Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Goodman, Kimberly L.
This study examined associations between self-reports of sadness and anger regulation coping, reluctance to express emotion, and physical and relational aggression between two cohorts of predominantly African-American fifth (N = 191; 93 boys and 98 girls) and eighth (N = 167; 73 boys and 94 girls) graders. Multiple regression analyses indicated…
Linden, Wolfgang; Hogan, Brenda E; Rutledge, Thomas; Chawla, Anuradha; Lenz, Joseph W; Leung, Debbie
There is growing dissatisfaction with a dichotomized "anger-in" versus "anger-out" view of anger coping. Three studies using student and community adultsamples revealed a broader understanding of the nature of anger coping styles and led to the development of the new Behavioral Anger Response Questionnaire (BARQ). The BARQ is empirically derived and factorially validated and has good psychometrics. Results suggest that dichotomizing anger responses as "in" versus "out" is too coarse and that a 6-factor model may be more appropriate. The 6 factors identified here are Direct Anger-Out, Assertion, Support-Seeking, Diffusion, Avoidance, and Rumination. Women reported use of a wider range of anger coping styles, especially more social support-seeking and more use of anger diffusion strategies than men.
Miers, A.; Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Cowan, R.; Linden, W.
Attempts to explain the experience of somatic complaints among children and adolescents suggest that they may in part result from the influence of particular strategies for coping with anger on the longevity of negative emotions. To explore these relationships British (n = 393) and Dutch (n = 299)
... stop feeling angry. Instead, they mean you are taking charge of your anger. Find ways to make your anger work for you. Your anger diary can help. Read your notes again. Look at each situation. Ask yourself - How ...
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Morris, Helen; Thomas, Rae
The same stressor can evoke different emotions across individuals, and emotions can prompt certain coping responses. Responding to four videotaped interpersonal stressors, adolescents ("N" = 230, the average values of "X"[subscript age] = 10 years) reported their sadness, fear "and" anger, and 12 coping strategies.…
Rice, Marti; Kang, Duck-Hee; Weaver, Michael; Howell, Carol C
High trait anger and stress, ineffective patterns of anger expression, and coping are risk factors for the development of disease and negative social behaviors in children and adults. School connectedness may be protective against negative consequences in adolescents, but less is known about this in school-aged children. The purposes of this study were to characterize relationships between trait anger, stress, patterns of anger expression, resources for coping, and school connectedness and to determine if race and gender moderate these relationships in elementary school-aged children. Using self-report, standardized instruments, a convenience sample of 166 fourth graders in 4 elementary schools in 1 US school district was assessed in the fifth week of the school year. School connectedness was positively associated with social confidence and behavior control and negatively associated with trait anger, anger-out, and stress. In multiple regression analyses to test for interactions, gender did not moderate the effects of school connectedness in any of the models, while race moderated the relationships between school connectedness and both stress and social confidence. Students with higher school connectedness had lower trait anger and anger-out and higher behavior control, regardless of gender and/or race. White students higher in school connectedness had lower stress and higher social confidence. Findings indicate the protective effect of school connectedness on trait anger, anger-out, and behavior control in school-aged children, regardless of race or gender. The protective effect of school connectedness on stress and social confidence may depend on race.
The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare self-esteem, coping strategies and feeling of anger in French populations with anorexia nervosa. Thirty two adolescents with anorexia nervosa were investigated during their hospitalisation in the Psychiatric Department of the Hospital Sainte-Croix of Metz and of the Hospital of Children of Nancy-Brabois. The control group consisted of 57 French students of the University of Verlaine Paul in Metz. An anonymous questionnaire form concerning family life, the state of health and course of illness, the Self Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith (1984), the Brief COPE by Carver (1997) and the Self Expression Control Scale by Van Elderen et al. (1997) were applied to 89 women. The results showed that there are statistically significant differences between self-esteem, coping strategies and feeling of anger in French anorexics and the French group control. French anorectic adolescents show low social, familial and general self-esteem. They can be described as making less use of acceptance, humour and focus on and venting of emotions as the coping strategies, as usually not reinterpreting the situation positively in order to deal with emotional distress (do not use the coping strategy of positive reinterpretation) and as reducing their efforts to cope with the situation (behavioural disengagement). French anorexics conceptualise their anger against themselves (the interiorisation of anger).
Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, S.; Thaut, Michael H.; Spreen, Marinus
The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional
Full Text Available Aim: The picture of elderly people, narrowly understood, tends to be quite explicitly associated, namely as either embittered, grumpy, tyrannizing their family and friends, emotionally unstable or active, gentle and kind. Meanwhile, like in the case of people from younger age groups, the typology of elderly people is slightly more varied, including their way of regulating experienced emotions. The aim of the article was the search for the specificity of anger regulation and the connection between the techniques of anger regulation and self-image in elderly people. Based on Bentovim’s theory, emotion regulation was understood as modulating, modifying, focusing and controlling intense excitement and experienced tension. Material and methods:The sample group consisted of 31 men (study group and 39 women (control group above 64 years of age. The study procedure had a questionnaire form and involved completing psychological tests by subjects, including Self-Expression and Control Scale – SECS (T. van Elderen et al. and the Adjective Check List – ACL (H.G. Gough, A.B. Heilbrun. Results: The groups differed significantly in terms of anger regulation and self-image. There are links between different ways of anger regulation and the real self-image. Conclusions: The way of anger regulation is significant for the self-image experienced by elderly people, while a constructive expression of anger and the effective control of this process give a chance for the optimization of the quality of life of elderly people.
