAIRE

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan; Shilpa Bhosale; Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that thyroid disorders commonly affect women. The care of pregnant women affected by thyroid disease is an important clinical challenge for endocrinologists. Hypothyroidism is the commonest problem, and maternal hypothyroxinemia has been linked to adverse feto-maternal outcomes. This article would discuss the controversy regarding first-trimester thyroid hormone deficiency and fetal brain development. Certain obstetric controversies in the management of hyperthyroidism in pre...

  1. The Hockey Stick controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Nytofte, Josefine Lærke Skrøder; Jakobsen, Natasja Wexøe; Dam, Peter Rosendahl; Kattler, Nina

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates why the so-called Hockey Stick curve by Mann et al. (1998, 1999) became the subject of significant controversy; whether a paradigm shift cf. Thomas Kuhn’s theory of scientific revolutions is occurring in climate change science, and if so, how the former controversy contributed to said shift. To this end, the project provides an overview of contemporary climate change science, such as chronostratigraphy, palaeoclimatology (including the use of proxies t...

  2. Obstetric controversies in thyroidology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that thyroid disorders commonly affect women. The care of pregnant women affected by thyroid disease is an important clinical challenge for endocrinologists. Hypothyroidism is the commonest problem, and maternal hypothyroxinemia has been linked to adverse feto-maternal outcomes. This article would discuss the controversy regarding first-trimester thyroid hormone deficiency and fetal brain development. Certain obstetric controversies in the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the indications of TSH receptor antibody measurements and fetal thyroid status monitoring would also be discussed.

  3. Spinal angiography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iohexol 300 was used for 55 selective spinal angiograms in 50 patients; all were of good quality. There was no significant change in vital signs during the angiographic procedure in any case. Two patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistula draining into a coronal venous plexus developed transient subjective slight increase in their disability during the immediate post-angiographic period. Eight cases embolised at the time of angiography showed improvement in their neurological deficits within 24 h of the study. The other patients were unaffected by the procedure. Iohexol 300 is a very suitable contrast medium for spinal angiography. (orig.)

  4. The Choice Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.

    Issues in school choice--constitutionality, feasibility, equity, and educational productivity--are examined in this book. The controversy requires an ongoing analysis of the origins of the school-choice movement, the kinds of plans proposed and implemented, their educational and social consequences, and the philosophical assumptions underlying the…

  5. Controversy in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Adámek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis discusses the use of sexuality as a marketing tool in the music industry. In the first part of this work diploma thesis describes the communication theory and marketing as an essential components of marketing communication. It also analyzes marketing communication as a functional part of the marketing mix. In the second part, which is a research part, diploma thesis deals with sexuality as a controversial tool of marketing communication used in the music industry environm...

  6. Brain Drain Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Borta, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the widely acknowledged so-called brain drain controversy. More concretely on developments in the traditional brain drain literature towards a new shift, claiming the brain gain effect, as an alternative to the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. The research investigates not only the obvious direct loss effects – the so called brain drain – but also the possibility of more subtle indirect beneficial effects.

  7. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  8. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic results of angiography of blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiographic findings in blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed. 693 posttraumatic angiograms were performed at the University of Freiburg from 1972-1980. 24% of these patients suffered from blunt abdominal trauma. It could be shown that recently ultrasongraphy and computerized tomography have replaced angiography as screening method. Remaining indications for angiography are primary vascular lesions, uncertain findings of US- and/or C Texamination and documentation of hemorrhage with the possibility of therapeutic intervention. (orig.)

  10. Hate Speech Revisited: The "Toon" Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Dhavan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the cartoon controversy which ignited violent protests and ban in various countries, this article examines the contours of "hate speech" in various legal systems. While broadly supporting the case of free speech the authors remind users of free speech to exercise self-restraint. Absolute bans should not be made, but time, person and place constraints may be essential. Ironically, the toon controversy also reveals the silence of the sympathetic majority. Similarly, there is a duty to speak. Even though not enforceable, it remains a duty to democracy.

  11. Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Cho, Young-Seok

    2015-09-01

    Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115

  12. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of...

  13. Controversy Total War

    OpenAIRE

    Segesser, Daniel Marc

    2014-01-01

    Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French politicians during the First World War in a time of severe crisis (1916/17), it has become a term used by historians and other academics to cover a wide array of elements when looking at wars of the past. A real total war was and is impossible. Elements of total war – total war aims, total methods of...

  14. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  15. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  16. CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hagen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Various diagnostic tests including conventional invasive coronary angiography and non-invasive computed tomography (CT coronary angiography are used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD. Research questions: The present report aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of CT coronary angiography versus invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. in October 2010 and was completed with a manual search. The literature search was restricted to articles published from 2006 in German or English. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of the relevant publications. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of diagnostic studies with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard and on diagnostic studies with intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard. Study results were combined in a meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CI. Additionally, data on radiation doses from current non-systematic reviews were taken into account. A health economic evaluation was performed by modelling from the social perspective with clinical assumptions derived from the meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from contemporary German sources. Data on special indications (bypass or in-stent-restenosis were not included in the evaluation. Only data obtained using CT scanners with at least 64 slices were considered. Results: No studies were found regarding the clinical efficacy or prognostic value of CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, 15 systematic reviews with data from 44 diagnostic studies using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard (identification of obstructive

  17. Evaluation of the pedal artery: comparison of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography with digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kang, Sung Gwon; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Jeong Yeol; Kim, Dong Hyun [College of Medicine, Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To compare the three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for evaluation of the pedal artery. In 12 extremities of 11 patients, both digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MR angiography) were performed during the same week. Among ten of the 11 patients, the following conditions were present: atherosclerosis (n=4), diabetic foot (n=3), Buerger's disease (n=1), calciphylactic arteriopathy (n=1) and arteriovenous malformation of the foot (n=1). The remaining patient underwent angiography prior to flap surgery. For MR angiography, a 1.5T system using an extremity or head coil was used. A three-dimensional FISP (fast imaging with steady state precession) sequence was obtained before enhancement, followed by four sequential acquisitions (scan time, 20 secs, scan interval time, 10 secs) 10 seconds after intravenous bolus injection of normal saline (total 10 cc), following intravenous administration of gadolinium (0.02 mmol/kg, 3 ml/sec). Arterial segments of the ankle and foot were classified as the anterior or posterior tibial artery, the distal peroneal artery, the medial or lateral plantar artery, the pedal arch, and the dorsalis pedis artery. Two radiologists independently analysed visualization of each arteraial segment and the mean of visible arterial segments in one extreminty using CE-MR angiography and DSA. Among 84 arterial segments, 16 were invisible at both CE-MR angiography and DSA, while 39 were demonstrated by both modalities. Twenty-six segments were visible only at CE-MR angiography and three only at DSA. CE-MR angiography displayed a higher number of arterial segments than DSA (mean, 5.42 vs. mean 3.50, respectively), a difference which was statistically significant (p<0.000). The difference between each arterial segment was not statistically significant, except for the dorsalis pedis artery (t test, p<0.000). In that it provides additional information for

  18. Vertebral angiography of cerebellar astrocytoma. Tumor stain, tumor circulation, CT and angiography in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, K.; Ito, T.; Tashiro, K.; Abe, H.; Tsuru, M.; Miyasaka, K. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-05-01

    Thirteen cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were examined primarily for tumor stain and pathological tumor circulation by angiography and CT. Tumor stain was observed in only one case by cerebral angiogram. A tumor was demonstrated as an avascular mass in the remaining 12 cases. It is suggested that mural nodules of cystic lesions should have certain weight and sizes so that they could be demonstrated as tumor stain. In the supratentorial region, five of the 12 low-grade astrocytoma exhibited abnormal tumor stain and tumor circulation by cerebral angiogram. It is considered that supratentorial and posterior fossa astrocytoma must usually exhibit different pathological tumor circulation by cerebral angiogram, since each group has distinctive clinical and biological characteristics. CT was performed in 7 of 13 cases. It appeared to be more useful than cerebral angiography in the morphological diagnosis. Especially in cystic tumors, CT produced minute information concerning peritumoral edema, enhancement of margin of cystic astrocytoma after intravenous contrast medium, and marginal enhancement with layering in the dependent part of the cyst. Neuroradiological differential diagnosis of cerebellar astrocytoma and cerebellar hemagioblastoma by CT was difficult in the cases of tumors. However, both tumors were differentiated from each other with ease by tumor stain and tumor circulation in cerebral angiography. Thus, it is concluded that cerebral angiography is superior to CT in differential diagnosis between cerebellar astrocytoma and cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

  19. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology. PMID:25635982

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of early computed tomographic angiography for visualizing medium sized inferior and posterior projecting carotid system aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional angiography, generally referred to as intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, still remains the gold standard reference method for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms, helical computed tomography angiography is a new non-invasive volumetric imaging method. Objectives: This study was conducted to screen patients presenting with subarachnoid-hemorrhage by computed tomography angiography before conventional digital subtraction angiography and subsequently comparing the results for various aneurysm projections. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 99 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage were screened for aneurysms with computed tomography angiography followed by conventional digital subtraction angiography. There were 17 cases with negative angiograms in whom repeat angiograms, three months later were negative for 15 cases, while two cases were found to bear aneurysm on the repeat examination. Eighty two patients had at least one proven aneurysm on initial digital subtraction angiography and two on the repeat angiogram. Out of 84 patients, five underwent endovascular treatment and 79 patients who underwent surgical clipping were considered for projection evaluation. Results: Sensitivity of computed tomography angiography was 98.78percent(95percentconfidence interval [CI], 93.4-99.7percent), while the specificity was 100percent(95percentCI,81.57-100percent) and the kappa coefficient of agreement between computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography was 96.5percent. The most significant discrepancies with digital subtraction angiography findings were for visualizing the projection of inferior and posterior projecting proximal anterior circulation aneurysms. Conclusions: Helical computed tomography angiography was in good concordance with digital subtraction angiography for screening of cerebral aneurysms; however, for exact visualization of the aneurysm neck and its projection

  1. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  2. Coronary CT angiography and MR angiography of Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms has diminished in patients with Kawasaki disease, coronary artery involvement is still regarded as a major complication of the disease, significantly affecting morbidity and mortality. Recent technical advances in coronary CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) have led to the possibility of using these two imaging methods as minimally invasive alternatives to the more invasive diagnostic catheter angiography in evaluating coronary artery abnormalities, such as aneurysm, stenosis, and occlusion. In this article, we describe imaging techniques and findings of coronary CTA and MRA in Kawasaki disease. (orig.)

  3. Propellant-remaining modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  4. On Controversies in Relativity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vankov, Anatoli Andrei

    2006-01-01

    Controversies arise when specialists disagree on some particular issue. This normally occurs in any scientific brunch. We analyze some controversies, which have a good cause in Special Relativity. The paper does not question Special Relativity Theory but it challenges changing deeply held academic beliefs about imaginary experiments in Special Relativity Theory. PACS 03.30.+p

  5. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  6. Magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR angiography (MRA) proved to be promising combined to MR-Imaging (MRI) in the assessment of intrathoracic masses. Sequential FLASH 2D-angiograms were acquired in breathhold technique using the following parameters: TR=30 ms, TE=10 ms, FA=30deg. Section thickness was 5 mm with 1 mm overlap between sequential sections. Individual conditions of the examination were achieved by an automatised control procedure. Targeted MIP-postprocessing resulted in 3D-reconstructions illustrating vascular anatomy and avoiding superimposition. Presentation should be done by cine-mode for better spatial impression. This method was evaluated in a prospective study of 21 patients with malignant pulmonary and mediastinal masses in addition to spin-echo imaging. The diagnostic contribution concerning the relationship between the mass and the vasculature like displacement, stenosis, and poststenotic perfusion defect were assessed. (orig.)

  7. Hyperpolarized 13C MR angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Magnusson, Peter; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive technology that can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease; the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Hyperpolarized imaging agents provide signal enhancement of more than 10, 000 times, which implies large reduction...... angiography in the rat, and compare the performance of two standard angiographic pulse sequences, the gradient echo (GRE) sequence and the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). 2D coronal cerebral angiographies using intra-arterial injections were acquired with a GRE sequence with in-plane resolution...

  8. Fish remains and humankind

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K G Jones; Rebecca A Nicholson

    1997-01-01

    The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ) Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing inte...

  9. Diagnostic angiography of the cerebrospinal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinov, James D; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic catheter angiography remains the gold standard for evaluation of vascular lesions of the brain, head and neck, and spine. It is often combined with cross-sectional and functional imaging to provide a complete anatomic and physiologic workup of patients. Such data are combined with clinical information to help make treatment decisions. This chapter describes the specific techniques for arterial access and catheter navigation of the cerebrospinal vasculature. Discussion of patient positioning, injection rates, and basic anatomy of arterial and venous systems is included. Finally, important safety issues related to contrast allergy, renal failure, and complications are considered. PMID:27432664

  10. Digital angiography in pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary digital subtraction angiography was diagnostic in 98.3% of patients with possible acute pulmonary embolism. The procedure was well tolerated even in severely ill patients. A large image intensifier made simultaneous imaging of both lungs possible reducing the number of contrast injections necessary. Small volumes of low iso-osmolar concentration of modern contrast media were used. There was no need for catherization of the pulmonary artery. Theoretical considerations and our limited experience indicate that this will reduce the number of complications compared with conventional pulmonary angiography. The procedure is rapidly performed and the diagnostic accuracy high. This makes digital subtraction angiography cost effective. Digital pulmonary angiography can be recommended as the primary diagnostic method in most patients with possible pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  11. Angiography: Indication-time-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diseases of the cerebral blood vessels, CT is indispensable only if surgical measures must be decided on. Unless early surgery within the first 2 to 6 hours is possible and intended, angiographies should not be carried out on the first day. Also, it should never be applied in case of a paralysis. General experience has shown that the incidence of complications in angiography is higher for vascular diseases than for other indications. (orig.)

  12. Silicosis: controversy in detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemen Darwin Delgado García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the work of mining, quarrying, construction of tunnels and galleries, abrasive jet cleaning and smelting continue to present significant risks of silica exposure and silicosis epidemics still occur, even in developed countries. Patients with silicosis are particularly susceptible to opportunistic lung infections such as aspergillosis and tuberculosis. Occasionally silicosis is associated with scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and cancer. Early detection of silicosis is made by chest X-ray method, being the presence of rounded opacities the main sign of illness. However, no systematic information is available that allows use as a standard method of evaluation because their interpretation remains operator dependent both conventional radiological technique, digital and interpretation of computed tomography with high resolution.

  13. Necrotizing enterocolitis: controversies and challenges [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Zani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis is a devastating intestinal disease that affects ~5% of preterm neonates. Despite advancements in neonatal care, mortality remains high (30–50% and controversy still persists with regards to the most appropriate management of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis. Herein, we review some controversial aspects regarding the epidemiology, imaging, medical and surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis and we describe new emerging strategies for prevention and treatment.

  14. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  15. Angiography. 2. tot. rev. and enl. ed.; Angiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H. (ed.); Born, M.; Eckert, B.; Hofer, U.; Kaltenborn, H.; Kersjes, W.; Malms, J.; Remig, J.; Schunk, K.; Strunk, H.; Urbach, H.; Wilhelm, K.

    2003-07-01

    New features of the second German edition of this standard textbook: a novel, attractive layout supporting the didactic concept, including highlighted important information and compact summaries. - Comparative evaluation with other methods, such as color Doppler sonography and MR angiography. - Comprehensive revision of images and addition of new pictures. (orig./CB) [German] Neu in der 2. Auflage: neues, ansprechendes Layout fuer noch mehr Didaktik und ''Spass am Lernen'' durch Merksaetze und Zusammenfassungen. - Vergleich mit anderen Verfahren wie Farbdoppler-Sonographie und MR-Angiographie. - Umfassende Ueberarbeitung und Erweiterung des Bildmaterials. (orig./AJ)

  16. Current controversies in shock and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinsky, M; Shoemaker, W; Reis, E D; Kerstein, M D

    2001-12-01

    Many controversies and uncertainties surround resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock caused by vascular trauma. Whereas the basic pathophysiology is better understood, much remains to be learned about the many immunologic cascades that lead to problems beyond those of initial fluid resuscitation or operative hemostasis. Fluid therapy is on the verge of significant advances with substitute oxygen carriers, yet surgeons are still beset with questions of how much and what type of initial fluid to provide. Finally, the parameters chosen to guide therapy and the methods used to monitor patients present other interesting issues. PMID:11766174

  17. Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jointly produced, collaborated with, or endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Press & News » Review ... SCAI Member? Create an Account Advertisement Advertisement The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Foundation, 1100 17th ...

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  19. Cardiac catheterization and angiography. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses the papers on cardiac catheterization and angiography. The topics covered are: historical perspective and present practice of cardiac catheterization; angiography principles and utilization of radiologic and cineangiographic equipment; complications, incidence and prevention of side effects of cardiac catheterization; techniques; blood flow measurement of heart; pressure measurement; diagnostic techniques of angiography; special catheter techniques; coronary angiography, temporary and permanent pacemakers, potential role of lasers in the cardiac catheterization and evaluation of cardiac function

  20. Magnetic Resonance angiography. Pt 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe the basic physical principles important in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The data used were obtained from recent articles on MRA and direct experience working with prototype MRA sequence. The information is presented in a manner suitable for those unfamiliar with the principles of MRA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance angiography is an important method that can be used to obtain angiograms without the injection of intravascular contrast medium. It is already proving to be of clinical use in the assessment of vascular disease. 11 refs., 5 figs

  1. Digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography with selective coronary injections of contrast media has enabled us to obtain clear images, not only of the artery, but of the capillary and venous phases of the myocardial perfusion. In the present study, densitometry was used to estimate regional myocardial perfusion dynamics in 10 control cases and 11 anterior myocardial infarction cases. The time density curve showed that contrast material increased rapidly in the arterial phase and appeared to be washed out monoexponentially in the venous phase. The time from the onset of contrast medium injection to the maximal density of the contrast medium (Tp), and the time constant obtained from the washout curve (Tc) were analyzed. In the control group, Tp in the apical region was slightly prolonged as compared with Tp in the anterobasal region, but the difference was not significant (5.2 ± 0.5 vs 4.2 ± 0.4 sec: mean ± SEM). Tc did not definitely change in any portion of the myocardium (anterobasal 5.1 ± 0.5, anterior 4.8 ± 0.5, apex 4.6 ± 0.5 sec, respectively). In anterior myocardial infarction, Tp in the marginal region was significantly prolonged compared to Tp in the control region (6.0 ± 0.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.3 sec, p < 0.01). Tp was prolonged for more than 10 sec in the infarcted region. Tc in the marginal region was markedly prolonged compared to Tc in the control region (7.4 ± 0.9 vs 4.4 ± 0.5 sec, p < 0.025). Tc could not be determined in the infarcted regions because data acquisition time of our apparatus was inadequate. Two indices of Tp and Tc obtained from the time density curve were regarded capable of estimating regional myocardial perfusion dynamics. Analysis of the DSA image sequence is regarded a very useful method for revealing regional myocardial perfusion dynamics as well as for providing morphological information about the coronary artery. (author)

  2. Wounded penetrating to neck: Angiotomography helical vs conventional Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to determine the diagnostic potential of helical CT angiography (HCTA) in the assessment of arterial injuries resulting from penetrating neck trauma. Materials and methods: forty-seven adult patients with penetrating neck trauma who were referred for angiographic evaluation of suspected arterial injuries were included in the study. All patients underwent both conventional angiography and HCTA within 1 hour, our protocol included a 100 cc nonionic contrast bolus automatically injected at 4.5 cc/sec, with 11 sec scan delay. Scan parameters were: 120 kV, 200 mAs, slice thickness 3 mm and table speed 4 mm/sec. the volumetric data set was reconstructed retrospectively at 1 mm intervals. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional reconstructions were performed at a separate workstation. Two radiologists who were blinded to clinical and angiographic data interpreted the images. HCTA findings were compared with those of conventional angiography and surgery. Results: eight patients (17%) had carotid artery injuries: internal carotid artery occlusion (n=2), arteriovenous fistula with associated carotid pseudoaneurysm (n=1), arteriovenous fistula with vertebral artery pseudoanurysm (n=2) and common carotid pseudoaneurysm (n=2). seven of these arterial injuries were demonstrated by both HCTA and angiography, there was one false negative case. in the remaining 39 patients, HCTA and conventional angiography showed normal carotid arteries; therefore sensitivity was 87.5%, specificity and positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 97.5%. Conclusion: our initial experience indicates that helical CT angiography is an adequate non-invasive diagnostic method for the evaluation of patients with suspected arterial injuries resulting from penetrating trauma to the neck

  3. Perfusion Angiography in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Visualization and quantification of blood flow are essential for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. For rapid imaging of the cerebrovasculature, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard as it offers high spatial resolution. This paper lays out a methodological framework, named perfusion angiography, for the quantitative analysis and visualization of blood flow parameters from DSA images. The parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time-to-peak (TTP), and T max, are computed using a bolus tracking method based on the deconvolution of the time-density curve on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The method is tested on 66 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombectomy and/or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and also evaluated on an estimation task with known ground truth. This novel imaging tool provides unique insights into flow mechanisms that cannot be observed directly in DSA sequences and might be used to evaluate the impact of endovascular interventions more precisely. PMID:27446232

  4. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  5. Risk controversies. Concepts - conflicts - communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common arguments and differences in risk communication in connection with the controversial discussion surrounding the fields of genetic engineering, chemistry, nuclear engineering, information techniques, and climate research are investigated. Presented are comparative analyses on subjects, those becoming active, and strategies of risk communication. (DG)

  6. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  7. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    controversies cannot be solved without well-designed double-blind randomized placebo-controlled caries trials in defined populations. Furthermore, as a candidate for public health intervention, the economical aspects of xylitol administration must be taken into account at the planning stages of future projects...

  8. Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Allabadi, Fadwa

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the multilayered changes in the lives of Palestinian women over the years of the first and second Intifadas. On the one hand, women have become far more actively involved in politics, with a Women's Charter being drafted and legislation concerning women's rights being put on the political agenda. At the same time, the political shift from a Fatah- to a Hamas-dominated government has shifted understandings of whether the state should be secular or Islamist. Paradoxical ...

  9. Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. When iodinated contrast material is contraindicated, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas can be injected intravascularly to produce high-quality digital subtraction angiograms. Objective. CO2 angiography, although previously described in adults, has never before been reported in children. Materials and methods. We present three children with renal transplants who required renal angiography. Because of elevated creatinine levels, iodinated contrast was not used to search for possible renal artery stenosis. Instead, CO2 angiography was used to evaluate the renal artery anastomosis. Results. In all three cases, the renal artery anastomosis was clearly visualized using CO2 angiography and showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis. Conclusion. Digital CO2 angiography is an effective method for pediatric renal angiography. The technique can easily be adapted for virtually any angiographic laboratory capable of digital subtraction imaging. Digital CO2 angiography also lacks the risks of a conventional iodinated contrast medium, namely nephrotoxicity, allergic reaction and volume overload. (orig.). With 1 fig

  10. Risk of renal allograft rejection following angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study of 173 immediately functioning primary kidney transplants, correlation between angiography and renal allograft rejection was studied during the first 14 days. It was found that rejection was more frequent in kidneys undergoing angiography than in those not undergoing angiography. It was also found that in kidneys undergoing angiography an overwhelming number of the rejections started the day after angiography. These differences in rejection frequency could not be explained by differences in HLA matching or the origin of the kidneys. These findings suggest a possible connection indicating that the angiography might elicit an acute rejection episode. A possible mechanism for starting this reaction might be activation of the complement system which was found in 50 percent of the patients undergoing angiography in peripheral blood and in 100 percent when studied in vitro

  11. Controversial Science and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  12. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    BORRA, E; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit history and discussion section for every article, the substance of these sections is difficult to phantom for Wikipedia users interested in the development of an article and in locating which topic...

  13. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarović Miodrag

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  14. Analysing the disability- sexuality controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sibanda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities forms the central thrust of this paper. Views about the sexuality of people with disabilities have manifested in the construction of what we term the disability- sexuality controversy. The paper examines this controversy and explores ways of resolving it in the context of educational programming. The paper concludes that the disability- sexuality controversy is more of a social than a biological construct. This conclusion is premised on the hypothetical view that both disability and sexuality are intimately tied to the concept of self in which case sexuality is constructed within the social realm of the bodily beauty complexes. The way forward is a multi- sectorial approach towards the eradication of disability stereotypes. In addition, the paper recommends active parental involvement in the programming and implementation of sexuality education for their children with disabilities.

  15. Pulmonary angiography with lopamidol 370

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-one consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary angiography with iopamidol, 370 mg/ml, were studied prospectively. Patients were asked to grade any heat or pain felt on injection, and were observed for coughing. Right atrial and pulmonary artery pressures were obtained before the first and after the final contrast agent injection. Pressure changes were compared with those in a consecutive group of 25 patients who underwent examinations performed with Na-meglumine diatrizoate, 370 mg/ml. Film quality was evaluated for patient motion. Iopamidol generated marked discomfort in only three patients. Pressure changes were largely unremarkable. In no case was there any significant motion artifact secondary to coughing. Iopamidol is a safe, well-tolerated contrast agent for pulmonary angiography. It improves image quality by nearly eliminating coughing

  16. Angiography of the lower leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have compared the validity of conventional angiography (CA) and intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of the lower leg in the staging of peripheral vascular disease. Such studies are important because of different therapeutic possibilities for limb salvage; small balloon and laser angioplasty, atherectomy, and surgically successful femorocrural and - pedal bypasses. A prospective comparative study was performed on 100 consecutive patients, who underwent CA via translumbar aortography. Seldinger catheterization or groin needle puncture, immediately followed by IA-DSA of the lower leg. Three months later, independent blinded observer analysis was performed by two vascular surgeons and two radiologists of both CA and IA-DSA, recording percentage stenosis of popliteal posterior, anterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. On the last 52 patients, the two surgeons also judged if the vessel was amenable for grafting. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the kappa value, to measure agreement between observers

  17. Digital subtraction angiography: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, technical developments in digital electronics and image intensifier have improved the electronic recording and processing of images. Both department of radiology and of medical engineering of Seoul National University Hospital jointly developed digital subtraction angiography system (SRM-1) and performed DSA in patients. The system was composed of angiography equipment, computer, video image storage and logarithmic amplifier. Fluoroscopic images were taken before and after 40-60 ml of contrast media were intravenously injected with speed of 12-15 ml/sec. The images were recorded by V.T.R. with normal speed. The recorded images were processed with digitization, amplification, subtraction, enhancement, position manipulation and image smoothing. Arteriography of neck vessels, abdominal aorta and its branches and extremities were performed successfully by above mentioned methods in 20 cases and results were reviewed

  18. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  19. Controversies in Headache Medicine: Migraine Prevention Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Email Controversies in Headache Medicine: Migraine Prevention Diets ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by ... address below. Controversies in Headache Medicine: Migraine Prevention Diets Merle L. Diamond, MD and Dawn A. Marcus, ...

  20. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  1. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) in Vascular Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tehrai

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of trauma patients, computed tomo-graphy and CT angiography (CTA) are powerful non-invasive tools that provide a large amount of informa-tion in so little time that they have virtually replaced plain film radiography and catheter angiography. In our hospital, CTA has replaced catheter angiogra-phy for diagnosing most vascular injuries, resulting from penetrating and blunt trauma to head, neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities. This lecture will cover current imaging protocols...

  2. Patent ductus venosus: diagnosis by MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 15-year-old boy with patent ductus venosus in whom the diagnosis was made by MR angiography. A patent ductus venosus Arantii is a rare form of portosystemic shunt. Only a few cases have been reported in adults and children. The diagnosis is usually made by US and digital subtraction angiography. In our patient, the diagnosis was first made by MR angiography. This demonstrates the excellent diagnostic potential of the method in paediatric patients. (orig.)

  3. Clinical experience of ioxaglate in femoral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Mine, H.; Iwai, T. (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Painless femoral angiography could be performed in patients under slight analgesic premedication by using ioxaglate (320 mg I/ml). Slower flow of ioxaglate resulted in longer segments of the arteries being filled by the contrast column than by using iothalamate, which was confirmed by serial whole-limb angiography. The dynamic characteristics of ioxaglate, in addition to marked reduction of pain, fulfilled the requirements for its use as a contrast medium in femoral or peripheral angiography.

  4. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.)

  5. The controversy about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review of the events of the past several years in the conflict in the USA between the groups supporting or opposing nuclear power. Reference is made to publications on both sides of the controversy which the author considers to be well reasoned and useful sources of information. Mention is also made of the legal and legislative actions taken by both sides. The arguments against nuclear power are summarized and solutions to the problems which are the source of these arguments are suggested

  6. Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    studies (STS) discipline. The method guides the application of actor network theory (ANT). Online digital media and tools (namely, Scopus, ScienceScape, Google trends, OpenHeatMap, NodeXL, Gephi, Facebook, Twitter) are used for data collection and analysis. The study uses both qualitative and quantitative...... tools and techniques to highlight the statements, literatures, actors, cosmoses or general concepts involved in the controversy. The paper propounds the adoption of the method in the field of education and educational technology and proposes through demonstration in this article that such investigations...... can be reported as a genre of the scholarly article....

  7. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  8. Digital subtraction angiography in ischemic cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in computer and radiological technology have permitted reassessment of intravenous angiography in the evaluation of cerebrovascular disorders. Although digital subtraction angiography is a relatively new technique, it has rapidly gained a widespread acceptance. It has extended the use of angiography to outpatients and to people in whom conventional angiography is contraindicated. This reliable, safe, and relatively noninvasive technique offers the user two benefits: real-time subtraction and enhanced image quality. The system allows angiographic evaluation of the extracranial and intracranial vessels by means of intravenous injection of contrast material. Extracranial studies clearly demonstrate stenoses and occlusions of the major cervicocephalic arteries. Intracranial studies usually detect major cerebrovascular occlusions and provide insight into the collateral flow patterns. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography permits accurate assessment of cervicocephalic vessels after surgical repair. Although intravenous digital subtraction angiography obviates the need for conventional angiography in many cases, movements from the patients, or superimposition of vascular structures can substantially degrade the quality of the images. Digital subtraction angiography with intra-arterial injection of contrast medium will be contemplated in patients with poor intravenous digital subtraction angiography studies prior to surgery

  9. Digital peripheral angiography with stepping and subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective randomised study including 60 patients digital peripheral angiography with stepping and subtraction (DPSA) was compared to DPA without subtraction (DPA), DSA without stepping and conventional angiography. Examination time could thus be shortened by about 20%. The amount of contrast medium could also be reduced by 15 to 20%. Both digital subtraction techniques supplied superior image quality especially in the lower limb in comparison with conventional and digital peripheral angiography without subtraction. X-ray exposure was similar for conventional angiography and DPSA. DSA without subtraction revealed a three times increased dose. (orig./GDG)

  10. Cytomegalovirus and glioblastoma; controversies and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sean E

    2015-07-01

    One of the more polarized ongoing debates in the brain tumor field over recent years has centered on the association of cytomegalovirus (CMV) with glioblastoma. Several laboratories have reported the presence of CMV antigens in glioblastoma patient specimens, whereas others have failed to detect them. CMV genomic DNA and mRNAs have been detected by PCR, but not in next-generation sequencing studies. CMV promotes high grade glioma progression in a mouse genetic model, and many CMV proteins promote cancer hallmarks in vitro, but actively replicating virus has not been isolated from tumor samples. A consensus is gradually emerging in which the presence of CMV antigens in glioblastoma is increasingly accepted. However, it remains challenging to understand this mechanistically due to the low levels of CMV nucleic acids and the absence of viral replication observed in tumors thus far. Nonetheless, these observations have inspired the development of novel therapeutic approaches based on anti-viral drugs and immunotherapy. The potential benefit of valganciclovir in glioblastoma has generated great interest, but efficacy remains to be established in a randomized trial. Also, early stage immunotherapy trials targeting CMV have shown promise. In the near future we will know more answers to these questions, and although areas of controversy may remain, and the mechanisms and roles of CMV in tumor growth are yet to be clearly defined, this widespread virus may have created important new therapeutic concepts and opportunities for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:25682092

  11. CT Angiography and MR Angiography of Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motevalli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  CT angiography (CTA has revolutionized vascular imaging. Vessels smaller than 1mm in diameter can be visualized with single slice CTA and vessels 2 mm or more in diameter can be diagnostically evaluated. The acquisition of 3D data volumes makes it possible to generate "angiographic" views that facilitate anatomic orientation."nWith the advent of multi slice CTA, near isotropic resolution becomes available for most applications and allows evaluation of even smaller vessels."nMulti slice scanning makes CTA less technically challenging and more robust. It reduces scan time and the vulnerability to motion artifacts, and may be used to substantially decrease the required contrast material volume to as little as 50 ml in selected cases."nThe advantages of CTA over arterial angiography (DSA include substantially lower invasiveness, less cost, less radiation exposure, and better patient tolerance. Diagnostic advantages include simultaneous visualization of the vessel wall and lumen, and the ability to study vascular anatomy from arbitrary viewing angles using only one data acquisition."nCTA even allows projections (such as Caudocranial that cannot be obtained with conventional angiographic techniques."nAlthough CTA can replace diagnostic ultrasound with its various Doppler techniques, it may be preferred over CTA in regions that are easily accessible by sonography or when flow information is required. It also holds advantages whenever bedside imaging is to be preferred."nMagnetic resonance angiography (MRA has become the common place in the last few years. The improvements in pulse sequence design, hardware design, and post processing methods make it possible to acquire data in a short period with excellent vascular visualization in a variety of clinical applications."nContrast -enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA offers competitive results to CTA, although spatial resolution is often lower than with multi slice CT scanning. The lack of

  12. When is rotational angiography superior to conventional single‐plane angiography for planning coronary angioplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane; Boutong, Sara; Brett, Sarah; Louis, Amal; Heppenstall, James; Morton, Allison C.; Gunn, Julian P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the value of rotational coronary angiography (RoCA) in the context of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) planning. Background As a diagnostic tool, RoCA is associated with decreased patient irradiation and contrast use compared with conventional coronary angiography (CA) and provides superior appreciation of three‐dimensional anatomy. However, its value in PCI remains unknown. Methods We studied stable coronary artery disease assessment and PCI planning by interventional cardiologists. Patients underwent either RoCA or conventional CA pre‐PCI for planning. These were compared with the referral CA (all conventional) in terms of quantitative lesion assessment and operator confidence. An independent panel reanalyzed all parameters. Results Six operators performed 127 procedures (60 RoCA, 60 conventional CA, and 7 crossed‐over) and assessed 212 lesions. RoCA was associated with a reduction in the number of lesions judged to involve a bifurcation (23 vs. 30 lesions, P RoCA improved confidence assessing lesion length (P = 0.01), percentage stenosis (P = 0.02), tortuosity (P RoCA augments quantitative lesion assessment, enhances confidence in the assessment of coronary artery disease and the precise details of the proposed procedure, but does not affect X‐ray dose, contrast agent volume, or procedure duration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26012725

  13. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.)

  14. The Artery of Percheron Infarction after Coronary Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazek, Haitham; Sherif, Khaled; Suarez, Jose; Wischmeyer, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the golden choice for coronary artery disease evaluation and management. However, as with any invasive procedures, there is a risk of complications. We are reporting a case of 69-year-old male with past medical history of cardiac bypass surgery, CHF, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia who was admitted to the hospital to evaluate his chest pain. He had treadmill stress test that showed ischemic induced exercise. Patient underwent coronary angiography that showed proximal complete occlusion of the RCA with a patent graft. At the end of the procedure, the patient did not wake up and remained minimally responsive. An urgent brain MRI was ordered and showed infarctions consistent with an artery of Percheron infarction. Later, patient has improved slowly and was discharged home. We briefly here discuss this rare complication including the risk factor, clinical presentation, and the management.

  15. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Zentner, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs.

  16. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the controversies that emerge in the fuzzy front end (FFE) and how they are closed so the innovation process can move on. The fuzzy front has been characterized in the literature as a very critical phase, but controversies in the FFE have not been studied before. The...... processes demonstrates how the fuzzy front requires managers to deal with controversies that emerge from many different places and involve both human and non-human actors. Closing the controversies requires managers to take account of the situation, identify the problem that needs to be addressed, and...... analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...

  17. Digital subtraction angiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results with digital subtraction angiography in infants and children have shown this to be an excellent screening procedure and often diagnostic. The examination can be performed satisfactorily on outpatients. Sixty patients have undergone this examination for evaluation of suspected abnormalities of the aortic arch and its branches, intracranial arteries, pulmonary arteries, abdominal aorta and its branches, and peripheral vessels. Adequate sedation is mandatory to prevent motion artifacts. While the literature reports increasing use of central venous catheters for delivery of contrast material, the use of short catheters placed in an antecubital vein is satisfactory for the pediatric patient. Techniques of the procedures are described along with seven appropriate case examples

  18. ECG changes during cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Itoh, K.; Hayashi, N.; Aoki, J.; Nakamura, K.; Imai, M.; Ono, T.; Morikawa, S.

    1984-09-01

    We have analyzed HR changes greater than 20% among 334 patients and 942 cerebral angiographies. A tachycardial effect was seen in 14.9% of patients, while a bradycardial effect was seen in 7.1% including two patients having cardiac standstill (0.5%). These two patients were examined without atropine premedication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients under 19 years of age, unpremedicated with atropine sulfate and suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation showed a significantly high incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, patients with the neoplastic disease and having an initial sinus bradycardia showed a significantly high incidence of a tachycardial effect.