Ersoy, Evren; Deniz, Mehmet Engin
The purpose of this study is to develop the scale concerning gifted children's' skills for making decisions and coping with anger and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. A total of 324 students, which 151 were female and 173 were male, studying in 3 different Science and Arts Center's (BILSEM) in Istanbul during 2014-2015…
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Mago, Anjali; MacEntee, Michael I; Brondani, Mario; Frankish, James
To reveal and describe from open-ended interviews how homeless people in Vancouver interpret, appraise and cope with dental care. Audio-recorded interviews with 25 homeless people (18 men and 7 women; age range: 25-64 years), purposefully selected for a range of experiences, were transcribed and analysed inductively. The process of interpretive description drawing from the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations and Lazarus's Theory of Emotions identified how participants appraised and coped with dental care. Four dominant themes emerged: barriers to care; service use; opinions on dental health; and improving dental services. Participants were anxious about the cost of dentistry and fearful of dentists. They got emergency dental care with difficulty, usually in hospital emergency departments although mostly they preferred self-treatment. They acknowledged the importance of dental health but felt stigmatized by their homelessness and visibly unhealthy mouths. They wanted accessible dental services with financial assistance from government, more widespread information about community dental clinics, and, notably among the Indigenous participants, less humiliating discrimination from dentists. Homeless people have difficulty coping with dental care. They believe that dentistry is frightening, humiliating and expensive, and governments are neither sympathetic to their disability nor willing to provide helpful information about community dental clinics or sufficient dental benefits for their needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing
Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., "sadness counteracts anger" (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants' subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one's ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was found to
Burns, John W; Holly, Amanda; Quartana, Phillip; Wolff, Brandy; Gray, Erika; Bruehl, Stephen
We examined whether "state" anger regulation-inhibition or expression-among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients would affect lower paraspinal (LP) muscle tension following anger-induction, and whether these effects were moderated by trait anger management style. Eighty-four CLBP patients underwent harassment, then they regulated anger under one of two conditions: half expressed anger by telling stories about people depicted in pictures, whereas half inhibited anger by only describing objects appearing in the same pictures. They completed the anger-out and anger-in subscales (AOS; AIS) of the anger expression inventory. General Linear Model procedures were used to test anger regulation condition by AOS/AIS by period interactions for physiological indexes. Significant three-way interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the inhibition condition appeared to show the greatest LP reactivity during the inhibition period followed by the slowest recovery; b) high trait anger-out patients in the expression condition appeared to show the greatest systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity during the expression period followed by rapid recovery. Results implicate LP muscle tension as a potential physiological mechanism that links the actual inhibition of anger following provocation to chronic pain severity among CLBP patients. Results also highlight the importance of mismatch situations for patients who typically regulate anger by expressing it. These CLBP patients may be at particular risk for elevated pain severity if circumstances at work or home regularly dictate that they should inhibit anger expression.
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER, especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA] (Zhan et al., 2015. Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants’ subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one’s ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER
Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus
The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes. © The Author(s) 2013.
Helena Lara Rohlf
Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.
Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Moerbeek, M.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is characterized by an amplified pain response to various physical stimuli. Through biological and behavioural mechanisms, patients with fibromyalgia may also show an increase of pain in response to emotions. Anger, and how it is regulated, may be particularly important in
Burns, John W.; Holly, Amanda; Quartana, Phillip; Wolff, Brandy; Gray, Erika; Bruehl, Stephen
Objectives We examined whether “state” anger regulation—inhibition or expression—among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients would affect lower paraspinal (LP) muscle tension following anger-induction, and whether these effects were moderated by trait anger management style. Method Eighty-four CLBP patients underwent harassment, then they regulated anger under one of two conditions: half expressed anger by telling stories about people depicted in pictures, whereas half inhibited anger by only describing objects appearing in the same pictures. They completed the anger-out and anger-in subscales (AOS; AIS) of the anger expression inventory. Results General Linear Model procedures were used to test anger regulation condition by AOS/AIS by period interactions for physiological indexes. Significant three-way interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the inhibition condition appeared to show the greatest LP reactivity during the inhibition period followed by the slowest recovery; b) high trait anger-out patients in the expression condition appeared to show the greatest systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity during the expression period followed by rapid recovery. Conclusions Results implicate LP muscle tension as a potential physiological mechanism that links the actual inhibition of anger following provocation to chronic pain severity among CLBP patients. Results also highlight the importance of mismatch situations for patients who typically regulate anger by expressing it. These CLBP patients may be at particular risk for elevated pain severity if circumstances at work or home regularly dictate that they should inhibit anger expression. PMID:18725429
Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Webb, Lindsey; Zeman, Janice; Spencer, Sarah; Malone, Celeste; Borowski, Sarah; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Hankinson, Jessica; Specht, Matt; Ostrander, Rick
Anger regulation among adolescents is important to investigate given theoretical and empirical support for its critical association with peer relationships. This study examined two aspects of anger regulation (i.e., inhibition, dysregulation) using self-report and peer-nominations and their associations with social acceptance among 163 Black and…
Novin, S.; Rieffe, C.; Banerjee, R.; Miers, A.; Cheung, J.
In this study, we evaluated hypotheses about cultural convergence and divergence in the nature and correlates of anger expressions. With a sample of 141 11-year-olds from the Netherlands and Hong Kong, we first examined a broad range of strategies for responding to a provocateur, finding that both
Kim, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
Background: Low levels of dispositional anger and a good attention span are critical to healthy social emotional development, with attention control reflecting effective cognitive self-regulation of negative emotions such as anger. Using a longitudinal design, we examined attention span as a moderator of reciprocal links between changes in anger…
Zhang, Jing; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Hu, Ping
The current study investigated the interactive effects of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation (AER) and primed emotion regulation strategy on skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate during provoked anger. The study was a 2 × 2 [AER tendency (expression vs. control) × priming (expression vs. control)] between subject design. Participants were assigned to two groups according to their performance on an emotion regulation-IAT (differentiating automatic emotion control tend...
Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L
Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.
Nickerson, Angela; Hinton, Devon E
Recent research has highlighted the importance of traditional methods of healing in relation to the treatment of psychological distress in non-Western populations. This pilot study, conducted in Massachusetts, investigates what Buddhist Cambodian monks consider to be the causes, phenomenology and appropriate intervention strategies for anger among Cambodian refugees. Six monks were interviewed at four major temples in Massachusetts. Findings suggested that anger was common in the Cambodian community, was frequently triggered by marital discord, and commonly resulted in verbal and physical violence and, sometimes, suicidality. Buddhist-based anger management strategies identified as useful by the monks included education about Buddhist doctrines, mindfulness meditation practices, and the use of herbal medication and holy water. These anger regulation strategies and treatments are discussed in the context of Buddhist beliefs and Western psychological interventions.
... expect from anger management education or counseling. Anger management classes or counseling Anger management classes or counseling ... or last for weeks or months. Beginning anger management When you start working on anger management, identify ...