  19. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  20. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-07-26

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  1. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  2. Ultravist in children's angiocardiography and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    370 children, ranging from 1 day to 18 years of age, have underwent angiocardiography (285 children), cerebral angiography (36), abdominal (27) and peripheral angiography (22) with ultravist. The tolerance is excellent, there were no significant biological effects and allergic reactions. The quality of pictures is fairly good. Conclusively the use of ultravist is demanded for children. (author)

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  4. CT angiography in carotid stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of the accuracy CT angiography (CTA) with different postprocessing for extracranial carotid artery in comparison with DSA. Method: one hundred patients were studied with standarized CTA. For postprocessing, MPR, MIP, and 3D reconstruction based on segmentation with upper and lower threshold were used. Intravascular density profiles were considered. All CTA studies were correlated with intra-arterial angiography. The degree and classification of stenoses was determined using the guidelines established by the NASCET collaborators. Results: Measurement of stenosis was possible by MPR in 82.5%, by MIP in 85%, and 3D in 100%. Correct classification was found in 65.5% for MPR, 66% for MIP and 88.5% for 3D. The sensitivity for severe stenoses was 74% for MPR, 82% for MIP, and 93% for 3D. The specificity of these methods was 98%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. All carotid occlusions were correctly identified, no carotid artery was wrongly classified as occluded. (orig./AJ)

  5. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Assessment of Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coronary computed tomography angiography has recently emerged as an accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, providing diagnostic and prognostic data that correlate directly with the data provided by invasive coronary angiography. The association of recent technological developments has allowed improved temporal resolution and better spatial coverage of the cardiac volume with significant reduction in radiation dose, and with the crucial need for more effective protocols of risk stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, recent evaluation of the computed tomography coronary angiography has been performed in the setting of acute chest pain, as about two thirds of invasive coronary angiographies show no significantly obstructive coronary artery disease. In daily practice, without the use of more efficient technologies, such as coronary angiography by computed tomography, safe and efficient stratification of patients with acute chest pain remains a challenge to the medical team in the emergency room. Recently, several studies, including three randomized trials, showed favorable results with the use of this technology in the emergency department for patients with low to intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease. In this review, we show data resulting from coronary angiography by computed tomography in risk stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, its diagnostic value, prognosis and cost-effectiveness and a critical analysis of recently published multicenter studies

  6. CT angiography in carotid stenosis; CT-Angiographie bei Karotisstenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, P.; Kauczor, H.U.; Ehrhard, K.; Thelen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Schmiedt, W. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany). Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie

    1997-11-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of the accuracy CT angiography (CTA) with different postprocessing for extracranial carotid artery in comparison with DSA. Method: one hundred patients were studied with standarized CTA. For postprocessing, MPR, MIP, and 3D reconstruction based on segmentation with upper and lower threshold were used. Intravascular density profiles were considered. All CTA studies were correlated with intra-arterial angiography. The degree and classification of stenoses was determined using the guidelines established by the NASCET collaborators. Results: Measurement of stenosis was possible by MPR in 82.5%, by MIP in 85%, and 3D in 100%. Correct classification was found in 65.5% for MPR, 66% for MIP and 88.5% for 3D. The sensitivity for severe stenoses was 74% for MPR, 82% for MIP, and 93% for 3D. The specificity of these methods was 98%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. All carotid occlusions were correctly identified, no carotid artery was wrongly classified as occluded. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] In einer prospektiven Untersuchung sollte die Genauigkeit verschiedener Nachverarbeitungsmethoden der CT-Angiographie (CTA) der extrakraniellen Karotis im Vergleich zur DSA untersucht werden. 100 Patienten wurden mit einer standardisierten CTA untersucht. Zur Nachverarbeitung wurden MPR, MIP und 3D-Rekonstruktion nach Segmentation mit doppeltem Schwellenwert eingesetzt. Fuer die Durchmesserbestimmung wurden die intravasalen Dichteprofile beruecksichtigt. Alle CTA-Untersuchungen wurden mit intraarteriellen DSA-Untersuchungen korreliert. Die Bestimmung des Stenosegrades und die Klassifizierung erfolgte nach den NASCET-Kriterien. Die Auswertung der CTA war mit MPR in 82,5% mit MIP in 85% und mit der 3D in 100% moeglich. Die Uebereinstimmung zwischen DSA und CTA in der Klassifikation der Stenosegrade betrug fuer MPR 65,5%, fuer die MIP 66% und fuer die 3D-Rekonstruktion 88,5%. Die Sensitivitaet im Nachweis relevanter Karotisstenosen ist fuer die MPR 74%, fuer die MIP 82

  7. Cerebral CT angiography in the diagnosis of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of CT angiography (CTA) in the detection of intracranial aneurysms in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Material and Methods: In 53 patients with nontraumatic SAH a helical contrast-enhanced CTA was performed. CTA data were reconstructed with maximum intensity projection (MIP). Each patient underwent selective arteriography of the cerebral vessels (as the gold standard). CTA (axial images and MIP reconstructions) and arteriography were evaluated separately and their diagnostic information was compared. Results: In 14 of the 53 patients neither CTA nor angiography showed a vascular malformation. In the remaining 39 patients, angiography demonstrated a total of 51 aneurysms ranging in size from 3 mm to 16 mm. CTA missed one of these aneurysms, which was located at the internal carotid artery. 3-D CT reconstruction was slightly superior to arteriography in the demonstration of the neck, shape and direction of the aneurysms. Partial thrombosis of 3 aneurysms was demonstrated only by CTA. Conclusion: Although CTA cannot replace cerebral arteriography in the diagnostic work-up of acute SAH, it proved to be helpful in demonstrating the topographic anatomy of cerebral aneurysms and surrounding structures. (orig.)

  8. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  9. Osteoporosis: Current concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent attention given to osteoporosis by the media has been focused on informing women of the ''silent epidemic'' that results in an insidious loss of bone mass primarily evident through crush fractures of the vertebrae, and fractures of the wrist and hip. Public consciousness of this disorder has also been heightened by the toll in health care dollars, measuring approximately $6 billion annually. In the past decade, major advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of postmenopausal bone loss and in prevention and treatment of involutional osteoporosis. In more recent years, considerable effort has been expended in the development of methods for quantitatively assessing the skeleton so that osteoporosis can be detected early, its progression and response to therapy carefully monitored, and its risk effectively ascertained. There is not yet, however, a consensus on which method or methods, if any, are most efficacious for diagnosing and monitoring the individual patient or for extensive screening of large populations. The purpose of this refresher course is to review current concepts and controversies in regard to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Particular emphasis is given to the issues of noninvasive bone mineral measurement and the utility of screening procedures

  10. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  11. Bisphenol A: Understanding the Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Cynthia Marie

    2016-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 lists Bisphenol A (BPA) as a potential endocrine disruptor for which exposure should be reduced. The Healthy People 2020 Environmental Health Objectives focus on addressing environmental factors that negatively affect individuals' health even though the health effects of some toxic substances are not yet fully understood. An American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) position statement outlined the role occupational health nurses play in creating healthy and productive workplaces by promoting worker health. BPA is implicated in a variety of health outcomes such as breast and prostate cancer, menstrual irregularities, genital abnormalities in male babies, infertility in men and women, early puberty in girls, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The overall health issues attributed to BPA exposure are complex and controversial. Concerns regarding environmental health are growing as individuals become more dependent on plastics. Numerous health concerns have been directly connected to daily exposures to products manufactured with BPA. Government agencies support the use of BPA as a safe consumer product with the exception of BPA use in baby bottles and sippy cups, which has been banned in the United States and several other countries. Many agencies (e.g., Federal Drug Administration [FDA], World Health Organization [WHO], U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [U.S. DHHS], and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) have expressed "some concern" about BPA based on research, and stated further research is warranted. PMID:26800896

  12. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities. PMID:22732046

  13. Brugada syndrome: Controversies in Risk stratification and Management.

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, L.; Bhar-Amato, J; Lambiase, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the 18 years since the first description of Brugada Syndrome in a small series of cardiac arrest survivors it has become evident that there is a marked spectrum in phenotype and prognosis. An internal cardiac defibrillator (ICD) is the only established therapy but is associated with significant morbidity. A number of registries have published their data, but risk stratification, particularly in asymptomatic patients, remains controversial. This article summarises the evidence to enable the...

  14. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    OpenAIRE

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to ...

  15. Evaluation by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a form of digital radiography. In digital radiography, the X-ray signal is electronically detected, digitized, and proceeded before being displayed and stored. The technique allows detection of very low levels of iodinated contrast media such as those that occur in the arterial system following an intravenous injection of contrast. The X-ray imaging system used is a standard-image intensified fluoroscopy system with a wide dynamic-range TV camera. The video signal from the image intensifier is logarithmically enhanced and digitized on an image processor (computer). This signal, which is stored in one of two memories, serves as a mask. The mask is subtracted from digital images obtained after the injection of contrast media, and the subtraction images are stored on digital or analog disks or on magnetic tapes. Postprocedure reprocessing allows selection of different masks for subtraction, which is useful when patient motion has occurred. Hard copies can be obtained

  16. [Spiral CT angiography in practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavcec, Zlatko; Zokalj, Ivan; Rumboldt, Zoran; Pal, Andrej; Saghir, Hussein; Ozretić, David; Latin, Branko; Perhoć, Zeljka; Marotti, Miljenko

    2005-01-01

    Incidence of vascular diseases and development of new radiologic techniques in the last three decades has given strong impuls for introduction of non-invasive vascular diagnostic methods. Thanks to the introduction of Doppler ultrasound, new types of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scanners, non-invasive vascular diagnostic methods are replacing conventional invasive (catheter) angiographic methods. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a noninvasive vascular diagnostic method based on continuous scanning with CT scanner during intravenous application of contrast material. Performing of CTA is possible after introduction of spiral CT technique whose characteristics are short imaging time and volumetric data acquisition. The main goal of this article, based on our experiences, is to review the role of CTA, performed on single-slice CT scanner, in managment of patients with vascular pathology. PMID:16145870

  17. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). (author)

  18. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurumi, Kiyohiko; Okuyama, Nobuo

    1987-07-01

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA).

  19. Imaging of the digital arteries: Digital subtraction angiography versus conventional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report their experience with the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and conventional angiography of the hand. Of the 95 patients in the study group, 80 underwent conventional angiography and 15 underwent DSA. They analyzed the studies with regard to the type and amount of contrast agent used, the number of radiographs needed, and the diagnostic quality of the images. Conventional angiography often requires general anesthesia, magnification, and pharmaco-angiographic techniques to improve the image-based diagnosis. In comparison with conventional angiography, intraarterial DSA is characterized by improved contrast sensitivity and inferior spatial resolution. However, DSA provides images as acceptable as those of conventional angiography. Smaller catheters can be used, and the examination is performed under local anesthesia. The authors conclude that intraarterial DSA is now the technique of choice for examining patients with chronic ischemia of the hand

  20. Enterobius vermicularis: A Controversial Cause of Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Gh Mowlavi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiasis is undoubtedly one of the most common human helminths infections through the world, with an estimate of 1000 million cases worldwide. Although adult worms and their eggs are frequently found in inflamed appendices, but the role of the parasite in producing appendicitis in humans still remains controversial. Although acute appendicitis may occur at any age, but it is relatively rare at the extremes of age. A histopathological study of infested appendices with Enterobius vermicularis was performed in Khuzestan province, south western Iran, during 2001 to 2003. All 40 samples had surgically been removed during the emergency operations and histopathological process with (H&E staining has been performed for each. One of the main objects of this work was to collect more data about the possible role of this highly prevalent human round worm as a causative agent of appendicitis in humans, leading to different types of appendicitis in this part of the country. In this occasion over the slide examinations of the tissue sections, fewer cases than expected, with worm infested appendices were seen exclusively affected with this parasite.

  1. Current Controversies in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett W; Godoy, Myrna C B; Wu, Carol C; Erasmus, Jeremy J; Truong, Mylene T

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States, and accurate staging of disease plays an important role in the formulation of treatment strategies and optimization of patient outcomes. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has recently proposed changes to the upcoming eighth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM-8) staging system used for lung cancer. This revised classification is based on significant differences in patient survival identified on analysis of a new large international database of lung cancer cases. Key changes include: further modifications to the T descriptors based on 1 cm increments in tumor size; grouping of tumors resulting in partial or complete lung atelectasis/pneumonitis; grouping of tumors involving a main bronchus with respect to distance from the carina; reassignment of diaphragmatic invasion; elimination of mediastinal pleural invasion as a descriptor; and further subdivision of metastatic disease into distinct descriptors based on the number of extrathoracic metastases and involved organs. Because of these changes, several new stage groups have been developed, and others have shifted. Although TNM-8 represents continued improvement upon modifications previously made to the staging system, reflecting an evolving understanding of tumor behavior and patient management, several limitations and unaddressed issues persist. Understanding the proposed revisions to TNM-8 and awareness of key limitations and potential controversial issues still unaddressed will allow radiologists to accurately stage patients with lung cancer and optimize treatment decisions. PMID:27306388

  2. Cancer screening with CT: dose controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) cancer screening has seen a steady increase in interest with the introduction of multislice scanners. While the potential benefits of screening are obvious, radiation dose may pose a long-term risk for the screened individual. This article will discuss the basis for radiation risk estimation and give an overview of the current dose controversy surrounding CT screening. Given the current evidence, a non-negligible radiation risk has to be postulated even at very low doses, but estimates depend heavily on the chosen mathematical model. Lung cancer risk is the most important factor in a screening population because it peaks in the time interval between 40 and 70 years of age. Substantial risks for lung cancer development from yearly screening CT examinations are currently discussed in the literature. Risks for colon cancer screening are less because of less frequent screening intervals. For both indications substantial dose reduction up to factors of 5-10 may be possible. Full-body screening remains critical when performed at regular intervals because of the large doses required and the direct exposure of the lungs. If performed in a dose-conscious fashion, individual risks with lung and colon cancer screening are very small, but estimated population risks are non-negligible. (orig.)

  3. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; Becker, H. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schedlowski, M. [Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schuermeyer, T.H. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  4. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  5. Multidetector-row CT angiography of hepatic artery: comparison with conventional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of three-dimensional CT angiography using multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) for delineating the arterial anatomy of the liver. Hepatic arterial three-dimensional CT angiography was performed using MDCT (lightspeed Qx/I; GE medical systems, milwaukee, Wis., U.S.A.) in 45 patients with HCC undergoing conventional angiography for transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization. The scanning parameters during the early arterial phase were 2.5 mm slice thickness, 7.5 mm rotation of table speed, and a pitch of 3. Images were obtained by one radiologist using maximum intensity projection from axial CT images obtained during the early arterial phase. Two radiologists blinded to the findings of conventional angiography independently evaluated the hepatic arterial anatomy and the quality of the images obtained. Compared with conventional angiography, reader A correctly evaluated the hepatic arterial anatomy depicted at three-dimensional CT angiography. Reader B's evaluation was correct in 40 of 45 patients. Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value, 0.73), and both readers assessed the quality of three-dimensional CT angiography as excellent. Three-dimensional CT angiography using MDCT was accurate for delineating the arterial anatomy of the liver, and interobserver agreement was good. The modality may provide, prior to conventional angiography, valuable information regrading a patient's hepatic arterial anatomy

  6. The evolving perception of controversial movies

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, Luca; Quartin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Polarization of opinion is an important feature of public debate on political, social and cultural topics. The availability of large internet databases of users' ratings has permitted quantitative analysis of polarization trends-for instance, previous studies have included analyses of controversial topics on Wikipedia, as well as the relationship between online reviews and a product's perceived quality. Here, we study the dynamics of polarization in the movie ratings collected by the Internet Movie database (IMDb) website in relation to films produced over the period 1915-2015. We define two statistical indexes, dubbed hard and soft controversiality, which quantify polarized and uniform rating distributions, respectively. We find that controversy decreases with popularity and that hard controversy is relatively rare. Our findings also suggest that more recent movies are more controversial than older ones and we detect a trend of "convergence to the mainstream" with a time scale of roughly 40-50 years. This ph...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  8. Angiography in acute mesenteric arterial insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angiographic findings in 31 cases of acute mesenteric arterial insufficiency are presented. In 22 cases organic occlusions, in 9 vasoconstriction alone, were found. Angiography aids definitely in the diagnosis and planning of the treatment of this serious condition. (Auth.)

  9. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Video: Contrast Material Radiology and You Take our survey About this Site ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  11. Giant coronary aneurysm caused by Kawasaki disease: consistency between catheter angiography and electrocardiogram gated dual-source computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Ha; Ju, Jung-Ki; Cho, Min-Jung; Lee, Ji-Won; Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old child with coronary complications due to Kawasaki disease; this patient unintentionally underwent both dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiographic examination in 2 months. This case highlights the strong consistency of the results between DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography. Compared to conventional invasive coronary angiography, DSCT coronary angiography offered additional advantages such as minimal invasiveness and less radiation exposure. PMID:26770226

  12. Giant coronary aneurysm caused by Kawasaki disease: consistency between catheter angiography and electrocardiogram gated dual-source computed tomography angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Ha; Ju, Jung-Ki; Cho, Min-Jung; Lee, Ji-Won; Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old child with coronary complications due to Kawasaki disease; this patient unintentionally underwent both dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiographic examination in 2 months. This case highlights the strong consistency of the results between DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography. Compared to conventional invasive coronary angiography, DSCT coronary angiography offered additional advantage...

  13. Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Vazquez, Vanessa; Husain, Deeba

    2012-01-01

    A multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (mLSO) was designed, constructed, and tested on human subjects. The mLSO could sequentially acquire wide-field, confocal, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) retinal images. The system also included a retinal tracker (RT) and a photodynamic therapy laser treatment port. The mLSO was tested in a pilot clinical study on human subjects with and without retinal disease. The instrument exhi...

  14. Angiography in the diagnosis of erectile impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex interactions of psychological, neurological, hormonal and vascular aspects of erectile dysfunctions require a standardised multidisciplinary diagnostic evaluation. The recent establishment of new noninvasive and invasive investigative procedures has led to a fundamental change in the assessment of erectile dysfunctions. Selective angiography of the internal pudendal artery and its branches represents the crucial diagnostic step before treatment can start. Indication, technique and results of 26 bilaterally performed pudendal angiographies on impotent patients are described. (orig.)

  15. Clinical application of intraarterial digital substraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV DSA) has several advantages over conventional angiography in diagnosis and follow up of various vascular disease, it also has several undesirable problems such as large volume of the contrast medium and inferior image quality compared to conventional angiography. So recently intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA DSA) was introduced for better image quality using small amount of contrast medium. The authors had good clinical results IA DSA which were made in 20 patients with our own system, SRM-II, developed by cooperation of Departments of Radiology and Medical engineering, Seoul National University Hospital. Intraarterial digital substraction angiography was found to have several advantages over conventional angiography: (a) small amount of contrast medium, (b) reduced need for selective arterial catheterization, (c) lower film cost, (d) shortened examination time, (e) ability to obtain a 'road map', and (f) easier detection of contrast medium. Also IA DSA has several advantages over IV DSA: (a) less dependency on cardiac output, (b) far less vessel overlapping, (c) reduction in patient motion through less procedure by reduced volume of contrast media and shorter imaging time

  16. Simplified techniques of cerebral angiography using a mobile X-ray unit and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simplified techniques of cerebral angiography using a mobile X-ray unit and computed radiography (CR) are discussed. Computed radiography is a digital radiography system in which an imaging plate is used as an X-ray detector and a final image is displayed on the film. In the angiograms performed with CR, the spatial frequency components can be enhanced for the easy analysis of fine blood vessels. Computed radiography has an automatic sensitivity and a latitude-setting mechanism, thus serving as an 'automatic camera.' This mechanism is useful for radiography with a mobile X-ray unit in hospital wards, intensive care units, or operating rooms where the appropriate setting of exposure conditions is difficult. We applied this mechanism to direct percutaneous carotid angiography and intravenous digital subtraction angiography with a mobile X-ray unit. Direct percutaneous carotid angiography using CR and a mobile X-ray unit were taken after the manual injection of a small amount of a contrast material through a fine needle. We performed direct percutaneous carotid angiography with this method 68 times on 25 cases from August 1986 to December 1987. Of the 68 angiograms, 61 were evaluated as good, compared with conventional angiography. Though the remaining seven were evaluated as poor, they were still diagnostically effective. This method is found useful for carotid angiography in emergency rooms, intensive care units, or operating rooms. Cerebral venography using CR and a mobile X-ray unit was done after the manual injection of a contrast material through the bilateral cubital veins. The cerebral venous system could be visualized from 16 to 24 seconds after the beginning of the injection of the contrast material. We performed cerebral venography with this method 14 times on six cases. These venograms were better than conventional angiograms in all cases. This method may be useful in managing patients suffering from cerebral venous thrombosis. (J.P.N.)

  17. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  18. Global controversies and advances in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Louise; Dunn, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Advances and controversies of skin cancer prevention in the Asian-Pacific region are to be examined the world's first Global Controversies and Advances in Skin Cancer Conference to be held in Brisbane, Australia this November. APOCP Members are cordially invited to register early for the opportunity to contribute to the debate on a cancer which continues to be a prominent issue in the Asia Pacific and indeed worldwide. We need answers to the questions of why a cancer that is so preventable and easily detectable is still shrouded in controversy. Primary focuses will be on issues like viral involvement, vaccines and novel clinical approaches. PMID:23725105

  19. Three-dimensional coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John

    2005-04-01

    Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.

  20. Digital angiography of camel foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, angiography of normal digits of camel has been accomplished, and the vessels of digits and its distribution have been evaluated to be compared with abnormal digits in the future studies. The thoracic and pelvic limb of 16 camels were collected immediately following slaughter. The palmar and plantar arteries were isolated and catheterised by 18-gauge angiocatheter needle; perfused by 40Ð’–50 ml of iodinated compound injected into each vessel. Angiograms were obtained using dorsopalmer, dorsoplanter and latero-medial projections. In the pelvic limb, above the fetlock joint, the deep palmar arch communicates with the median artery via the anastomotic branch, forming the superfcial palmar arch, from which two branches were clear, 1-palmar common digital artery IV that divides into palmar proper digital arteries IV and V, close to the lateral accessory (ffth) digit. 2-Palmar common digital artery III, produces the first branch and continues distally near the middle of the proximal phalanx, it gives off two palmar branches of the proximal phalanx. Vascular distribution of the pelvic limb was similar to thoracic limb, carrying the name of plantar instead of palmar

  1. Stepped digital angiography with dynamic subtraction: a new diagnostic approach to peripheral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of our first experiences, a purchasable angiography system for peripheral angiography with dynamic subtraction and stepping (DPSA) has been developed. This study reports on the optimization of this technique and the first clinical results in comparison with conventional screen-film angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in single steps. For each method, 25 angiograms were interpreted to compare the image quality, the radiation exposure, the contrast medium and the film consumption as well as the examination time. Image quality proved to be comparable in DPSA and DSA in single steps. Both techniques showed better results than conventional angiography, especially in the region of the knee and lower leg. Using DPSA radiation exposure dropped by a factor of 2 compared with conventional angiography and by a factor of 6 compared with DSA in single steps. Consumption of contrast medium can also be reduced in comparison with the other two methods. Film consumption is incomparably higher in conventional screen-film angiography. With DPSA the examination time can be reduced by half on average compared with the other two methods. DPSA may come to be the standard in peripheral angiography. (orig.)

  2. 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy correlation with TMT and coronary angiography - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study analyses 60 patients of suspected ischemic heart disease who underwent myocardial perfusion studies with 201Tl SPECT from June 1998 - September 1998. Thirty six patients were tested positive on TMT, thallium scintigraphy was positive in 21 (58%) patients and negative in 15 (41%) cases. Coronary angiography results were available in 35 patients, of which there were 5 cases with LBBB where TMT was not done due to high unpredictability. The 5 cases were tested negative, both angiographically and stress thallium showing 100% correlation. Out of remaining 30 patients, angiography was positive in 22 patients. Stress thallium was positive in 19 patients (87%). Of the 8 cases which showed normal coronary angiography, stress thallium was positive in 3 cases (13%) and negative in 5 patients (87%). Statistical analysis of this small group showed a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 63%, false negative rate 14% and false positive rate of 37%. Overall accuracy is 80%

  3. Two-dimensional thick-slice MR digital subtraction angiography for assessment of cerebrovascular occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although spatial resolution of current MR angiography is excellent, temporal resolution has remained unsatisfactory. We evaluated clinical applicability of 2D thick-slice, contrast-enhanced subtraction MR angiography (2D-MR digital subtraction angiography) with sub-second temporal resolution in cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. Twenty-five patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases (8 moyamoya diseases, 10 proximal internal carotid occlusions, and 2 sinus thromboses) were studied with a 1.5-T MR unit. The MR digital subtraction angiography (MRDSA) was performed per 0.97 s continuously just after a bolus injection of 15 ml of gadolinium chelates up to 40 s in sagittal (covering hemisphere) or coronal planes. Subtraction images were generated at a workstation. We evaluated imaging quality and hemodynamic information of MRDSA in comparison with those of routine MR imaging, non-contrast MR angiography, and X-ray intra-arterial DSA. Major cerebral arteries, all of the venous sinuses, and most tributaries were clearly visualized with 2D MRDSA. Also, pure arterial phases were obtained in all cases. The MRDSA technique demonstrated prolonged circulation in sinus thromboses, distal patent lumen of proximal occlusion, and some collateral circulation. Such hemodynamic information was comparable to that of intra-arterial DSA. Two-dimensional thick-slice MRDSA with high temporal resolution has a unique ability to demonstrate cerebral hemodynamics equivalent to that of intra-arterial DSA and may play an important role for evaluation of cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. (orig.)

  4. Reconstruction of coronary arteries from X-ray angiography: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Serkan; Gooya, Ali; Grass, Michael; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2016-08-01

    Despite continuous progress in X-ray angiography systems, X-ray coronary angiography is fundamentally limited by its 2D representation of moving coronary arterial trees, which can negatively impact assessment of coronary artery disease and guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention. To provide clinicians with 3D/3D+time information of coronary arteries, methods computing reconstructions of coronary arteries from X-ray angiography are required. Because of several aspects (e.g. cardiac and respiratory motion, type of X-ray system), reconstruction from X-ray coronary angiography has led to vast amount of research and it still remains as a challenging and dynamic research area. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art approaches on reconstruction of high-contrast coronary arteries from X-ray angiography. We mainly focus on the theoretical features in model-based (modelling) and tomographic reconstruction of coronary arteries, and discuss the evaluation strategies. We also discuss the potential role of reconstructions in clinical decision making and interventional guidance, and highlight areas for future research. PMID:27054277

  5. The use of 3D-CT-Angiography in the diagnostic procedure of intracranial aneurysms evaluated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalders, Th.; Labisch, C.; Seifert, V.; Zanella, F.E.; Stolke, D. [Univ. Clinic Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    With improving quality of images obtained by 3D-CT-Angiography, this procedure may promise to become a powerful tool in intracranial aneurysm diagnostic. We have evaluated this method comparatively between angiographic and intra-operative findings. Forty-one patients were examined by cerebral angiography and 3D-Angio-CT. Radiological findings were evaluated by neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. Intra-operative findings were documented by video or photography. All angiographically proven aneurysms were also visualized by 3D-Angio-CT. In over sixty percent of cases 3D-Angio-CT showed the aneurysmal anatomy equally well to angiography or presented valuable additional information not obtainable by angiography. In complex aneurysms as well as in aneurysms of the posterior circulation, the additional information offered by 3D-Angio-CT was most valuable. Intra-operative anatomical findings showed a high correlation with 3D-images. In our experience 3D-Angio-CT proved to be a powerful tool in the diagnostic procedure of intracranial aneurysms, either in the acute or non-acute phase. In many cases 3D-images present valuable additional information not otherwise obtainable, especially in complex aneurysms and aneurysms of the posterior circulation. In selected cases neurosurgical therapy can be planned on 3D-images alone. Nontheless conventional cerebral angiography remains the gold standard in diagnostic management of intracranial aneurysms. (author)

  6. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  7. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  8. Research controversies in management of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, P; Sebban, C; Gourmet, R; Chvetzoff, G; Philip, I; Blay, J Y

    2000-01-01

    The management of mucositis is the subject of many controversies, and the optimal treatment is still not known. Several evaluation scoring systems have been described, but no one of these is appropriate to all clinical situations: a simple scale such as that devised by the WHO can be used routinely, and more sophisticated ones can be implemented by trained experimenters working in research. We have considered the impact of each of the treatments currently available on each stage of mucositis. In attempts at prevention, self-care, in the sense of oral hygiene, must remain atraumatic. It is probably advisable to differentiate patients with good previous oral care, in whom tooth brushing is beneficial, from others, in whom the risk of hemorrhage and infection excludes any brushing. Before the dosage of chemotherapy is reduced, the curative or palliative intent of the strategy must be carefully evaluated. In the vascular phase protection of the proliferating cells is attempted by means of vasoconstriction (cryotherapy), cytoprotection (prostaglandin E2 and other antioxidants) or epithelial cell-inhibiting factors such as TGF-B3. Treatments applied in the epithelial phase are directed at increasing the cell proliferation to accelerate epithelial restoration by sucralfate and several growth factors: hematopoietic GF, which has demonstrated a direct effect on the mucosa (GM-CSF), or epithelial growth factors such as keratinocyte GF. In the ulcerative and bacteriological phase attempts are made to attenuate sepsis by means of antiseptics (chlorhexidine), amphotericin B and antiviral agents or antibiotic lozenges. In the healing phase application of the low-energy helium-neon laser has demonstrably been followed by a later time of onset, less pronounced peak severity and shorter duration of oral mucositis. After cancer treatment, oral hygiene, inhibition of oral flora, and pain relief are the main goals. Physiopathogen-specific treatment is the next step, with the emphasis

  9. How science makes environmental controversies worse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I use the example of the 2000 US Presidential election to show that political controversies with technical underpinnings are not resolved by technical means. Then, drawing from examples such as climate change, genetically modified foods, and nuclear waste disposal, I explore the idea that scientific inquiry is inherently and unavoidably subject to becoming politicized in environmental controversies. I discuss three reasons for this. First, science supplies contesting parties with their own bodies of relevant, legitimated facts about nature, chosen in part because they help make sense of, and are made sensible by, particular interests and normative frameworks. Second, competing disciplinary approaches to understanding the scientific bases of an environmental controversy may be causally tied to competing value-based political or ethical positions. The necessity of looking at nature through a variety of disciplinary lenses brings with it a variety of normative lenses, as well. Third, it follows from the foregoing that scientific uncertainty, which so often occupies a central place in environmental controversies, can be understood not as a lack of scientific understanding but as the lack of coherence among competing scientific understandings, amplified by the various political, cultural, and institutional contexts within which science is carried out. In light of these observations, I briefly explore the problem of why some types of political controversies become 'scientized' and others do not, and conclude that the value bases of disputes underlying environmental controversies must be fully articulated and adjudicated through political means before science can play an effective role in resolving environmental problems

  10. Differential diagnosis of choroidal melanomas and nervi using scanning laser ophthalmoscopical indocyanine green angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads V. Nis; Scherfig, Erik; Prause, J.U.

    1995-01-01

    Ophthalmology, choroidal melanoma, choroidal nevus, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green (ICG), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), angiography......Ophthalmology, choroidal melanoma, choroidal nevus, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green (ICG), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), angiography...

  11. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  12. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Prasad, Sreeram; Maurya, Pradeep K.; Misra, Usha K. (Dept. of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)), Email: drukmisra@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Sunil (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  13. MR angiography of run-off vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography has taken a huge step forward since the introduction of contrast-enhanced MR angiography using gadolinium chelates. The more conventional MR angiographic techniques, such as time-of-flight and phase-contrast MR angiography, have been ousted by contrast-enhanced MR angiography in most vascular areas. However, in imaging the lower extremities, the major obstacle is the length of the vascular tree. In order to cover the entire peripheral vasculature, at least two to three fields of view are required. Using contrast-enhanced MR angiography, the best results are obtained if the vessels of interest are imaged during passage of a bolus of contrast material. Vessel-to-background contrast in subsequent acquisitions using subsequent injections of contrast material is hampered by recirculation and leakage of previously injected gadolinium, enhancing both the venous system and surrounding tissue. To overcome this problem several research groups have come up with various solutions. The three main strategies employed can be classified as either bolus catch, bolus chase, or bolus track techniques. The purpose of this article is to explain working mechanisms of the three bolus imaging strategies for imaging both inflow and outflow vessels of the lower extremities, to show their advantages and disadvantages, and to review results described in the literature in imaging patients using these techniques. (orig.)

  14. Gastroparesis: Concepts, Controversies, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bielefeldt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with gastroparesis often present a challenge to the treating physician. Postprandial symptoms with nausea and vomiting may not only lead to nutritional and metabolic consequences, but also cause significant disruptions to social activities that often center around food. While the definition of gastroparesis focuses on impaired gastric emptying, treatment options that affect gastric function are limited and often disappointing. The female predominance, the mostly idiopathic nature of the illness with a common history of abuse, and coexisting anxiety or depression show parallels with other functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. These parallels provided the rationale for some initial studies investigating alternative therapies that target the brain rather than the stomach. This emerging shift in medical therapy comes at a time when clinical studies suggest that gastric electrical stimulation may exert its effects by modulating visceral sensory processing rather than altering gastric motility. Physiologic and detailed anatomic investigations also support a more complex picture with different disease mechanisms, ranging from impaired accommodation to apparent visceral hypersensitivity or decreased interstitial cells of Cajal to inflammatory infiltration of myenteric ganglia. Delayed gastric emptying remains the endophenotype defining gastroparesis. However, our treatment options go beyond prokinetics and may allow us to improve the quality of life of affected individuals.

  15. Evaluation of effective dose received by patients undergoing Cardiac Angiography Computed Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac Angiography is a field of studies that utilizes the energy of radiation to study the coronary arteries of the heart. Patients undergoing this procedure has a probability of receiving an over dose of radiation that may further cause stochastic effect. The main objective of this research is to compare and clarify an approach for minimal effective dose receive by patients between procedures of Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography. Based on this study, the patients recorded are based in Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. The Dose-Length-Product (DLP) was extracted from the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI); meanwhile the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) was extracted from the modalities console screen. These relevant data are the means to clarify the effective dose receive by patients. The result shows that patients who undergo Conventional Angiography had a mean effective dose of 8.50 ± 6.41 mSv. Meanwhile, as for Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography, the patients had a mean effective dose of 7.08 ± 2.42 mSv. A significant difference in effective dose was seen between the two procedures. Cardiac Angiography CT provides high accurate diagnostic information with less radiation dose to patients compared to Conventional Angiography. (author)

  16. Occupational Exposure in Angiography (Prague Workplaces)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measurements, which were performed at angiography departments, are presented. The aim of this work was not only to assess patient exposure but also to perform a survey of the occupational exposures of physicians during common angiography examinations of the skull, chest, abdomen and limbs. Patient data, type of examination, fluoroscopy time, the whole number of film frames, dose-area product (Diameter E) and physician dose (Stephen 6000) were also recorded. There are many factors influencing the level of measured exposures. They include input parameters of X ray performance (kV, mA, projection, diaphragms, ZOOM, type of record etc) and individual approach of the physicians. This paper contributes to the discussion about the increasing exposures of the physicians specialising in diagnostic and interventional angiography. (author)

  17. MR angiography: clinical applications in thoracic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR angiography (MRA) is a promising completion of MR imaging in the preoperative assessment of pulmonary and mediastinal tumours. Scan acquisition was done by sequential FLASH 2D angiograms (TR = 30 ms, TE = 10 ms, FA = 30 ), one section per breathhold, section thickness 5 mm with 1 mm overlap between sequential sections. An automated control procedure allowed individual continuation of the examination. Postprocessing by a maximum-intensity-projection algorithm using angiograms of interest (AOI) resulted in 3D reconstructions illustrating vascular anatomy and avoiding superimposition. This technique was evaluated in a prospective study of 15 patients with malignant intrathoracic tumours. The results were validated by conventional angiographic procedures such as pulmonary angiography, digital subtraction angiography or cavography. Complementing spin-echo (SE) imaging, MRA provided diagnostic information about vessel displacement, stenosis and perfusion defects due to space-occupying lesions. Thus, MRA was helpful in planning thoracic surgery. (orig.)

  18. Renoprotective effect of alprostadil in combination with statins in patients with mild to moderate renal failure undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-jing; ZHANG Bu-chun; GUO Rong; WEI Yi-dong; LI Wei-ming; XU Ya-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of alprostadil and statins in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is controversial.The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of combined therapy with alprostadil and statins in protecting renal function and preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angiography.Methods A total of 156 consecutive patients with mild to moderate renal failure who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in our study,and randomly categorized into two groups.In the statins group,80 patients were treated with statins before and after coronary angiography.in the alprostadil plus statins group,76 patients were treated with statins and alprostadil before and after coronary angiography.Serum creatinine (SCr),serum cystatin (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were detected after administration of contrast media,and adverse events were evaluated within six months.Results In both groups,the SCr,CysC and NGAL significantly increased after coronary angiography and peaked at 48,24 and 6 hours,respectively.SCr,CysC and NGAL were significantly lower in the alprostadil plus statins group than in the statins group (P<0.05).The incidence of CIN in the alprostadil plus statins group was slightly lower than in the statins group.The incidence of adverse events within six months in the alprostadil plus statins group was significantly lower than in the statins group (P=0.034).Conclusions Intravenous alprostadil in combination with oral statins is superior to statins alone for protecting renal function in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction who undergo coronary angiography,and can reduce the incidence of adverse events seen within six months.

  19. The diagnosis of aortic rupture by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical signs of the rupture of the thoracic aorta in the chest radiographs of patients with this injury are shown. Because all these signs lack specifity only angiography was diagnostic till now. Digital subtraction angiography (dsa) as a new diagnostic procedure can replace invasive angiography. In four cases the rupture of the aorta was clearly diagnosed by means of digital subtraction angiography. In three additional cases it could be definitely exluded. (orig.)

  20. Value of computed angiography in children with osteosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyse the results of 50 computed angiographies made for osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Better tolerated than conventional angiography, computed angiography is also more sensitive in preoperative evaluation of effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Automatic substraction, direct measuring of tumor size and vascularization density give to angiographic changes after chemotherapy the most predictive value. After conservative surgery or radiotherapy digital angiography provides most reliable local follow up

  1. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  2. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram

  3. 3D-MR cholangio-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Shinichi [Isehara Kyohdoh Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kyoichi

    1995-04-01

    This report introduces a new 3D-MR cholangio-angiography technique using 3D Fast SE MR cholangiography and 3D phase contrast MR angiography for obstructive jaundice. In all eight cases, dilated biliary tracts as well as portal veins were clearly visualized in the same image. This new technique helped to determine the operability and surgical strategy for cases with obstructive jaundice. It also provided anatomical guidance for surgical procedures. This study suggests that this technique may replace the currently used modalities for obstructive jaundice. (author).

  4. Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography for Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Carl P

    2009-01-01

    In recent years enormous progress has been achieved in investigational procedures for uveitis. Imaging is one such example with the advent of new methods such as indocyanine green angiography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography to cite only the most important. This tremendous increase in precision and accuracy in the assessment of the level and degree of inflammation and its monitoring comes in parallel with the development of extremely potent and efficacious therapies. In view of these developments, our whole attitude in the appraisal and investigation of the uveitis patient has to be adapted and correctly reoriented integrating the recent developments and this is no different for ocular angiography. PMID:20404985

  5. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography for uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbort Carl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years enormous progress has been achieved in investigational procedures for uveitis. Imaging is one such example with the advent of new methods such as indocyanine green angiography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography to cite only the most important. This tremendous increase in precision and accuracy in the assessment of the level and degree of inflammation and its monitoring comes in parallel with the development of extremely potent and efficacious therapies. In view of these developments, our whole attitude in the appraisal and investigation of the uveitis patient has to be adapted and correctly reoriented integrating the recent developments and this is no different for ocular angiography.

  6. CT angiography, MR angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography for volumetric assessment of intracranial aneurysms. An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our experimental study was to assess the accuracy and precision of CT angiography (CTA), MR angiography (MRA) and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for measuring the volume of an in vitro aneurysm model. A rigid model of the anterior cerebral circulation harbouring an anterior communicating aneurysm was connected to a pulsatile circuit. It was studied using unenhanced 3D time-of-flight MRA, contrast-enhanced CTA and rotational DSA angiography. The source images were then postprocessed on dedicated workstations to calculate the volume of the aneurysm. CTA was more accurate than MRA (P=0.0019). Rotational DSA was more accurate than CTA, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.1605), and significantly more accurate than MRA (P<0.00001). CTA was more precise than MRA (P=0.12), although this did not reach statistical significance. Rotational DSA can be part of the diagnosis, treatment planning and support endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The emerging endovascular treatment techniques which consist of using liquid polymers as implants to exclude aneurysms from arterial circulation would certainly benefit from this precise measurement of the volume of aneurysms. (orig.)

  7. MR-angiography with intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out phase contrast MR-angiography of the lower extremities with intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Five healthy male volunteers, 25 to 40 years of age, were examined with a 0.5T MRI unit. We used fast scan (gradient echo) technique and it took about 8 minutes for whole procedure. Images were obtained before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. Injection dose was 0.1 mmol/kg. In two cases, we got images with variable flip angles. However angles of 30 or 40 degrees were thought to be best on the scan with Gd-DTPA. In three cases, we repeated short time procedures for about 4 minutes each time and continued to check the signal intensities of vessels for as long as one hour. The signal intensities greatly increased soon after administration of Gd-DTPA, and then they gradually decreased, but for as long as 60 minutes after administration they remained much higher than those before administration of Gd-DTPA. MR-angiography with Gd-DTPA was found very useful to demonstrate the peripheral femoral vessels clearly. No significant side effect was noticed in any case. Therefore, this method was thought to be very useful clinically. (author)

  8. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment. PMID:9243408

  9. The structures mimicking aneurysm on 3-dimensional volume rendering CT angiography using a 16-row detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to identify the structures that can mimic aneurysm on CT angiography with using the 3-D volume rendering technique and a 16-row detector CT. This study examined 206 patients who underwent CT angiography with a 16-row detector CT from May 2003 to July 2004. For the CT angiography, the contrast media was injected at a rate of 4 cc per second. The scanning was then done when 5 seconds delay time had elapsed after the CT number of the common carotid artery had reached 150. The baseline images were obtained by reconstructing the row data with a kernel value of H31f, a slice thickness of 1 mm and an increment of 0.5 mm. Finally, the 3-D images were constructed by using a volume rendering technique. The structures that were confused with aneurysm on CT angiography were further evaluated by MPR or MIP to ascertain whether they were aneurysms. For comparison, digital subtraction angiography was done in 86 patients and surgery was done in 5 patients. On CT angiography, 51 patients did not show any abnormalities, and 80 patients showed definitive aneurysms, as was ascertained by their sizes, shapes and locations, or by the aneurysm clips only. The remaining 75 patients showed 90 aneurysm mimicking structures that were 35 infundibular dilatations or preaneurysmal blebs, 24 focal dilatations of the branches of the deep middle cerebral veins, 6 focal dilatations of the sphenoparietal sinuses adjacent to the middle cerebral artery, 18 focal dilatations of the inferior sagittal sinuses adjacent to the pericallosal artery and 7 low density calcifications of the vessel walls that were adjacent to the aneurysm-prevalent arteries. CT angiography based on volume rendering technique was able to identify the structures that were confused with aneurysm. Accordingly, careful observation is required for interpreting the reconstructing 3-D images since a wide variety of structures can be confused with aneurysm on CT angiography

  10. Magnetic resonance angiography of intracranial aneurysms: comparison with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with flow rephased gradient-echo sequences is a new non-invasive method for vascular imaging. We compared MRA and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in 18 patients with intracranial aneurysms to test whether MRA presently provides an alternative to cerebral angiography for the diagnosis of these anomalies. MRA showed 19 of the 22 aneurysms detected (86.4%). However, problems, especially with turbulent or slow flow, resulted in 6 studies (27.3%) with limited and 2 with questionable demonstration of an aneurysm, and 1 false negative study. At present, MRA is definitely inferior to angiography for the demonstration of intracranial aneurysms, due to its lower resolution and other limitations. (orig.)

  11. Should computed tomography angiography supersede invasive coronary angiography for the evaluation of graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Joseph; Klimach, Stefan; Lang, Peter; Hildick-Smith, David

    2015-08-01

    Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) has long been the established gold standard in assessing graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Over the past decade or so however, improvements in computed tomography angiography (CTA) technology have allowed its emergence as a useful clinical tool in graft assessment. The recent introduction of 64-slice and now 128-slice scanners into widespread distribution, and the development of 320-detector row technology allowing volumetric imaging of the entire heart at single points in time within one cardiac cycle, has increased the potential of CTA to supersede ICA in this capacity. This study sought to examine the evidence surrounding this potential. A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The enquiry: In [patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery] is [computed tomography angiography or invasive coronary angiography] superior in terms of [graft patency assessment, stenosis detection, radiation exposure and complication rate]? Four hundred and twenty-four articles were identified from the search strategy. Four additional articles were identified from references of key articles. Seventeen articles selected as best evidence were tabulated. The reliability of CTA as a tool in the detection of graft patency and stenosis has continued to improve with each successive generation of multislice technology. The latest 64- and 128-slice CTA techniques are able to detect graft patency and stenosis with very high sensitivities and specificities comparable with ICA, while remaining non-invasive procedures associated with fewer complications (ICA carries a 0.08% risk of myocardial infarction and 0.7% risk of minor complications in clinically stable patients). Present limitations of the technology include the accurate visualization of distal anastomoses and clip artefacts. In addition, the capacity of diagnostic ICA to be combined simultaneously with percutaneous coronary

  12. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  13. Angiography of the testicular artery. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnification angiography of the testis with selective injection into the testicular artery has been performed in patients with different lesions in the scrotum, either real or suggested. Characteristic angiographic appearances were found in epididymitis, testicular torsion, tumor, hematoma and hydrocele. (Auth.)

  14. Post-mortem CT-coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhlsgaard, Camilla; Leth, Peter Mygind

    2007-01-01

    post-mortem coronary angiography and computerized tomography.  We describe how to prepare and inject the contrast medium, and how to establish a CT-protocol that optimizes spatial resolution, low contrast resolution and noise level. Testing of the method on 6 hearts, showed that the lumen of the...

  15. Digital subtraction angiography of carotid bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the reliability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) by means of intra- and interobserver investigations as well as indicating the possibility of substituting catheterangiography by DSA in the diagnosis of carotid bifurcation. Whenever insufficient information is obtained from the combination of non-invasive investigation and DSA, a catheterangiogram will be necessary. (Auth.)

  16. Angiography and angiotherapy of gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In selected patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage there is an indication for angiography. Vasoconstrictive drugs or embolization materials can be submitted through the catheter to stop the hermorrhage (angiotherapy). 81 patients were diagnosed by this method. Treatment through the angiographic catheter followed the diagnostic procedure in 41 cases. The hemorrhage was controlled in 36 patients. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic resonance angiography in meningovascular syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningovascular neurosyphilis (MN) is an unusual cause of stroke in young adults. The clinical manifestations include prodromal symptoms weeks or months before definitive stroke. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and examination of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. We report a case of MN with basilar artery irregularities demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography. (orig.)

  18. Interventional angiography in the diagnosis of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional angiography with the use of indwelling arterial catheters, anticoagulants, vasodilators and fibrinolytic agents, complements conventional angiography in the diagnosis of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. These interventional techniques prolong, augment or reactive bleeding and, by enabling better timing of examinations, they increase the diagnostic efficacy of angiography. In the reported series of 63 patients with acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, interventions increased the diagnostic yield of angiography for demonstration of extravasation from 32% to 65% and decreased the percentage of negative angiograms from 27% to 16%. Indications, techniques and risks of interventional angiography in the diagnosis of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding are discussed. (orig.)

  19. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  20. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  1. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  2. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  3. The first Pico-Ficino Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasdalen, Unn Irene

    2011-01-01

    In the first controversy between Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), the Florentine Duecento poet Guido Cavalcanti is central to the argument. The dispute between Ficino and Pico over Cavalcanti’s canzone Donna me prega is therefore in this article used in a...

  4. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  5. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  6. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  7. Current Controversies in the Prediction, Diagnosis, and Management of Cerebral Vasospasm: Where Do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in approximately 30,000 persons in the United States each year. Around 30 percent of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage suffer from cerebral ischemia and infarction due to cerebral vasospasm, a leading cause of treatable death and disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods used to predict, diagnose, and manage vasospasm are the topic of recent active research. This paper utilizes a comprehensive review of the recent literature to address controversies surrounding these topics. Evidence regarding the effect of age, smoking, and cocaine use on the incidence and outcome of vasospasm is reviewed. The abilities of different computed tomography grading schemes to predict vasospasm in the aftermath of subarachnoid hemorrhage are presented. Additionally, the utility of different diagnostic methods for the detection and visualization of vasospasm, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and CT perfusion imaging is discussed. Finally, the recent literature regarding interventions for the prophylaxis and treatment of vasospasm, including hyperdynamic therapy, albumin, calcium channel agonists, statins, magnesium sulfate, and endothelin antagonists is summarized. Recent studies regarding each topic were reviewed for consensus recommendations from the literature, which were then presented.

  8. Application of whole cerebral angiography and preoperative embolization in treating intracranial hypervascular huge meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the whole cerebral angiography and preoperative embolization in treating intracranial hypervascular huge meningiomas. Methods: During the period from May 2008 to May 2012, a total of 108 patients with meningioma were admitted to authors' hospital. Of the 108 patients, 28 had hypervascular huge meningioma. The diagnosis was confirmed by angiography and pathology in all patients. Whole cerebral angiography, including bilateral internal and external carotid arteries as well as bilateral vertebral arteries, was performed in order to clarify the feeding arteries and to select the target branches of external carotid artery for embolization Preoperative embolization was carried out in 26 cases. All patients received surgery within 1-3 days after the embolization. Results: Of the 28 cases, complete embolization was conducted in 12 (42.9%) whose feeding arteries originated from external carotid artery, and partial embolization in 14 (50.0%) whose feeding arteries originated from both internal and external carotid artery, or from external carotid artery and vertebro-basilar artery. Embolization procedure was not employed in the remaining two cases (7.1%) whose feeding arteries originated from internal carotid artery only. In patients who had received preoperative embolization the amount of blood loss was markedly smaller than usual, and the operation time was obviously reduced. Conclusion: For the treatment of intracranial hypervascular huge meningiomas, preoperative whole cerebral angiography and embolization can significantly reduce the blood loss during the cerebral surgery. (authors)

  9. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography angiography in suspected non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients : Design and rationale of the CARdiovascular Magnetic rEsoNance imaging and computed Tomography Angiography (CARMENTA) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Martijn W.; Kietselaer, Bastiaan L. J. H.; Das, Marco; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Veenstra, Leo F.; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P.; Mingels, Alma M. A.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Post, Mark J.; Gorgels, Anton P. M.; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Vogel, Gaston; Schalla, Simon; Kim, Raymond J.; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) substantially improves the early detection of myocardial injury, it lacks specificity for acute myocardial infarction (MI). In suspected non-ST-elevation MI, invasive coronary angiography (ICA) remains necessary to distinguish between ac

  10. All-inside ACL: retroconstruction controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H

    2010-03-01

    All-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is controversial because the technique is new; as a result, evidence-based clinical outcome studies have yet to be published. The purpose of this article is to consider the following controversies (considered alphabetically): anatomy, biomechanics, biology, bioabsorbables, divergence of the femoral interference screw, expansion or widening of tunnels, fixation, future considerations, graft choice, the learning curve, technique, tensioning, and tibia blow-out fracture. The technique should be learned in stages. In the opinion of the author, the history of sports medicine and arthroscopy has been a progression toward less invasive techniques. In the future, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques should become more simple and reproducible, and clinical outcomes must be analyzed with long-term follow-up. PMID:20160626

  11. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  12. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    a problem of unknown character and outcome in the future, we argue that it can be problematic if one way of framing urban climate change adaptation overrules the others. Some understandings of climate problems and adaptation options may become less influential, even though they could contribute to...... creating a more resilient city. Furthermore, the case study from Copenhagen also shows that the influence and involvement of homeowners might be reduced if framing of future climate problems becomes too restricted. The result would be that the potential benefits of involving urban citizens in defining and......This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study thereby investigating the...

  13. Evaluation of vascular pathologies with MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow sensitivity of MR imaging methods can be used to visualize vascular structures (MR angiography). In this paper the method of flow-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography will be presented. This technique makes use of the signal enhancement due to inflow of unsaturated spins into the imaging volume in combination with flow-compensated three-dimensional Fourier transform gradient-echo sequences. Projective images are calculated from the measured data by means of a maximum-intensity algorithm. The procedure was optimized for the visualization of the intra-and extracranial vasculature. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of this MR angiographic procedure to evaluate vascular disease in a clinical situation. Prospective studies in patients with vascular disease including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arterial occlusion, and stenosis are shown in correlation with conventional procedures

  14. Angiography of histopathologic variants of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synovial sarcomas are rare soft tissue tumors which histopathologically can be divided into monophasic, biphasic and mixed variants. As part of a protocol for intra-arterial chemotherapy 12 patients with biopsy proven synovial sarcoma underwent angiography. The angiograms on these patients were reviewed to determine whether synovial sarcomas and their variants demonstrated a characteristic angiographic appearance. Synovial sarcomas appeared angiographically as soft tissue masses which showed a fine network of tumor vessels with an inhomogeneous capillary blush. Their degree of vascularity varied according to their histopathology. Monophasic synovial sarcomas demonstrated in general a higher degree of neovascularity than the biphasic form. This finding was also suggested by histopathologic analysis of the vessels in the tumor. Although angiography did not show a distinctive vascular pattern it may be useful to evaluate tumor size and vascularity. (orig.)

  15. Possibilities of conventional intravenous subtraction angiography (ISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigert, F.; Loessl, P.; Eggemann, F.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the experiences collected with 127 patients, the pros and cons as well as the indications for intravenous angiography with conventional photographic subtraction technique (ISA) are discussed in comparison with rival procedures. ISA can be performed in every angiography unit without any additional investment, and its possibilities of use are identical with those of the DSA. As a matter of fact, it is a simple and safe method for visualising the renal arteries in the course of intravenous urography in the diagnostic evaluation of hypertansion. For the first time, it has become possible to perform transvenous determination of the complete status of the arteries of the pelvis and legs, using a new technical system (simultaneous use of two film changers in the frontal plane - ISA aortoarteriography).

  16. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.)

  17. Invasive or non invasive angiography? The role of conventional catheder angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade, diagnostic and interventional angiography have been developed to a high degree of performance, due to the widespread use of DSA, the miniaturisation of the puncture trauma and the introduction sets (catheters, sheaths), the development of high-tech materials (e.g., Nitinol guidewires) and the application of non-ionic, low osmolal contrast media. The specific risks of the procedure, thereby, have been significantly reduced, but could not be totally eliminated. To evaluate vascular diseases non-invasively, special attention was attributed to the progress of colour coded duplex, (spiral) CT-angiography and (CE)MR-angiography, based on the estbalished imaging with US, CT and MRT. The matter in question is whether or not they can substitute the role of conventional angiography as the 'gold standard' of vessel imaging. Clinical validity and economic efficiency both determine the indication for the use of invasive or non-invasive methods. In diagnostic procedures, there is a growing tendency for the use of non-invasive techniques, like in imaging of the abdominal and thoracic aorta, the renal, pulmonary and extra- and intra-cranial arteries. Conventional angiography is still reserved for the evaluation of small vessels of the upper and lower extremities, and vessel status in preoperative conditions (carotid, celiac trunk, mesenteric and renal arteries and aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature). Fluoroscopic guiding of catheters and contrast enhancement in interventional procedures, however, cannot be substituted by alternative techniques in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  18. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  19. Abortion Counselling in Britain: Understanding the Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature from a number of disciplines in order to provide an explanation of the political controversy attached to the provision of abortion counselling. It will show how this is an area of health policy debate in which women's reproductive bodies have become a setting for political struggle. The issue of abortion counselling in Britain has undergone a number of discursive shifts in response to political manoeuvring and changing socio-legal framing of abortion. In partic...

  20. Textualizing cultures: thinking beyond the MIT controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines how the MIT Controversy hardened identities in terms of the timeworn template of geopolitical conflict of national stereotypes. It critically analyzes the Chinese students’ response to the “Visualizing Cultures” project by putting it in the context of the PRC’s patriotic education policy that securitizes culture by focusing on identity as difference in a zero-sum game that distinguishes civilization from barbarism, and China from the rest of the world. It cr...

  1. From controversy to dialog in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Kine Mari; Andreassen, Otto; Hersoug, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian government has great ambitions for growth and development in the Norwegian aquaculture industry. At the same time, the aquaculture industry also encounters significant opposition by different stakeholders and is undoubtedly controversial. The aquaculture industry contributes to regional and social development in the Arctic, and supplies highly demanded seafood. On the other hand, the industry is criticized for having a negative impact on both the environment and local communitie...

  2. Angiography and interventional radiology of the kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For imaging of renal pathology a broad spectrum of radiologic diagnostic procedures are available which are, sometimes and particularly more recently, competing among each other in their diagnostic yield and relevance. For tumorous lesions ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are performed predominantly. Angiography is no longer required with the exception of highly selected cases and in some specific preoperative workup requirements. Until recently, catheter based digital subtraction angiography has been considered as gold standard. However, non-invasive techniques such as CT-angiography and MR-angiography are evolving parallel to their quantum leap of resolutions and readiness to use. Nevertheless, well accepted criteria for quality assessement of these new modalities are still lacking. More comparison studies are urgently warranted. Despite the availability of ultrashort pulse sequences applying the T1 relaxation reduction effect of gadolinium enhanced MR techniques overestimation of renal artery stenosis still poses a substantial problem. Renal intervention implies a variety of procedures such as plain angioplasty, stent placement, embolization of traumatic and both benign and malignant tumors. These methods have emerged over the last two decades from a more experimental nature to a fully accepted treatment option. When renal artery angioplasty is embedded in an aggressive approach including stenting as an adjunct for more complex cases, renal ostial lesions and a well organized follow-up regimen its therapeutic potential for treatment of renal insufficiency, malignant hypertension, for organ preservation bears a very high potential. Provided adequate periinterventional drug regimen restenosis rates may be as low as 10%. In highly selected cases capillary embolization might be used as an alternative to nephrectomy with a similar clinical outcome. Particularly the development of superselective small caliber embolization catheters

  3. The application of angiography in conjoined twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To report a case of conjoined twins with peripheral angiography together with cardioangiographic technique. Methods: Left ventriculogram, right ventriculogram, descending aortogram and selected celiac arteriogram were separately performed for both babies of the conjoined twin. Results: Angiocardiography showed the anatomy of cardiac and abdominal vessels of the thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twin clearly and confirmed by the separation operation. Conclusions: The angiographic examination is difficult but very helpful for successful operation of the conjoined twin. (authors)

  4. Reuse of catheters for angiography. 2. Contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reuse of sterile medical devices designated for single use is a controversal practice, known to be performed in many countries. As far as catheters for angiography are concerned, various methods for cleaning and sterilisation are in use. However, interactions of detergents and ethylene oxide used in reprocessing with polyethylene materials of the catheters have not been investigated systematically. This paper presents a physico-chemical characterisation of common angiographic catheters. The interaction of polyethylene and ethylene oxide is examined. (orig.)

  5. Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography for Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort Carl

    2009-01-01

    In recent years enormous progress has been achieved in investigational procedures for uveitis. Imaging is one such example with the advent of new methods such as indocyanine green angiography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography to cite only the most important. This tremendous increase in precision and accuracy in the assessment of the level and degree of inflammation and its monitoring comes in parallel with the development of extremely potent and efficacious therapies....

  6. Cerebral angiography in leptomeningitis and cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of the cerebral angiographic findings in cases of meningitis and cerebritis. Fifty-nine patients, 38 of whom were under 1 year of age, underwent cerebral angiography by means of femoral catheterization. All the patients had signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, focal cerebral signs, positive transillumination of the head, and or abnormal brain scan findings. A few patients who did not respond to systemic antibiotics as was expected were also evaluated by means of cerebral angiography. The following characteristic angiographic findings were observed in 18 cases of active meningitis: (1) A hasy appearance around the arteries (halo formation) between the late arterial and capillary phases. (2) Narrowing of the arteries in the basal cistern. This sometimes extended to the peripheral arteries. (3) Irregular caliber following the narrowing of arteries (in few cases). (4) Circulation time so slow that veins could be seen in the late arterial phase. (5) Halo formation around the anterior chroidal artery and the clear appearance of the choroid plexus in the venous phase (when the infectious process reached the choroid plexus). Cerebritis could be identified on the angiograms by two signs: (1) local swelling of the brain (mainly the temporal lobe) and (2) staining around the veins without any abnormal signs in the arterial phase (laminar staining). In conclusion, angiography is a meaningful test by which to determine the phase of meningitis and cerebritis. These two conditions should be treated based on valid information obtained by means of CSF examinations and neuroradiological tests, especially CT scan and cerebral angiography. (author)

  7. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. PMID:26159392

  8. Integration of MR imaging with MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two potentially useful techniques for performing MR angiography include phase-contrast methods and sequences that take advantage of flow-related enhancement. The authors have investigated the ability of these methods to provide supplemental information when integrated with a routine proton MR imaging sequence. The authors have evaluated MR angiographic findings in 15 patients undergoing routine spin-echo MR imaging for various vascular abnormalities. Phase-contrast techniques provide projection images with high in-plane spatial resolution, but artifacts are created at sites of vessel crossings as well as in regions of complex flow. Flow-related enhancement sequences produce images with similar signal-to-noise ratio at slightly reduced spatial resolution compared with phase-contrast angiography. However, an important advantage of these sequences is reduced sensitivity to complex flow patterns. The disadvantage of this method is the longer acquisition time required compared with projection phase-contrast techniques. In summary, these angiography sequences appear to provide useful information in conjunction with conventional MR examinations

  9. Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

  10. Controversies in the Adjuvant Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no universally accepted standard approach to treat patients with pancreatic cancer in the adjuvant setting. This controversy derives from several studies, each fraught with its own limitations. Standards of care also vary depending on which side of the Atlantic you are on: chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is considered the optimal therapy in North America (GITSG, RTOG while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe (ESPAC-1, CONKO. Whether gemcitabine is superior to 5-FU remains to be learnt from the ESPAC-3 study currently on-going in Europe. A number of important questions have yet to be fully addressed: • What is the absolute value of radiotherapy in this setting? • How should radiotherapy be delivered, if at all? • What should be the time to deliver of either or both therapeutic modalities in the adjuvant setting? • Are there any patients who can benefit from the combined modality? • What is the most appropriate chemotherapeutic agent(s to administer in the adjuvant setting? • Is there any role of integrating the novel/targeted agents, albeit the negative studies in the metastatic setting? • What are the new developments (such as vaccines, pancreas cancer stem cells, etc. in this area? The author summarizes the evolution of adjuvant therapy for resected pancreatic cancer and highlights the controversies that originate from several studies, each fraught with its own limitations.

  11. Preoperative cerebral aneurysm assessment by three-dimensional CT angiography. Feasibility of surgery without cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the capability of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) to replace conventional catheter angiography as a preoperative examination for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. A prospective study was designed to evaluate 18 patients with 20 unruptured intracranial aneurysms (13 middle cerebral artery aneurysms, 6 anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and 1 internal carotid posterior communicating artery aneurysm) who underwent surgery. There were 12 women and 6 men with the average age of 63 years old. All patients were initially diagnosed as having intracranial aneurysms by MR angiography, followed by 3D-CTA and conventional catheter angiography for confirmation. Three experienced neurosurgeons were in charge of the operations. One of the neurosurgeons (surgeon 1) was provided with only 3D-CTA as the preoperative radiological evaluation, while the others (surgeon 2 and 3) were given through assessments with MRA, 3D-CTA, and conventional angiography. Surgeon 1 carried out the operations under careful observation by the surgeons 2 and 3. Problems encountered by the surgeon 1 during surgery were recorded. Neck clipping in 19 aneurysms and dome wrapping in 1 were successfully accomplished. All patients were discharged without complication. Surgeries went smoothly in 16 aneurysms with 3D-CTA alone. Discrepancies between the 3D-CTA findings and microsurgical anatomy were noted in 4 aneurysms: the size of the neck was overestimated in 3 aneurysms, the relationships to parent arteries were obscure in 2 aneurysms, and a perforating artery problematic to neck clipping was missed in 1 aneurysms by 3D-CTA. The results of this study support the notion that 3D-CTA can replace conventional catheter angiography as preoperative examination in the majority of regular-sized anterior circulation aneurysms. Nevertheless, surgeons should recognize and be prepared for the fact that 3D-CTA can give false impression about the aneurysm neck and

  12. Inhalation RI-angiography with 11CO gas, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    15 mCi 11CO was injected with one litre of air into a gas box connected to respiratory circuit. Five volunteers inhaled the gas mixture through the respiratory circuit by single method breathing. After 20-30 seconds breath holding, the alveolar 11CO gas mixture was washed out. During these time, remaining radioactivity of 11CO in the lung was counted with the positron camera and recorded into an on-line computer. This records were fitted to an exponential equation of Y=A.esup(-lambda t) by least square method. Then we calculated the lung clearance values by the equation of Y'=100 (1-esup(-lambda)). The mean value of lambda was 0.0314 (sec-1). The uptake into blood flow from alveoli at t=1 sec. was 3.1% and at t=20 sec. was 45.7%. Simultaneously, 11CO radioactivities at each site of the left thigh and the expiring site of respiratory-circuit were counted using two ratemeters. These dynamic curves gave us a conclusion that the 11CO uptake rate into human blood flow in this method is fast enough for labelling erythrocytes. The erythrocyte labelling rate with 11CO after inhalation was calculated from radioactivities in the plasma and the venous blood. The rates of five volunteers are all over 97.9%. After the inhalation studies, RI-angiography with positron camera were taken. These scintigrams showed good resolution. We could distinguish main sinuses of the head and two arteries of the forearm. We could found a rapid and easy labelling method for RI-angiography using 11CO gas inhalation and we could get RI-angiograms with good resolution using a positron camera. This combination method is safe and comfortable for patients because of the low radiation absorbed dose and an entirely noninvasive method. We concluded this RI-angiogram is a good method for clinical use. (auth.)

  13. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  14. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  15. Imaging in Spondyloarthritis: Controversies in Recognition of Early Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Lambert, Robert G W; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2016-09-01

    Advanced imaging has become essential for recognition of clinically suspected early spondyloarthritis. This report summarizes recent progress towards a data-driven comprehensive definition of a positive sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis, which incorporates contextual information provided by structural lesions alongside with active changes. A focus is on emerging limitations and challenges with increasing use of imaging in spondyloarthritis. We discuss the ongoing controversy as to whether sacroiliac joint MRI due to its superior reliability and ability to depict both structural and active lesions should be the preferred imaging modality in early disease over the traditional approach with pelvic radiographs. Another challenge is transferring the expanding knowledge about imaging evaluation in spondyloarthritis to the community of rheumatologists and radiologists. Advanced imaging modalities will not become the gold standard for diagnosis of spondyloarthritis, which remains a process of composite deduction based on complementary information obtained from clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessment. PMID:27435070

  16. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  17. Bioavailability of the polyphenols: status and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  18. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo D’Archivio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed.

  19. Lessons learnt from the organ retention controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the lessons to be learnt from the organ retention controversy in the Republic of Ireland. The paper emphasises the importance of good communication between clinicians and families of deceased persons and a move away from a medical culture based on paternalism to a partnership approach between clinicians and patients based on mutual trust and understanding. A model of authorisation rather than consent is proposed as the way forward for dealing with the difficult and traumatic experience of asking families for permission to carry out a post mortem examination on their deceased child. (authors)

  20. Injectables in the Nose: Facts and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William Walsh; Bucky, Lou; Friedman, Oren

    2016-08-01

    Nasal injectables and surface treatments alter the appearance of the nose both primarily and following nasal surgery. Fillers such as hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxyapatite, and fat have a variety of advantages and disadvantages in eliminating small asymmetries postrhinoplasty. All nasal injectables have rare but severe ocular and cerebral ischemic complications. The injection of steroids following nasal reconstruction has a role in preventing supratip swelling and can improve the appearance of grafts to the nose. Resurfacing techniques reduce the appearance of autotransplanted grafts to the nose; there is little controversy about their benefit but surgeon preference for timing is varied. PMID:27400851

  1. Status report: black hole complementarity controversy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and AMPS argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept.

  2. The controversy of Warthin's tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapnik, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.

  3. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer: Controversies and questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atthaphorn Trakarnsanga; Suthinee Ithimakin; Martin R Weiser

    2012-01-01

    Rectal cancers extending through the rectal wall,or involving locoregional lymph nodes (T3/4 or N1/2),have been more difficult to cure.The confines of the bony pelvis and the necessity of preserving the autonomic nerves makes surgical extirpation challenging,which accounts for the high rates of local and distant relapse in this setting.Combined multimodality treatment for rectal cancer stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ was recommended from National Institute of Health consensus.Neoadjuvant chemoradiation using fluoropyrimidine-based regimen prior to surgical resection has emerged as the standard of care in the United States.Optimal time of surgery after neoadjuvant treatment remained unclear and prospective randomized controlled trial is ongoing.Traditionally,6-8 wk waiting period was commonly used.The accuracy of studies attempting to determine tumor complete response remains problematic.Currently,surgery remains the standard of care for rectal cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiation,whereas observational management is still investigational.In this article,we outline trends and controversies associated with optimal pre-treatment staging,neoadjuvant therapies,surgery,and adjuvant therapy.

  4. Usefulness of CT angiography for demonstrating cerebral aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the usefulness of computed cerebral angiotomography (CT angiography) for demonstrating cerebral aneurysm and the clinical significance of CT angiography for ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Our modified method of CT angiography was easy and less time-consuming. Fifteen seconds after starting a single bolus injection, 1 ml/kg/25 seconds via cubital vein, of contrast medium (60 % urograffin), 5 serial 5 mm thick-CT slices were scanned in every 6.5 seconds including 2 seconds of interval, beginning from an axial level 20 mm above the orbitomeatal line and ending at a level 40 mm. A total of 103 patients were examined in this report, consisting of 70 unruptured asymptomatic, 8 unruptured symptomatic (oculomotor nerve palsy) and 25 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Seven unruptured aneurysms in 4 asymptomatic cases, 2 unruptured aneurysms in 2 symptomatic cases 27 aneurysms in 24 SAH cases were suspected by CT angiography. Of these 36 aneurysms suspected by CT angiography 32 aneurysms were confirmed by cerebral angiography. The detection rate of CT angiography in this report was 89 %, higher than those of previous reports. Thirteen aneurysms were located at internal carotidposterior communicating artery (ICPC) junction. 11 at anterior communicating artery (Acom), 7 at middle cerebral artery (MCA). CT angiography showed a false positive findings in 4 cases, which were all located at Acom. Four aneurysms were not detected in CT angiography, which were all located at MCA and were very small (2 - 3 mm) in diameter. There were no deteriorated cases during and after CT angiography. We suggest that CT angiography is a useful and safe method for predicting the location of not only unruptured but ruptured aneurysms. (author)

  5. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  6. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Caroline, E-mail: cjung@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael; Bley, Thorsten A.; Henes, Frank O. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, András [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  7. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  8. Controversies in cancer pain. Medical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, K M

    1989-06-01

    The treatment of pain in the patient with cancer has focused attention on a series of controversial issues involving medical, social, and moral factors. The medical factors include a lack of knowledge on the part of health care professionals regarding the rational use of opioid drugs. This is coupled with real limitations in the general understanding of the mechanisms of pain and its treatment using pharmacologic, anesthetic, and neurosurgical approaches. Several pharmacologic controversies, including the choice of drug, route and method of administration, and tolerance development and risk of substance abuse, have emerged with the use of opioids on a chronic basis in the cancer population. The social and moral implications involve the issue of who will pay for high technology pain management approaches for patients either at home or in hospice care and the ethical considerations in managing pain with opioid drugs. Carefully designed studies to assess these factors, coupled with broad educational programs, will improve the care of cancer patients in pain and expand our understanding of these important issues. PMID:2566369

  9. Integral diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis by coronary multidetector computed tomography and by invasive coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary angiography by multidetector computed tomography (CMDCT) visualizes the wall and lumen of coronary arteries. Invasive coronary angiography (INVCA) only visualizes the arterial lumen but with better resolution

  10. Digital subtraction angiography in cardiac diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DSA was done in 133 examinations of 128 patients during 2 years consist of 9 examination of IV DSA and 124 examination of selective cardiac DSA after cardiac catheterization. Open heart surgery was performed in 90 patients and 12 patients showed discrepancy between pre-and post operative diagnosis, showing a total 86.7% of diagnostic accuracy with DSA. We experienced the significant reduction in dose of contrast media, 30-40% of dose of conventional cardiac angiography. It is concluded that DSA is useful in the evaluation of septal defects, valvular disease and other congenital heart disease. DSA is an accurate simple and safe method in evaluating of cardiac diseases.

  11. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography has provided excellent opportunities for advancement of computed tomography (CT) technology and clinical applications. It has a wide range of applications in the abdomen including vascular pathologies either occlusive or aneurysmal; enables the radiologist to produce vascular mapping that clearly show tumor invasion of vasculature and the relationship of vessels to mass lesions. MDCTA can be used in preoperative planning for hepatic resection, preoperative evaluation and planning for liver transplantation. MDCTA can also provide extremely valuable information in the evaluation of ischemic bowel disease, active Crohn disease, the extent and location of collateral vessels in cirrhosis

  12. High flow run-off angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigated an improved technique for conventional run-off angiography. With this method only five (with the shortest KDT's) to ten 14-inch cut films are required for the entire abdominal and run-off study, which results in a reduction in film cost. Several authors report estimation of blood flow velocity by observing a hand injected test dose in the aorta or at the knee level on one or both sides, but they have not provided a quantitative analysis. In our study the knee delay time was determined using the power injector and DSA facilities for better accuracy. (orig./MG)

  13. Pain and hemodynamic effects in aortofemoral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new contrast media, iohexol (non-ionic monomer) and ioxaglate (monoacidic dimer), were compared with the non-ionic metrizamide during aortofemoral angiography in a single blind randomized trial in 2 groups of patients with 20 in each. The degree of heat and pain produced by iohexol and ioxaglate did not differ significantly from that produced by metrizamide, while subsequent injections of metrizoate caused significantly more heat and pain. The hemodynamic effects recorded in 10 patients in each group showed that iohexol and ioxaglate induced a decrease in vascular resistance, decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate not differing significantly from that induced by metrizamide. (Auth.)

  14. Multi-section CT angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Major arterial hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatitis with high morbidity and mortality. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been the gold standard for the detection of a visceral artery pseudoaneurysm or for the site of active bleeding in patients with pancreatitis. Multi-section CT angiography is a minimally invasive technique which can provide high-resolution and high-contrast images of the arterial lumen and wall, with a much lower risk of complication and morbidity compared to DSA. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of multi-section CT angiography for the diagnosis of arterial complications of inflammatory pancreatitic disease. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing visceral angiography for major bleeding as a complication of pancreatitis between 1998 and 2004 was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 25 patients (20 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 50.9 years (range 11-67 years) were identified where multi-section CT angiography was performed in the 24 h preceding the digital subtraction angiogram. Results: Digital subtraction angiography detected a pseudoaneurysm or contrast extravasation in 19 studies and no bleeding was demonstrated in 9 studies. CT angiography correctly identified the site and type of bleeding in 18 of the 19 positive studies. CT angiography detected extravasation of contrast in one study that was not demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography. The sensitivity and specificity for multi-section CT angiography for the detection of major arterial bleeding on a background of pancreatitis were 0.947 and 0.900, respectively. Conclusion: Multi-section CT angiography is a sensitive and accurate technique for the detection of major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease and should be considered as the first investigation in the management of these patients

  15. Multi-section CT angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyare, Harpreet [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: hhyare@doctors.org.uk; Desigan, Sharmini [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Nicholl, Helen [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Guiney, Michael J. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Brookes, Jocelyn A. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Lees, William R. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: Major arterial hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatitis with high morbidity and mortality. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been the gold standard for the detection of a visceral artery pseudoaneurysm or for the site of active bleeding in patients with pancreatitis. Multi-section CT angiography is a minimally invasive technique which can provide high-resolution and high-contrast images of the arterial lumen and wall, with a much lower risk of complication and morbidity compared to DSA. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of multi-section CT angiography for the diagnosis of arterial complications of inflammatory pancreatitic disease. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing visceral angiography for major bleeding as a complication of pancreatitis between 1998 and 2004 was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 25 patients (20 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 50.9 years (range 11-67 years) were identified where multi-section CT angiography was performed in the 24 h preceding the digital subtraction angiogram. Results: Digital subtraction angiography detected a pseudoaneurysm or contrast extravasation in 19 studies and no bleeding was demonstrated in 9 studies. CT angiography correctly identified the site and type of bleeding in 18 of the 19 positive studies. CT angiography detected extravasation of contrast in one study that was not demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography. The sensitivity and specificity for multi-section CT angiography for the detection of major arterial bleeding on a background of pancreatitis were 0.947 and 0.900, respectively. Conclusion: Multi-section CT angiography is a sensitive and accurate technique for the detection of major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease and should be considered as the first investigation in the management of these patients.