Rodriguez Vega, Beatriz; Melero-Llorente, Javier; Bayon Perez, Carmen; Cebolla, Susana; Mira, Jorge; Valverde, Carla; Fernández-Liria, Alberto
Little empirical literature focuses on psychotherapists' cultivation of internal states of mind necessary for controlling attention and responding empathically to the client. We explore the effects of mindfulness training on emotional and attentional measures in Spanish resident intern psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. One hundred and three residents were assigned to an experimental group (n = 60) that completed an 8-week mindfulness training versus a wait-list control group (n = 43). We evaluated emotional variables (sadness, anxiety, and anger, using standard instruments), state of mindfulness (using the Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale), and attentional control variables using objective measures such as a continuous performance task and the Stroop task before and after mindfulness training. Our study provides data that suggest that mindfulness training significantly improves measures of trait anger and attentional control. Further research is needed to replicate these findings, explore the effects of mindfulness training on other aspects of emotional regulation and cognition, and evaluate the impact of these effects within clinical situations.
Ge, Qing-fang; Zhang, Hui-yun
To explore the central mechanisms of anger emotion and the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi on the anger emotion and the expression level of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3B receptor (5-HT3BR) in rat hypothalamus. Rat models of anger-in or anger-out emotions were prepared by the methods of resident intruder paradigm. There were five groups in this study: control, anger-in model, Jingqianshu Granule-treated anger-in, anger-out model and Jingqianping Granule-treated anger-out groups. The treatment groups were orally given Jingqianshu granules and Jingqianping granules respectively, and the model groups and the normal control group were given sterile water. Open-field test and sucrose preference test were used to evaluate behavioristics of the rats. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods were used to detect the expression levels of 5-HT3BR mRNA and protein in the rat hypothalamus. The expression of 5-HT3BR in hypothalamus of anger-in model rats increased obviously (Pexpressions of 5-HT3BR in the treatment groups were significantly improved (Pexpression and the anger-out emotion can obviously reduce its expression. Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi may treat anger emotion in rats by improving the hypothalamic 5-HT3BR protein and gene expression levels.
Maniaci, Giuseppe; Picone, Francesca; van Holst, Ruth J; Bolloni, Corinna; Scardina, Silvana; Cannizzaro, Carla
This study aims at the assessment of alexithymia and anger levels in 100 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers compared with controls, who were matched for age, gender and education. Furthermore a positive correlation between alexithymia, anger and severity of gambling disorder and a relationship between gambling behaviour and anger after controlling for alexithymia, are investigated. Finally the role that gender plays in anger in pathological gamblers was also evaluated. Psychological assessment includes the South Oaks Gambling Screen, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 and the twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Statistical analysis of the results shows a higher level of anger in pathological gamblers than in controls, together with alterations in emotional processing. Severity of gambling behaviour positively correlates with alexithymia scores, state-anger and trait-anger. Moreover, a significant contribution of anger in predicting gambling behaviour was suggested after controlling for alexithymia. In conclusion, anger and alexithymia must be regarded as relevant components of the assessment of pathological gamblers, in order to select the best therapeutical strategies to prevent self-defeating behaviours and to reduce drop-out from treatments.
Shahbazzadeh, Somayeh; Beliad, Mohammad Reza
This study investigates the mediatory role of exercise self-regulation role in the relationship between personality traits and anger management among athletes. The statistical population of this study includes all athlete students of Shar-e Ghods College, among which 260 people were selected as sample using random sampling method. In addition, the…
von Salisch, Maria; Zeman, Janice L
Adolescents' close friendships are an important and unique learning context in which adolescents can practice and hone their emotion regulation skills within an egalitarian, supportive relationship structure that provides important feedback on the effectiveness of the regulation strategies. This longitudinal study examined whether adolescents' involvement in supportive reciprocal friendships influenced the way in which they regulated angry feelings arising in these friendships. A sample of 299 German adolescents began a 30-month, 3-wave longitudinal study in grade 7 (151 boys, M age = 12.6 years; 100% White). They completed a social network inventory (LueNIC), a peer-nomination measure, and the questionnaire on Strategies of Anger Regulation for Adolescents (SAR-A) in every wave. Cross-lagged-panel modeling indicated a pattern of socialization effects even when controlling for previous friendship involvement, previous anger regulation, peer acceptance, gender, classroom membership, and possible friendship selection influences. Adolescents with more reciprocal friends at Time 1 (T1) reported using aggressive strategies of anger regulation (i.e., verbal and relational aggression, fantasies of revenge) and ignoring the friend less often at Time 2 (T2). Similar results were obtained between T2 and Time 3 (T3). There was a marginally significant effect for one of three non-aggressive strategies such that a higher involvement in friendships at T2 explained more reappraisal of the anger-eliciting event at T3 but significant effects did not emerge for the strategies of redirection of attention and explanation and reconciliation. The results are discussed within a socialization of emotion framework with implications for social skills training modules.
Full Text Available Objective: There are limited data regarding anger and its management with respect to physicians and many other professionals. Our objective was to evaluate anger expression and control in physicians. Material and Methods: The physicians of the Düzce School of Medicine were the participants in the study. Physicians were assigned to either an internal medicine or a surgery study group. Each group contained physicians from several specialties. The Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories were administered to all participants. The physicians (n=158 were evaluated and compared with controls (n=105 in terms of anger control and sociodemographic variables. Results: Anger-control scores were higher in physicians (p<0.01 and in those who willingly chose the medical profession (p<0.05. Age, number of years as a physician, and the specialty were negatively correlated with anger management in physicians working in the surgical disciplines (p<0.01. Only Beck anxiety and depression scores were positively correlated with anger-trait scores and anger-in scores for physicians working in the internal medicine disciplines (p<0.01.Conclusion: Physicians were relatively successful in coping with anger. A willingness to choose the medical profession was a factor influencing anger control. Age was the major factor affecting anger management in physicians.
Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Hernández Guzmán, Laura; Jurado Cárdenas, Samuel
This research had two goals: (1) it tested hypotheses of the State-Trait Model of anger, and (2) it explored characteristics that may distinguish individuals with high trait anger who recognize problems with their anger from those who do not recognize anger problems. Regarding the first goal, findings supported three hypotheses tested. In particular, compared to those low in trait anger, individuals with high trait anger reported: (a) more intense anger (intensity hypothesis), p thoughts involving pejorative labeling/denigration, p thoughts of revenge, p thoughts of self-control, p positive coping hypothesis). For the second goal we employed two types of individuals, both with high trait anger: those who identified anger as a personal problem and wanted help, and those who did not identify anger as a personal issue. As a result, compared to those who did not report anger problems, those who reported anger problems demonstrated a higher overall propensity to experience anger (i.e., higher trait anger), p thoughts of self-control, p < .05, η(2) = .015, and attempts to control their angry feelings (anger-control-in), p < .05, η(2) = .016, and behavior (anger-control-out), p < .001, η(2) = .054. Gender was not associated with trait anger or anger problem recognition. Findings were discussed in terms of State-Trait Theory and implications for anger interventions.
Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L
Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life.
Reports an error in "Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling" by Irene J. K. Park, Lijuan Wang, David R. Williams and Margarita Alegría ( Developmental Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Nov 28, 2016, np). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%. Additionally, the youths surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been n=246 . Accordingly, the percentage of youths surveyed in T2 and T3 should have been 91.4% and the percentage of mothers surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been 90.7%. Finally, the youths missing at T2 should have been n= 23, and therefore the attrition rate for youth participants should have been 8.6. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-57671-001.) Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents ( M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control. Longitudinal mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling that disaggregated within-person effects from between-person effects. Results indicated that outward anger expression was a significant mediator; anger suppression and anger control were not significant mediators. Within a given individual, greater racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with more frequent outward anger expression. In turn
In this paper we shall delineate the current regulatory set-up in Namibia, i.e. legal framework, administrative arrangements for the management of uranium exploration, mining, milling and waste management. Uranium, mining plays a big role on the economy of Namibia. With changing policy worldwide on supply of materials and its assurance, with consequences of worldwide on supply of materials and its assurance and with consequences of the concepts of sustainable development which coupled environmental and economic consideration, industry, people, communities, and governments will realign their future perception and concepts. Environmental considerations in Namibia require that for any major development, such as uranium exploration, environmental safety analysis reports are made which should incorporate community, industrial and government regulatory concerns. Namibia, being a developing country, knows that any new regulations that will consider environmental safety and regard for safe management of uranium wastes will add more pressure on present human resource needs (regulatory enhancement) and financial burden to the existing limited infrastructure. The new regulations should address; the environmental effect on mill tailings which are a result of processing the uranium ore in a mill; heap leaching residues which result from treatment of ore; tailing impoundment; tailing pile and tailing stabilization chemically or physically. From the radiation protection concepts, consideration will be made of the relationship of the new regulations and the current practice of the (ALI) recommended by the ICRP 60 of 1990 released in 1991, vis a vis SS-115 of IAEA for uranium intakes, considering the absence of either Nal or Germanium detector or scintillation/whole body counter in Namibia; implementation of the new regulations will require material and human resources if viable advise and training on regulatory implementation of statutory promulgation are to be enforced. (author)
Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.
Park, Irene J K; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R; Alegría, Margarita
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 53(2) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2017-04475-001). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%. Additionally, the youths surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been n 246. Accordingly, the percentage of youths surveyed in T2 and T3 should have been 91.4% and the percentage of mothers surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been 90.7%. Finally, the youths missing at T2 should have been n 23, and therefore the attrition rate for youth participants should have been 8.6. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents ( M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control. Longitudinal mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling that disaggregated within-person effects from between-person effects. Results indicated that outward anger expression was a significant mediator; anger suppression and anger control were not significant mediators. Within a given individual, greater racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with more frequent outward anger expression. In turn, more frequent outward anger expression was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression at a given time point. Gender, age, and nativity status were not significant moderators of the hypothesized mediation models. By identifying outward anger expression as an explanatory
Park, Irene J. K.; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R.; Alegría, Margarita
Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin…
Jalil, R; Dickens, G L
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: It is generally felt that it is helpful for mental health nurses to control their emotions during their work. There are different approaches, but there is growing acceptance that different emotions may need different coping strategies. There is lots of evidence that nurses sometimes feel anger in a number of situations, but the research about anger in mental health nurses has never been examined as a whole. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We have systematically identified all previous research where nurses completed measures that tried to measure their anger in certain situations, compared it to other people or investigated how it affected them or what its relationship was with their practice. Only a few studies have measured nurses' anger. However, it seems that while nurses are not generally angrier than any other group, they do often feel anger in relation to management of patient aggression and their job situation more generally. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Anger is the most commonly reported problematic emotion for mental health nurses. It may influence their practice and affect their well-being. This has implications for staff support and training. Introduction Emotional regulation is important in mental health nursing practice, but individual emotions may require different regulation strategies. There is ample evidence that nurses experience anger specifically during their work, for example when experiencing patient aggression. It is, therefore, important to consolidate what is known about how anger manifests in mental health nursing practice. We aimed to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesize results from studies about mental health nurses and anger, where anger was measured objectively. Systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines. We identified 12 studies. A range of validated and nonvalidated instruments was used. Mental health nurses may have lower levels of anger than
Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer
Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and anger ER paradigms, micro-coded for child self- and co-regulatory behaviors and parent's regulation-facilitation. Mothers' parenting style and temperament were self-reported. In the ASD group only, maternal authoritarian style predicted higher self-regulation and lower co-regulation of anger and maternal authoritative style predicted higher self-regulation of fear. Maternal temperament did not predict child's ER. Findings emphasize the importance of maternal flexible parenting style in facilitating ER among children with ASD.