  16. Data acquisition for pediatric CT angiography: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With appropriate attention to the technical aspects, excellent CT angiography can be obtained even in young infants. In this article, we will present the problems inherent with pediatric CT angiography and offer solutions that minimize or eliminate these difficulties. In addition, a literature review of specific pediatric applications is provided. (orig.)

  17. Computerized tomography and angiography - competing processes in liver diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschik, F.; Luetgemeier, J.; Hoerst, M.

    1981-02-01

    In the diagnostics of liver diseases, computerized tomography is a valuable method. It is particularly superior to angiography in detecting cysts, parasitosis and abscesses. Angiography however is better for known solid tumours regarding differencial diagnosis. Both methods supplement each other in the tumour and bile ducts diagnostics.

  18. Coronary computed tomography angiography indicates complexity of percutaneous coronary interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Stähli, B E; Bonassin, F; Goetti, R; Küest, S M; Frank, M.; Altwegg, L A; Gebhard, C; Levis, A; Wischnewsky, M. B.; Lüscher, T F; Alkadhi, H.; Kaufmann, P A; Maier, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) provides information regarding lesion morphology and three-dimensional coronary anatomy incremental to coronary angiography. We addressed the question whether preprocedural CCTA bears potential for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-six coronary lesions attempted with PCI within 6 months of preprocedural CCTA were retrospectively assessed. Lesion parameters from unenhanced computed tomogr...

  19. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: detection with magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula are an uncommon disorder, and are most frequently congenital, usually then associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease). We present, to our knowledge, the first case of a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula detected by gadolinium-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography and confirmed by digital subtraction pulmonary angiography in a patient where the CT scan was unremarkable. (orig.) (orig.)

  20. Lateral rectus palsy following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Jones, Ruth; Hughes, David S

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of unilateral lateral rectus palsy following an elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in a 78-year-oldwoman. Ophthalmoplegia following coronary angiography is extremely rare and this is the first case of a unilateral lateral rectus palsy following the procedure. PMID:24536054

  1. Two years of angiography without a film changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype digital angiography system has been utilized exclusively for the past 2 years in more than 1,500 patients undergoing general vascular radiology at our 650-bed tertiary case hospital. The prototype system includes a 14-inch fiberoptic image intensifier, a high-resolution video camera, and a Trapix image processor. The authors acquire sixteen 1,024 x 1,024 nonsubtracted images at a rate as fast as three and three-quarters images per second. The stored images can undergo subtration and other postprocessing functions. A direct digital interface to a laser printer provides high-resolution hard copy. The authors have shown by a comparison study that digital angiography affords considerable savings in time and cost over conventional film angiography. Based on their experience, digital angiography can replace a film changer for general angiography

  2. On imaging exactness in digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In digital subtraction angiography (DSA), the spatial resolution capacity is considerably influenced by the concentration of contrast medium. Studies in vascular models showed that in intravenous DSA (IV-DSA) the concentrations of contrast medium are not sufficient to depict minor lesions of the vascular walls. Under the conditions of intraarterial DSA (IA-DSA), the imaging exactness increases considerably. Minimal lesions may rather be detected in front or rear walls than in the marginal parts of the vessels. This is the field in which digital and conventional angiography differ considerably. In pulsating vessels, imaging quality requires the greatest possible difference between the video signal of the applied contrast medium and the noise of the motion artifact. Whereas in IV-DSA minor alterations of the vascular wall are masked by pulsatory movements, the increased concentrations of contrast medium used in IA-DSA are sufficient for detecting e.g. membrane stenoses of 1 mm breadth. Nonionic contrast media differ from conventional contrast media, among other things, by their increased viscosity. This causes flow artifacts which are less marked if the contrast medium is diluted to values usual in IA-DSA. (orig./HP)

  3. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tada, Akira; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1984-12-01

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author).

  4. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author)

  5. Computed tomography imaging and angiography - principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Shervin; Lev, Michael H; Gupta, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with diverse neurologic disorders was forever changed in the summer of 1973, when the first commercial computed tomography (CT) scanners were introduced. Until then, the detection and characterization of intracranial or spinal lesions could only be inferred by limited spatial resolution radioisotope scans, or by the patterns of tissue and vascular displacement on invasive pneumoencaphalography and direct carotid puncture catheter arteriography. Even the earliest-generation CT scanners - which required tens of minutes for the acquisition and reconstruction of low-resolution images (128×128 matrix) - could, based on density, noninvasively distinguish infarct, hemorrhage, and other mass lesions with unprecedented accuracy. Iodinated, intravenous contrast added further sensitivity and specificity in regions of blood-brain barrier breakdown. The advent of rapid multidetector row CT scanning in the early 1990s created renewed enthusiasm for CT, with CT angiography largely replacing direct catheter angiography. More recently, iterative reconstruction postprocessing techniques have made possible high spatial resolution, reduced noise, very low radiation dose CT scanning. The speed, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and low radiation dose capability of present-day scanners have also facilitated dual-energy imaging which, like magnetic resonance imaging, for the first time, has allowed tissue-specific CT imaging characterization of intracranial pathology. PMID:27432657

  6. Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Vazquez, Vanessa; Husain, Deeba

    2012-02-01

    A multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (mLSO) was designed, constructed, and tested on human subjects. The mLSO could sequentially acquire wide-field, confocal, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) retinal images. The system also included a retinal tracker (RT) and a photodynamic therapy laser treatment port. The mLSO was tested in a pilot clinical study on human subjects with and without retinal disease. The instrument exhibited robust retinal tracking and high-contrast line scanning imaging. The FA and ICGA angiograms showed a similar appearance of hyper- and hypo-pigmented disease features and a nearly equivalent resolution of fine capillaries compared to a commercial flood-illumination fundus imager. An mLSO-based platform will enable researchers and clinicians to image human and animal eyes with a variety of modalities and deliver therapeutic beams from a single automated interface. This approach has the potential to improve patient comfort and reduce imaging session times, allowing clinicians to better diagnose, plan, and conduct patient procedures with improved outcomes.

  7. Bolus characteristics based on Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaoming

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed contrast bolus propagation model is essential for optimizing bolus-chasing Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA. Bolus characteristics were studied using bolus-timing datasets from Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA for adaptive controller design and validation. Methods MRA bolus-timing datasets of the aorta in thirty patients were analyzed by a program developed with MATLAB. Bolus characteristics, such as peak position, dispersion and bolus velocity, were studied. The bolus profile was fit to a convolution function, which would serve as a mathematical model of bolus propagation in future controller design. Results The maximum speed of the bolus in the aorta ranged from 5–13 cm/s and the dwell time ranged from 7–13 seconds. Bolus characteristics were well described by the proposed propagation model, which included the exact functional relationships between the parameters and aortic location. Conclusion The convolution function describes bolus dynamics reasonably well and could be used to implement the adaptive controller design.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Scientific Principles and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Jae

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas which occurs naturally in the atmosphere and human body. With the advent of digital subtraction angiography, the gas has been used as a safe and useful alternative contrast agent in both arteriography and venography. Because of its lack of renal toxicity and allergic potential, CO2 is a preferred contrast agent in patients with renal failure or contrast allergy, and particularly in patients who require large volumes of contrast medium for complex endovascular procedures. Understanding of the unique physical properties of CO2 (high solubility, low viscosity, buoyancy, and compressibility) is essential in obtaining a successful CO2 angiogram and in guiding endovascular intervention. Unlike iodinated contrast material, CO2 displaces the blood and produces a negative contrast for digital subtraction imaging. Indications for use of CO2 as a contrast agent include: aortography and runoff, detection of bleeding, renal transplant arteriography, portal vein visualization with wedged hepatic venous injection, venography, arterial and venous interventions, and endovascular aneurysm repair. CO2 should not be used in the thoracic aorta, the coronary artery, and cerebral circulation. Exploitation of CO2 properties, avoidance of air contamination and facile catheterization technique are important to the safe and effective performance of CO2 angiography and CO2-guided endovascular intervention. PMID:26509137

  9. Peripheral CT angiography for interventional treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower extremity CT angiography (CTA) has evolved into a very effective, widely available and robust imaging modality for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). In this article we briefly review the acquisition and contrast administration techniques for 4- through 64-channel peripheral CTA. Visualization of atherosclerotic disease with CTA in general requires 'angiography-like' 3D images (such as volume rendered or maximum intensity projection images), but-notably in the presence of vessel wall calcifications and stents-cross-sectional views (such as curved planar reformations, CPR) are also required to accurately assess the flow lumen of the aorta down to the pedal arteries. Adequate visualization and mapping of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with PAOD is not only a prerequisite for generating a dictated report, but more importantly, standardized postprocessed images are the key to communicating the findings to the treating physician, and they also serve as a treatment planning tool. Treatment decisions (surgical versus transluminal revascularization, or conservative treatment), and percutaneous treatment planning (access site, antegrade versus retrograde puncture) can be made in the majority of patients with PAOD based on lower extremity CT angiograms. (orig.)

  10. [Oswaldo Cruz and the serology controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreta, Jorge Augusto

    2011-01-01

    This analysis of the discussion surrounding the efficacy of the plague serum produced by Manguinhos Institute in the early twentieth century begins with an overview of Oswaldo Cruz's service as head of the Public Health Directorship (Diretoria de Saúde Pública). The controversy itself is then addressed, through an exploration of correspondence exchanged by physicians Oswaldo Cruz, Miguel Pereira, Vital Brazil, Chapot Prévost, and Francisco Fajardo. Their letters reveal how bacteriology in Brazil was then marked by uncertainty and experimentation, even while this field of knowledge publicly touted itself as safe and incontestable. The article shows how arguments of an extra-scientific nature interfere with both research development and the acceptance of medical products. PMID:22012092

  11. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  12. The Cartoon Controversy: Offence, Identity, Oppression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    If the publication of twelve drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, which sparked the ‘cartoon controversy', was wrong, why might this be the case? The article considers four arguments advanced in relation to the quite similar Rushdie affair for judging such...... publications to be wrong, and asks whether they provide plausible moral reasons against such publications, and whether they justify legal restrictions on freedom of speech. The arguments concern: (a) the consistent extension of group defamation legislation to cover Muslims; (b) offence to religious...... for judging the kind of publications under consideration to be morally wrong or suitable objects for legal restrictions. The argument from oppression is different, however, in pointing to different kinds of factors, but its applicability is limited both by a number of conditions for when oppression...

  13. Can we resolve the radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past 20 years has seen an intensification of anxieties about potential harm, specifically cancer, from low levels of x or gamma rays. The idea that radiation is more damaging than previously estimated, says the author, is a central theme in current radiation phobia and probably the principal prop of the antinuclear movement. A current law-suit decision in Salt Lake City will settle the issue for the present. Historical data from Japanese A-bomb survivors and other studies are reviewed, the need for further epidemiologic work pointed out, and 20 years more of data collection from the Japanese survivors indicated as the final arbiter of the controversy. 18 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  14. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." PMID:25768981

  15. The Social Life of Data (Prototyping Controversies)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh

    are out, which leaves it to the public to stumble upon the webpages and explore the results. This unspecified public, however, often seems to have more similarities to a void of non-engagement than a receptive social room. In this paper we take two related steps to counter the lack of public...... engagement with controversy maps. First, we try to distribute the production of issues and maps beyond the academy. Drawing on design thinking (e.g. Brown 2009 and Björgvisson, Ehn & Hillgren 2012), we ask what it might mean to co-produce data visualizations together with visitors of the website. Second, we...... and a simple survey allows us to examine how visitors to the website were led to the site in the first place, how they made use of the data navigation tool and how customized maps from the webpage travelled into new and unpredictable arenas. The experiment thus explores the tension between publishing...

  16. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept

  17. Coronary CT Angiography versus Conventional Cardiac Angiography for Therapeutic Decision Making in Patients with High Likelihood of Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, Antonio; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Nance, John W.; Zwerner, Peter L.; Meyer, Mathias; Townsend, Jacob C.; Fernandes, Valerian; Steinberg, Daniel H.; Fink, Christian; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bonomo, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Terrence X.; Henzler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography for therapeutic decision making in patients with high likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD)-specifically the ability of coronary CT angiography to help differentiate patients without and patients with a need for

  18. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  19. Comparison of digital subtraction angiography, CT angiography, and ultrasonic doppler examination in the evaluation of penile arterial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT angiography reconstructed by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner is a newly developed form of imaging. We compared CT angiography and ultrasonic Doppler examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of arterial lesion. Eighteen patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) underwent color Doppler study DSA, and CT angiography after providing informed consent. The CT angiography images were obtained by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner, Asteion TSX021A (TOSHIBA). We injected prostaglandin E1 into the penile cavernous body, and then rapidly infused nonionic contrast medium into the antecubital vein. DSA and CT angiography images of the bilateral internal pudendal arteries and cavernous arteries were examined for stenotic lesions or occlusion. We also compared the peak systolic blood flow velocity in the cavernous artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound with CT angiography and DSA. The CT anigography and color Doppler studies were performed on an outpatient basis, but DSA required hospitalization. In the 36 internal pudendal arteries, DSA represented 22 normal arteries and 14 stenosis or occlusions. CT angiography showed 15 normal arteries and 21 occlusions. For the diagnosis of stenosis or occlusion in the internal pudendal artery, the CT angiography image had a good agreement, with a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.68, and accuracy of 0.81. For diagnosis in the cavernous artery, CT angiography image also showed a good agreement with DSA; however, the quality of the images of fine arteries was better in the DSA images. The inferior view and internal view of the pelvis in CT angiography were helpful for visulaizing the internal pudendal artery, especially at the pubic bone. There was insufficient correlation between peak systolic blood flow velocity and DSA findings. There were no serious complications involved in either examination. CT angiography has not yet reached the same level as DSA in the evaluation of fine

  20. Comparison of digital subtraction angiography, CT angiography, and ultrasonic doppler examination in the evaluation of penile arterial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanisi, Yasuo; Kimura, Kazunori; Lee, Kyong Soo; Koizumi, Takahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroyoshi; Kojima, Keiji; Yamamoto, Akira; Numata, Akira [Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    CT angiography reconstructed by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner is a newly developed form of imaging. We compared CT angiography and ultrasonic Doppler examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of arterial lesion. Eighteen patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) underwent color Doppler study DSA, and CT angiography after providing informed consent. The CT angiography images were obtained by a multidetector-row helical CT scanner, Asteion TSX021A (TOSHIBA). We injected prostaglandin E{sub 1} into the penile cavernous body, and then rapidly infused nonionic contrast medium into the antecubital vein. DSA and CT angiography images of the bilateral internal pudendal arteries and cavernous arteries were examined for stenotic lesions or occlusion. We also compared the peak systolic blood flow velocity in the cavernous artery measured by color Doppler ultrasound with CT angiography and DSA. The CT anigography and color Doppler studies were performed on an outpatient basis, but DSA required hospitalization. In the 36 internal pudendal arteries, DSA represented 22 normal arteries and 14 stenosis or occlusions. CT angiography showed 15 normal arteries and 21 occlusions. For the diagnosis of stenosis or occlusion in the internal pudendal artery, the CT angiography image had a good agreement, with a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.68, and accuracy of 0.81. For diagnosis in the cavernous artery, CT angiography image also showed a good agreement with DSA; however, the quality of the images of fine arteries was better in the DSA images. The inferior view and internal view of the pelvis in CT angiography were helpful for visulaizing the internal pudendal artery, especially at the pubic bone. There was insufficient correlation between peak systolic blood flow velocity and DSA findings. There were no serious complications involved in either examination. CT angiography has not yet reached the same level as DSA in the evaluation

  1. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden was...... used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  2. Detection of intracranial aneurysms with multislice CT: comparison with conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammert, S.; Krings, T.; Moller-Hartmann, W.; Ueffing, E.; Mull, M.; Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of the Technical University Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Hans, F.J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of the Technical University Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Willmes, K. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of the Technical University Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of multislice CT in detection of intracranial aneurysms in patients presenting with subarachnoid or intracranial haemorrhage. Multislice CT and multiplanar digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images were obtained in 50 consecutive patients presenting with subarachnoid (SAH) and/or intracranial haemorrhage and reviewed by three neuroradiologists for the number, size and site of any aneurysms. The CT data were assessed using multiplanar reformats (MPR), maximum-intensity projections (MIP), surface-shaded display (SSD) and volume-rendering (VRT). In conventional angiography 51 aneurysms were detected in 41 patients. CT angiography (CTA) showed up to 48 aneurysms in 39 patients, depending on the observer. The overall sensitivity of multislice CT was 83.3% for small (<4 mm), 90.6% for medium-size (5-12 mm) and 100% for large (>13 mm) aneurysms. The sensitivity of multislice CTA to medium-size and large intracranial aneurysm is within the upper part of the range reported for helical single-slice CT. However, as small aneurysms may not be found, DSA remains the standard technique for investigation of SAH. (orig.)

  3. Detection of intracranial aneurysms with multislice CT: comparison with conventional angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammert, S; Krings, T; Moller-Hartmann, W; Ueffing, E; Hans, F J; Willmes, K; Mull, M; Thron, A

    2004-06-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of multislice CT in detection of intracranial aneurysms in patients presenting with subarachnoid or intracranial haemorrhage. Multislice CT and multiplanar digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images were obtained in 50 consecutive patients presenting with subarachnoid (SAH) and/or intracranial haemorrhage and reviewed by three neuroradiologists for the number, size and site of any aneurysms. The CT data were assessed using multiplanar reformats (MPR), maximum-intensity projections (MIP), surface-shaded display (SSD) and volume-rendering (VRT). In conventional angiography 51 aneurysms were detected in 41 patients. CT angiography (CTA) showed up to 48 aneurysms in 39 patients, depending on the observer. The overall sensitivity of multislice CT was 83.3% for small ( 13 mm) aneurysms. The sensitivity of multislice CTA to medium-size and large intracranial aneurysm is within the upper part of the range reported for helical single-slice CT. However, as small aneurysms may not be found, DSA remains the standard technique for investigation of SAH. PMID:15105978

  4. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of arterial occlusive disease in lower extremity : comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography with that of conventional digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases. In 26 patients with symptomatic lower extremity arterial occlusive disease, both conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) were performed during the same week. MR angiography was performed using three-dimensional gradient-echo acquisition before, and two sequential acquisitions after, the administration of gadolinium (0.2 mmol/kg). In 23 patients, two separate, contiguous areas were scanned using additional doses. In three patients, only one field with a suspicious lesion was scanned. Three radiologists independently analyzed the CE-MRA and DSA findings of each vascular segment (20 segments per arterial tree) for the presence of obstructive lesions; the grade assigned was either mild or none (less than 50%), stenotic (50%-99%), or occlusion (100%). From among a total of 462 segments, DSA detected 99 which were significantly narrowed (stenosis, 33; occlusion, 66). Using MR angiography, 102 segments (stenosis 39; occlusion, 63) were identified, and 94 lesions (stenosis, 32; occlusion, 62) were graded correctly. Seven lesions were overestimated and four were underestimated. For the detection of hemodynamically significant stenosis or occlusions using MR angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 95%, 98%, and 98% (G=3D0.995, P less than 0.001), respectively. To prove the absence of lesions, we repeated DSA in two patients with arterial spasm due to puncture. Three occluded segments seen on DSA, which revealed intact segments on MR angiography, suggested slow distal flow after reconstitution. For the evaluation of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease, the diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography is comparable with that of digital subtraction angiography. The advantages of the

  5. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography in sickle cell disease: clinical significance and realibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and conventional angiograms of 21 patients with known sickle cell disease, who underwent a total of 50 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies. MRA and conventional angiography were assessed separately for evidence of stenosis or occulusion. Follow up MRI/MRA studies were also assessed for evidence of progression, regression or stability of the disease in these patients. In the carotid circulation, MRA made the correct diagnosis in 85% of the vessels evaluated with a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 94%. MRA was also found to show evidence of disease progression, more often than did MRI or the clinical condition of the patients. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography in sickle cell disease: clinical significance and realibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandeel, A.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Mansoura Univ. Hospital (Egypt); Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ohene-Frempong, K. [Div. of Hematology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and conventional angiograms of 21 patients with known sickle cell disease, who underwent a total of 50 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies. MRA and conventional angiography were assessed separately for evidence of stenosis or occulusion. Follow up MRI/MRA studies were also assessed for evidence of progression, regression or stability of the disease in these patients. In the carotid circulation, MRA made the correct diagnosis in 85% of the vessels evaluated with a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 94%. MRA was also found to show evidence of disease progression, more often than did MRI or the clinical condition of the patients. (orig.)

  7. Multislice computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: 3D visualizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease due to its reduced invasiveness and high spatial and temporal resolution.As a reliable alternative to conventional angiography,multislice CT angiography has been recognized as the method of choice for detecting and diagnosing head and neck vascular disease,abdominal aortic aneurysm,aortic dissection,and pulmonary embolism.In patients with suspected coronary artery disease,although invasive coronary angiography still remains as the gold standard technique,multislice CT angiography demonstrates high diagnostic accuracy; in selected patients,it is considered as the first-line technique.The imaging diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is based on a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visualization tools to enhance the diagnostic value.This is facilitated by reconstructed visualizations which provide additional information about the extent of the disease,an accurate assessment of the spatial relationship between normal structures and pathological changes,and pre-operative planning and post-procedure follow-up.The aim of the present article is to present an overview of the diagnostic performance of various 2D and 3D CT visualizations in cardiovascular disease,including multiplanar reformation,maximum intensity projection,volume rendering,and virtual intravascular endoscopy.The recognition of the potential value of these visualizations will assist clinicians in efficiently using the muitislice CT imaging modality for the diagnostic management of patients with cardiovascular disease.

  8. Efficacy and safety of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography versus conventional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background:Conventional coronary angiography (CA) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, this technique requires several orthogonal projections to determine the severity of the disease. Dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) is a new technique which acquires the image of each coronary artery using a single contrast injection, potentially reducing both radiation and contrast exposure. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of contrast used, radiation exposure and diagnostic accuracy of DARCA compared to conventional CA. Methods: We conducted a prospective, self-controlled study of consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary angiography to compare DARCA versus the conventional technique. All the angiographies were reviewed by two independent interventional cardiologists (observer 1 and observer 2) who evaluated agreement between both types of images. The observers evaluated firstly DARCA and three weeks later conventional CA images to prevent bias in their interpretation. Results: The contrast volume used in the diagnostic procedure was significantly lower with DARCA (33.29 ± 11.2 ml vs. 17±5.4 ml; p < 0.01). Radiation exposure in the patient (235.6 ± 76.8 mGy vs. 82.7 ± 46.6 mGy; p <0.01) and operator was also significantly lower (5.7 ± 3.26 μSv vs. 2.48 ± 1.47 μSv; p <0.04). A slight difference and a strong correlation were seen in the number of lesions, vessel diameter and percentage of stenosis between both observers and both methods. Categorical assessment of percentage of stenosis also showed adequate agreement. Conclusion: DARCA reduces the use of contrast agents and radiation exposure compared to the conventional technique without modifying the diagnostic accuracy of the method. (authors)

  9. Quantification of extracranial stenoses of the cartoid artery - MR angiography and Doppler sonography vs intraarterial angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess various non-invasive techniques for quantifying internal carotid artery CA stenosis, per cent luminal diameter reduction on intraarterial angiograms (IAA) was measured in 63 patients with ICA stenosis or occulsion. These data were compared with independent measurements based on MR-angiography, continuous-wave (cw) Doppler ultrasonography, systolic peak flow velocity and colour Doppler assisted duplex imaging. Correlations with IAA were equally strong for MR angiography, cw Doppler and colour Doppler analysis (0.95, 0.92; 0.92). Positive predictive values for ≥70% ICA stenosis were lower and negative predictive values were higher for cw Doppler (0.85; 0.92) and colour duplex analysis (0.81; 0.94) than for MR angiography (0.86; 0.88). Statistical analysis showed non-linear correlations between percentage of lumen diameter narrowing and the length of the zone of signal intensity loss (0.72) and maximum systolic peak flow velocity (0.77). Conclusion: Several non-invasive methods do compare with IAA in identifying and quantifying highgrade ICA stenosis and may suffice for decisions on treatment. (orig.)

  10. The importance of peripheral angiography in elderly patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Giorgio Rigatelli

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Early and accurate diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis is of paramount importance for global managerment of patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD), especially in the elderly. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of significant abdominal vessel stenosis or aneurysm (AVA) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Medical records of consecutive > 75-year old patients who underwent coronary angiography at two public institutions over a 12-month period were evaluated. Angiographic results of patients who underwent coincident diagnostic abdominal aorta angiography to evaluate abdominal vessels on the basis of clinical and angiographic criteria were analyzed. Results During the study period, AVA was found in 90 (35.7% ) of 252 consecutive patients (185 males, mean age 79±5.8 years), renal artery stenosis in 13.1% of cases (33 patients), aortoiliac artery disease in 13.7 % (35 patients), and aortic aneurismal disease in 8.9% (22 patients). Logistic regression analyses revealed > 3-vessel CAD (odds ratio [OR] :9.917, P = 0.002), and > 3 risk factors (OR: 2.8, P =0. 048) as independent predictors of AVA. Conclusions Aged patients with multivessel CAD frequently have a high risk profile and multiple vascular atherosclerotic distributions, suggesting the usefulness of a mere global and comprehensive cardiovascular approach in aged patients.

  11. Patient radiation dose from computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netwong, Y.; Krisanachinda, A.

    2016-03-01

    The 64-row multidetector computed tomography angiography (64-MDCTA) provides vascular image quality of the brain similar to digital subtraction angiography (DSA), but the effective dose of CTA is lower than DSA studied in phantom. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effective dose from 64-MDCTA and DSA. Effective dose (according to ICRP 103) from 64-MDCTA and DSA flat panel detector for cerebral vessels examination of the brain using standard protocols as recommended by the manufacturer was calculated for 30 cases of MDCTA (15 male and 15 female).The mean patient age was 49.5 (23-89) yrs. 30 cases of DSA (14 male and 16 female), the mean patient age was 46.8 (21-81) yrs. For CTA, the mean effective dose was 3.7 (2.82- 5.19) mSv. For DSA, the mean effective dose was 5.78 (3.3-10.06) mSv. The effective dose of CTA depends on the scanning protocol and scan length. Low tube current can reduce patient dose whereas the number of exposures and number of series in 3D rotational angiography (3D RA) resulted in increasing effective dose in DSA patients.

  12. Digital subtraction angiography of the cerebral vessels by intraarterial injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred and fifty-seven digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in 184 neurosurgical patients by intraarterial injection. Examinations consisted of 192 carotid angiography, 110 vertebral angiography, 23 aortography, 11 spinal angiography and 21 other angiography. In all examinations, visualization of the vessels was excellent and the complications were never experienced. High contrast sensitivity of DSA resulted in better visualization of tumor stains, phlebogram, and arteries in cerebral arteriovenous malformations with large shunt blood flow than conventional angiography. Selective catheterization into each cerebral arteries was not necessarily demanded for good opacification of the vessels because of high sensitivity. High contrast sensitivity also permitted low concentration of contrast material, small dose of contrast material, and slow injection rate. Low concentration of contrast material reduced pain and heat during injection especially in the external carotid and vertebral angiography. Using slow injection, recoiling of catheter into the aorta was reduced, so that injection from the innominate and subclavian arteries for visualization of origin of the cerebral arteries were always successful. Full study of cerebral arteries by Seldinger's method, if necessary, was easily achieved using DSA even in patient with high age or with severe atherosclerosis. Bolus injection of small dose of contrast material as well as serial imaging was helpful in evaluating hemodynamics in the lesion. Real time display of DSA reduced the time required for angiography and was very convenient for artificial embolization. Besides these advantages, DSA became comparable to conventional angiography in spacial resolution by use of intraarterial injection and could be a preoperative genuine examination as well as a screening method. (author)

  13. Radiation dose in digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phantom study using thermoluminescence dosimeter was undertaken to compare radiation doses from five different imaging systems used in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Red bone marrow and maximum skin doses were generally high. Depending upon the system, the maximum skin dose ranged from 202 to 53 mGy. Based on these results, the maximum skin dose was obtained in the clinical setting. The average dose in patients was 175 mGy for arterial DSA and 250 mGy for intravenous DSA. For radiologists, radiation doses to the lens, fingers of the right hand, and thyroid gland were 0.34, 0.27, and 0.4 mGy, respectively, in the case of mannual injection of contrast media; and undetectable, 0.029, and 0.0143 mGy, respectively, in the case of automatic injection. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after the...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...

  15. Digital subtraction angiography in extremity trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) may have considerable impact on the work-up of patients who have suffered trauma. The angiographic evaluation of vascular injuries can be accomplished rapidly and with minimal catheter use and manipulation, which is particularly important for those critically ill patients who have significant immobility because of multiple fractures. The authors retrospectively reviewed the digital subtraction angiograms in 50 consecutive cases of extremity trauma. The quality of the images in 44 of these permitted a confident diagnosis, the accuracy of which was confirmed by surgical or clinical follow-up. DSA reduces the time required to perform the procedure, the amount of contrast material injected, patient discomfort, and film cost. Its major disadvantage is the limited field size of the image intensifier

  16. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography of aortofemoral bypasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study, 214 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations of aortofemoral and femorocrural bypasses were reviewed. In 90% of cases intravenous DSA was diagnostic for aortofemoral bypasses, and in 95% of cases intrarterial DSA angiograms of excellent image quality were obtained. In 82% arterial stenoses proximal to the bypass, in 62% stenoses distal to the bypass, and in only 15% stenoses involving the bypass itself could be detected. In 54% the bypass was regularly perfused. In 26% a complete occlusion could be seen. All angiograms were obtained after infusion of the low-osmolar nonionic contrast medium Iopromide, 150mg/ml. All examinations were painless, and no heat-induced motion artifacts were registered. No disturbances of vital signs were observed. DSA with a nonionic low-osmolarity contrast medium (Iopromide) is a safe and reliable technique for the examination of all surgical aortofemoral bypasses

  17. [Leopard-spot pattern in fluorescein angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, S; Polak, A

    2013-04-01

    The uveal effusion syndrome is a rare disease characterized by serous choroidal detachment. The pathogenesis of idiopathic uveal effusion syndrome has not yet been conclusively established. One hypothesis is an abnormality of diffusion of extravascular proteins in the choroid leading to decompensation of the pigment epithelium pumping capacity. Fluid then accumulates in the subretinal space leading to retinal detachment which results in loss of visual acuity. It typically affects males and hypermetropia is another risk factor. When looking at the fundus a circular serous detachment of the choroid and choroidal puckering is typical. The fluorescein angiography shows hyperfluorescence in the form of a leopard-spot pattern. Space-occupying lesions have to be excluded with the help of ultrasound or magnetic resonance tomography. The uveal effusion syndrome is a diagnosis by exclusion. Treatment varies because of the different hypotheses for the pathogenesis. An intraocular tamponade in combination with laser coagulation may for example be an effective treatment. PMID:23338531

  18. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) protocols are based on standard sequence protocols like time of flight MRA, which evaluates inflowing spins. This technique is limited by a variety of artifacts like the saturation artifact via turbulent blood flow. Contrast media diminish these artifacts like extracellular agents and blood-pool contrast media. The clinical value of the contrast-enhanced MRA for cerebral pathologies is based on the use of the paramagnetic contrast agent Gd-DTPA. For extracerebral diseases this technique is restricted because of the simultaneous visualization of both arterial and venous vascular territorities. Occult venous sinus thrombosis or AV malformations are clinical essential indications for the use of C-MRA. Experimental data prove the excellent contrast abilities of blood-pool agents like Gd-DTPA-polylysin or Gd-DTPA-albumin, which demonstrate long intravascular persistence and retarded excretion. (orig.)

  19. MR angiography of the iliofemoral artery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has become a widely used modality for intracerebral and carotid artery imaging. Due to technical limitations, the clinical impact of MRA in the iliofemoral arteries has been rather poor. New developments in MRA like ECG-triggered sequences and the occurrence of contrast-enhanced MRA has overcome most of these limitations. Therefore, a major advance in clinical use of these diagnostic tools can be predicted. This paper discussed the advantages of ECG-gated 2D-Phase contrast, ECG-gated 2D-Time-of-Flight and contrast enhanced FLASH 3D angiography sequences from a clinical point of view. 2D-PC-MRA is a robust technique, which provides an overview of the iliofemoral artery system in less than 5 minutes. Limitations are the true 2D impression of the sequence and the partial venous overlay. 2D-TOF-MRA on the other hand is time consuming, however it enables 3D reconstruction and effective venous suppression can be applied. Contrast enhanced MRA as the third sequence discussed provides high resolution images in less than 30 sec. However contrast bolus timing might be a problem. In conclusion the authors suggest a combination of 2D-PC-MRA and additional 2D-TOF sequences at questionable vacular areas as the modality of choice, due to the fact, that MRA of the iliofemoral arteries is mostly only one step of a complete lower limb examination. Contrast MRA might become the method of choice in the future however problems with multiple contrast injections and upper limits of contrast dose have to be solved. (orig.)

  20. Multidetector CT angiography in Takayasu arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kalra, Naveen [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Garg, Mandeep Kumar, E-mail: gargmandeep@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Kang, Mandeep; Lal, Anupam [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Jain, Sanjay [Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Suri, Sudha [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: To analyse the spectrum of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) on multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the MDCTA findings was performed on 15 patients clinically diagnosed as Takayasu's arteritis. The spectrum and incidence of imaging findings on CTA were compared to studies in literature on catheter angiography in Takayasu's arteritis. Laboratory parameters were available in nine patients. The disease was considered active if erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels were elevated and 'C' reactive protein (CRP) was positive. An attempt was made to correlate disease activity with the imaging findings. Results: Ascending aorta, arch of aorta and descending thoracic aorta were involved in 14 out of 15 (93%) patients. The wall thickness varied between 1 and 10 mm with maximal involvement in arch and descending thoracic aorta. Major neck vessels were involved in 11 (73%) patients with most pronounced changes seen in the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (CCA) and left subclavian artery (SCA). Abdominal aorta and its branches were involved in all the 11 (100%) patients in whom abdominal CTA was performed. Celiac axis and SMA were involved in 10 (91%) and seven (64%) patients, respectively while renal artery stenosis was present in five (45%) patients. In six patients, ESR was elevated and CRP was positive indicating active disease. All patients in whom the laboratory parameters were available showed mural thickening in the aorta and at least one of the neck vessels except for one patient with inactive disease who had aortic mural thickening only. Conclusion: MDCTA provides information about both the vessel wall and lumen in patients with Takayasu's disease.

  1. Multidetector CT angiography in Takayasu arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse the spectrum of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) on multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the MDCTA findings was performed on 15 patients clinically diagnosed as Takayasu's arteritis. The spectrum and incidence of imaging findings on CTA were compared to studies in literature on catheter angiography in Takayasu's arteritis. Laboratory parameters were available in nine patients. The disease was considered active if erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels were elevated and 'C' reactive protein (CRP) was positive. An attempt was made to correlate disease activity with the imaging findings. Results: Ascending aorta, arch of aorta and descending thoracic aorta were involved in 14 out of 15 (93%) patients. The wall thickness varied between 1 and 10 mm with maximal involvement in arch and descending thoracic aorta. Major neck vessels were involved in 11 (73%) patients with most pronounced changes seen in the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (CCA) and left subclavian artery (SCA). Abdominal aorta and its branches were involved in all the 11 (100%) patients in whom abdominal CTA was performed. Celiac axis and SMA were involved in 10 (91%) and seven (64%) patients, respectively while renal artery stenosis was present in five (45%) patients. In six patients, ESR was elevated and CRP was positive indicating active disease. All patients in whom the laboratory parameters were available showed mural thickening in the aorta and at least one of the neck vessels except for one patient with inactive disease who had aortic mural thickening only. Conclusion: MDCTA provides information about both the vessel wall and lumen in patients with Takayasu's disease.