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based…
Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A
Negative social feedback often generates aggressive feelings and behavior. Prior studies have investigated the neural basis of negative social feedback, but the underlying neural mechanisms of aggression regulation following negative social feedback remain largely undiscovered. In the current study, participants viewed pictures of peers with feedback (positive, neutral or negative) to the participant's personal profile. Next, participants responded to the peer feedback by pressing a button, thereby producing a loud noise toward the peer, as an index of aggression. Behavioral analyses showed that negative feedback led to more aggression (longer noise blasts). Conjunction neuroimaging analyses revealed that both positive and negative feedback were associated with increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and bilateral insula. In addition, more activation in the right dorsal lateral PFC (dlPFC) during negative feedback vs neutral feedback was associated with shorter noise blasts in response to negative social feedback, suggesting a potential role of dlPFC in aggression regulation, or top-down control over affective impulsive actions. This study demonstrates a role of the dlPFC in the regulation of aggressive social behavior. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Di Giunta, Laura; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Lunetti, Carolina; Thartori, Eriona; Basili, Emanuele; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bacchini, Dario; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Gerbino, Maria
The present study examines whether early adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs about anger regulation mediate the relation between parents' self-efficacy beliefs about anger regulation and early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants were 534 early adolescents (T1: M age = 10.89, SD = .70; 50% female), their mothers (n = 534), and their fathers (n = 431). Families were drawn from Colombia, Italy, and the USA. Follow-up data were obtained two (T2) and three (T3) years later. At T1 and T3, parents' self-efficacy beliefs were self-reported and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed via mothers', fathers', and early adolescents' reports. At T2, early adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs were self-reported Within the overall sample, mothers with higher self-efficacy beliefs about anger regulation had children with similar beliefs. Early adolescents' low self-efficacy beliefs were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Massah, Omid; Sohrabi, Faramarz; A'azami, Yousef; Doostian, Younes; Farhoudian, Ali; Daneshmand, Reza
Emotion plays an important role in adapting to life changes and stressful events. Difficulty regulating emotions is one of the problems drug abusers often face, and teaching these individuals to express and manage their emotions can be effective on improving their difficult circumstances. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training on anger reduction in drug-dependent individuals. The present study had a quasi-experimental design wherein pretest-posttest evaluations were applied using a control group. The population under study included addicts attending Marivan's methadone maintenance therapy centers in 2012 - 2013. Convenience sampling was used to select 30 substance-dependent individuals undergoing maintenance treatment who were then randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. The experiment group received its training in eight two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance and paired t-test. There was significant reduction in anger symptoms of drug-dependent individuals after gross model based emotion regulation training (ERT) (P emotion regulation strategies training. Based on the results of this study, we may conclude that the gross model based emotion regulation strategies training can be applied alongside other therapies to treat drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation.
Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B
This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...
Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...
... website. Controlling anger before it controls you. www.apa.org/topics/anger/control.aspx . Accessed October 13, ... a psychologist can help you manage anger. www.apa.org/topics/anger/help.aspx . Accessed October 13, ...
This thesis investigates the psychological influence of music listening among university students to assist them to cope with stress. University students often suffer high levels of stress. Music is an important accompaniment for the lives of university students, and it plays a significant role in their stress coping strategies and emotion regulation. The aim of the current research is to examine how university students use music to manage their stress. The researcher was keen to understand u...
Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.
Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan
Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144
Mehmet Ali Yildiz
Full Text Available Background The current study aimed to examine the multiple mediation of emotion regulation and coping strategies in the relationship between perceived stress and positivity in adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants included 312 adolescents attending high schools. 162 of the participants were female and 150 were male, with an average age of 16.26, SD = 1.21. Data collection was conducted with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Emotion Regulation Scale for Adolescents, the Coping Scale for Children and Youth, and the Positivity Scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, regression based on ordinary least squares, and the bootstrap method were used to analyze the research data. Results The research findings indicated that internal dysfunctional emotion regulation, assistance seeking, problem solving, and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between perceived stress and positivity. Conclusion In conclusion, internal dysfunctional emotion regulation, seeking assistance, problem solving, and behavioral avoidance were found to mediate the relationship between adolescents’ perceived stress and positivity. Thus, preparing individual and group psychological counseling as well as emotion regulation and coping-oriented psycho-educational programs for adolescents to regulate negative emotions and to cope with stress may be important. The research findings were discussed and interpreted based on the relevant literature, and suggestions for relevant experts were included.
Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Webb, Haley J.; Pepping, Christopher A.; Swan, Kellie; Merlo, Ourania; Skinner, Ellen A.; Avdagic, Elbina; Dunbar, Michelle
Attachment theorists have described the parent-child attachment relationship as a foundation for the emergence and development of children's capacity for emotion regulation and coping with stress. The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing research addressing this issue. We identified 23 studies that employed validated assessments of…
Furlong, Michael J.; You, Sukkyung; Smith, Douglas C.; Gonzalez, Victoria; Boman, Peter; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Terasaka, Akiko; Merino, Cesar; Grazioso, María del Pilar
The validity of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI) was examined with adolescents from 5 Pacific Rim countries (N = 3,181 adolescents; age, M = 14.8 years; 52% females). Confirmatory factor analyses examined configural invariance for the MSAI's anger experience, hostility, destructive expression, and anger coping subscales. The…
Buckner, Julia D; Walukevich, Katherine A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Gallagher, Matthew W
Little empirical work has evaluated why anxious cannabis users are especially vulnerable to poorer cannabis cessation outcomes. Presumably, these individuals rely on cannabis because they have difficulties with emotion regulation and they therefore use cannabis to manage their negative emotions. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of anxiety severity on a range of cannabis cessation variables among 79 (63.3% non-Hispanic White; 43.0% female) adults with anxiety disorders seeking outpatient treatment for cannabis use disorder. The independent and serial indirect effects of difficulties with emotion regulation and coping motives were examined in relation to the anxiety-cannabis variables. Anxiety severity was directly and robustly related to greater cannabis withdrawal symptom severity, less self-efficacy to refrain from using cannabis in emotionally distressing situations, and more reasons for quitting. Anxiety was indirectly related to cannabis outcomes via the serial effects of emotion regulation and coping motives. These findings document the important role of emotion regulation and coping motives in the relations of anxiety with cannabis cessation variables among dually diagnosed outpatients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Gilam, Gadi; Maron-Katz, Adi; Kliper, Efrat; Lin, Tamar; Fruchter, Eyal; Shamir, Ron; Hendler, Talma