  2. Occupational and patient exposure in coronary angiography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dose of patients and staff during cardiology procedures. Staff was monitored using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) chips for 86 procedures. The mean patient dose was 2813.6 µGy m2 and the mean fluoroscopic time was 4.8 min. The mean radiation doses for cardiologists were 0.9 mGy for the forehead, 0.92 mGy for the thyroid, 1.38 mGy for the chest, 1.28 mGy for the waist and 1.41 mGy for the hand. The mean radiation doses for assistants were 0.72 mGy for the chest, 0.82 mGy for the hand. High patient and staff exposure is due to lack of experience and protective equipment, exacerbated by a high workload. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore, continuous training is crucial. - Highlights: • Patients and staff radiation doses were evaluated during coronary angiography procedures. • Radiation doses were measured using calibrated TLD GR200A. • Radiation doses to patients and staff are comparable with previous studies. • Patient radiation doses fall below the threshold for radiation-induced skin injuries

  3. VIRTUAL CURRENCY "BITCOIN" – CHALLENGES AND CONTROVERSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOAVĂ GEORGETA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society, when there is a rapidly evolving information technology, the virtual markets, namely the online transactions, have created the premises emergence and development of new technologies of using of finances, namely virtual coin (Bitcoin. Use of this coin appears as an alternative to traditional currencies, but they are not under the control of no body, are devoid of inflation and maintain the anonymity of users. Following the evolution of this new type of coin, we proposed in this paper to present some general aspects of this coin focusing on global controversies on using Bitcoin. We have reviewed several myths that have arisen with the development and penetration of its on market and because it is a volatile coin can generate huge gains but and huge losses, we have studied fluctuation and implications for users and investors and the attraction of the drug dealers and criminals for using virtual currency, Bitcoin. At the end of the paper, based on the analysis we have tried to outline the future of this modern payment system. Thus, we found that lately, in that its value has fluctuated strongly, and increased buyer confidence, but appeared and increased cyber attacks, and the fear that if the state has no a role in protecting citizens from fraud, we can assist at the development of financial schemes extremely dangerous. The financial experts believe that if the world banks would jointly solve all the problems, the virtual money will have a real chance of life.

  4. Controversies in proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Curtis; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, R Charles; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2016-08-01

    Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use. In this review, we summarize the results of recently published studies that support the safety and efficacy of PT in the treatment of prostate cancer. We also review the available cost-effectiveness data for PT and discuss the future of PT, including the current randomized trial comparing PT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the need for additional research that may help to establish the relative benefit of PT when compared to photon-based radiation therapy. PMID:27558255

  5. Resolution of the Abraham-Minkowski Controversy

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-01-01

    The momentum of light inside ponderable media has an electromagnetic part and a mechanical part. The local and instantaneous density of the electromagnetic part of the momentum is given by the Poynting vector divided by the square of the speed of light in vacuum, irrespective of the nature of the electromagnetic fields or the local or global properties of the material media. The mechanical part of the momentum is associated with the action of the electromagnetic field on the atomic constituents of the media, as specified by the Lorentz law of force. Proper interpretation and application of the Maxwell-Lorentz equations within the material bodies as well as at their surfaces and interfaces is all that is needed to obtain a complete picture of the momentum of light, including detailed numerical values at each and every point in space and time. That the Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the momentum of light inside material media has persisted for nearly a century is due perhaps to an insufficient apprec...

  6. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  7. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  8. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramania Iyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented.

  9. Energy controversy: the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the paper presented is to show that nuclear fission power is the best, and maybe the only, alternative source of energy. It is written for a wide range of readers, including non-scientists and scientists who are not particularly informed on the issues involved. The first question considered concerns man's need for energy; it is concluded that conservation measures alone cannot suffice. Next, the earth's energy sources are examined, and the extent of each is estimated in the simple context of the length of time it could last at present use rates. Only nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and solar energy can provide for future time scales commensurate with man's historic past, while avoiding the possibility of catastrophic social upheaval. Fusion and solar energy are rejected on technological grounds because the world energy problem is so pressing that one cannot gamble on hopes for future technological breakthroughs. Thus, only nuclear fission meets the twin criteria of technological feasibility and adequate resource base. Each of the controversial issues surrounding nuclear fission energy is examined in some detail. The conclusion is reached that none is serious, and that nuclear fission offers by far the best energy source from environmental, economic, longevity, and overall safety standpoints

  10. The nuclear energy controversy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological aspects of the energy issue have become of overwhelming importance in the last few years. As a result, traditional considerations such as the importance of adequate and cheap energy supplies as the basis for growth, and the necessity, in a time of politically uncertain oil supplies, of energy supply security and diversity, have been equalled in importance, and sometimes replaced, by arguments about the social goals to be achieved. Nuclear energy has been selected as the vehicle for a socio-political debate on the controversial issue of the application of large-scale technology. Beyond that it has acquired a symbolic role in what is really an emotional attack on the political systems, economy and culture of present day civilization. It stands for the concentration of power, the centralization of technology and society, and man's dependence on the products of that centralization. Nuclear power is seen as one of the motors of further economic growth and thus an apparent pioneer of the further destruction of our natural and social environment. (author)

  11. More on SUPPORT: the controversy continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The article by Sunita VS Bandewar in the January-March issue does an excellent job of describing the controversy over informed consent in the SUPPORT clinical trial. As one of the authors of the duelling articles Bandewar cites, I commend the author's conclusions calling for disclosure not only of randomisation in so-called "standard of care" clinical trials, but also the comprehensive disclosure of risks in this type of research (also known as "comparative effectiveness research [CER]"). Bandewar surmises that the disclosure of randomisation could result in a "much higher chance of patients declining to participate in a randomised trial"; and that this may be one of the motives of those who argue for non-disclosure of randomisation. In fact, at least some supporters of limited disclosure of the risks in CER trials have expressly acknowledged their concerns about the recruitment of participants if all the risks of "standard of care" treatments are mentioned in the consent forms. PMID:25910283

  12. Publication of Controversial Papers in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Life (ISSN 2075-1729, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/life/ is a new journal that deals with new and sometime difficult interdisciplinary matters. Consequently, the journal will occasionally be presented with submitted articles that are controversial and/or outside conventional scientific views. Some papers recently accepted for publication in Life have attracted significant attention. Moreover, members of the Editorial Board have objected to these papers; some have resigned, and others have questioned the scientific validity of the contributions. In response I want to first state some basic facts regarding all publications in this journal. All papers are peer-reviewed, although it is often difficult to obtain expert reviewers for some of the interdisciplinary topics covered by this journal. I feel obliged to stress that although we will strive to guarantee the scientific standard of the papers published in this journal, all the responsibility for the ideas contained in the published articles rests entirely on their authors. Discussions on previously published articles are welcome and I hope that, by fostering discussion and by keeping an open-minded attitude towards new ideas, the journal will spur progress in this little explored, difficult and very exciting area of knowledge. [...

  13. Assessment of moyamoya disease with 3.0-T magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance imaging versus conventional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and MR imaging were compared with conventional angiography for the evaluation of moyamoya disease in 13 preoperative patients (26 hemispheres) with moyamoya disease (4 males and 9 females aged 21-54 years). The correlation between MR angiography scores determined by modified Houkin's grading system (MRA score) and conventional angiography stages determined by Suzuki's grading system (CA stage) was analyzed. Other MR findings such as moyamoya vessel scores, ''ivy sign'' scores, and the presence of small, medium, and large cerebrovascular attack (CVA) lesions were compared with CA stages. MRA scores were significantly correlated with CA stages (p<0.01). Moyamoya vessel scores correlated well with CA stages (p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between ''ivy sign'' scores and CA stages, and no significant differences in CA stages with the presence and absence of CVA lesions of any size. 3.0-T MR angiography can be used as a vascular assessment in moyamoya disease with its priority of noninvasive nature and visual clarity compared with conventional angiography. The findings of 3.0-T MR angiography may reflect the steno-occlusive changes in moyamoya disease. (author)

  14. Whole-heart MR coronary angiography - first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a new coronary MR angiography technique covering the whole coronary artery tree in one data set acquisition. Materials and methods: Six healthy volunteers and 15 patients with known CAD were examined with a navigator gated and corrected (NAV) free-breathing 3D steady-state free precession sequence covering the whole heart (WH-MRA) (TR=5.4, TE-2.7, SENSE factor=2, 160 slices, 0.75 mm reconstructed slice thickness, in-plane resolution =0.99 x 0.99 mm2, scan time 14 min [50% NAV efficiency]) and a vessel targeted 3D SSFP MRA sequence (t-MRA) (TR=5.6 ms, TE-2.8 ms, 20 slices of 1.5 mm reconstructed slice thickness, in-plane resolution =0.99 x 0.99 mm2, scan time=7 min [50% NAV efficiency]). Subjective image quality (4-point scale) and objective image quality parameters including vessel sharpness, vessel diameter and CNR were calculated for WH-MRA and t-MRA. In patients, the accuracy for detection of stenosis larger than 50% was compared to the accuracy of X-ray coronary angiography (XA), which was considered the standard. Results: WH-MRA demonstrated good vessel visibility in healthy subjects (100%) whereas vessel visibility in patients was limited (78% in an 8 segment evaluation). Vessel sharpness was inferior to that of t-MRA in patients (37 vs. 42%) but equal in healthy subjects (42%). Vessel diameter did not differ significantly between WH-MRA and t-MRA. CNR was significantly reduced for WH-MRA (CNR 7.4 vs. 11.5). The diagnostic accuracy for the detection of CAD was comparable for both MRA approaches (85.5 vs. 86.2%). Conclusion: WH-MRA allows good coronary artery visualization in healthy subjects and patients and provides a simplified scanning procedure and advantages in 3D post-processing. Regarding image parameters and the detection of CAD, the results are comparable to those acquired with t-MRA. The major disadvantage remains the high number of diagnostically insufficient images. (orig.)

  15. Can we use metronidazole during pregnancy and breastfeeding? Putting an end to the controversy.

    OpenAIRE

    Einarson, A.; Ho, E.; Koren, G

    2000-01-01

    QUESTION: Two of my patients have been diagnosed with giardiasis, and I would like to treat them with the drug of choice for this infection, metronidazole (Flagyl). One of them is 6 weeks pregnant and the other is breastfeeding a 2-month-old infant, and I have received conflicting information about the safety of this drug during pregnancy and breastfeeding. What should I do? ANSWER: Although metronidazole has been on the market for almost 40 years, its use remains controversial during pregnan...

  16. Controversies in Surgical Management of Recalcitrant Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Bonnie P; Wysocki, Robert W; Cohen, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis, often referred to as "tennis elbow," is common and responds to nonsurgical treatment in 80% to 90% of patients within 1 year. For those who proceed with surgery, much remains unclear regarding the ideal treatment. This paper discusses controversies in surgical management of extensor carpi radialis brevis enthesopathy including clinical outcomes of open versus arthroscopic techniques, the relevance of concomitant pathology addressed arthroscopically, and avenues for assessing comparative cost data. PMID:27491631

  17. Human remains from Geula Cave, Haifa

    OpenAIRE

    Arensburg, B

    2010-01-01

    Three human skeletal fragments were unearthed by Wreschner during archaeological excavations in the Mousterian cave of Geula, in Haifa, during the years 1958-1964. The remains and especially the frontal bone belong, according to their morphology, to an ancient Homo sapiens. These finds enhance the long term discussion on ancient sapiens and so-called Neanderthal relationships in the Levant.

  18. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  19. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  20. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  1. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  2. Should geriatric medicine remain a specialty? Yes

    OpenAIRE

    Flicker, Leon

    2008-01-01

    The development of geriatricshas greatly improved care for older people. Leon Flicker believesspecialist care remains important for this vulnerable group,butC P Denaro and A Mudge (doi: 10.1136/bmj.39533.696076.AD) argue that age divisions are no longer relevant

  3. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  4. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for acquired arterio-venous fistulae in the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signs of arterio-venous fistulae in the extremities have been evaluated by DSA in 20 patients. Angiographic signs for the presence of A-V fistulae are the following findings: Dilatation of the supplying artery, elongation of the supplying artery, solitary A-V aneurysm, angiomatous A-V aneurysm, reduced blood flow distal to the A-V fistula, early venous filling, development of a venous collateral circulation and demonstration of retrograde venous flow. Angiography remains the method of choice for demonstrating A-V fistulae. (orig.)

  5. Digital angiography and surgery in the same room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albany Medical Center and private industries (XRE and United X-ray corporations) have collaborated to develop a room within the operating suite that allows high-speed and high-resolution digital angiography and surgery to be performed simultaneously. Patients who have sustained massive trauma can be transferred directly from the ambulance to this new facility. While the patient is undergoing exploratory laparotomy, other vital areas of the body can be evaluated by angiography. This combined approach of surgery and angiography has also led to improved management of patients with massive or occult intestinal hemorrhage and patients with peripheral vascular disease. Other patients undergoing difficult emergency or elective surgery, as in the biliary tract, can now have available the benefits of an operating room facility that also allows high-resolution fluoroscopy and complete angiography to be undertaken

  6. Early diagnosis of retinopathy in juvenile diabetes by fluorescence angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors defined the usefulness of the fluorescein angiography of the retina and choroid in the early stage diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in children comparing its results to the traditional ophthalmoscopy. Examination involved 50 children from 4 to 18 (30 boys and 20 girls) on insulin treatment. The duration of the disease was 1 to 14 years (average 7.36 years). Ophthalmoscopy showed pathological changes in 24% of the children. The fluorescein angiography visualized more microaneurysms compared to ophthalmoscopy and showed them sometimes in the eyes where they had not been found in eye fundus studies. By means of angiography the early and advanced stages of vascular complications were found in 64% of patients. Comparing to ophthalmoscopy a 40% increase was noted. Fluorescein angiography can lead to the decrease in the number of patients with markedly impaired visual acuity and cases of blindness in the diabetic population. (author)

  7. Cerebral angiography, blood flow and vascular reactivity in progressive hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunxia; Shen, Qiang; Huang, Shiliang; Li, Wei; Muir, Eric R.; Long, Justin; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hypertension alters cerebral vascular morphology, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular reactivity, increasing susceptibility to neurological disorders. This study evaluated: i) the lumen diameters of major cerebral and downstream arteries using magnetic resonance angiography, and ii) basal CBF, and iii) cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia of multiple brain regions using arterial-spin-labeling technique in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at different stages. Comparisons were made with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. In 10-week SHR, lumen diameter started to reduce, basal CBF, and hypercapnic CBF response were higher from elevated arterial blood pressure, but there was no evidence of stenosis, compared to age-matched WKY. In 20-week SHR, lumen diameter remained reduced, CBF returned toward normal from vasoconstriction, hypercapnic CBF response reversed and became smaller, but without apparent stenosis. In 40-week SHR, lumen diameter remained reduced and basal CBF further decreased, resulting in larger differences compared to WKY. There was significant stenosis in main supplying cerebral vessels. Hypercapnic CBF response further decreased, with some animals showing negative hypercapnic CBF responses in some brain regions, indicative of compromised cerebrovascular reserve. The territory with negative hypercapnia CBF responses corresponded with the severity of stenosis in arteries that supplied those territories. We also found enlargement of downstream vessels and formation of collateral vessels as compensatory responses to vasoconstriction upstream vessels. The middle cerebral and azygos arteries were amongst the most susceptible to hypertension-induced changes. Multimodal MRI provides clinically relevant data that might be useful to characterize disease pathogenesis, stage disease progression, and monitor treatment effects in hypertension. PMID:25731987

  8. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political, and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: 1) technical study of nuclear plants; 2) concern for the environment; 3) concern for public health and safety; 4) requirements for an improved economic order; and 5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All of these elements have the potential of attracting student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem, our company decided to attempt to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the states to be visited. The selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they were not burdened with the image of being viewed merely as typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is a very important element in the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups; also, to the news media to report the events. Response by the media has been outstandingly favorable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results to date have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' program in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations

  9. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: (1) technical study of nuclear plants; (2) concern for the environment; (3) concern for public health and safety; (4) requirements for an improved economic order; and (5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All these elements could attract student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem in the USA, Westinghouse Electric Corporation attempted to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. The development and results of the programme up to mid-1977 are reported in this paper. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the States to be visited. Selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they did not give the impression of being merely typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is very important to the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups and to the news media. Response by the media has been outstandingly favourable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results up to May 1977, in eight States, have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' programme in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations. (author)

  10. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  11. The Gaia Controversy: AGU'S Chapman Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Eric G.

    The controversial Gaia Hypothesis of James Lovelock of Coombe Mill, Launceston, Cornwall, U.K., and his colleagues variously contends that throughout Earth history the global biosphere has influenced, even controlled, the physicochemical evolution of Earth's environments (especially oceans and climate) for its own benefit. Since the origin of life, the biosphere has influenced selective pressures on evolution, maintained the Earth in a kind of homeostasis, and thus created an environmental optimum through time, regulated by and for the biosphere. Rarely has a hypothesis immediately sparked such passionate response. There is something in it for everybody, from hard core scientists to philosophers, ultraconservationists, students of world religions, mystics, politicians, and space enthusiasts; they were all there in San Diego, March 7-11, 1988, for the AGU Chapman Conference on Gaia Hypotheses. For 4 days an impressive list of specialists presented and debated the pros and cons of Gaia Hypotheses from diverse perspectives: modern and ancient biology, ecology, biochemistry, the physicochemical systems of the Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, and the evolution of the solar system. Focus was on modern to Pleistocene atmosphere-ocean-Earth systems, case histories of their interaction with the biosphere, and relatively simple models drawn from these observations and projected back through time. Equivalent studies on the geological and paleobiological history of the Earth-life system over the past 3.5 b.y. were underrepresented. Extended debates that followed generally strong presentations were lively, argumentative, and remarkably civil despite widely held views. The grace with which Jim Lovelock moved between his strongest critics and supporters set high standards for the debates. Everybody acknowledged a high learning curve.

  12. Superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Superselective arterial spin labeling was capable of acquiring angiograms of individually selected arteries. • Image quality was similar compared with a routinely used time-of-flight angiography. • Superselective arterial spin labeling was utilized in patients with arterio-venous malformations and made it possible to visualize individual feeding vessels in a complete non-invasive way - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a novel non-contrast enhanced, vessel-selective magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) approach based on superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) for the morphologic assessment of intracranial arteries when compared to a clinically used time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. Materials and methods: Three sets of selective ASL angiographies (right and left internal carotid artery, basilar artery) as well as one TOF data set were obtained from each of the five volunteers included in this study on a clinical 1.5T system. The depiction of arterial segments as well as their delineation was evaluated and independently analyzed by two radiologists. Additionally, the ASL angiography approach was performed in two patients suffering from arterio-venous malformations (AVM) in order to illustrate potential applications in a clinical setting. Results: In both angiography techniques, intracranial arteries and their segments (distal branches up to A5 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries, M8 segments of the middle cerebral arteries, and P5 segments of the posterior cerebral arteries) were continuously depicted with excellent inter-reader agreement (κ > 0.81). In AVM patients, reconstructed images of the TOF angiography presented similar information about the size and shape of the AVM as did superselective ASL angiography. In addition, the acquired ASL angiograms of selected vessels allowed assessing the blood supply of individually labeled arteries to the AVM which could also be confirmed by digital subtraction angiography

  13. Superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen-Kondering, Ulf [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Lindner, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lindner@uksh.de [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Osch, Matthias J.P. van [C. J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Helle, Michael [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Now with Philips GmbH Innovative Technologies, Research Laboratories, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Superselective arterial spin labeling was capable of acquiring angiograms of individually selected arteries. • Image quality was similar compared with a routinely used time-of-flight angiography. • Superselective arterial spin labeling was utilized in patients with arterio-venous malformations and made it possible to visualize individual feeding vessels in a complete non-invasive way - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a novel non-contrast enhanced, vessel-selective magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) approach based on superselective pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) for the morphologic assessment of intracranial arteries when compared to a clinically used time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. Materials and methods: Three sets of selective ASL angiographies (right and left internal carotid artery, basilar artery) as well as one TOF data set were obtained from each of the five volunteers included in this study on a clinical 1.5T system. The depiction of arterial segments as well as their delineation was evaluated and independently analyzed by two radiologists. Additionally, the ASL angiography approach was performed in two patients suffering from arterio-venous malformations (AVM) in order to illustrate potential applications in a clinical setting. Results: In both angiography techniques, intracranial arteries and their segments (distal branches up to A5 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries, M8 segments of the middle cerebral arteries, and P5 segments of the posterior cerebral arteries) were continuously depicted with excellent inter-reader agreement (κ > 0.81). In AVM patients, reconstructed images of the TOF angiography presented similar information about the size and shape of the AVM as did superselective ASL angiography. In addition, the acquired ASL angiograms of selected vessels allowed assessing the blood supply of individually labeled arteries to the AVM which could also be confirmed by digital subtraction angiography

  14. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  15. Remaining Phosphorus Estimate Through Multiple Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. E. ALVES; A. LAVORENTI

    2006-01-01

    The remaining phosphorus (Prem), P concentration that remains in solution after shaking soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 containing 60 μg mL-1 P, is a very useful index for studies related to the chemistry of variable charge soils. Although the Prem determination is a simple procedure, the possibility of estimating accurate values of this index from easily and/or routinely determined soil properties can be very useful for practical purposes. The present research evaluated the Premestimation through multiple regression analysis in which routinely determined soil chemical data, soil clay content and soil pH measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF (pHNaF) figured as Prem predictor variables. The Prem can be estimated with acceptable accuracy using the above-mentioned approach, and PHNaF not only substitutes for clay content as a predictor variable but also confers more accuracy to the Prem estimates.

  16. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon;

    2014-01-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition......, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens...

  17. Remains of Comet-Shoemaker/Levy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration of the Comet-Shoemaker/Levy collision shows the first piece of the remains of the comet crashing into Jupiter. This event occurred in 1994 after tidal forces from Jupiter caused the comet to break up into 21 separate pieces. Although on a very different scale, the physical mechanism for the breakup of Shoemaker/Levy also caused the tidal disruption of the star in RX J1242-11. (Illustration: SEDS/D. Seal (edited by CXC/M. Weiss)

  18. Mourning, Memorials, and Religion: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Park51 Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Carlin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a version of the “mourning religion” thesis—derived from the work of Peter Homans and further developed and advanced by William Parsons, Diane Jonte-Pace, and Susan Henking—and then demonstrates how this thesis can shed light on the Park51 controversy. We argue that the Park51 controversy represents a case of incomplete cultural mourning of an aspect of American civil religion that manifests itself in melancholic rage by means of protests, threats to burn the Qur’an (as well as actual burnings of the Qur’an, and vandalism of mosques around the United States. We explore various losses—military, economic, and symbolic—and note that these losses remain ambiguous, therefore preventing closure and productive mourning. The fact that a permanent memorial still has not been built at Ground Zero reflects, and perhaps exacerbates, this incomplete cultural mourning. Also, the fact that Freedom Tower, the building to replace the Twin Towers, is to be 1776 feet tall reflects that the losses related to 9/11 are connected to American civil religion, as 1776 is a sacred year in American history. Setting aside the ethics and the politics related to this controversy, we attempt here to understand this controversy from a psychoanalytic perspective.

  19. Computed tomography angiography in the investigation of carotid stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of carotid atherosclerotic disease is an essential pre-requisite for determining a patients suitability for carotid endarterectomy to prevent ischaemic stroke. Catheter angiography is regarded as the most accurate investigative tool for this purpose. However, with its finite morbidity and invasiveness, there is an increasing reliance upon non-invasive methods to accurately assess carotid disease. We present a review of the technique and applications of computed tomography angiography. Goddard, A.J. P.et al. (2001)

  20. Computed tomography angiography in the investigation of carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, A.J.P.; Mendelow, A.D.; Birchall, D

    2001-07-01

    The assessment of carotid atherosclerotic disease is an essential pre-requisite for determining a patients suitability for carotid endarterectomy to prevent ischaemic stroke. Catheter angiography is regarded as the most accurate investigative tool for this purpose. However, with its finite morbidity and invasiveness, there is an increasing reliance upon non-invasive methods to accurately assess carotid disease. We present a review of the technique and applications of computed tomography angiography. Goddard, A.J. P.et al. (2001)

  1. Fatal Deep Inguinal Infection after Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyun, Dursun Çayan; Alpsoy, Şeref; Akyüz, Aydın; Güneş, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Herein we would like to share our case complicated with inguinal infection secondary to femoral haematoma after coronary angiography. A-79 years-old female underwent diagnostic coronary angiography suffered from a large haematoma in the right inguinal region where femoral artery puncture was performed at another hospital. She was treated at same hospital 16 days and discharged. She presented to our department with a deep ulcerative and ruptured wound in the femoral artery puncture site. The w...

  2. Why do some cores remain starless ?

    CERN Document Server

    Anathpindika, S

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditions that could render a core starless(in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. The density profile of a typical core extracted from an earlier simulation developed to study core-formation in a molecular cloud was used for the purpose. We demonstrate - (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of $\\sim 10^{5}$ years. Those that remained starless did briefly acquire a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the density profile of a unstable Bonnor Ebert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three of our test cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16 and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. On the contrary B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other cores viz. B68, ...

  3. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. Seifeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CL/P is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material.

  4. Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery: Evidences and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotogni, Paolo; Barbero, Cristina; Rinaldi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Despite many advances in prevention and perioperative care, deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) remains a pressing concern in cardiac surgery, with a still relevant incidence and with a considerable impact on in-hospital mortality and also on mid- and long-term survival. The permanent high impact of this complication is partially related to the increasing proportion of patients at high-risk for infection, as well as to the many patient and surgical risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of DSWI. The prophylactic antibiotic therapy is one of the most important tools in the prevention of DSWI. However, the choice of antibiotic, the dose, the duration, the adequate levels in serum and tissue, and the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis are still controversial. The treatment of DSWI ranges from surgical revision with primary closure to surgical revision with open dressings or closed irrigation, from reconstruction with soft tissue flaps to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, to date, there have been no accepted recommendations regarding the best management of DSWI. Emerging evidence in the literature has validated the efficacy and safety of NPWT either as a single-line therapy, or as a "bridge" prior to final surgical closure. In conclusion, the careful control of patient and surgical risk factors - when possible, the proper antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the choice of validated techniques of treatment could contribute to keep DSWIs at a minimal rate. PMID:26557476

  5. Diet, H pylori infection and gastric cancer: Evidence and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alba Rocco; Gerardo Nardone

    2007-01-01

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer (GC) still remains the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Due to the limited treatment options,at present, prevention is likely to be the only effective means of controlling this disease. The success of a prevention strategy depends upon the understanding of etiological and pathogenic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis. The etiology of GC is multi-factorial,however, in the recent years, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role. The most important environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of GC are diet and H pylori infection. Thus,modifications in lifestyle and dietary habit associated with eradication of H pylori infection could hypothetically represent the most promising potential targets for GC prevention. In this review we will address the evidence and the controversies on the role of these agents in noncardia GC by focusing on retrospective and prospective observational studies and interventional trials.

  6. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  7. Covering Conflict and Controversy: Measuring Balance, Fairness, Defamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Todd F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Measures balance, fairness, and defamation in local stories containing controversy and covering law enforcement, education, local government, and business. Finds that most stories lack balance and that the opposing side of the controversy was not contacted in 28 percent of the instances. (RS)

  8. Zpráva z konference: Controversies in Contexts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2010), s. 553-555. ISSN 1210-0250. [Controversies in Contexts. Praha, 09.09.2010-11.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : social theory * sociology * controversies Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Culture Shock: Using Art and Art Controversy To Teach History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Endorses the television series entitled "Culture Shock" that views controversial art as an artifact suggesting that the arts, and controversies surrounding them, can help viewers think critically about the issues of past and present societies. Focuses on "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the painting "Olympia," jazz, and films in the…

  10. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...

  11. The feasibility of left radial artery approach for coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbo Chen; Can Chen; Shian Huang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the feasibility of the left radial approach for coronary angiography. Methods:195 patients diagnosed with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease were randomly divided for coronary angiography(CAG) into a left radial artery approach group(98 cases) and a fight radial artery approach group(97 cases) from Jan 2006 to Dec 2006. Selective coronary angiographies were performed with 5F TIG catheters. The time of puncturing, duration under X-ray fluoroscopy and of the operation, successful rates of puncturing and coronary angiography were recorded. Results:There was no difference in the time of puncturing(2.25 -F 1.58 min vs 2.19±1.62 min), duration under X-ray fluoroscopy(3.12±1.53 min vs 3.21±1.49 min) and the duration of the operation(12.87±2.52 rain vs 12.98±2.85 min), nor in the success rates of puncturing(95.91% vs 95.87%) and coronary angiography(94.90% vs 94.85%). Conclusion: Coronary angiography can be accomplished via the left radial artery approach, indicating that this is a worthwhile clinical approach.

  12. CT Angiography in the Diagnosis of Brain Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary Brain death is defined as the irreversible cessation of functioning of the entire brain, including the brainstem. Brain death is principally established using clinical criteria including coma, absence of brainstem reflexes and loss of central drive to breathe assessed with apnea test. In situations in which clinical testing cannot be performed or when uncertainty exists about the reliability of its parts due to confounding conditions ancillary tests (i.a. imaging studies) may be useful. The objective of ancillary tests in the diagnosis of brain death is to demonstrate the absence of cerebral electrical activity (EEG and evoked potentials) or cerebral circulatory arrest. In clinical practice catheter cerebral angiography, perfusion scintigraphy, transcranial Doppler sonography, CT angiography and MR angiography are used. Other methods, like perfusion CT, xenon CT, MR spectroscopy, diffusion weighted MRI and functional MRI are being studied as potentially useful in the diagnosis of brain death. CT angiography has recently attracted attention as a promising alternative to catheter angiography – a reference test in the diagnosis of brain death. Since 1998 several major studies were published and national guidelines were introduced in several countries (e.g. in France, Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Canada). This paper reviews technique, characteristic findings and criteria for the diagnosis of cerebral circulatory arrest in CT angiography

  13. The comparative study on diagnostic validity of cerebral aneurysm by computed tomography angiography versus digital subtraction angiography after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masih Saboori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to declare the preoperative diagnostic value of brain aneurysms, two radiological modalities, computed tomographic angiography and digital subtraction angiography were compared. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, diagnostic value of computed tomographic angiography (CTA was com-pared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated and compared between the two modalities. All data were analyzed with SPSS software, version 16. Results: Mean age of patients was 49.5 ± 9.13 years. 57.9 % of subjects were female. CTA showed 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity whereas DSA demonstrated 74% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predictive value of both methods was 100%, but negative predictive value of CTA and DSA was 85% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our data, CTA is a valuable diagnostic modality for detection of brain aneurysm and su-barachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, H. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    1990-05-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. Gd-DTPA is already approved for use as a contrast agent for

  15. CT angiography versus 3D rotational angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechan, R.S.; Peluso, J.P.; Sluzewski, M.; Rooij, W.J. van [Sint Elisabeth Ziekenhuis Tilburg, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Rooij, S.B. van [Medisch Centrum Alkmaar, Department of Radiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Sprengers, M.E.; Majoie, C.B. [Academisch Medisch Centrum, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly used as primary diagnostic tool to replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) has substituted DSA as a reference standard. In this prospective observational study, we compare CTA with 3DRA of all cerebral vessels in a large cohort of patients with SAH. Of 179 consecutive patients with SAH admitted between March 2013 and July 2014, 139 underwent 64- to 256-detector row CTA followed by complete cerebral 3DRA within 24 h. In 86 patients (62 %), 3DRA was performed under general anesthesia. Two observers from outside hospitals reviewed CTA data. In 118 of 139 patients (85 %), 3DRA diagnosed the cause of hemorrhage: 113 ruptured aneurysms, three arterial dissections, one micro-arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and one reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. On CTA, both observers missed all five non-aneurysmal causes of SAH. Sensitivity of CTA in depicting ruptured aneurysms was 0.88-0.91, and accuracy was 0.88-0.92. Of 113 ruptured aneurysms, 28 were ≤3 mm (25 %) and of 95 additional aneurysms, 71 were ≤3 mm (75 %). Sensitivity of depicting aneurysms ≤3 mm was 0.28-0.43. Of 95 additional aneurysms, the two raters missed 65 (68 %) and 58 (61 %). Sensitivity in detection was lower in aneurysms of the internal carotid artery than in other locations. CTA had some limitations as primary diagnostic tool in patients with SAH. All non-aneurysmal causes for SAH and one in ten ruptured aneurysms were missed. Performance of CTA was poor in aneurysms ≤3 mm. The majority of additional aneurysms were not depicted on CTA. (orig.)

  16. CT angiography versus 3D rotational angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly used as primary diagnostic tool to replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) has substituted DSA as a reference standard. In this prospective observational study, we compare CTA with 3DRA of all cerebral vessels in a large cohort of patients with SAH. Of 179 consecutive patients with SAH admitted between March 2013 and July 2014, 139 underwent 64- to 256-detector row CTA followed by complete cerebral 3DRA within 24 h. In 86 patients (62 %), 3DRA was performed under general anesthesia. Two observers from outside hospitals reviewed CTA data. In 118 of 139 patients (85 %), 3DRA diagnosed the cause of hemorrhage: 113 ruptured aneurysms, three arterial dissections, one micro-arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and one reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. On CTA, both observers missed all five non-aneurysmal causes of SAH. Sensitivity of CTA in depicting ruptured aneurysms was 0.88-0.91, and accuracy was 0.88-0.92. Of 113 ruptured aneurysms, 28 were ≤3 mm (25 %) and of 95 additional aneurysms, 71 were ≤3 mm (75 %). Sensitivity of depicting aneurysms ≤3 mm was 0.28-0.43. Of 95 additional aneurysms, the two raters missed 65 (68 %) and 58 (61 %). Sensitivity in detection was lower in aneurysms of the internal carotid artery than in other locations. CTA had some limitations as primary diagnostic tool in patients with SAH. All non-aneurysmal causes for SAH and one in ten ruptured aneurysms were missed. Performance of CTA was poor in aneurysms ≤3 mm. The majority of additional aneurysms were not depicted on CTA. (orig.)

  17. Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels

  18. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  19. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  20. Detection and assessment of circle of Willis aneurysms in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography: correlation with digital substraction angiography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P H; Yang, C F; Pan, H B; Chen, C; Ho, J T; Hsu, S S

    1999-10-01

    In this retrospective study, we examined the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the detection and assessment of circle of Willis aneurysms in patients with acute nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), using selective digital substraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard. Thirty-five patients who presented with acute, nontraumatic SAH, diagnosed on the basis of unenhanced computed tomography or lumbar puncture findings or both, underwent both CTA and DSA. The CTA images were interpreted for the presence, location, size, and shape of the aneurysm, presence of a neck, and relationship of the aneurysm to adjacent arterial branches. The CTA and DSA images were then compared, with the latter images serving as the gold standard. DSA revealed 37 aneurysms in 32 patients and ruled out intracranial aneurysms in the remaining three. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA for aneurysm detection were 97% and 100%, respectively. The size of the smallest aneurysm shown was 4 mm, and the largest aneurysm was 21 mm. The size and lobularity of the aneurysms estimated from CTA images corresponded well with those estimated from DSA images. In addition, CTA provided a three-dimensional representation of the aneurysmal lesion, which was considered useful for surgical planning. Our results confirm the accuracy of CTA in comparison with DSA. Because of its reliability, minimal invasiveness, and rapidity, CTA may become the technique of choice for neuroradiologic work-up of SAH patients. DSA then would be used to diagnose intracranial aneurysms only in selected, questionable cases. PMID:10575836

  1. Physical principles of cardiac digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the applications of computers with standard radiologic equipment have resulted in the development of electronic, or so-called ''film-less'' imaging. This technique, discussed by the authors, has become of particular value in the visualization of the central vascular system and has become known as digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Commercial products have become increasingly available and are capable of converting T.V. signals, obtained by conventional fluorography, to a computed array of digital values. Addition, subtraction, and averaging of this data, result in images with adequate signal-to-noise ratios that achieve detection of low concentrations of contrast media not possible with conventional screen film techniques. Computer subtraction of unnecessary background information improves the conspicuity of the opacified vessels to permit detection of vascular structures containing a concentration of no more than 1-3 percent of contrast media. This improved visualization is possible even with intravenous peripheral injections or reduced amounts of contrast media given intraarterially. With either method of contrast media administration, DSDA has become an excellent means of anatomic demonstration of the heart and great vessels with decreased morbidity and at lower cost

  2. CT Angiography of the Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Ghanaati

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Cardiac imaging is currently one the most rapidly advancing fields in clinical cardiology. Continuing technical innovations are expanding the applicability and usefulness of non-invasive imaging modalities such as ultrasound, nuclear imaging, positron emis-sion tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging and most recently computed tomography (CT. In 1998, the 4-slice spiral CT scanners were introduced with a rotation time of 500ms a collimated detector width varying from 0.5 to 1.25mm. In 2002, the 16-slice spiral CT scanners were first used for coronary imag-ing. The rotation time and some of these scanners is now less than 400ms, the slice thickness varies be-tween 0.5 and 0.75mm, and a complete cardiac scan can be performed in less than 20s. In 2004, 64-slice spiral CT released into the market. Imaging of the heart requires acquisition or image reconstruction that is synchronized to the motion of the heart. Nie-man et al, irrespectively of the image quality, evalu-ated all branches with a minimal luminal diameter of 2.0mm and sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 86% respectively in comparison to angiography.

  3. Localization strategy for magnetic resonance coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop a localization strategy for magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA). Methods: In 89 subjects, the standard 4-chamber view and long-axis view of left and right ventricle were acquired using Fast-Imaging-Employing-Steady-State-Acquisition (FIESTA) sequence in CINE mode, and the trigger-delay time for mid-diastolic phase was determined. Coronary vessels including right coronary artery (RCA), left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and left circumflex (LCX) were localized and imaged using 3- dimensional fat-suppressed FIESTA sequence during end-expiration. The reproducibility of the localization strategy was evaluated by taking the standard of coronary segmentation system recommended by American Heart Association. Results: Eighty-six subjects completed the examination with full respiratory co-operation and the indication ratio was 96.63%. Nine planes were optimized as the standard to target the main branches of coronary arteries, and a comprehensive reproducibility reached 100% in demonstrating the proximal and middle segment of RCA (AHA-18, 19), LM (AHA-1, 2), proximal and middle segment of LAD (AHA-3, 5, 7), and proximal LCX (AHA-10). The reproducibility for the demonstration of distal segments of LAD, LCX, and RCA (AHA-9, 14, 21) was 94.19%, 72.09%, and 96.51%, respectively. Conclusion: This is a simple and practical localization strategy for MRCA. It could image the proximal and middle segments of the coronary arteries with good reproducibility, which indicates the potential for clinical application

  4. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  5. Detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms: magnetic resonance angiography versus digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) in detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2007. Methodology: Thirty patients presented with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and focal neurological signs were selected by convenience sampling. Three dimensional time of flight (3D TOF) MRA using maximum intensity projection (MIP) was performed on all patients along with DSA. Results of 3D TOF MRA were compared with those of IA-DSA taking IA-DSA as Gold standard. Results: Out of 30 patients 14 (46.7%) were males and 16 (53.3%) were females with mean age of 41+-14.1 years. MRA detected 29 out of 30 aneurysmal lesions with sensitivity of 96.7%. Regarding characterization of aneurysms results of MRA were comparable to those of IA-DSA. Conclusion: 3D TOF MRA technique showed a high sensitivity in this study. This technique can be used as a non-invasive screening test for intracranial aneurysms and as a suitable alternative primary examination to IA-DSA prior to aneurysmal surgery. (author)

  6. Diagnostic Issues and Controversies in DSM-5: Return of the False Positives Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2016-03-28

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was the most controversial in the manual's history. This review selectively surveys some of the most important changes in DSM-5, including structural/organizational changes, modifications of diagnostic criteria, and newly introduced categories. It analyzes why these changes led to such heated controversies, which included objections to the revision's process, its goals, and the content of altered criteria and new categories. The central focus is on disputes concerning the false positives problem of setting a valid boundary between disorder and normal variation. Finally, this review highlights key problems and issues that currently remain unresolved and need to be addressed in the future, including systematically identifying false positive weaknesses in criteria, distinguishing risk from disorder, including context in diagnostic criteria, clarifying how to handle fuzzy boundaries, and improving the guidelines for "other specified" diagnosis. PMID:26772207

  7. What’s in a name? Problems, facts and controversies regarding neurological eponyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of eponyms in neurology remains controversial, and important questions have been raised about their appropriateness. Different approaches have been taken, with some eponyms being excluded, others replaced, and new ones being created. An example is Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, which has been replaced by neurodegeneration with brain iron accuulatium (NBIA. Amiothoplic lateral sclerosys (ALS, for which the eponym is Charcot’s disease, has been replaced in the USA by Lou Gehrig’s disease. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an eponym that is still the subject of controversy, and various different names are associated with it. Finally,restless legs syndrome (RLS, which was for years known as Ekbom’s syndrome, has been rechristened as RLS/Willis-Ekbom syndrome.

  8. Controversies in the diagnosis and management of childhood acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Feig, Stephen A

    2009-09-01

    Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurs most commonly in young children who present with severe isolated thrombocytopenia and purpura. A marrow examination is not required unless glucocorticoids are used, lest treatment mask incipient acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but controversy exists here. The recommendations for evaluation and management remain controversial, since prospective controlled trials have not been done. There is some consensus based on experience and empiric data. Almost all children with acute ITP will recover completely without therapy. Although the various treatments may increase the platelet count, they do not influence the outcome of the illness, may increase cost, and cause significant side effects. Therefore, careful observation may be the best management option for the patient with ITP, in the absence of severe bleeding. The data available relevant to these issues are discussed. PMID:19165890

  9. CT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Reliable visualization of the coronary arteries with multislice spiral CT angiography (MSCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a challenge despite retrospective ECG gating. A recently developed new algorithm automatically compensates dynamic changes in the heart rate during the scan, thus reducing misregistration and motion artifacts. The HeartBeat-RT algorithm combines a fixed percent delay determined from the first R wave and the fixed offset delay based on the second R wave in the ECG cycle. The purpose of this study was to find out the optimal reconstruction window in MSCTA in patients with AF for each of the three major coronary arteries during the cardiac cycle. Materials and methods: 20 patients with permanent AF were imaged on a 16-slice scanner (slice collimation: 16 x 0.75 mm; rotation time 0.42 s; 140 kV; 380 mAs; 120 ml Ultravist 370 registered i.v.). The patients had not received any previous drugs for heart frequency regulation. Acquisition was started after bolus tracking of a biphasic bolus of 120 ml Ultravist 370 injected intravenously. Each coronary segment was reconstructed at 0%-90% of the cardiac cycle in increments of 10%. For image analysis we used coronary segments as defined by the American Heart Association. Two blinded independent readers assessed the image quality in terms of visibility and artifacts (five-point rating scale 1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=fair, 4=good and 5=excellent) and the degree of stenosis (five-point rating scale 1=0%, 2=1%-49%, 3=50%-74%, 4=75%-99%, 5=100%) on axial slices, multiplanar reconstructions and three-dimensional volume-rendered images. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary embolism: Comparison of ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy and helical CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: Retrospective study of the patients undergoing ventilation-perfusion pulmonary scintigraphy and helical CT angiography from March/ 2000 to July/ 2002, due to suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Fifty-four patients were evaluated, with those unable to undergo a ventilation study or whose scintigraphy or CT studies were performed after anticoagulant therapy being excluded. The study group included 40 patients (24 male, 16 female) with an average age of 55,8 ± 18,8 years. Ninety per cent of the patients had a measurement of D-dimers levels and only 5% were submitted to angiography. Results: Both studies were concordant in 32 patients (80%), with concordant positive findings in 25 cases and concordant negative results in 7. In concordant positive cases, main risk factors included venous pathology of the lower extremities (40%) and malignant neoplasms (24%); no risk factors were found in 16% of these patients. Clinical findings included thoracic pain (16 patients), dyspnea (15 cases) and cough (7 patients). In these 25 patients PE was bilateral in 52%, right-sided in 28% and left-sided in the remaining 20%. D-dimers were elevated in 19 patients, normal in 3 and not measured in 3 cases. In concordant negative cases, D-dimers were elevated in 6 patients and not measured in one. Studies were discordant in 8 patients: in 5 of them, lung scintigraphy yielded a high-probability study but CT was negative for PE (revealing parenchymatous consolidation in 3 cases and pleural effusion in 2 patients); two patients had an intermediate-probability lung scintigram but CT was also negative (detecting a pericardial cyst around right hilum in one patient); in the remaining discordant case (a patient with chronic pulmonary hypertension), scintigraphy yielded a low-probability result but CT detected a non-occlusive clot in the right pulmonary artery. The angiographic studies performed in only 2 patients, both with concordant positive studies, confirmed the

  11. Results obtained with digital angiography of peripheral vessels using the step-shifted imaging technique in one session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of DSA by sectors, of the pelvic and leg arteries, is controversially discussed in the literature when it comes to comparing it with the value of conventional radiography using sheet film exchange or the 100-mm technique applying step-shifted imaging. Because step-shifting is not possible with the DSA by sectors, many single injections have to be done, and this results in comparably high amounts of contrast medium and time required. A significant enhancement of the imaging components now available allows digital angiography of peripheral vessels to be made also by step-shifting in one session. The article in hand describes the technical design of the imaging system, and first clinical results obtained with 37 examinations. It is shown that the technique yields images of good quality and requires less contrast medium and time for examination. (orig.)

  12. Value of the CT angiography in the diagnosis of common carotid artery bifurcation disease: CT angiography versus digital subtraction angiography and color flow Doppler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: assessment of the degree of stenosis is the central point in the treatment of carotid stenosis. The purpose of our study was to assess whether invasive CT angiography (CTA) is a feasible alternative to the current invasive gold standard carotid digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the current non-invasive gold standard color flow doppler. Subjects and methods: about 178 patients with cerebrovascular disease underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), CFD and CTA. CTA was performed on a Somatom plus 4 (Siemens, Erlangen Germany). CT was performed with 2/3/2 (collimation/table feed/reconstruction interval) or 2/3/1 mm, start delay 15-20 s, flow 2.5-3.0 ml/s, using 120 ml non-ionic contrast medium (300 mg J/ml). Quantification of degree of stenosis was based on the perfused area in the axial slices. Plaque morphology (soft and hard) and ulceration were evaluated. Results: CTA detected nine cases of significant stenosis, which had been underestimated by DSA. CTA failed in two cases of a membraneous stenosis, which were underestimated, and in two cases with teeth artifacts. Calcifications were more readily appreciated by CTA than in CFD. In this respect, both methods were superior to DSA. CFD, DSA and CTA had a sensitivity of 100% for occlusions, respectively. Conclusion: CT angiography is useful in case of inconclusive CFD in the pre- and postoperative phase, and as a third modality in case of disagreement between DSA and CFD

  13. Multidetector-Row CT Angiography of Cerebral Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Comparison of Bone Subtraction and Standard CT Angiography with Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; You, Jin Jong; Choi, Ho Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dae Seob [Gyeongsang Institue of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Jae Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of multidetector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) for the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by comparison of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and to compare the bone subtraction CT angiography (BS-CTA) and standard CT angiography (S-CTA). Thirty-three patients who were treated with intraarterial nimodipine infusion for the cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH were evaluated with MDCTA and DSA. BS-CTA images were reconstructed from the S-CTA and unenhanced CT source images. A total of 207 vascular segments were evaluated. A four-step scale for the degree of stenosis was applied for each segment. With DSA as the standard images, BS-CTA and S-CTA images were comparied. On DSA, 56 segments (27%) presented vasospasm. Concordance between the DSA and S-CTA and between DSA and BS-CTA were 94.7% and 82.1%, respectively. Overestimation for the degree of stenosis was shown in 37 segments on BS-CTA and in 8 segments on S-CTA, but underestimated segments were only shown on S-CTA (n = 4). MDCTA with standard technique seems to be a useful imaging tool for the evaluation of the cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH. However, BS-CTA is not needed because of additional radiation and overestimation of the degree of stenosis.

  14. Turbidite plays` immaturity means big potential remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettingill, H.S. [Repsol Exploracion SA, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-05

    The international exploration and production industry is increasingly focusing on deepwater plays. Turbidites are not the only reservoir type that occurs in deepwater frontiers, but they are the primary reservoir type of those plays. A worldwide data base assembled from published information on 925 fields and discoveries with deepwater clastic reservoirs (turbidites sensu lato) has been employed to investigate the large-scale exploration and production trends. Coverage of the Former Soviet Union, China, and the Indian subcontinent has been minor, but with the large data base of fields and discoveries from the rest of the world, the broad conclusions should remain valid. This article describes the global turbidite play in terms of: (1) basins of the world where turbidite fields have been discovered; (2) the five largest basins in terms of total discovered resources; and (3) a summary of trap type, which is a critical geological factor in turbidite fields. The second article will summarize a population of the world`s 43 largest turbidite fields and discoveries.

  15. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  16. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  17. Comparison of CO2 DSA and conventional angiography using non-ionic contrast media in lower extremity angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to compare CO2 DSA and nonionic contrast media angiography in respect to the quality of the opacification of collaterals and incidence of side-effects in peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Sixteen patients who were suspected to have peripheral occlusive arterial disease were performed angiography with nonionic contrast media and CO2 at the same location with the same catheter. The causes of the lesions were atherosclerosis(n=7) and Buerger's disease(n=9). CO2 DSA was compared with nonionic contrast media angiography in respect to the quality of image in the diagnosis of the lesions, opacifications of collaterals and side-effects. In atherosclerosis; quality of the images of CO2 DSA was same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 6 patients and was poor in 1 patient; opacifications of collaterals of CO2 DSA were same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 5 patients and was poor in 2 patients. In Buerger's disease; quality of the images of CO2 DSA was same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 2 patients and was poor in 7 patients; opacifications of collaterals of CO2 DSA were same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 1 patient and was poor in 8 patients. Leg pain was the only side-effect after CO2 injection occurring in 4 out of 16 patients. CO2 could be used as safe contrast media in patient with risk factors for nonionic contrast media and for diagnosis of the atherosclerosis in lower extremity. For the procedures such as vascular intervention requiring large amount of contrast media CO2 could effectively replace nonionic contrast media

  18. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered

  19. Cerebral angiography in patients with complicated migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    38 patients (mean age: 29 years) were investigated by means of complete 4-vessel angiography: all of them were suffering from complicated migraine without detectable vascular malformation. Stenoses of the great craniocervical vessels were found in 11 patients (28.9%), but there was not a single case of vascular occlusion. A correlation between the localization of the stenosis, the localization of the headache and the presumed region of the transient cerebral function disturbance was found only in a few patients. Concerning the morphological changes of the small intracranial arterial branches, there was hardly an difference between clinically affected and non-affected territories of the middle cerebral artery. The angiograms of the 38 cases of complicated migraine were compared with the angiograms of 40 patients suffering from strokes in the young and those of 49 patients with transient ischaemic attacks. There were remarkably fewer stenoses or occlusions in the great craniocervical arteries of patients suffering from complicated migraine (28.9%) than in the vessels of cases of stroke in the young (52.5%). However, the incidence was comparable with the results in patients with transient ischaemic attacks (34.7%). The degree of morphological changes in the small intracranial arterial branches is likely to depend primarily on the patient's age and less on the diagnosis. The results suggest that in almost 30% of patients with complicated migraine - even at juvenile age-stenoses of the great craniocervical vessels might be found. However, considering the fact that most of the stenoses are without haemodynamic significance and their localization is not in agreement with the clinical data, the pathogenetic value of these vessel wall changes is highly questionable. (Author)

  20. Fluorescein angiography of the canine retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinal vascular bed was examined in 37 canine eyes by studying 50 retinal fluorangiograms. All angiographic phases could distinctly be visualized by the use of a small intravenous bolus of 10 mg/kg fluorescein. The choroidal phase is characterized by spot-like and lobular filling of the choriocapillaris. By coalescence of the choroidal lobules, this uneven filling progressively disappears in the subsequent phases. The retinal arterial phase is characterized by a hyperfluorescence of the retinal arterioles at the level of the optic disc border. The time interval between the start of the choroidal phase and the retinal arterial phase is very short due to the common origin of the choroidal and retinal arteries from the choroidoretinal arteries. The retinal arterio-venous phase is characterized by a complete filling of the smaller arterioles, capillaries, and venules. During this phase the branching pattern of the retinal blood vessels at the area centralis region can be most easily studied. This also applies to the periarteriolar capillary-free zones and the radial peripapillary capillaries. The retinal early venous phase is characterized by the onset of laminar flow in the larger retinal venules. A homogeneous and complete filling of the larger venules is characteristic for the onset of the late venous phase. During the retinal venous phase the border venule can be observed just posterior to the ora ciliaris retinae. Fluorescein angiography of the canine retinal microvasculature shows that the dog is less suitable as an experimental animal model in ophthalmology, due to the presence of the choroidal tapetum which reflects fluorescent light and thus diminishes the contrast between the retinal blood vessels and the background

  1. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  2. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) provides high resolution angiograms within 20-40 sec. The technique is based on the acquisition of heavily T1-weighted threedimensional (3D) gradient-echo data sets (FISP) with ultrashort echo-(<2 ms) and repetition times (<5 ms) during the arterial phase of an intravenously injected bolus of a T1-shortening agent such as Gd-DTPA. For MR-angiography of abdominal vessels CE-MRA is better suited than 'time-of-flight' (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA because motional artifacts can be obviated with breath-held acquisitions. We have optimised the technique and evaluated its potential for angiography of the abdominal aorta and its branches as well as the portal vein and its tributaries. Whilst CE-MRA provides reliable diagnostic accuracy in the aorta and the proximal sections of its branches, small peripheral arteries cannot be assessed accurately. The portal vein and its tributaries can often be depicted better with CE-MRA than with conventional angiography but, like conventional angiography, CE-MRA is hampered by slow and reversed flow, conditions under which TOF or 'true FISP' MRA may perform bst. We have also investigated FLASH-echo-planar imaging (EPI) hybrid techniques, a further technical development which due to shorter acquisition times of 12-15 sec. allows semi-dynamic imaging of the arterial and venous phase and provide better vessel contrast due to the use of fat-suppression. (orig.)

  3. Patient radiation exposure during coronary angiography and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Persliden, J. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology

    2000-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively register fluoroscopic and cine times in a random fashion, and to measure patient radiation exposure from routine coronary angiography and coronary balloon angioplasty. We also evaluated an optional dose reduction system used during interventions. Material and methods: The incident radiation to the patient was measured as kerma area product (KAP) in Gycm{sup 2}, obtained from an ionisation chamber mounted on the undercouch tube during 65 coronary angiography procedures and another 53 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties, mostly directly following complete coronary angiography. Results and conclusion: The values from coronary angiography were comparable to other reports with a mean fluoroscopic time of 4.4 min and a mean KAP value of 62.6 Gy/cm{sup 2}. The corresponding figures from coronary balloon angioplasty without stenting were lower than otherwise reported, with 8.2 min and 47.9 Gycm{sup 2}, respectively. The use of coronary stents did prolong the mean fluoroscopic time (10.5 min) but did not significantlyenhance the patient mean radiation dose (51.4 Gycm{sup 2}). The dose reduction technique resulted in a significant KAP value reduction of 57%. In conclusion, with regard to radiation exposure, coronary angiography and balloon angioplasty are considered safe procedures.

  4. Conventional and CT angiography in children: dosimetry and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremendous advances have been made in imaging in children with both congenital and acquired heart disease. These include technical advances in cardiac catheterization and conventional angiography, especially with advancements in interventional procedures, as well as noninvasive imaging with MR and CT angiography. With rapid advances in multidetector CT (MDCT) technology, most recently 64-detector array systems (64-slice MDCT), have come a number of advantages over MR. However, both conventional and CT angiography impart radiation dose to children. Although the presence of radiation exposure to children has long been recognized, it is apparent that our ability to assess this dose, particularly in light of the rapid advancements, has been limited. Traditional methods of dosimetry for both conventional and CT angiography are somewhat cumbersome or involve a potential for substantial uncertainty. Recent developments in dosimetry, including metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) and the availability of anthropomorphic, tissue-equivalent phantoms have provided new opportunities for dosimetric assessments. Recent work with this technology in state-of-the-art cardiac angiography suites as well as with MDCT have offered direct comparisons of doses in infants and children undergoing diagnostic cardiac evaluation. It is with these dose data that assessment of risks, and ultimately the assessment of risk-benefit, can be better achieved. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the study was to carry out a systematic review determining the accuracy of CT angiography in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. A search of published work in Medline and manual searching of reference lists of articles was conducted. Studies were included if they compared CT angiography to a reference standard of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, angiography or surgery in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eight published studies evaluating 129 patients were included. Data were used to form 2x2 tables. Computed tomography angiography showed pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval 78-92%) and specificity of 95% (95% confidence interval 76-100%), without showing significant heterogeneity (x2 = 3.5, P=0.6) and (x2 - 5.4, P = 0.6), respectively. Summary receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.93. Computed tomography angiography is accurate in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can show the precise location and aetiology of bleeding, thereby directing further management. Strong recommendations for use of CT cannot be made from this review because of the methodological limitations and further large prospective studies are needed to define the role of CT in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: Controversies to be addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Du, Juan; Zhu, Cheng-Pei; Huang, Han-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Liang-Cai; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Zhang, Hao-Hai; Miao, Ruo-Yu; Sang, Xin-Ting; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounts for 0.4%-14.2% of primary liver cancer cases and possesses pathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Since this disease was first described and classified in 1949, the classification of CHC has continuously evolved. The latest definition and classification of CHC by the World Health Organization is based on the speculation that CHC arises from hepatic progenitor cells. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the common origin of different components of CHC. Furthermore, the definition of CHC subtypes is still ambiguous and the identification of CHC subtype when a single tumor contains many components has remained unresolved. In addition, there is no summary on the newly recognized histopathology features or the contribution of CHC components to prognosis and outcome of this disease. Here we provide a review of the current literature to address these questions. PMID:27182157

  7. Recent developments in health care law: culture and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roberta M; Bliss, Lisa; Caley, Sylvia; Lombardo, Paul A; Wolf, Leslie E

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews recent developments in health care law, focusing on controversy at the intersection of health care law and culture. The article addresses: emerging issues in federal regulatory oversight of the rapidly developing market in direct-to-consumer genetic testing, including questions about the role of government oversight and professional mediation of consumer choice; continuing controversies surrounding stem cell research and therapies and the implications of these controversies for healthcare institutions; a controversy in India arising at the intersection of abortion law and the rights of the disabled but implicating a broader set of cross-cultural issues; and the education of U.S. health care providers and lawyers in the theory and practice of cultural competency. PMID:23180091

  8. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  9. Controversy: Synthetic Hairs and their Role in Hair Restoration?

    OpenAIRE

    Mysore, Venkataram

    2010-01-01

    The subject of artifical hair fibers is controversial, in view of their chequered history and the ban by federal drug administration (FDA) on their use. This article analyzes different aspects of their use.

  10. Summerhill Dismembered: Using Controversy to Motivate Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis; Lawrence, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    Workshops for teachers engaged in practitioner-based inquiry centered on the controversial issues raised by a television documentary on the Summerhill School. Learners normally engaged in distance education were motivated by the processes of dissent, argument, and disputation. (SK)

  11. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  12. Political innovation: corporations, controversy and genetically modified food.

    OpenAIRE

    Doubleday, R. V. L.

    2005-01-01

    Public controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods illustrates the increasing complexity of the governance of technological innovation. In the light of public displays of ambivalence towards biotechnology, corporations are paying greater attention to societal concerns over the innovation of new technologies. This thesis asks how those corporations involved in the development and commercialisation of GM foods have understood and responded to recent public controversy over biotechnology in...

  13. : Male circumcision as HIV prevention between controversies and scientific investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Harrous-Paicheler, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is considered the scientific foundation of medical practice in evidence based medicine. Therefore, the evidence it brings should put an end to controversies. But this was not the case if we look at the demonstration of the protective role of male circumcision (MC) against HIV/AIDS infection. Although based on a series of epidemiological investigations, culminating in RCTs, the benefits of MC are a controversial subject in the medical and scientific commun...

  14. Influence of observer experience and training on proficiency in coronary CT angiography interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the influence of experience and training on the proficiency in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) interpretation of practitioners with different levels of experience. Methods and materials: Nine radiologist and cardiologist observers with varying prior CCTA experience ranging from novice to expert independently analyzed two case series of 50 catheter-correlated CCTA studies for coronary artery stenosis (0%, ≤49%, 50–74%, 75–99%, or 100%). Results of the first case series were unblinded and presented along with catheter angiography results to each reader before proceeding to the second series. Diagnostic accuracy on a per-segment basis was compared for all readers and both case series, respectively. Results: Correlation coefficients between CCTA and catheter angiography initially ranged between good (r = 0.87) and poor (r = 0.26), depending on reader experience, and significantly (p < 0.05) improved in the second case series (range: r = 0.42 to r = 0.91). Diagnostic accuracy was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for more experienced readers (range: 96.5–97.8%) as compared to less experienced observers (range: 90.7–93.6%). After completion of the second case series for less experienced readers sensitivity and PPV significantly (p < 0.05) improved (range: 62.7–67.8%/51.4–84.1%), but still remained significantly (p < 0.05) lower as compared to more experienced observers (range: 89.8–93.3%/80.6–93.3%). Conclusion: The level of experience appears to be a strong determinant of proficiency in CCTA interpretation. Limited one-time training improves proficiency in novice readers, but not to clinically satisfactory levels

  15. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  16. Re-examination of the Controversial Coexistence of Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Misdiagnosis and Self-Report Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Robert J.; Ruff, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    The coexistence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a controversial issue in the literature. To address this controversy, we focused primarily on the civilian-related literature of TBI and PTSD. Some investigators have argued that individuals who had been rendered unconscious or suffered amnesia due to a TBI are unable to develop PTSD because they would be unable to consciously experience the symptoms of fear, helplessness, and horror associated wi...

  17. Breath-hold two-dimensional MR angiography of coronary arteries. Comparison with conventional coronary angiography in ten cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value of two-dimensional coronary magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in patients evaluated for ischemic heart disease. Materials and methods: Ten patients who underwent selective cardiac catheterization with coronary MR angiography were evaluated with two-dimensional coronary MR angiography. Coronary MR angiography was performed with breath-hold fat-suppressed ECG-gated Turbo-FLASH with K-space segmentation using a 1.5 T imager. Results: The left main coronary artery, proximal left anterior descending artery, circumflex artery and right coronary artery were demonstrated in all cases. Continuous segments (mean) of left anterior descending, circumflex and right coronary arteries visualized on MRA were 6.72 +- 3.16 cm, 3.67 +- 4.81 cm and 7.93 +- 3.12 cm respectively. The overall sensitivity for detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery lesion (≥50%) was 62.5% respectively. Conclusion: Breath-hold two-dimensional coronary MR angiography was useful in showing relatively long segments of the main coronary arteries and also has potential in depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery lesions

  18. Clinical utility of landiolol for use in coronary CT angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomizawa N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nobuo Tomizawa,1 Yayoi Hayakawa,1 Shinichi Inoh,1 Takeshi Nojo,1 Sunao Nakamura2 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Cardiology, New Tokyo Hospital, Matsudo, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Although remarkable advancement in computed tomography (CT has been achieved, heart rate control is important to maintain an optimal image quality in coronary CT angiography. Oral or intravenous β-blockers are used as premedication for this purpose. Landiolol was developed as a β-blocker with very high cardioselectivity (β1/β2 =255 and short half-life (4 minutes. In this review, we report the pharmacological features and usage of landiolol and also its effects on heart rate and image quality in coronary CT angiography. In addition, we discuss the safety of landiolol. Keywords: coronary computed tomography angiography, heart rate, image quality

  19. Cerebral infarction showed hyperperfusion pattern on radionuclide cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients of middle cerebral infarctin showed hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and fan-shape accumulation at the area of middle cerebral artery on early and delayed brain scan. In these patients, bone scanning agents such as sup(99m)Tc-EHDP or sup(99m)Tc-MDP also prominently accumulated at the area of infarction. These findings were observed on the study when it was performed within seventeen days after attack, but reexamination tended to show normal or decreased perfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and improve abnormal accumulation on brain scans. The clinical diagnosis of these three patients were cerebral embolism with heart disease, but one patient was internal carotid artery occlusion. The prognosis of all patients were very good. The hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography of these patients represents the luxury perfusion in the lesion and these infarction has been called hot stroke by Yarnell et al. (author)

  20. Port visualisation before intraperitoneal chemotherapy: Scintigraphy or angiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessing the functioning of intraperitoneal port-catheter systems prior to intraperitoneal chemotherapy, scintigraphy/SPECT and subtraction-angiography were compared. The patient under scrutiny had three port-catheter systems. Two of the three ports were functioning well. However, one port did not function. Via scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-nanocolloid this defective port was detected, but the cause was identified only by angiography. By the angiographic technique, a leakage near the port chamber caused by dislocation of the catheter could be verified. SPECT is a more useful method than angiography, since it shows very clearly intraperitoneal distribution by the possibility of reconstructing various slices. In conclusion, both techniques, the scintigraphic and the angiographic one, complement each other well. (orig.)

  1. Angiography in the investigation of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present their protocol for spinal angiography in their investigation of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). The protocol has been used in approximately 120 patients from 1983 to the present at Bicetre Hospital. The approach is based on the fact that venous congestion is responsible for the myelopathy of DAVF. If the venous phase of the spinal circulation is normal, this alone rules out DAVF as the cause of the patient's symptoms. If there is stasis in the spinal circulation, this is consistent with DAVF, and thus complete spinal angiography is necessary. Complete angiography includes the selective intercostal arteries, including the lateral sacrals, as well as the supply to the cervical cord and posterior fossa. (orig.)

  2. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonino, Pim A L; De Bruyne, Bernard; Pijls, Nico H J;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR; the ratio...... of maximal blood flow in a stenotic artery to normal maximal flow), in addition to angiography, improves outcomes. METHODS: In 20 medical centers in the United States and Europe, we randomly assigned 1005 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease to undergo PCI with implantation of drug...... in the angiography group were free from angina at 1 year, as compared with 81% of patients in the FFR group (P=0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Routine measurement of FFR in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents significantly reduces the rate of the composite end point...

  3. Digital subtraction angiography in patients with central vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a recently developed non-invasive intravenous angiography which has become possible through real time digital subtraction of x-ray transmission data from an image intensifier and television system. The output signals of the image intensifier-television camera system are digitized by an analog-digital converter. The digital information, 512x512 pixels and 9 bits deep, is fed into the image processing assembly after logarithmic amplification, where 2-8 frames are added and subtracted from mask images for the final digital images. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography was performed in 21 patients with intractable dizzy spells of central origin resistant to treatment. These patients showed some signs of CNS disturbance, although there were no significant findings on CT scans. Surprisingly, findings were abnormal in 14 of 21 patients (66.7%). DSA is, therefore, considered to be an important aid in the diagnosis of vertigo of the central type. (J.P.N.)

  4. MR angiography of the central nervous system in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper defines the role of both time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast MR angiography in pediatric neuroimaging. MR angiographic techniques included two- and three-dimensional TOF and two- and three-dimensional phase contrast MR angiography in 30 patients. Reprojections were done with a maximum-intensity-pixel algorithm. MR angiograms were reviewed retrospectively with spin-echo images (10 cases) and/or conventional angiograms (20 cases). MR angiography provided additional information compared with spin-echo imaging in cases of sinus thrombosis (n = 5), arterial thrombosis (n = 2), arterial stenosis (n = 5), aneurysm evaluation (n = 3), vascular pathology exclusion (n = 5) and preoperative cortical venous mapping (n = 7). Stationary tissue signal suppression was better achieved with two-dimensional than with three-dimensional TOF images. Signal shine through in two cases of hemorrhage created pitfalls in interpreting the flow on TOF images

  5. Progress and controversies in developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speiser Daniel E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy has become a standard approach for cancer management, through the use of cytokines (eg: interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer vaccines hold promise as another form of immunotherapy, and there has been substantial progress in identifying shared antigens recognized by T cells, in developing vaccine approaches that induce antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients, and in developing new technology for monitoring immune responses in various human tissue compartments. Dramatic clinical regressions of human solid tumors have occurred with some cancer vaccines, but the rate of those responses remains low. This article is part of a 2-part point:counterpoint series on peptide vaccines and adoptive therapy approaches for cancer. The current status of cancer vaccination, and associated challenges, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to increase our knowledge of cancer immunobiology, as well as to improve monitoring of cellular immune function after vaccination. Progress in both areas will facilitate development of effective cancer vaccines, as well as of adoptive therapy. Effective cancer vaccines promise to be useful for treatment and prevention of cancer at low cost and with low morbidity.

  6. Optimization of Ecg Gating in Quantitative Femoral Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine which phase of the heart cycle would yield the highest reproducibility in measuring atherosclerosis-related variables such as arterial lumen volume and edge roughness. Material and Methods: 35 patients with hypercholesterolemia underwent select ive femoral angiography, repeated four times at 10-min intervals. The angiographies were performed with Ecg-gated exposures. In angiographies 1 and 2 the delay from R-wave maximum to each exposure was 0.1 s, in angiographies 3 and 4 the delay was 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 s or the exposures were performed 1/s without Ecg gating. Arterial lumen volume and edge roughness were measured in a 20-cm segment of the superficial femoral artery using a computer-based densitometric method. Measurement reproducibility was determined by comparing angiographies 1-2 and angiographies 3-4. Results: When measuring arterial lumen volume and edge roughness of a 20-cm segment of the femoral artery, reproducibility was not dependent on Ecg gating. In measuring single arterial diameters and cross-sectional areas, the reproducibility was better when exposures were made 0.1 s after the R-wave maximum than when using other settings of the Ecg gating device or without Ecg gating. Conclusion: The influence of pulsatile flow upon quantitative measurement in femoral angiograms seems to be the smallest possible in early systole, as can be demonstrated when measuring single diameters and cross-sectional areas. In variables based on integration over longer segments, measurement reproducibility seems to be independent of phase

  7. Optimization of Ecg Gating in Quantitative Femoral Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Berglund, I.; Erikson, U. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology; Johansson, J.; Walldius, G. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). King Gustav V Research Inst.

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To determine which phase of the heart cycle would yield the highest reproducibility in measuring atherosclerosis-related variables such as arterial lumen volume and edge roughness. Material and Methods: 35 patients with hypercholesterolemia underwent select ive femoral angiography, repeated four times at 10-min intervals. The angiographies were performed with Ecg-gated exposures. In angiographies 1 and 2 the delay from R-wave maximum to each exposure was 0.1 s, in angiographies 3 and 4 the delay was 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 s or the exposures were performed 1/s without Ecg gating. Arterial lumen volume and edge roughness were measured in a 20-cm segment of the superficial femoral artery using a computer-based densitometric method. Measurement reproducibility was determined by comparing angiographies 1-2 and angiographies 3-4. Results: When measuring arterial lumen volume and edge roughness of a 20-cm segment of the femoral artery, reproducibility was not dependent on Ecg gating. In measuring single arterial diameters and cross-sectional areas, the reproducibility was better when exposures were made 0.1 s after the R-wave maximum than when using other settings of the Ecg gating device or without Ecg gating. Conclusion: The influence of pulsatile flow upon quantitative measurement in femoral angiograms seems to be the smallest possible in early systole, as can be demonstrated when measuring single diameters and cross-sectional areas. In variables based on integration over longer segments, measurement reproducibility seems to be independent of phase.

  8. CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography. The view of the referring physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of experience gained by local referring physicians with the procedure of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in the everyday clinical routine. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to 179 physicians, who together had referred a total of 1986 patients for CCTA. They were asked about their experience to date with CCTA, the indications for coronary imaging, and their practice in referring patients for noninvasive CCTA or invasive catheter angiography. 53 questionnaires (30%) were assessable, corresponding to more than 72% of the patients referred. Of the referring physicians who responded, 94% saw a concrete advantage of CCTA in the treatment of patients, whereby 87% were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the reporting. For excluding coronary heart disease (CHD) where there was a low pre-test probability of disease, the physicians considered CCTA to be superior to conventional coronary diagnosis (4.2 on a scale of 1-5) and vice versa for acute coronary syndrome (1.6 of 5). The main reasons for unsuitability of CCTA for CT diagnosis were claustrophobia and the absence of a sinus rhythm. The level of exposure to radiation in CCTA was estimated correctly by only 42% of the referring physicians. 90% of the physicians reported that their patients evaluated their coronary CT overall as 'positive' or 'neutral', while 87% of the physicians whose patients had undergone both procedures reported that the patients had experienced CCTA as the less disagreeable of the two. CCTA is accepted by the referring physicians as an alternative imaging procedure for the exclusion of CHD and received a predominantly positive assessment from both the referring physicians and the patients.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Mice: Comparison with Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy and Fluorescein Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Helena; Kokona, Despina; Wolf, Sebastian; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) allows noninvasive visualization of retinal vessels in vivo. OCT-A was used to characterize the vascular network of the mouse retina and was compared with fluorescein angiography (FA) and histology. Methods In the present study, OCT-A based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system was used to investigate the vascular network in mice. Data was compared with FA and confocal microscopy of flat-mount histology stained with isolectin IB4. For quantitative analysis the National Cancer Institute's AngioTool software was used. Vessel density, the number of vessel junctions, and endpoints were measured and compared between the imaging modalities. Results The configuration of the superficial capillary network was comparable with OCT-A and flat-mount histology in BALBc mice. However, vessel density and the number of vessel junctions per region of interest (P = 0.0161 and P = 0.0015, respectively) in the deep vascular network of BALBc mice measured by OCT-A was significantly higher than with flat-mount histology. In C3A.Cg-Pde6b+Prph2Rd2/J mice, where the deep capillary plexus is absent, analysis of the superficial network provided similar results for all three imaging modalities. Conclusion OCT-A is a helpful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo imaging of the vascular plexus in mice. It may offer advantages over FA and confocal microscopy especially for imaging the deep vascular plexus. Translational Relevance The present study shows that OCT-A can be employed for small animal imaging to assess the vascular network and offers advantages over flat-mount histology and FA.

  10. CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography. The view of the referring physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Martin H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Universitaetsspital Bern (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Diagnostische, Interventionelle und Paediatrische Radiologie; Zimmermann, E.; Hamm, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dewey, M.

    2014-12-15

    Assessment of experience gained by local referring physicians with the procedure of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in the everyday clinical routine. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to 179 physicians, who together had referred a total of 1986 patients for CCTA. They were asked about their experience to date with CCTA, the indications for coronary imaging, and their practice in referring patients for noninvasive CCTA or invasive catheter angiography. 53 questionnaires (30%) were assessable, corresponding to more than 72% of the patients referred. Of the referring physicians who responded, 94% saw a concrete advantage of CCTA in the treatment of patients, whereby 87% were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the reporting. For excluding coronary heart disease (CHD) where there was a low pre-test probability of disease, the physicians considered CCTA to be superior to conventional coronary diagnosis (4.2 on a scale of 1-5) and vice versa for acute coronary syndrome (1.6 of 5). The main reasons for unsuitability of CCTA for CT diagnosis were claustrophobia and the absence of a sinus rhythm. The level of exposure to radiation in CCTA was estimated correctly by only 42% of the referring physicians. 90% of the physicians reported that their patients evaluated their coronary CT overall as 'positive' or 'neutral', while 87% of the physicians whose patients had undergone both procedures reported that the patients had experienced CCTA as the less disagreeable of the two. CCTA is accepted by the referring physicians as an alternative imaging procedure for the exclusion of CHD and received a predominantly positive assessment from both the referring physicians and the patients.

  11. Usefulness of CT angiography in diagnosing acute gastrointestinal bleeding:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) angiography in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancerlit, Cochrane Library database, Sciencedirect, Springerlink and Scopus, from January 1995 to December 2009, were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of CT angiography in diagnosing acute GI bleeding. Studies were included if the ycompared CT angiography to a reference standard of upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, angiography or surgery in ...

  12. The Impact of Aromatherapy on the Anxiety of Patients Experiencing Coronary Angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Homeyra Tahmasbi; Ghahraman Mahmoodi; Vahid Mokhberi; Soghra Hassani; Homeyra Akbarzadeh; Niloofar Rahnamai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anxiety among patients experiencing coronary angiography increases within invasive studies including angiography. Anxiety as an intensifier at cardiovascular reactions can endanger patients in angiography clinics. Studies indicate that lavendula spica L. inhalation can decrease anxiety. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of aromatherapy on the anxiety level of patients experiencing coronary angiography. Materials and Methods: This research is a clinical trial st...

  13. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uncomfortable to remain still for long periods of time while others may experience claustrophobia. If this is ... Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time and for your attention! Spotlight Recently posted: Pediatric ...

  14. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, R.F.; Seeger, J.F.; Smith, R.L.; Horsley, W.W.; Miller, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally.

  15. Digital subtraction angiography for breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) via arteries (IA-DSA) and veins (IV-DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its availability. The findings by DSA in cases with breast cancer included: tumor stains, hypervascularity and tortuosity, enlarged blood vessels, encasement and pooling. Metastatic lymph nodes and daughter nodules were also recognized by DSA. In benign tumors of the breast, a tumor stain was observed only in one case of fibroadenoma; otherwise no remarkable changes were noticed. The incidence of signs in cases with breast cancer using IA-DSA was 65 % for hypervascularity, 59 % for tumor stain, 41 % for vascular tortuosity and 41 % for enlargement of vessels. IV-DSA, on the contrary, revealed less incidences. However, tumor stain was seen frequently, and hypervascularity was seldom observed. The number of signs out of the abovementioned six appearing in each case was tabulated. With IA-DSA, there were 5 signs noted in 2 cases, but the majority had fewer: 4 cases in 4 cases and only 2 signs in 4 cases. There were no signs evident in 18 % of the cases. The incidence of the appearance of signs with IV-DSA was lower: there were no signs in 36 % of the cases. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of IA-DSA seemed to be fairly good in comparison with that of IV-DSA. The rate of appearance of abnormal signs was also examined, according to the size of the tumors. In IA-DSA, T1 breast cancers revealed malignant signs in 80 % of the cases, in T2 there were such signs 75 % and 100 % of the T3 cases exhibited malignant signs, for an overall average of 82 %. In IV-DSA, T1 showed 33 %, T2 showed 70 %, and T3, 1 out of 1 case, showed malignant signs, 64 % altogether. It was the bigger the tumor, the larger the number of signs. The smallest breast cancer that exhibited abnormality in DSA was 1.0 x 0.7 cm in size. (J.P.N.)

  16. Clinical application of magnetic resonance angiography for coronary arteries. Correlation with conventional angiography and evaluation of imaging time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitatori, Toshiaki; Hanaoka, Hideto; Yoshino, Ayako [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the coronary arteries is a particularly difficult task because of the small size of the vessels and cardio-respiratory motion. The authors describe a method of performing of ultrafast MRA of the coronary arteries with a standard MR system and body coil. Each image was obtained within a single breath hold by `segmented Turbo FLASH` sequences using an electro-cardiography gate. Clinical application was performed in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease, and a comparison was made with conventional coronary angiography. The imaging time was shortened significantly by our methods. The diagnosis was made by at least two different images to avoid false positives. The results indicated a good correlation between MRA and conventional angiography. (author).

  17. Intracranial germ cell tumors with special emphasis on computed tomography and cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Tomohiro; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Abe, Satoru; Takei, Hidetoshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Abe, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-10-01

    Germ cell tumors have been classified into germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and teratoma by a World Health Organization proposal, although this subgrouping is still controversial. This paper reviews clinical, computed tomographic (CT) and angiographic data of 14 patients with histologically verified germ cell tumors. These 13 males and one female, ranging from 5 to 34 years in age, included 6 cases of teratoma, 5 of germinoma and 3 of embryonal carcinoma. On plain CT, perifocal edema was never seen in cases with teratoma or germinoma, but was usual in those with embryonal carcinoma. Teratoma, although often containing calcium deposits, was isodense in most parts of the mass, while germinoma was always hyperdense in the solid part. CT with intravenous iodine demonstrated some enhancing effect within the tumor mass in all cases, but it differed in intensity from one group to another. Enhancement was less intense or slight in germinoma, whereas it was marked in all of embryonal carcinoma and most of teratoma. Cerebral angiography showed abnormal tumor vessels and dense tumor stain in embryonal carcinoma, but these were not observed in teratoma and faintly in rare occasions of germinoma.

  18. Controversies on Evolutionary Psychology%进化心理学争议辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱睿达; 贺修炎

    2012-01-01

    The past two decades has witnessed a rapid development of evolutionary psychology. At the same time, it has been beset with critiques and remained controversial. This paper clarifies some common controversies such as genetic determinism, EEA, hyper-adaptation, psychological modularity and neurophysiologic basis. Besides, it is pointed out that great efforts should be made to address these controversies to promote the development of evolutionary psychology.%进化心理学在作为心理学研究的一种新取向在迅速发展的同时也出现了大量的争议.文章对有关进化心理学的基因决定论、进化适应的环境、过度适应主义、心理模块、遗传神经生理基础方面的争议进行了澄清和分析,简要说明了应如何区别对待不同争议,促进学科发展.

  19. Oesophageal cancer: exploring controversies overview of experts’ opinions of Austria, Germany, France, Netherlands and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesophageal carcinoma is a rare disease with often dismal prognosis. Despite multiple trials addressing specific issues, currently, many questions in management remain unanswered. This work aimed to specifically address areas in the management of oesophageal cancer where high level evidence is not available, performing trials is very demanding and for many questions high-level evidence will not be available in the forseeable future. Two experts of each national, oesophageal cancer research group from Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland were asked to provide statements to controversial issues. After an initial survey, further questions were formulated and answered by all experts. The answers were then discussed and qualitatively analysed for consensus and controversy. Topics such as indications for PET-CT, reasons for induction chemotherapy, radiotherapy dose, the choice of definitive chemo-radiotherapy versus surgery in squamous cell cancer, the role of radiotherapy in adenocarcinoma and selected surgical issues were identified as topics of interest and discussed. Areas of significant controversy exist in the management of oesophageal cancer, mostly due to high-level evidence. This is not expected to change in the upcoming years. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0418-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Malrotation and midgut volvulus: a historical review and current controversies in diagnosis and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex and sometimes controversial subject of malrotation and midgut volvulus is reviewed commencing with the 19th-century Bohemian anatomist, Vaclav Treitz, who described the suspensory muscle anchoring of the duodenal-jejunal junction in the left upper quadrant, and continuing with William Ladd, the 20th-century American ''father of pediatric surgery'' who pioneered the surgical treatment of midgut volvulus. In this review, we present the interesting history of malrotation and discuss the current radiologic and surgical controversies surrounding its diagnosis and treatment. In the symptomatic patient with malrotation and possible midgut volvulus, prompt diagnosis is critical. The clinical examination and plain film are often confusing, and delayed diagnosis can lead to significant morbidity and death. Despite recent intense interest in the position of the mesenteric vessels on US and CT scans, the upper gastrointestinal series remains the fastest and most accurate method of demonstrating duodenal obstruction, the position of the ligament of Treitz, and, if the contrast agent is followed distally, cecal malposition. Controversy exists over the management of asymptomatic patients with malrotation in whom the diagnosis is made incidentally during evaluation for nonspecific complaints, prior to reflux surgery, and in those with heterotaxy syndromes. (orig.)

  1. Response of left ventricular ejection fraction to recovery from general anesthesia: measurement by gated radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin

  2. Response of left ventricular ejection fraction to recovery from general anesthesia: measurement by gated radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriat, P.; Mundler, O.; Bousseau, D.; Fauchet, M.; Rous, A.C.; Echter, E.; Viars, P.

    1986-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin.

  3. Coronary computer tomographic angiography for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with end-stage liver disease is essential prior to liver transplantation (LT) as cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 64-slice coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CCS) to predict the postoperative cardiovascular risk of patients assessed for LT. In this single center, observational study we included 54 consecutive patients who were assessed for LT and consequently transplanted. Twenty-four patients (44%) presented with a high CCS above 300 and/or a significant stenosis (>50% percent narrowing due to stenotic plaques) and were further referred to coronary angiography. Three of these patients had a more than 70% LAD stenosis with subsequent angioplasty (n = 1) or conservative therapy (n = 2). The other patients showed only diffuse CAD without significant stenosis. The remaining 30 patients with normal CTA findings were listed for LT without further tests. None of the 54 patients developed cardiovascular events peri- and postoperatively. This study indicated that CTA combined with CCS is a useful non-invasive imaging technique for pre-LT assessment of coronary artery disease and safe tool in the risk assessment of peri- and postoperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing LT

  4. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of carotid arterial wall in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W; Abendschein, D R; Haacke, E M

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of contrast agents on MR images of balloon-injured carotid arteries containing atherosclerotic-like lesions. We have evaluated an intravascular contrast agent, MS-325 (METASYN INC., Cambridge, MA) and an extravascular contrast agent, Optimark, (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Louis, MO) on MR angiograms obtained 4 weeks after balloon hyperinflation-induced injury of the left common carotid artery in 12 hypercholesterolemic minipigs. High in-plane resolution (.8 x .4 mm2), thin slice (1 mm) time-of-flight gradient echo sequences were used to acquire the MR angiographic images. Vascular lumen definition was compared before and after a single bolus intravenous injection of a contrast agent. Digital subtraction angiograms were obtained from all pigs after MR imaging. High grade stenosis developed in 1 of the 12 pigs and five pigs had complete occlusion of the injured vessel. The remaining pigs exhibited essentially no visible stenoses as assessed either by MR angiography or digital subtraction angiography. The vessel walls of the stenosed and occluded vessels were visible after the injection of either intravascular or extravascular contrast agent. Histologic analyses showed well developed neovascularization in the neointima or occlusive thrombosis. We conclude that the observed contrast-enhanced vessel wall is caused by an increased vascular supply associated with thrombosis and neointimal thickening that leads to an accumulation of contrast agent in the abnormal vessel walls after the injection of the T1-shortening paramagnetic contrast agent. PMID:9039613

  5. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm during pregnancy with false-negative computed tomography angiography findings: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yukihiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Mineura, Katsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    A 34-year-old female was admitted at 34 weeks of gestation with sudden onset of a severe headache accompanied by vomiting. Neurological examination revealed neck rigidity, and computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although the hemorrhage was located primarily in the left Sylvian fissure, computed tomography angiography (CTA) performed immediately after CT did not reveal any obvious vascular abnormalities such as an intracranial aneurysm. An emergency cesarean section was performed, and a healthy infant was delivered. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed the day following surgery, which revealed a saccular aneurysm measuring 4.3 mm × 2.4 mm in the left middle cerebral artery. Left craniotomy and clipping of the aneurysm were performed. The clot around the aneurysm was relatively solid. This case report is of significance given that initial CTA was negative for SAH during pregnancy, suggesting the requirement for immediate DSA or another CTA in such cases. There are many previous reports on false-negative CTA findings or disappearance and reappearance of aneurysms in SAH patients, and various biophysical and dynamic parameters are suggested to cause such phenomena. However, there are no reports on similar occurrences during pregnancy. Although the precise cause remains unclear, multiple factors associated with homeostasis during pregnancy were possibly associated with the transient disappearance in this patient. PMID:25732356

  6. Functional Imaging of the Foot with Perfusion Angiography in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [AMC, Dept of Radiology (Netherlands); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.uva.nl [AMC, Dept of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl; Bavel, Ed T. van, E-mail: e.vanbavel@amc.uva.n [AMC, Dept of Biomedical Engineering and Physics (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo report on the first clinical experience with perfusion angiography (PA) of the foot in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia.Materials and MethodsPA is a post-processing software algorithm and no extra digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has to be performed for this analysis. The data used to test the feasibility of PA were obtained from a consecutive group of 89 patients with CLI who were treated with standard below the knee angioplasty and 12 separate patients who were not suitable for endovascular revascularization.ResultsMotion artifacts in the dataset of the DSA made post-procedural analysis impossible in 10 % intervention. In the majority of patients (59/68) PA showed an increase in volume flow in the foot after successful angioplasty of the crural vessels. However, in 9/68 patients no increase was seen after successful angioplasty. With the use of a local administered competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, it is also possible to test and quantify the capillary resistance index which is a parameter for the remaining functionality of the microcirculation in CLI patients.ConclusionPA might be used as a new endpoint for lower limb revascularization and can also be used to test the functionality the microcirculation to identify sub-types of patients with CLI. Clinical evaluation and standardization of PA is mandatory before introduction in daily practice.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with a zero calcium score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Maffei, Erica; Seitun, Sara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Palumbo, Alessandro; Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tedeschi, Carlo; Rosa, Roberto de [Ospedale San Gennaro, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Napoli (Italy); Arcadi, Teresa; Salamone, Ignazio; Blandino, Alfredo [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Messina (Italy); Weustink, Annick C.; Mollet, Nico R.; Feyter, Pim J. de; Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CT-CA) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis in patients with zero on the Agatston Calcium Score (CACS). We enrolled 279 consecutive patients (96 male, mean age 48{+-}12 years) with suspected coronary artery disease. Patients were symptomatic (n = 208) or asymptomatic (n=71), and underwent conventional coronary angiography (CAG). For CT-CA we administered an IV bolus of 100 ml of iodinated contrast material. CT-CA was compared to CAG using a threshold for significant stenosis of {>=}50%. The prevalence of disease demonstrated at CAG was 15% (1.4% in asymptomatic). The population at CAG showed no or non-significant disease in 85% (238/279), single vessel disease in 9% (25/279), and multi-vessel disease in 6% (16/279). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CT-CA vs. CAG on the patient level were 100%, 95%, 76%, and 100% in the overall population and 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% in asymptomatic patients, respectively. CT-CA proves high diagnostic performance in patients with or without symptoms and with zero CACS. The prevalence of significant disease detected by CT-CA was not negligible in asymptomatic patients. The role of CT-CA in asymptomatic patients remains uncertain. (orig.)

  8. Coronary computer tomographic angiography for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.jodocy@klinikum-minden.de [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Abbrederis, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.abbrederis@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Graziadei, Ivo W., E-mail: ivo.graziadei@i-med.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Vogel, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.vogel@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pachinger, Otmar, E-mail: otmar.pachinger@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M., E-mail: gudrun.feuchtner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy, E-mail: guy.friedrich@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    The assessment of the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with end-stage liver disease is essential prior to liver transplantation (LT) as cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 64-slice coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CCS) to predict the postoperative cardiovascular risk of patients assessed for LT. In this single center, observational study we included 54 consecutive patients who were assessed for LT and consequently transplanted. Twenty-four patients (44%) presented with a high CCS above 300 and/or a significant stenosis (>50% percent narrowing due to stenotic plaques) and were further referred to coronary angiography. Three of these patients had a more than 70% LAD stenosis with subsequent angioplasty (n = 1) or conservative therapy (n = 2). The other patients showed only diffuse CAD without significant stenosis. The remaining 30 patients with normal CTA findings were listed for LT without further tests. None of the 54 patients developed cardiovascular events peri- and postoperatively. This study indicated that CTA combined with CCS is a useful non-invasive imaging technique for pre-LT assessment of coronary artery disease and safe tool in the risk assessment of peri- and postoperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing LT.

  9. Functional Imaging of the Foot with Perfusion Angiography in Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo report on the first clinical experience with perfusion angiography (PA) of the foot in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia.Materials and MethodsPA is a post-processing software algorithm and no extra digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has to be performed for this analysis. The data used to test the feasibility of PA were obtained from a consecutive group of 89 patients with CLI who were treated with standard below the knee angioplasty and 12 separate patients who were not suitable for endovascular revascularization.ResultsMotion artifacts in the dataset of the DSA made post-procedural analysis impossible in 10 % intervention. In the majority of patients (59/68) PA showed an increase in volume flow in the foot after successful angioplasty of the crural vessels. However, in 9/68 patients no increase was seen after successful angioplasty. With the use of a local administered competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, it is also possible to test and quantify the capillary resistance index which is a parameter for the remaining functionality of the microcirculation in CLI patients.ConclusionPA might be used as a new endpoint for lower limb revascularization and can also be used to test the functionality the microcirculation to identify sub-types of patients with CLI. Clinical evaluation and standardization of PA is mandatory before introduction in daily practice

  10. Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis on MR angiography: a university hospital-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Kaiji [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Rarely in the anterior circulation, an anastomosis of the carotid and anterior cerebral arteries occurs when an anomalous branch arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery and anastomoses with the A1-A2 junction of the anterior communicating artery. Right-side predominance is known. To our knowledge, the incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis has not been reported, so we researched cases in our institution records to determine incidence and investigated characteristic features of the condition on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. To isolate such cases, we retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiographic images of 3,491 consecutive patients in our institution. We found three cases with carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis (two men, one woman), representing an incidence of 0.086%. The anastomosis was on the right in all three cases. A normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was present in two cases but could not be identified in the remaining case on MR angiographic images that included source images. Two of the three patients demonstrated associated arterial variations in their carotid systems. On MR angiography, we observed a 0.086% incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis in our institution and reaffirmed the right-side predominance of this anomaly. We found a high frequency of other associated arterial variations in the carotid system. (orig.)

  11. Multimodality evaluation of dural arteriovenous fistula with CT angiography, MR with arterial spin labeling, and digital subtraction angiography: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew; McTaggart, Ryan; Santarelli, Justin; Fischbein, Nancy; Marks, Michael; Zaharchuk, Greg; Do, Huy

    2014-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are cerebrovascular lesions with pathologic shunting into the venous system from arterial feeders. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but advances in noninvasive imaging techniques now play a role in the diagnosis of these complex lesions. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with right-side pulsatile tinnitus and DAVF diagnosed using computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance with arterial spin labeling, and DSA. Implications for imaging analysis of DAVFs and further research are discussed. PMID:23746119

  12. Studying a Controversy amongst Pashtuns of Torghar, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bellon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about the political structures of tribal groups. The present article looks at political dynamics amongst Pashtuns of Balochistan, through the prism of a controversy. The sociological interest of studying the arguments used during a controversy has been underlined by Boltanski and Thevenot. A controversy finishes by the establishment, through consensus, of a common agreement upon accepted norms, determined limits, redefinition of social values, etc. The advantage of focusing on the argumentation itself is to avoid taking the agreement as a pre-established social truth, a reference that concerned people would reluctantly challenge. To study a controversy is to study the social realities in the making, to study the archaeology of collective consensus, to reinstate history, contingencies and individual plurality within the social dynamics and to take seriously their performative actions alongside other social determinisms. This article shows that to study controversy is a way not only to set light on political dynamics and structures, but also to discuss the impact and definition of concepts such as segmentarity, equality, rights, interests, and their relevance within the Pashtun society which was observed.

  13. Symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis and occlusion. Comparison of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography with conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Motoshi; Yano, Hirohito; Shinoda, Jun; Funakoshi, Takashi (Daiyukai General Hospital, Ichinomiya, Aichi (Japan)); Kumagai, Morio

    1994-10-01

    The usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography using the three-dimensional time-of-flight method for the characterization of symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with MCA occlusion and 10 with MCA stenosis. All lesions were symptomatic and documented by conventional angiography. There was no false-negative MR angiogram that failed to demonstrate the MCA occlusive lesion. MR angiography correctly evaluated the location of lesions and the difference between stenosis and occlusion. Stenosis appeared as a focal signal loss (<1.0cm) of the MCA at the site of stenosis, and occlusion as a complete signal loss of the MCA distal to the site of occlusion. However, MR angiography could not distinguish diffuse stenosis and one point stenosis demonstrated by conventional angiography. MR angiography is a useful noninvasive diagnostic method for evaluating occlusive lesions of the MCA in symptomatic patients. (author).

  14. Comparison of Reconstruction Intervals in Routine ECG-Pulsed 64-Row-MSCT Coronary Angiography in Frequency Controlled Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. In light of the increasing use and acceptance of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography it was the purpose of this study to compare reconstruction intervals used in a routine ECG-pulsed MSCT coronary artery angiography setting with frequency controlled patients. Methods. Examinations were performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation 64 scanner with a total of 110 ml of contrast agent and ECG pulsing (interval from 40% to 70%) after oral application of a β-blocker if the heart rate was higher than 65 bpm. All human subjects were referred for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary artery segments were evaluated by two experienced radiologists in a consensus reading. A ranking of diagnostic image quality (from 1 (no evaluation possible) to 5 (excellent image quality)) was statistically evaluated by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Results. In 45 patients (30 male, 15 female, age 63.8 ± 12.1 years) we detected a significant advantage of the 60% reconstruction interval over 40%, 50%, and 70% (for each p < 0.05). In cases of sudden arrhythmia or movement during the scan, additional reconstruction intervals within the ECG-pulsed reconstruction intervals remained necessary for diagnosis. Conclusion. In a routine diagnostic setting with frequency controlled patients and ECG pulsing the 60% reconstruction interval can be considered superior for the initial diagnosis in 64-row multislice computed tomography coronary angiography. However, further information can be derived from various reconstruction intervals such as 40% and 70%

  15. Bilateral persistent trigeminal artery variants diagnosed by MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira

    2011-12-01

    A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common anastomosis between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system. A PTA variant (PTAV) is a rare anomaly in which the cerebellar artery arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) without connection with the basilar artery (BA). I present what I believe is the first report of bilateral PTAVs diagnosed using magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and briefly discuss the embryology of this rare anomaly. An 81-year-old woman with small infarctions underwent cerebral MR imaging and MR angiography with a 1.5-tesla imager for the evaluation of brain lesions. An MR angiography was obtained using the standard noncontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight technique. The MR angiographic demonstration of bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar arteries arising from the precavernous segment of the ICA without anastomosis to the BA indicated bilateral PTAVs. This is the first report of bilateral PTAVs diagnosed by MR angiography. The literature review indicates that an estimated prevalence of bilateral PTAVs is about 0.0012%. PMID:21544587

  16. Value of abdominal angiography in Turner's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, A.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Velasquez, G.; Zollikofer, C.; Amplatz, K.

    1981-01-01

    In patients with Turner's syndrome, there is a relatively high incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding due to telangiectasias of the intestine. Despite the importance of preoperative diagnosis of the lesion in planning surgical treatment. The related angiographic findings have never been reported. We have studied one patient in whom the diagnosis was established by preoperative angiography.

  17. Evaluation of angiography performed by radiographers and nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate out-patient angiography performed by nurses and radiographers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A protocol for out-patient angiography performed by nurses and radiographers was drawn up and approved by the Trust's Risk Management Committee. Following training, two experienced radiographers and one nurse undertook elective peripheral or renal angiography according to the protocol on 187 patients. Angiograms were performed using a 3F catheter introduced into the abdominal aorta from a femoral approach. Patients were discharged after 2 hours and contacted by telephone the following morning. RESULTS: No patient refused consent for the procedure. One hundred and seventy-two patients underwent successful catheterization without assistance from a radiologist. Radiologist assistance was required with femoral puncture or catheter/guidewire manipulation in 15 cases (8%). Images were considered diagnostic by the reporting radiologist in all but one case. This patient was recalled for further aortogram and pressure measurements. There was a single puncture site complication due to transient stenosis of the common femoral artery at the puncture site. This is thought to have been the result of subintimal injection of local anaesthetic, and it resolved spontaneously over 30 minutes. There were no delayed complications. CONCLUSION: Experienced nurses and radiographers can rapidly acquire the skills to perform diagnostic angiography safely and efficiently. Chalmers, N. et al. (2002)

  18. Evaluation of angiography performed by radiographers and nurses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmers, N.; Conway, B.; Andrew, H.; Parkinson, A.; Butterfield, J.S.; Fawcitt, R. A

    2002-04-01

    AIM: To evaluate out-patient angiography performed by nurses and radiographers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A protocol for out-patient angiography performed by nurses and radiographers was drawn up and approved by the Trust's Risk Management Committee. Following training, two experienced radiographers and one nurse undertook elective peripheral or renal angiography according to the protocol on 187 patients. Angiograms were performed using a 3F catheter introduced into the abdominal aorta from a femoral approach. Patients were discharged after 2 hours and contacted by telephone the following morning. RESULTS: No patient refused consent for the procedure. One hundred and seventy-two patients underwent successful catheterization without assistance from a radiologist. Radiologist assistance was required with femoral puncture or catheter/guidewire manipulation in 15 cases (8%). Images were considered diagnostic by the reporting radiologist in all but one case. This patient was recalled for further aortogram and pressure measurements. There was a single puncture site complication due to transient stenosis of the common femoral artery at the puncture site. This is thought to have been the result of subintimal injection of local anaesthetic, and it resolved spontaneously over 30 minutes. There were no delayed complications. CONCLUSION: Experienced nurses and radiographers can rapidly acquire the skills to perform diagnostic angiography safely and efficiently. Chalmers, N. et al. (2002)

  19. Magnetic resonance angiography: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional contrast magnetic resonance angiography has rapidly advanced over recent years. It is now a highly accurate and safe method of diagnosing vascular abnormalities of the thoracic, abdominal and peripheral vessels. We describe techniques for the examination of the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries and the lower limb vessels together with strategies to improve their diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  20. The value of abdominal angiography in Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with Turner's syndrome, there is a relatively high incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding due to telangiectasias of the intestine. Despite the importance of preoperative diagnosis of the lesion in planning surgical treatment. The related angiographic findings have never been reported. We have studied one patient in whom the diagnosis was established by preoperative angiography. (orig.)

  1. Neurologic complications of cerebral angiography in childhood moyamoya syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To determine the incidence of neurologic complications of cerebral angiography in children with moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as compared to children without MMS. Materials and methods. One-hundred-ninety consecutive cerebral angiograms obtained in 152 children were evaluated. Sixty of these angiograms were obtained in 40 children with MMS. Patients underwent neurologic evaluation prior to and after the procedure. For this study, a neurologic complication was defined as any new focal neurologic deficit or alteration in mental status occurring during the procedure or within the ensuing 24 hours. Results. There were 2 neurologic complications within 24 hours of angiography, one in the MMS group and one in the non-MMS group. One patient with MMS became mute following angiography. The symptom resolved within 12 hours. One patient without MMS being examined postoperatively for residual arteriovenous malformation developed intracranial hemorrhage requiring reexploration 12 hours after the angiogram. Using a two-tail Fisher's exact test, there was no significant statistical difference in the ischemic (P = 0.3) or hemorrhagic (P = 1.0) complication rates between the group of patients with MMS and the non-MMS groups. Conclusion. The risk of a neurologic complication from cerebral angiography in children with MMS is low and not statistically different from the risk in children with other cerebrovascular disorders. (orig.)

  2. Radiation dose in cardiac CT angiography: Protocols and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to evaluate the radiation dose exposure of patients submitted to cardiac computed tomography angiography. The effective dose was obtained from the product of dose-length product values and the conversion factor established in the European Working Group for Guidelines on Quality Criteria in CT. The image noise and contrast-and signal-to-noise ratios were obtained for all images. Sixty-four- and 256-slice CT angiographies were used in 211 (68.5 %) and 97 (31.5 %) patients, respectively. The calculated mean effective dose with prospective CT angiography was 6.0±1.0 mSv and the retrospective mode was 8.4±1.2 mSv. The mean image noise values were 38.5±9.5 and 21.4±5.3 for prospective and retrospective modes, respectively. It was observed that the image noise increased by 44.4 % using a prospective mode. Prospective CT angiography reduces radiation dose by ∼29 % compared with the retrospective mode, while maintaining diagnostic image quality and the ability to assess obstructions in patients. (authors)

  3. Digital subtraction angiography in the diagnosis of Fallot's tetralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze the efficacy of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of Fallot's tetralogy (FT); this method helps simplity and cut down their scope of investigations but does not deteriorate their informative value. DSA findings in 120 patients with TF are analyzed. 5 refs.; 6 figs

  4. Inferior epigastric artery angiography applied in the transplantation with the deep inferior epigastric perforator free flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the effect of inferior epigastric artery angiography applied in the transplantation with the deep inferior epigastric perforator free flap. Methods: Seven patients who had undergone the deep inferior epigastric perforator free flap transplantation, received angiography of the inferior epigastric artery. The value of the angiography was discussed. Results: All patients were successful in angiography without any adverse reaction. All patients were successful in transplantation except one because of personal reason. Conclusion: Inferior epigastric artery angiography facilitates the transplantation with the deep inferior epigastric perforator free flap. (authors)

  5. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  6. Retrograde flow in the dural sinuses detected by three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Nomiyama, Keita; Takase, Yukinori; Nakazono, Takahiko; Tominaga, Yukiko; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Kudo, Sho [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Retrograde flow in the left dural sinuses is sometimes detected by three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D-TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of this phenomenon and its characteristic features on 3D-TOF MR angiograms. We retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiography images of 1,078 patients examined at our institution. All images were obtained by the 3D-TOF technique with one of two 1.5-T scanners. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images in the horizontal rotation view were displayed stereoscopically. We reviewed the source images, inferosuperior MIP images, and horizontal MIP images and identified retrograde flow in the dural sinuses. We found retrograde flow in the dural sinuses of 67 patients on the source images from 3D-TOF MR angiography; the incidence was 6.2%. In 47 of the 67 patients, retrograde flow was identified in the left inferior petrosal sinus, in 13, it was seen in the left sigmoid sinus, and in 6, it was seen in the left inferior petrosal and left sigmoid sinuses. The remaining patient had retrograde flow in the left inferior petrosal and left and right sigmoid sinuses. The mean age of the patients with retrograde flow was slightly greater than that of the patients without this phenomenon (70 years vs 63 years). Retrograde flow in the dural sinuses frequently occurs on the left side in middle-aged and elderly patients during 3D-TOF MR angiography performed with the patient in the supine position. This phenomenon should not be misdiagnosed as a dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of intra-aortic computed tomography angiography to conventional angiography in the presurgical visualization of the Adamkiewicz artery: first results in patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, Frederic [Paris VI University, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Maria, Federico di; Cormier, Evelyne; Sourour, Nader; Gabrieli, Joseph; Iosif, Christina; Chiras, Jacques [Paris VI University, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Gaudric, Julien; Koskas, Fabien [Paris VI University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Jenny, Catherine [Paris VI University, Department of Radiophysics, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France)

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of intra-aortic computed tomography angiography (IA-CTA) to that of regular spinal digital subtraction angiography for the presurgical location of the Adamkiewicz artery (AKA). Thirty patients (21 males, 9 females; mean age 64 years) had an IA-CTA for the location of the AKA before surgery of aneurysm (n = 24) or dissection (n = 6) of the thoracoabdominal aorta. After femoral artery puncture, a pigtail catheter was positioned at the origin of the descending aorta. CT acquisition was performed with an intra-aortic iodinated contrast media injection (15 mL/s, 120 mL). The visualization of the AKA and the location of the feeder(s) to the AKA were independently evaluated by two observers. Interrater agreement was calculated using a kappa test. Spinal angiogram by selective catheterization was systematically performed to confirm the results of the IA-CTA. The AKA was visualized by the IA-CTA in 27/30 cases (90 %); in 26/31 (84 %) cases, the continuity with the aorta was satisfactorily seen. Interrater agreement was good for the visualization of the AKA and its feeder(s): 0.625 and 0.87, respectively. In 75 % of the cases for which the AKA was visualized, the selective catheterization confirmed the results of the IA-CTA. In the remaining 25 % of the cases, the selective catheterization could not be performed due to marked vessels' tortuosity or ostium stenosis. IA-CTA is a feasible technique in a daily practice that presents a good sensitivity for the location of the AKA. (orig.)

  8. CT angiography with three-dimensional techniques for the early diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Comparison with intra-arterial DSA and the surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamessini, Maria T.; Kagadis, George C.; Petsas, Theodore; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Sakellaropoulos, George C.; Nikiforidis, George C.; Siablis, Dimitrios E-mail: siablis@med.upatras.gr

    2004-03-01

    aneurysms, remain problematic. The delineating features of each aneurysm are better depicted with CTA due to 3D visualization. The use of digital subtraction angiography as a diagnostic tool can be limited in equivocal cases.

  9. Non-enhanced MR angiography of renal arteries - Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeretti, M. G.; Lumia, D.; Cani, A.; Barresi, M.; Cardim, L Nocchi; Piacentino, F.; Genovese, E. A.; Fugazzola, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy)], e-mail: laranocchi@gmail.com; Maresca, A. M. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy); Novario, R. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The main causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS) are atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. Despite contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) being a safe and reliable method for diagnosis of RAS especially in young individuals, recently it has been possible to adopt innovative technologies that do not require paramagnetic contrast agents. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of steady-state free-precession (SSFP) non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) by using a 1.5 T MR scanner for the detection of renal artery stenosis, in comparison with breath-hold CE-MRA as the reference standard. Material and Methods: Sixty-three patients (33 men, 30 women) with suspected renovascular hypertension (RVHT) were examined by a 1.5T MR scanner; NC-MRA with an electrocardiography (ECG)-gated SSFP sequence was performed in 58.7% (37/63) of patients; in 41.3% (26/63) of patients a respiratory trigger was used in addition to cardiac gating. CE-MRA, with a three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) T1-weighted sequence, was performed in all patients within the same session. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) image quality, number of renal arteries, and the presence of stenosis were assessed by two observers (independently for NC-MRA and together for CE-MRA). The agreement between NC-MRA and CE-MRA as well as the inter-observer reproducibility were calculated with Bland-Altman plots. Results: MIP image quality was considered better for NC-MRA. NC-MRA identified 143 of 144 (99.3%) arteries detected by CE-MRA (an accessory artery was not identified). Fourteen stenoses were detected by CE-MRA (11 atherosclerotic, 3 dysplastic) with four of 14 (28.5%) significant stenosis. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated an excellent concordance between NC-MRA and CE-MRA; particularly, the reader A evaluated correctly all investigated arteries, while over-estimation of two stenoses occurred for reader B. Regarding NC-MRA, inter-observer agreement was excellent

  10. Clinical Assessment of a New Stereoscopic Digital Angiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the clinical feasibility of an experimental modified angiographic system capable of real-time digital stereofluoroscopy and stereography in X-ray angiography, using a twin-focus tube and a stereoscopic monitor. Methods: We report the experience obtained in 37 patients with a well-documented examination. The patients were examined for coronary angiography (11 cases), aortography (7 cases), pulmonary angiography (6 cases), inferior vena cava filter placement (2 cases), and cerebral angiography (11 cases). Six radiologists were asked to use stereoscopic features for fluoroscopy and angiography. A questionnaire was designed to record their subjective evaluation of stereoscopic image quality, ergonomics of the system, and its medical interest. Results: Stereofluoroscopy was successfully used in 25 of 37 cases; diplopia and/or ghost images were reported in 6 cases. It was helpful for aortic catheterization in 10 cases and for selective catheterization in 5 cases. In stereoangiography, depth was easily and accurately perceived in 27 of 37 cases; diplopia and/or ghost images were reported in 4 cases. A certain gain in the three-dimensional evaluation of the anatomy and relation between vessels and lesions was noted. As regards ergonomic considerations, polarized spectacles were not considered cumbersome. Visual fatigue and additional work were variously reported. Stereoshift tuning before X-ray acquisition was not judged to be a limiting factor. Conclusion: A twin-focus X-ray tube and a polarized shutter for stereoscopic display allowed effective real-time three-dimensional perception of angiographic images. Our clinical study suggests no clear medical interest for diagnostic examinations, but the field of interventional radiology needs to be investigated

  11. Case Report of Bullous Pemphigoid following Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goktug Demirci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a first case of bullous pemphigoid (BP following intravenous fluorescein for fundus angiography. Clinical Features: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with BP and sepsis. He reported a history of fundus fluorescein angiography with a pre-diagnosis of senile macular degeneration 2 months prior to presentation. At that time, fluorescein extravasated at the antecubital region. Following the procedure, pruritus and erythema began at the wrists bilaterally, and quickly spread to the entire body. The patient also reported a history of allergy to human albumin solution (Plamasteril®; Abbott 15 years before, during bypass surgery. On dermatologic examination, erythematous patches were present on the scalp, chest and anogenital region. Vesicles and bullous lesions were present on upper and lower extremities. On day 2 of hospitalization, tense bullae appeared on the upper and lower extremities. The patient was treated with oral methylprednisolone 48 mg (Prednol®; Mustafa Nevzat, topical clobetasol dipropionate 0.05% cream (Dermovate®; Glaxo SmithKline, and topical 4% urea lotion (Excipial Lipo®; Orva for presumptive bullous pemphigoid. Skin punch biopsy provided tissue for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence examination, and salt extraction, which were all consistent with BP. After 1 month, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit with sepsis secondary to urinary tract infection; he died 2 weeks later from sepsis and cardiac failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BP following fundus fluorescein angiography in a patient with known human albumin solution allergy. Consideration should be made to avoid fluorescein angiography, change administration route, or premedicate with antihistamines in patients with known human albumin solution allergy. The association between fundus fluorescein angiography and BP should be further investigated.

  12. Three-dimensional MR angiography for planning of hepatic arterial catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential utility of gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (3D MR angiography) for arterial catheterization of hepatic tumor. Thirty-five consecutive patients with suspected abdominal tumors underwent MR angiography with a gadolinium-enhanced 3D fast gradient echo sequence. Visualization of the vascular tree of visceral arteries, and their variations, the apparent length of common hepatic artery (CHA), and the tilt of celiac trunk were prospectively evaluated by 3D MR angiography. The results were compared with those obtained by the conventional angiography. In 27 patients with hepatic tumors, the prospective planning with 3D MR angiography was compared with the actual catheterization. Celiac trunk, CHA, and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were visualized on 3D MR angiography in all 35 patients. There was a significant linear correlation of the length of CHA and the tilt of SMA as measured by 3D MR angiography and conventional angiography (r=0.75, r=0.64, respectively). The 3D MR angiography provided useful clinical information for planning of arterial catheterization in all 27 patients with hepatic tumors. Thus gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography is considered to be of value for the planning of arterial catheterization of hepatic tumor. (author)

  13. Controversies in the pathophysiology and management of hyphema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Svati; Gunasekeran, Dinesh Visva; Ang, Bryan; Lee, Jiaying; Khandelwal, Rekha; Sullivan, Paul; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic hyphemas present dilemmas to physicians. There are numerous controversies pertaining to the optimal approach to traumatic hyphema and no standardized guidelines for its management. We address some of these controversies and present a pragmatic approach. We discuss various medical agents and surgical techniques available for treatment, along with the indications for their use. We address the complications associated with hyphema and how to diagnose and manage them and consider the management of hyphema in special situations such as in children and sickle-cell anemia and in rare clinical syndromes such as recurrent hyphema after placement of anterior chamber intraocular lenses. PMID:26632664

  14. The Ground Zero Mosque Controversy: Implications for American Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Liyakat Takim

    2011-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the “ground zero mosque” is part of a larger debate about the place of Islam in U.S. public space. The controversy also reveals the ways in which the boundaries of American identity continue to be debated, often through struggles over who counts as a “real” American. It further demonstrates the extent to which Islam is figured as un-American and militant, and also the extent to which all Muslims are required to account for the actions of those who commit violence u...

  15. Three-Dimensional Respiratory-Gated Coronary Mr Angiography with Reference to X-Ray Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, A. E. J.; Manninen, H. I.; Vainio, P.; Vanninen, R. L.; Matsi, P. J.; Soimakallio, S. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Hirvonen, T.P.J.; Hartikainen, J.E.K. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Medicine

    2003-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical value of three-dimensional coronary MR angiography (CMRA) in the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis using conventional X-ray angiography as the standard reference. Material and Methods: Sixty-nine patients underwent X-ray coronary angiography and CMRA because of suspected or previously diagnosed coronary artery disease. MRI was performed with a 1.5-T whole body imaging system using ECG-triggered 3D gradient echo sequence with retrospective navigator echo respiratory gating and fat suppression. Results: A total of 276 coronary artery segments were analyzed. The X-ray coronary angiography was normal in 22 patients. Significant proximal stenoses (exceeding 50%) or occlusions were present in 102 coronary artery segments. In all, 120 stenoses or occlusions were identified in CMRA. Sixteen percent of the coronary artery segments had to be excluded because of poor image quality. The overall sensitivity and specificity for MRA for identification of significant stenosis were 75% and 62%, respectively. CMRA correctly detected 89% of patients with at least one vessel disease, but 6 patients with coronary artery disease would have been missed. Conclusions: Because of the high data exclusion and false-negative case rate, CMRA with retrospective navigator echo triggering is at present not suitable as a clinical screening method in coronary artery disease.

  16. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography in Leriche`s syndrome; Kontrastmittel-MR-Angiographie beim Leriche-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.; Steffens, J.C.; Brossmann, J.; Heller, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Loose, R. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the diagnosis of Leriche`s syndrome. Material and methods: Leriche`s syndrome was seen in 7 patients via DSA. In addition, contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed (T{sub R} 7.8 ms/T{sub E} 2.1 ms, flip angle 30 , slab thickness 116 mm, slice thickness 1.82 mm, 64 partitions, FOV 500x438 mm, matrix 224x512). Results: Diagnosis of Leriche`s syndrome was possible by contrast-enhanced MR angiography in each case. Visualisation of the femoral arteries was not possible in two patients by intraarterial DSA, in three other patients there was an insufficient contrast in the femoral arteries with DSA. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography revealed good visualisation of the femoral arteries in these patients. In addition, contrast-enhanced MR angiography allowed complete visualisation of the patent lower limb arteries. In intraarterial DSA visualisation of the lower limb arteries was achieved reached in only one patient, but was incomplete. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MR angiography yielded the correct diagnosis of Leriche`s syndrome in all 7 patients. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was superior to DSA in the assessment of the distal run-off vessels in five of seven patients. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchung des Nutzens der Kontrastmittel-MRA beim Leriche-Syndrom. Material und Methode: Bei 7 Patienten mit dem klinischen Verdacht auf ein Leriche-Syndrom erfolgte zusaetzlich zur arteriellen DSA eine Kontrastmittel-MRA (T{sub R} 7,8 ms/T{sub E} 2,1 ms, Flipwinkel 30 , Schichtstapeldicke 116 mm, effektive Schichtdicke 1,82 mm, 64 Partitionen, Messfeld 500x438 mm, Matrix 224x512). Ergebnisse: Die Diagnose des infrarenalen Aortenverschluss gelang in allen Faellen mit der Kontrastmittel-MRA analog zur i.a. DSA. Mit der i.a. DSA konnten bei zwei Patienten die Femoralarterien nicht kontrastiert werden, bei drei weiteren Patienten lag in der i.a. DSA nur ein flauer Kontrast vor. Die Kontrastmittel

  17. Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, A J; Allen, M J; Hagelberg, E; Sonnberg, A

    1992-09-01

    There has been considerable controversy over the identity of the skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil in 1985 and believed to be those of Dr Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz 'Angel of Death'. Bone DNA analysis was therefore conducted in an attempt to provide independent evidence of identity. Trace amounts of highly degraded human DNA were successfully extracted from the shaft of the femur. Despite the presence of a potent inhibitor of DNA amplification, microsatellite alleles could be reproducibly amplified from the femur DNA. Comparison of the femur DNA with DNA from Josef Mengele's son and wife revealed a bone genotype across 10 different loci fully compatible with paternity of Mengele's son. Less than 1 in 1800 Caucasian individuals unrelated to Mengele's son would by chance show full paternal inclusion. DNA analysis therefore provides very strong independent evidence that the remains exhumed from Brazil are indeed those of Josef Mengele. PMID:1398379

  18. Value of digital angiography as a substitute for film angiography in comparison with DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors performed a prospective study to evaluate whether digital angiography (DA) can provide diagnostic image quality to reduce the need for film studies. The study is based on more than 100 arterial DSA examinations that were intra- and interindividually compared with the DA studies of the same arteries. It was demonstrated that DA with the same quantity of contrast medium as DSA is diagnostic in 80% of cases for abdominal, pelvic, and femoral arteries and in 85% for brachial arteries but in only 56% for carotid arteries if an aortic arch injection is performed. For all examinations, image quality with DSA was excellent in 86%, good in 9%, and diagnostic in 5%, with DA, it was excellent in 5%, good in 49%, diagnostic in 22%, and bad in 24% (90% of these were supraaortic studies). The results of this study indicate that it is worth trying a DA study when DSA is nondiagnostic because of artifacts, if a selective intraarterial contrast medium injection can be performed

  19. Nuclear cardiology between echocardiography and coronary angiography in the management of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In managing coronary artery disease there are clearly posed questions: In diagnosis to assess presence, extent and severity of CAD, in therapy to assess prognosis and benefit of PTCA and ACVB. Coronary angiography remains the gold standard for assessing coronary stenosis, function imaging - stress echocardiography - and myocardial perfusion imaging (MIP) are assessing ischemia, i.e. extent and severity of CAD meaning prognosis and benefit of invasive therapy. The costs of echo /MPI/ catherization are 1 : 2: 6. When the essential conditions in non invasive investigations are observed - exact indication, maximal quality, evaluation of efficacy D, M and O - equal acceptance of all methods by cardiologists is attainable and there will be a great potential of cost saving in invasive diagnostics and therapy. The part of MPI is assessed in evaluating myocardium viability and benefit of invasive therapy, in the diagnosis of ischemia and evaluation of outcome MPI eventually will be replaced by stress echocardiography in future. (orig.)

  20. Coronary angiographies of patients with recurrent acute coronary syndrome following coronary artery bypass grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yu-he; YANG Yue-jin; WEI Yi-zhen; YAO Min; HU Sheng-shou

    2005-01-01

    @@ Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is considered as a more complete means of revascularization than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can still occur after CABG. The culprit vessel can be the graft vessel or the native vessel. Many questions remain unanswered in the Chinese literature regarding this topic: what are the short- and long-term pathological changes that induce ACS? Is there any difference between arterial and venous grafts with respect to the frequency of restenosis? Are there any patterns of ACS-related vessels in different periods after CABG? We aim to answer these fundamental questions by analyzing coronary angiographies of patients with recurrent ACS following CABG and provide evidence for reducing post-CABG restenosis.

  1. Clinical implication of parameteroptimized 3D-FISP MR angiography (MRA) in children with aortic coarctation: comparison with catheter angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To implement parameter-optimized 3D-FISP MR angiography (MRA) with interleaved double-slab excitation and to compare the result with catheter angiography in children with aortic coarctation. Materials and Methods: Eighteen children aged 2-15 years (mean 9.1 years) underwent MR imaging on a 1.5 T body scanner (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany). All patients had undergone correlative catheter angiography. T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) images (TR 600 ms, TE 17 ms, flip 160 , slice thickness 2-4 mm) were obtained in axial and parasagittal orientation, followed by an optimized 3D-FISP MR angiography in a sagittal plane (TR 12.5 ms, TE 5.5 ms, flip 22 , matrix 256 x 256, slice thickness 1.25 mm). All children were sedated but on spontaneous breathing. Image quality was graded by two experienced reviewers using a 4-point scoring system. Source images and reformatted maximum intensity projections (MIP) were analyzed for blood-tissue contrast as well as size and focal stenoses of the aortic arch. Results: Aortic coarctation was found in 13 of 18 patients, using the 3D-FISP MRA. A high correlation value (r=0.96) was found compared to catheter angiography. Image quality was high in 94% with well defined blood-tissue contrast in all cases. The sensitivity of flow and breathing motion was low. Examination time was about 15 minutes depending on volume of interest and heart rate. Diagnostic accuracy has shown improvement using a combined analysis of source and MIP images. The mentioned technique has provided an excellent display of thoracic vasculature. (orig.)

  2. Controversies: Optic nerve sheath fenestration versus shunt placement for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Spitze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH has been increasing in prevalence in the past decade, following the obesity epidemic. When medical treatment fails, surgical treatment options must be considered. However, controversy remains as to which surgical procedure is the preferred surgical option - optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunting - for the long-term treatment of this syndrome. Purpose: To provide a clinical update of the pros and cons of ONSF versus shunt placement for the treatment of IIH. Design: This was a retrospective review of the current literature in the English language indexed in PubMed. Methods: The authors conducted a PubMed search using the following terms: Idiopathic IIH, pseudotumor cerebri, ONSF, CSF shunts, vetriculo-peritoneal shunting, and lumbo-peritoneal shunting. The authors included pertinent and significant original articles, review articles, and case reports, which revealed the new aspects and updates in these topics. Results: The treatment of IIH remains controversial and lacks randomized controlled clinical trial data. Treatment of IIH rests with the determination of the severity of IIH-related visual loss and headache. Conclusion: The decision for ONSF versus shunting is somewhat institution and surgeon dependent. ONSF is preferred for patients with visual symptoms whereas shunting is reserved for patients with headache. There are positive and negative aspects of both procedures, and a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is needed (currently underway. This article will hopefully be helpful in allowing the reader to make a more informed decision until that time.

  3. Assessment of coronary artery aneurysms in paediatric patients with Kawasaki disease by multidetector row CT angiography: feasibility and comparison with 2D echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transthoracic ECHO is the locally accepted method for coronary surveillance of patients with Kawasaki disease but it may have limited visualization in the older child. To assess the feasibility of multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography in the follow-up of coronary artery aneurysms in children with previous Kawasaki disease. Six children (5 boys, 1 girl; mean age 11.5 years) with known Kawasaki disease and coronary artery involvement underwent CT coronary angiography using 16-detector MDCT. The visualized lengths and diameter of all coronary segments were measured. The number, size and location of coronary artery aneurysms were recorded and compared with recent ECHO. Twelve coronary artery aneurysms (seven saccular, five fusiform) were identified by MDCT angiography. One saccular aneurysm at the junction of the distal right coronary artery and posterior descending artery was not detected by ECHO while the remaining six in proximal segments were detected by both modalities. Two of five fusiform aneurysms were not detected by ECHO due to their small sizes. Excellent agreement was found between CT and ECHO for maximal diameter and length of the visualized aneurysms. MDCT angiography accurately defines coronary artery aneurysms. It is more sensitive for detecting aneurysms at distal coronary segments and fusiform aneurysms of small size

  4. Liebig-Wohler Controversy and the Concept of Isomerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    Very often controversies contribute to the development of science. An example is the conflict between Liebig and Wohler on the occasion of their analyses of fulminates and cyanates, which showed that compounds with different properties could have the same composition. Their results, together with other similar evidences, led Berzelius to recognize…

  5. The controversy about of the mole concept and related quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a display is made of the controversy about of the mole concept and related quantities (amount of substance, Avogadro's number, Avogadro's constant and molar quantities). A review of the conceptual errors which appear frequently in the textbooks of Chemistry has been made. (Author)

  6. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  7. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A

    2008-01-01

    Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life

  8. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  9. What can behavior analysis learn from the aversives controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper argues that behavior analysis may have contributed to the aversives controversy in a number of ways. The role that the field has played and the lessons that may be learned are discussed in the areas of research, training, and politics.

  10. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  11. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  12. The cartoon controversy as a case of multiculturalrecognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers what ‘recognition' might mean in theory and which policies would in practice qualify as policies of recognition in relation to multicultural conflicts such as the ‘cartoon controversy' sparked by the publication of drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish Newspaper...

  13. Controversial Aspects of Innovative Trends of Vocational Pedagogic Education

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyer, E. F.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the controversial theoretical and practical aspects of vocational pedagogical education, its target orientation and distinction from the general pedagogical education. The authors propose the heuristic model of professional educational environment as the methodology basis for fostering the vocational teacher training; the model involves the synergy principle and includes the three coordinate vectors: human subjects of the above environment, continuing vocational education,...

  14. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  15. Design Piracy: Student Perceptions of a Constructive Controversy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcketti, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal learning occurs when students are interested in the subject matter, are motivated with challenging and quality learning opportunities, and when immersed in atmospheres that make learning enjoyable. One technique to promote optimal learning is through the use of constructive controversies. The purpose of this study was to provide an example…

  16. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  17. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  18. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  19. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  20. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more...

  1. Fair Use or Exploitation?: The Google Book Search Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksik, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    The Google Book Search Library Project, in which millions of books from libraries will be scanned and made searchable on the Web, has led to controversy and legal action. Publishers are suing Google for copyright infringement, while Google claims their use falls under the fair use privilege of the "Copyright Act". An overview of the library…

  2. Education Dept. to End Controversial Study of Upward Bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Yielding to pressure from Congress and grant recipients, the U.S. Education Department has agreed to abandon a controversial evaluation of the Upward Bound (UB) college-preparation program. The study, which began last year, was designed to measure whether Upward Bound would have a bigger impact on college-going rates if it were refocused on…

  3. Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Goran, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies" sheds light on the status of diversity in the field of IT education. It identifies a wide range of problems that educators face on a daily basis, and gives practical, applicable solutions, mainly by showcasing successful and replicable examples. The chapters in "Diversity in…

  4. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  5. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Neto, Severino Aires; Mello-Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Claudia Martina Araujo; Borges, Rafael Farias; Magalhaes, Ana Guardiana Ximenes de, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  6. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  7. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS): a Controversial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Sheila Knupp Feitosa; Pelajo, Christina Feitosa

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of studying pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), it is still not possible to confirm its existence and whether it is a poststreptococcal autoimmune disorder. Many controversies remain: the diagnostic criteria have not been validated, evidence of autoimmunity remains inconclusive, evidence of a genetic predisposition is weak, and streptococcal infections are common in childhood and could represent only a trigger of exacerbations of tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients who fit the PANDAS criteria appear to represent a subgroup of children with chronic tic disorder and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder who may experience symptom exacerbations after group A β-hemolytic streptococci infections; however, those infections are not the sole or even the most common antecedent of exacerbations. There is not enough evidence to support PANDAS as a unique clinical entity. PMID:21308506

  8. If fibromyalgia did not exist, we should have invented it. A short history of a controversial syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S. Perrot

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a recent disease, and some physicians remain doubtful about its reality. The history of fibromyalgia is a story of controversies: the fight between subjectivity and cartesianism, and between old mind and body concepts. Fibromyalgia represents the emblematic condition of unexplained medical symptoms, far from well-defined diseases with objective biomarkers. In this review we will follow the fibromyalgia story along the ages and sciences to better understand this complex pain di...

  9. The Controversy Of Homosexuality: A critical look at the issues that make legalizing homosexuality in Malawi difficult

    OpenAIRE

    Malamba, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Homosexuality still remains to be one of the most controversial issues in the world today. The United Nations and other human rights bodies have postulated that all laws that discriminate against people on the basis of their sexual orientation violate human rights. However, despite this, many countries around the world including Malawi still maintain laws that object to same-sex relationships. In Malawi the issue of homosexuality was not in the public domain until recently after the arrest of...

  10. QTc prolongation prior to angiography predicts poor outcome and associates significantly with lower left ventricular ejection fractions and higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Bijl, Pieter; Heradien, Marshall; Doubell, Anton; Brink, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background QT prolongation on the surface ECG is associated with sudden cardiac death. The cause of QT prolongation in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients remains unknown, but may be due to a complex interplay between genetic factors and impaired systolic and/or diastolic function through as yet unexplained mechanisms. It was hypothesised that QT prolongation before elective coronary angiography is associated with an increased mortality at six months. Methods Complete records of 321 patien...

  11. 64-multislice detector computed tomography coronary angiography as potential alternative to conventional coronary angiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Gøtzsche, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography (64-SCTA) compared with the standard reference conventional coronary angiography (CCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a systematic search, 27 studies including 1740 patients were eligible...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography in the detection of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomographic angiography is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to compare Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography In the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study we evaluated 111 consecutive patients [42(37.8%) male and 69(62.2%) female], who were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs. suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm by using a four detector Multislice computed tomographic angiography. Then we compared results of Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography results as a gold standard method. Digital subtraction angiography was performed by bilateral selective common carotid artery injections and either unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery injections, as necessary. Multislice computed tomographic angiography images were interpreted by one radiologist and digital subtraction angiography was performed by another radiologist who was blinded to the interpretation of the Multislice computed tomographic angiograms. Results: The mean ±S D age of the patients was 49.1±13.6 years (range: 12-84 years). We performed Multislice computed tomographic in 111 and digital subtraction angiography in 85 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio of Multislice computed tomographic angiography, when compared with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard, were 100%, 90%, 87.5%, 100%, 10 and 0, respectively. Conclusion: Multislice computed tomographic angiography seems to be an accurate and noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

  13. Exposed dose comparison between coronary computed tomographic angiography and coronary angiography. Basic examination by phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new type of coronary angiography (CAG) that uses 40 mm volumetric computed tomography (VCT) has great potential for cardiac disease. However, it is still necessary to be cognizant of exposure dose. We measured doses of CAG by both VCT and cardiovascular X-ray using a body phantom within 170 glass dosimeters. VCT protocols were 120 kV, 570 mA, and 0.35 sec/rot with and without the dose-reduction features (small cardiac X-ray beam filter and electrocardiogram (ECG) mA modulation). The cardiovascular X-ray protocol was Auto (65-77 kV) kV, Auto (41-46 mA) mA, 5 sec x 11 shots + 11 min fluoroscopy (minimum protocol for screening). VCT with and without the dose-reduction features has the same dose distribution, however, the dose-reduction features reduced the amount of dose by about 40-50%. For VCT with those features, measured dose was about 70 mGy in the cardiac area and 60 mGy at the skin of the back, whereas those of cardiovascular X-ray were 10 mGy and 30 mGy. We measured detailed dose distributions and variations in the phantom, and we also demonstrated the possibility of VCT's dose-reduction features. The CT dose was still higher than that of cardiovascular X-ray, however, there were advantages of CT scanning, for instance, information about calcification, soft plaque, and three-dimensional (3D) visualization. We think it is important to use both systems with an understanding of their advantages and limitations. (author)

  14. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of abdominal vessels: Is there still a role for angiography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U. [Department of Radiology, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe recent advantages in contrast-enhanced (CE) three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison with other vascular imaging techniques, and to discuss their current clinical applications for the imaging of abdominal vessels. Principles and technical considerations are presented and clinical applications are reviewed for different vascular diseases. In ruptured aortic aneurysms and acute dissections CT is the method of first choice. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA can be well used for therapeutic planning and follow-up in patients with stable disease. A comprehensive MR examination including CE 3D MRA, MR urography and MR nephrogram has the potential to replace the conventional studies for the evaluation of renal vascular disease. It is an accurate method for imaging the origins of coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries, although the image resolution is too low for reliable assessment of the inferior mesenteric artery. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA has emerged as the method of choice for studying the portal venous system in liver transplant recipients, in patients with portal hypertension and in cases with abdominal tumours for preoperative evaluation. Additional non-invasive flow measurements are useful in monitoring portal hypertension. The abdominal veins can be well imaged using unenhanced MR techniques. Imaging may be facilitated with intravascular contrast media. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA can replace intra-arterial DSA for diagnosis, therapy planning and follow-up in patients with abdominal vascular disease. Catheter-based arteriography will still be used for interventional procedures such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, stent placement and embolisation. (orig.)

  15. Effects of paradoxical suppression on contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with contrast medium is increasingly being used in examination of the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs. However, angiography at opposed phase causes paradoxical suppression (PS) due to the higher fat content of these areas. We evaluated the effect of PS on the ability to visualize blood vessels. The items evaluated included the effect of contrast medium concentration and TE (echo time) on PS as well as a comparison of fat suppression with the subtraction technique by referring to a mock blood vessel and pictures obtained by subjecting volunteers to MRA with contrast medium. Shorter TE and higher concentrations of contrast medium both reduced PS. The ability to visualize blood vessels was reduced by the subtraction technique, as compared with fat suppression. In clinical studies, fat suppression is essential. Hence, when MRA with contrast medium is performed with an apparatus or at a site where fat suppression is not feasible, PS must be taken into account to establish parameters. (author)

  16. Magnetic resonance tomographic angiography: diagnostic value in trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of MRI, MR angiography and MR tomographic angiography (MRTA) was used to study the relationship of the root exit zone of the trigeminal nerve to surrounding vascular structures in seven patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and ten patients with no evidence at a lesion in this region. MRTA is the technique for showing the relationship between vessels, cranial nerves and brain stem. MRTA clearly demonstrated the presence of a vessel at the root exit zone of the trigeminal nerve in all patients with TN. In the ten other patients, examination of 20 trigeminal nerves revealed that only one nerve (5%) was in contact with a vessel at the root exit zone. This study supports vascular compression of trigeminal nerves as a cause of TN, and demonstrates the value of MRTA as noninvasive technique for demonstrating compression. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic resonance tomographic angiography: diagnostic value in trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umehara, F. [Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Kamishima, K. [Div. of Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Kashio, N. [Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Yamaguchi, K. [Div. of Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Sakimoto, T.; Osame, M. [Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A combination of MRI, MR angiography and MR tomographic angiography (MRTA) was used to study the relationship of the root exit zone of the trigeminal nerve to surrounding vascular structures in seven patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and ten patients with no evidence at a lesion in this region. MRTA is the technique for showing the relationship between vessels, cranial nerves and brain stem. MRTA clearly demonstrated the presence of a vessel at the root exit zone of the trigeminal nerve in all patients with TN. In the ten other patients, examination of 20 trigeminal nerves revealed that only one nerve (5%) was in contact with a vessel at the root exit zone. This study supports vascular compression of trigeminal nerves as a cause of TN, and demonstrates the value of MRTA as noninvasive technique for demonstrating compression. (orig.)

  18. Towards the use of OCT angiography in clinical dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a popular imaging technique used in ophthalmology, and on the way to become clinically viable alternative in dermatology due to its capability of acquiring histopathology level images of in vivo tissue, noninvasively. In this study, we demonstrate the capabilities of OCT-based angiography (OMAG) in detecting high-resolution, volumetric structural and microvascular features of in vivo human skin with various conditions using a swept source OCT system that operates on a central wavelength of 1310 nm with an A-line rate of 100 kHz. OMAG images provide detailed in vivo visualization of microvasculature of abnormal human skin conditions from face, chest and belly. Moreover, the progress of wound healing on human skin from arm is monitored during longitudinal wound healing process. The presented results promise the clinical use of OCT angiography in treatment of prevalent cutaneous diseases within human skin, in vivo.

  19. MR angiography of hemodialysis access fistula. Evaluation before PTA procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the feasibility of MR angiography for hemodialysis fistula. Eleven patients with suspected stenosis or occlusion of an autogenous hemodialysis fistula in the forearm underwent MRA. MRA was obtained using both the 3D-PC method and 3D gadolinium contrast-enhanced (CE) method with a knee coil. The two methods were compared with DSA in seven patients. CE-MRA clearly demonstrated the entire dialysis fistula. However, signals of the stenotic area are effaced in PC-MRA. The diameter of the vessels evaluated in the CE-MRA was well correlated with angiography. CE-MRA demonstrated smaller collateral vessels more clearly than PC-MRA. CE-MRA provided useful information before the PTA procedure. (author)

  20. Cranial computerized tomography and cerebral angiography in diagnosis of infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussion of the radiological means to further analysis of the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular alterations up to real stroke with infarction. Today in the first place computer-tomography even with contrast means, moreover in the form of 'angio-CT' are used. Localization, size, form, and the grade of tissue destruction may be analyzed. Furthermore perifocal edema and the stage as also the effect of vascular anastomoses for a collateral circulation may be evaluated. Invasive angiography with puncture of carotid and vertebral arteries is used only in special rare indications. Instead, digital computerized angiography (DSA) can be adopted if particular interest is in the study of intracranial arteries, even with an 'invasive' approach, e.g. by femoral catheter (Seldinger). In summarizing: For the analysis of particular problems radiological methods may assist diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular infarct. (orig.)

  1. Cranial computerized tomography and cerebral angiography in diagnosis of infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuelich, K.J.

    1988-08-05

    Discussion of the radiological means to further analysis of the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular alterations up to real stroke with infarction. Today in the first place computer-tomography even with contrast means, moreover in the form of 'angio-CT' are used. Localization, size, form, and the grade of tissue destruction may be analyzed. Furthermore perifocal edema and the stage as also the effect of vascular anastomoses for a collateral circulation may be evaluated. Invasive angiography with puncture of carotid and vertebral arteries is used only in special rare indications. Instead, digital computerized angiography (DSA) can be adopted if particular interest is in the study of intracranial arteries, even with an 'invasive' approach, e.g. by femoral catheter (Seldinger). In summarizing: For the analysis of particular problems radiological methods may assist diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular infarct.

  2. Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Cedric; Klein, Thomas; Grajciar, Branislav; Schmoll, Tilman; Wieser, Wolfgang; Andre, Raphael; Huber, Robert; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2012-07-01

    Retinal and choroidal vascular imaging is an important diagnostic benefit for ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current gold standard for vessel visualization is fluorescence angiography. We present a potential non-invasive alternative to image blood vessels based on functional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). For OCT to compete with the field of view and resolution of angiography while maintaining motion artifacts to a minimum, ultrahigh-speed imaging has to be introduced. We employ Fourier domain mode locking swept source technology that offers high quality imaging at an A-scan rate of up to 1.68 MHz. We present retinal angiogram over ˜48 deg acquired in a few seconds in a single recording without the need of image stitching. OCT at 1060 nm allows for high penetration in the choroid and efficient separate characterization of the retinal and choroidal vascularization.

  3. Current principles in the use of diagnostic coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current principles in designing diagnostic coronary angiography by taken into account of fundamental achievements in endovascular medicine in diagnosing and treating various heart diseases are presented. Basic qualitative and quantitative requirements for X-ray contrast study of cardiac vessels to enhance the information value of coronary angiography are given. Necessary diagnostic criteria to be achieved during the study to choose a surgical or endovascular treatment are considered. The present-day accumulated data on X-ray anatomic features of coronary vessels in coronary heart disease are classified. Current classifications of coronary circulation, principles in the development of collateral blood supply, main sources of collaterals, and the specific features of the coronary bed in patients with coronary heart disease are also given

  4. Digital subtraction angiography in surgical treatment of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained first in this country with respect to the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 285 children aged 3 months to 14 years with different surgical diseases and development defects (altogether 660 investigations were performed), was summed up. The quality of angiograms in intravenous and intraarterial administration of a contrast agent was assessed. Advantages and shortcomings of the method were studied in the diagnosis of the regional blood circulation of different organs and during therapeutic manipulations. It was shown that sensible combination of DSA with routine angiography could increase the volume and potentialities of X-ray diagnostic investigations, to minimize the risk of this method in pediatrics, to perform about 30% of investigations in outpatient clinics, to raise physician's labor productivity, and to obtain a marked economic effect

  5. Clinical utility of landiolol for use in coronary CT angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Tomizawa N; Hayakawa Y; Inoh S; Nojo T; Nakamura S

    2015-01-01

    Nobuo Tomizawa,1 Yayoi Hayakawa,1 Shinichi Inoh,1 Takeshi Nojo,1 Sunao Nakamura2 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Cardiology, New Tokyo Hospital, Matsudo, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Although remarkable advancement in computed tomography (CT) has been achieved, heart rate control is important to maintain an optimal image quality in coronary CT angiography. Oral or intravenous β-blockers are used as premedication for this purpose. Landiolol was developed as a β-blocker with very ...

  6. Clinical utility of landiolol for use in coronary CT angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Tomizawa, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Nobuo Tomizawa,1 Yayoi Hayakawa,1 Shinichi Inoh,1 Takeshi Nojo,1 Sunao Nakamura2 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Cardiology, New Tokyo Hospital, Matsudo, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Although remarkable advancement in computed tomography (CT) has been achieved, heart rate control is important to maintain an optimal image quality in coronary CT angiography. Oral or intravenous β-blockers are used as premedication for this purpose. Landiolol was developed as a β-blocker wi...

  7. Digital subtraction angiography of a persistent trigeminal artery variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizöz, Osman; Genchellac, Hakan; Unlü, Ercüment; Cağli, Bekir; Ozdemir, Hüseyin; Demir, M Kemal

    2010-09-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery variants are described as cerebellar arteries that directly originate from the precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. This has been observed in 0.18% of cerebral catheter angiograms. On the other hand, a persistent trigeminal artery variant feeding both the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory is very rare. We present this uncommon anomalous artery along with digital subtraction angiography findings and discuss its clinical significance in light of the literature. PMID:19821254

  8. Indications for secondary cerebral angiography after primary negative imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilev, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    The following study evaluates digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as follow-up diabnostic the detection of vascular lesions in patients with perimesencephalic and non perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after initially negative primary noninvasive and invasive neurovascular imaging. In our Neurovascular Center we analyzed 372 patients with non traumatic SAH over a 14-years period. We used CT or CTA followed by DSA to confirm the diagnosis. Secondary examinations, either secon...

  9. Varices from portal hypertension: correlation of CT and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, A.H.; Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Berkman, W.A.; Casarella, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred abdominal CT and angiographic examinations were performed on 137 patients with portal hypertension. These patients were being evaluated before or after a distal splenorenal shunt. CT increased the detection of umbilical and retroperitoneal varices. Angiography better detected peripancreatic varices and cavernous transformation. Both modalities together added more information than either alone in identification of coronary and/or gastroesophageal, retrogastric, and perisplenic-mesenteric varices. This additional anatomic information helped in the patient's management pre- and postoperatively.

  10. Evaluation of vascular rings with digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, I L; Gold, R E; Moser, D; Laster, R E

    1984-06-01

    Seven patients with vascular rings were evaluated over a 2-year period with intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was compared with screen-film aortography or cineangiography. The seven patients were also evaluated with barium esophagography. Six of the seven DSA images were totally diagnostic and one study was only partly diagnostic. Six of the seven vascular anomalies were confirmed surgically. DSA is suggested as an alternative to arteriography in evaluating patients with suspected vascular rings. PMID:6372419

  11. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the spinal cord was performed in 6 patients using selective intra-arterial injections of contrast material. Two arteriovenous malformations of the spinal cord, 1 dural fistula, and 1 case of multiple hemangioblastomas were studied. Contrast and spatial resolution were satisfactory for defining normal and abnormal vascularity while reducing examination time, contrast dosage, patient discomfort, and film cost. The only significant limitation was misregistration artifacts seen on lateral views encompassing the diaphragm

  12. Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    François Christopher J; Grist Thomas M; Hartung Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract With recent improvement in hardware and software techniques, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has undergone significant changes in technique and approach. The advent of 3.0 T magnets has allowed reduction in exogenous contrast dose without compromising overall image quality. The use of novel intravascular contrast agents substantially increases the image windows and decreases contrast dose. Additionally, the lower risk and cost in non-contrast enhanced (NCE) MRA has sparked renew...

  13. Assessment of the kidneys: magnetic resonance angiography, perfusion and diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Attenberger Ulrike I; Morelli John N; Schoenberg Stefan O; Michaely Henrik J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has undergone major improvements in the past several years. This review focuses on the technical basics and clinical applications of MR angiography (MRA) with the goal of enabling readers to acquire high-resolution, high quality renal artery MRA. The current role of contrast agents and their safe use in patients with renal impairment is discussed. In addition, an overview of promising techniques on the horizon for renal MR is provided. The clinic...

  14. Recycling of catheters used in angiography. Communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling and resterilisation of throwaway articles - in radiology especially of catheters used in angiography - has become widespread to save costs. Although extensive experimental work in this field is still lacking, criteria have been set up as guidelines to ensure safe recycling. These are subdivided into three parts: Cleaning - sterilisation - material testing. Experimental studies have been reported on sterilisation only proving the inadequacy of two ethylene oxide methods conventionally used in hospitals. (orig.)

  15. Today and tomorrow of intravenous coronary angiography programme in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of an intravenous coronary angiography system using monochromated synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory is described. This comprises an asymmetric cut silicon monochromator crystal to get a larger exposure area, a two dimensional imaging system using an imaging intensifier coupled to a CCD TV camera and a fast video data acquisition system. The whole system is under development using alive dogs. A future system including a dedicated insertion device applicable to alive humans is also proposed. (author)

  16. Ischemic enterocolitis examined by colonoscopy and selective angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei He; He-Sheng Luo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the value of colonoscopy and selective angiography in diagnosing ischemic enterocolitis.METHODS: Among the 16 cases under study, 10 cases had hypertension and a history of coronary artery disease (one was hospitalized for sub-ventricular-wall infarction). The blood pressure of 10 of the 16 cases ranged from 13.9-23.8 to 13.3-14.6 kPa (170-180/100-110 mmHg). Two cases had chronic auricular fibrillation, and in four cases, a cardiogram showed left-front branch conduction block. Sixteen patients were examined by colonoscopy. Among them, 14 cases had a long course of angiocardiac disease, and were further examined by selective mesenteric inferior angiography.RESULTS: The colonoscopy revealed local mucous hyperemia edema and blood on contact. Lesions were found in the sigmoid colon in four cases, in the descending colon in eight cases and in splenic flexure in four cases, which suggests that the lesion always appeared in the left part of colon. There were different degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration, submucous bleeding, edema, fibro-embolism and hemosiderosis by biopsy in the 16 patients whose membranes affect part of the enteral wall. Of the 14 patients examined by mesenteric inferior angiography, 3 cases showed mesenteric amphraxis inferior and formation of collateral circulation. There were different degrees of stenosis in the other 11 subjects' mesenteric inferior cavities which grew slim and their branches were stenotic, so the radiographic image was not complete and the ends of some branches even cannot be seen. CONCLUSION: The colonoscopy and the selective mesenteric inferior angiography are both helpful in the diagnosis of ischemic enterocolitis.

  17. Angiography suite concept for an interdisciplinary centre for cardiovascular interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Teichgräber, Ulf K. M.; Wintzer, Christian; Hamm, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    A permanently mounted angiography suite in an operating room (OR) is considered to be a hybrid OR. However, regular use for angiographic interventions is restricted with this setup. We introduce an alternative use of space for the efficient utilisation of an angiographic suite outside the surgical unit. This concept includes three scenarios that describe a modification of the catheter suite according to the specific clinical demands by adapting the workflow.

  18. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-one intravenous digital subtraction angiographic (IVDSA) studies were performed in 39 patients aged 4 weeks to 19 years (mean: 9.4 years) in order to evaluate the heart, great vessels and palliative shunts. Contrast agents were injected via antecubital vein cannulation in 14 examinations. In the remaining 27, injections were made through centrally-placed catheters inserted via right antecubital or femoral veins. All but one of the centrally-injected procedures resulted in technically satisfactory images. Four of the peripherally-injected IVDSA studies were unsatisfactory or of limited value due to motion artefacts, insufficient contrast, equipment failure or perivenous extravasations. Systemic-pulmonary shunt lesions were difficult to image, but IVDSA of the aorta and pulmonary arteries provided consistently useful information. (orig.)

  19. Intracranial aneurysms: evaluation in 200 patients with spiral CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of spiral CT angiography (CTA) with three- dimensional reconstructions in defining intracranial aneurysms, particularly around the Circle of Willis. Two hundred consecutive patients with angiographic and/or surgical correlation were studied between 1993 and 1998, with CTA performed on a GE HiSpeed unit and Windows workstation. The following clinical situations were evaluated: conventional CT suspicion of an aneurysm; follow-up of treated aneurysm remnants or of untreated aneurysms; subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and negative angiography; family or past aneurysm history; and for improved definition of aneurysm anatomy. Spiral CTA detected 140 of 144 aneurysms, and an overall sensitivity of 97%, including 30 of 32 aneurysms 3 mm or less in size. In 38 patients with SAH and negative angiography, CTA found six of the seven aneurysms finally diagnosed. There was no significant artefact in 17 of 23 patients (74%) with clips. The specificity of CTA was 86% with 8 false-positive cases. Spiral CTA is very useful in demonstrating intracranial aneurysms. (orig.)

  20. Enhanced K-edge angiography utilizing cerium-target diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerium-target x-ray tube is useful in order to perform cone-beam K-edge angiography because Kα rays from the cerium target are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast mediums. The x-ray generator consists of a main controller, an x-ray tube unit with a high-voltage circuit and an insulation transformer, and a personal computer. The tube is a glass-enclosed diode with a cerium target and a 0.5-mm-thick beryllium window. The maximum tube voltage and current were 65 kV and 0.4 mA, respectively, and the focal-spot sizes were approximately 1 x 1 mm. Sharp cerium Kα lines were left using a barium sulfate filter, and the x-ray intensity was 16.8 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the source with a tube voltage of 60 kV and a current of 0.40 mA. Angiography was performed with an x-ray film (Fuji IX 100) using iodine-based microspheres 15 μm in diameter. In angiography of non-living animals, we observed fine blood vessels of 100 μm or less with high contrasts. (author)