Uncontrolled anger may lead to aggression and is common in various clinical conditions, including post traumatic stress disorder. Emotion regulation strategies may vary with some more adaptive and efficient than others in reducing angry feelings. However, such feelings tend to linger after anger provocation, extending the challenge of coping with anger beyond provocation. Task-independent resting-state (rs) fMRI may be a particularly useful paradigm to reveal neural processes of spontaneous recovery from a preceding negative emotional experience. We aimed to trace the carryover effects of anger on endogenous neural dynamics by applying a data-driven examination of changes in functional connectivity (FC) during rs-fMRI between before and after an interpersonal anger induction ( N = 44 men). Anger was induced based on unfair monetary offers in a previously validated decision-making task. We calculated a common measure of global FC (gFC) which captures the level of FC between each region and all other regions in the brain, and examined which brain regions manifested changes in this measure following anger. We next examined the changes in all functional connections of each individuated brain region with all other brain regions to reveal which connections underlie the differences found in the gFC analysis of the previous step. We subsequently examined the relation of the identified neural modulations in the aftermath of anger with state- and trait- like measures associated with anger, including brain structure, and in a subsample of designated infantry soldiers ( N = 21), with levels of traumatic stress symptoms (TSS) measured 1 year later following combat-training. The analysis pipeline revealed an increase in right amygdala gFC in the aftermath of anger and specifically with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG).We found that the increase in FC between the right amygdala and right IFG following anger was positively associated with smaller right IFG volume, higher
Full Text Available Uncontrolled anger may lead to aggression and is common in various clinical conditions, including post traumatic stress disorder. Emotion regulation strategies may vary with some more adaptive and efficient than others in reducing angry feelings. However, such feelings tend to linger after anger provocation, extending the challenge of coping with anger beyond provocation. Task-independent resting-state (rs fMRI may be a particularly useful paradigm to reveal neural processes of spontaneous recovery from a preceding negative emotional experience. We aimed to trace the carryover effects of anger on endogenous neural dynamics by applying a data-driven examination of changes in functional connectivity (FC during rs-fMRI between before and after an interpersonal anger induction (N = 44 men. Anger was induced based on unfair monetary offers in a previously validated decision-making task. We calculated a common measure of global FC (gFC which captures the level of FC between each region and all other regions in the brain, and examined which brain regions manifested changes in this measure following anger. We next examined the changes in all functional connections of each individuated brain region with all other brain regions to reveal which connections underlie the differences found in the gFC analysis of the previous step. We subsequently examined the relation of the identified neural modulations in the aftermath of anger with state- and trait- like measures associated with anger, including brain structure, and in a subsample of designated infantry soldiers (N = 21, with levels of traumatic stress symptoms (TSS measured 1 year later following combat-training. The analysis pipeline revealed an increase in right amygdala gFC in the aftermath of anger and specifically with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG.We found that the increase in FC between the right amygdala and right IFG following anger was positively associated with smaller right IFG volume
Kettle, Keri L; Salerno, Anthony
Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing. Four studies support our hypothesis that anger can enhance support for an election candidate espousing conservative economic ideals. We find that anger shifts people toward economic conservatism by orienting them toward competition for resources. Implications and future research on the relationship between emotions and political ideology are discussed.
Odis E. Simmons, PhD
Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.
Contractor, A. A.; Armour, C.; Wang, X.
Research indicates a significant relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger (Olatunji, Ciesielski, & Tolin, 2010; Orth & Wieland, 2006). Individuals may seek urgent coping to deal with the distress of anger, which is a mobilizing and action-oriented emotion (Novaco...
Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric
The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…
Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a destructive and usually progressive disease while put too much stress on the patients family and the society. Then, recognizing of variables which can help to improve wellbeing of these patients can be important and very helpful to diminish the stress of them. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the role of coping strategies and emotion regulation in well-being of patients with cancer. Methods: This descriptive study with predictive design was conducted in 2016. The research sample consisted of 62 cancerous patients in three chemotherapy centers of Qom city. The patients completed demographic questionnaire, Garnefski cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ, Endler and Parker coping strategies questionnaire and Ryff psychological well-being questionnaire. Findings: Results showed that there were significant relationships between coping styles and psychological well-being of cancer patients (P=0.01. But there was no relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and psychological well-being. Regression analysis showed that coping styles had more power to predict psychological well-being than cognitive emotion regulation (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that coping styles are the most important factors that affect encountering with tensional events such as cancer. Major focus on the therapeutic and educational programs related to recognizing and applying adaptive coping styles, has important role in increasing psychological well-being of these patients.
Verhoeven, Floortje Elisabeth
Since heterogeneity in depressed patients makes treatment decisions difficult and treatment often unsuccessful, we seek to identify certain subtypes of depression. 30 to 40% of depressed patients have anger regulation problems; from irritability to anger attacks. What is the significance of anger in
Dumitrescu, A L; Dogaru, B C; Dogaru, C D; Manolescu, B
This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude, perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours. The study sample consisted of 198 first year medical students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioural variables, self-reported oral health status, proactive coping (proactive coping subscale of the Proactive Coping Inventory), procrastination (Procrastination Scale) and proactive attitude (Proactive Attitude Scale). Significant differences were found on self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude scales between participants who rated their gingival condition as very good/excellent and those who evaluated it as being poor, very poor or normal (p procrastination level among individuals who never visit their dentist and those who visit their dentist for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling (p = 0.001) or when treatment is needed or when in pain (p procrastination and proactive coping are important determinants of perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours.
Newman, Richard S.
When harassed by peers, elementary school students often face a dilemma of whether to ask their teacher for help. Assistance may be useful, and perhaps necessary. However, there can be social costs; children generally are expected to resolve interpersonal conflicts on their own. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., coping and self-regulation)…
The event known as #GamerGate (GG) emphasized the need to take the study of game culture seriously and pursue it across several platforms. It demonstrated how seemingly ephemeral media created echo chambers of anger, and how the outbursts of hypermasculine aggression exemplified by hooligans also...... can connect to games and play. Starting from how GG gained popular attention, this article outlines and discusses the nature of GG, the relation to the victims, the sense of victimization among the participants, and how it may have been provoked by the long-standing, general disregard of games...... the image of game culture as mainly a culture of isolated consumption...
This article focuses primarily on the emotion of guilt as providing a justification for retributive legal punishment. In particular I shall challenge the claim according to which guilt can function as part of our epistemic justification in favour of positive retributivism, i.e., the view...... those who do not. I shall argue that (a) is false on empirical grounds; and that there are no particularly good reasons to believe (b). Finally, I will consider and reject the claim that anger, as opposed to guilt, can afford the type of epistemic justification needed by positive retributivism...
Hajzler, Darko J.
A procedure for anger management, developed from a rational-emotive therapy orientation, is described. The technique makes use of humor and referral to "Anger Busters" (based on the film, "Ghost Busters" to defuse angry emotions. Use of the technique with an 8-year-old is described. (DB)
Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.
In this study, we investigated how deaf children express their anger towards peers and with what intentions. Eleven-year-old deaf children (n = 21) and a hearing control group (n = 36) were offered four vignettes describing anger-evoking conflict situations with peers. Children were asked how they
Full Text Available Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing their noneffective anger reactions. The sample comprised 18 young competitive table tennis players (age range from 16 to 22 years divided randomly into a treatment (n = 10 and a control group (n = 8. A trained group leader instructed the treatment group. Six sessions were held over a period of two months. Cognitive-relaxation coping skills associated with social skills of subjects from the treatment group were compared to no-treatment controls. Psychological measurements (i.e., self-reports on anger were applied before, during and after treatment as well as in a follow-up session. The one-year follow-up session revealed that, in contrast to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in outwardly negative anger expression as well as anger reactions specific to table tennis. Despite limitations inherent in the research design, the training program was deemed effective.
Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing their noneffective anger reactions. The sample comprised 18 young competitive table tennis players (age range from 16 to 22 years) divided randomly into a treatment (n = 10) and a control group (n = 8). A trained group leader instructed the treatment group. Six sessions were held over a period of two months. Cognitive-relaxation coping skills associated with social skills of subjects from the treatment group were compared to no-treatment controls. Psychological measurements (i.e., self-reports on anger) were applied before, during and after treatment as well as in a follow-up session. The one-year follow-up session revealed that, in contrast to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in outwardly negative anger expression as well as anger reactions specific to table tennis. Despite limitations inherent in the research design, the training program was deemed effective.
Learning about global problems, such as climate change, is not only a cognitive endeavor, but also involves emotions evoked by the seriousness and complexity of these problems. Few studies, however, have explored how young people cope with emotions related to climate change. Since coping strategies could be as important as the emotions themselves…
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; Gramaglia, Carla; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo
Emotional states are key elements of eating disorders (EDs), with anger and aggressiveness playing an important role. This study aimed to investigate anger features in ED patients before and after an intensive day hospital (DH) specifically focused on emotions. Forty-one ED patients were admitted to our DH, which specifically includes emotion-focused activities. They completed self-reported questionnaires at the beginning and after the intervention: Eating Disorders Inventory-2, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Anger Control (Axcon) subscale of STAXI decreased significantly, and both BDI and body mass index - in case of underweight patients - significantly improved after completion of DH. Axcon decrease correlated with BMI improvement. The majority of individuals showing good outcome reported also a significant improvement in Axcon levels. This study provided preliminary data about the effectiveness - mainly in anger coping - of an emotion-focused DH. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Moeller, Stine Bjerrum
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the metacognitive components of anger, and at present there is no metacognitive framework on anger incorporating both positive and negative beliefs about anger and distinct maladaptive processing routines, such as rumination. AIMS: The aim of the present...... preliminary studies was to apply a metacognitive framework to anger and put forward a new anger self-report scale, the Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale, intended as a supplement to existing measures of anger disposition and to enhance anger treatment targets. METHOD: The new measure was tested...... in a nonclinical and a clinical sample together with measures of anger and metacognition to establish factor structure, reliability, concurrent, and convergent validity. RESULTS: The MAP showed a reliable factor structure with three factors - Positive Beliefs about anger, Negative Beliefs about anger...
Exline, Julie J; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Root, Briana L; Peereboom, Karen S
Anger toward God is a common form of spiritual struggle, one that people often experience when they see God as responsible for severe harm or suffering. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, correlates, and preferred coping strategies associated with anger toward God among family members of hospice patients. Teams from a large hospice in the midwestern United States distributed surveys, one per household, to family members of home-care patients. The survey assessed feelings toward God (anger/disappointment and positive feelings), depressive symptoms, religiosity, and perceived meaning. Participants also rated their interest in various strategies for coping with conflicts with God. Surveys (n=134) indicated that 43% of participants reported anger/disappointment toward God, albeit usually at low levels of intensity. Anger toward God was associated with more depressive symptoms, lower religiosity, more difficulty finding meaning, and belief that the patient was experiencing greater pain. Prayer was the most highly endorsed strategy for managing conflicts with God. Other commonly endorsed strategies included reading sacred texts; handling the feelings on one's own; and conversations with friends, family, clergy, or hospice staff. Self-help resources and therapy were less popular options. Anger toward God is an important spiritual issue among family members of hospice patients, one that is commonly experienced and linked with depressive symptoms. It is valuable for hospice staff to be informed about the issue of anger toward God, especially because many family members reported interest in talking with hospice team members about such conflicts.
Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Chowdhury, Nupur; Chowdhury, Nupur
This article analyses the emerging European regulatory activities in relation to nanopharmaceuticals. The central question is whether the regulatory responses are appropriate to cope with the regulatory problems nanomedicinal development is posing. The article explores whether the medical product
Sterling, Bruce S.; Gaertner, Samuel L.
Subjects were angered or not angered during a bogus experimental task following which their assistance was solicited. Consistent with derivations from Rawling's concept of Anticipatory Guilt, the results indicated that anger facilitated helping only when the lone bystander's anger was directed toward the victim of an emergency. However, anger…
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella
We tested whether emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and coping (distraction, avoidance, support seeking and active coping) mediate or moderate the association between change in life stress (change in number of adverse life events) and change in adolescent problem behaviour. We used prospective and retrospective longitudinal data from a community sample. We measured change in problem behaviour as emotional and behavioural problems at Time 2 controlling for emotional and behavioural problems at Time 1, a year earlier. We measured change in life stress as life stress between Times 1 and 2, controlling for total previous life stress (before Time 1). Neither coping nor emotion regulation mediated the association between change in life stress and change in problem behaviour. Avoidance and expressive suppression were related to an increase in problem behaviour. Only cognitive reappraisal moderated the effect of increase in life stress on worsening of problem behaviour, suggesting that, as expected, cognitive reappraisal was a protective factor. In adolescents who reported they habitually reappraise, the association between change in life stress and change in emotional and behavioural problems was non-significant. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, Katie; Burton, Charles L; Pachankis, John E
The comorbidity between depression and substance use problems is well-documented, yet little research has investigated how stigma associated with one's depression might relate to alcohol and drug use. The current study examined the association between depression-related stigma and substance use coping and considered the role of emotion dysregulation (i.e., difficulty in monitoring, evaluating, and modulating one's emotional reactions) as a mechanism underlying this association. A sample of individuals who self-identified as having current or remitted depression (N = 218) completed self-report measures of depression-related stigma, emotion dysregulation, and tendency to rely on alcohol or drugs to cope with psychological distress. Depression-related stigma was positively associated with emotion dysregulation, which was in turn associated with a greater tendency to engage in substance use coping. These findings provide initial support for the role of stigma as a contributor to maladaptive coping responses, such as substance use, among people living with depression. Further, they underscored the potential utility of targeting emotion dysregulation in stigma coping and substance abuse prevention intervention efforts.
Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N; West, S G; Wolchik, S A; Curran, P J
A model of the effects of children's temperament (negative and positive emotionality, impulsivity and attention focusing) on post-divorce threat appraisals, coping (active and avoidant), and psychological symptoms (depression and conduct problems) was investigated. The study utilized a sample of 223 mothers and children (ages 9 to 12 years) who had experienced divorce within the last two years. Evidence was found of direct effects of child-report negative emotionality on children's threat perceptions and of child-report positive emotionality and impulsivity on children's coping. Indirect effects of negative emotionality on active and avoidant coping through threat appraisal were found. Direct effects of the temperament variables on symptoms were also found. Cross group analyses indicated that the models were robust to age differences, but gender differences were found in the relation between negative emotionality and depression. The results of this study indicate that temperament and threat appraisals are important predictors of children's post-divorce symptoms, and that temperament is a predictor of children's appraisal and coping process.
Fuller, J Ryan; Digiuseppe, Raymond; O'Leary, Siobhan; Fountain, Tina; Lang, Colleen
This pilot study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral treatment for anger. Twelve (5 men and 7 women) outpatient adults completed 2-hour group sessions for 16 sessions. Participants were diagnosed with 29 Axis I and 34 Axis II disorders with high rates of comorbidity. Empirically supported techniques of skills training, cognitive restructuring, and relaxation were utilized. In this protocol, cognitive restructuring emphasized the use of the ABC model to understand anger episodes and the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) techniques of disputing irrational beliefs and rehearsing rational coping statements, but additional cognitive techniques were used, e.g. self-instructional training (SIT). Skills training included problem-solving and assertiveness. Relaxation training was paced respiration. Motivational interviewing, imaginal exposure with coping, and relapse prevention were also included. Significant improvements were found from pre- to post-treatment on the following measures: the Trait Anger Scale of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II; and Anger Disorder Scale total scores; idiosyncratic anger measurements of situational intensity and symptom severity; and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. In order to extend the significant research findings of this pilot study, future investigations should involve larger sample sizes, populations drawn from various settings, and contact control groups.
Fortune, Dónal G; Smith, Jo V; Garvey, Kay
Following Leventhal's self-regulation model, the purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the relationship between psychosis perceptions, coping strategies, appraisals, and distress in the relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional study. Participants were 42 relatives of patients with schizophrenia who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a brief coping strategies measure (COPE), the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQR), and a measure of primary and secondary appraisals (Family Questionnaire). In general, carers who viewed their relative's psychosis as chronic, who had a stronger illness identity (experience of symptoms), who held a stronger belief in the severity of its consequences, and who reported weaker beliefs in treatment control but stronger beliefs that their relative could exert control over their condition had higher distress scores. Coping through seeking emotional support, the use of religion/spirituality, active coping, acceptance, and positive reframing were associated with less distress, while coping through self-blame was associated with higher distress scores. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that illness perceptions and coping (acceptance, positive reframing, and self-blame), respectively, made significant additional contributions to the variance in distress when entered after demographics, and primary and secondary appraisals. Furthermore, a mediational analysis suggested that coping strategies characterized by greater positive reframing, less self-blame, and greater acceptance mediated the relationship between distress, and both illness identity and carer's beliefs about how much personal control the patient could exercise over their condition. There was no mediational effect of coping on the relationship between distress and carers' perceptions about symptom control through medical treatment. Results provide partial but not unequivocal support for the self-regulation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic rheumatic diseases are painful conditions which are not entirely controllable and can place high emotional demands on individuals. Increasing evidence has shown that emotion regulation in terms of actively processing and expressing disease-related emotions are likely to promote positive adjustment in patients with chronic diseases. The Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC measures active attempts to acknowledge, understand, and express emotions. Although tested in other clinical samples, the EAC has not been validated for patients with rheumatic diseases. This study evaluated the data quality, internal consistency reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the EAC for this group of patients. Methods 220 patients with different rheumatic diseases were included in a cross-sectional study in which data quality and internal consistency were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire (BACQ and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20. Responsiveness was tested in a longitudinal pretest-posttest study of two different coping interventions, the Vitality Training Program (VTP and a Self-Management Program (SMP. Results The EAC had low levels of missing data. Results from principal component analysis supported two subscales, Emotional Expression and Emotional Processing, which had high Cronbach's alphas of 0.90 and 0.92, respectively. The EAC had correlations with approach-oriented items in the BACQ in the range 0.17-0.50. The EAC Expression scale had a significant negative correlation with the GHQ-20 of -0.13. As hypothesized, participation in the VTP significantly improved EAC scores, indicating responsiveness to change. Conclusion The EAC is an acceptable and valid instrument for measuring emotional processing and expression in patients with rheumatic diseases. The EAC scales were responsive to change in an intervention
Jackson, Jennifer; Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
The expression of anger is considered to be abnormal in depression, yet its role is only poorly understood. In the present study we sought to clarify this role by examining the moderating influence of the family environment on overall levels of anger expression and anger reactivity in depressed and non-depressed adolescents during conflictual interactions with their parents. One hundred and forty one depressed and non-depressed adolescent participants engaged in a problem-solving task with their parents during which their behavioral expression of anger and heart rate were recorded. The results demonstrate that general levels of parental anger in the family environment (as indicated by the overall level of expressed anger by the parents during the interactions) strongly moderates how depressed differ from non-depressed adolescents in terms of their anger, heart rate and reactivity. Overall, the findings suggest that in depressed adolescents anger is much less adaptively attuned to the environment, consistent with models that predict dysfunction in the regulation of anger that prevents depressed individuals responding adaptively to their social environment. PMID:21128109
ali ghaedniay jahromi
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies in cognitive coping of individuals suffering substance abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. Then, 16 patients suffering substance abuse were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies while the control group received no treatment. Both groups before and after the treatment completed the Persian version of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (Hasani, 2011. Results: The results showed that group training of e procedural motion regulation strategies leads to a reduction in maladaptive strategies such as self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame and an increase in adaptive strategies such as refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and perspective development. Conclusion: Training of procedural emotion regulation strategies via the reduction of maladaptive and increase of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies can provide the opportunity for the improvement and non-return to substance abuse.
The purpose of this research is the effect of anger management training on adolescents' emotional regulation. The statistical population is all teenage girls in high school's 2nd grade in Asemanabad town in academic year of 2015-2016. We used random sampling to select 30 of them as research's sample which gathered ...
Sullivan, Connor Patrick
Anger is a pervasive problem after individuals experience traumatic stress that heightens the risk for violence, health problems, poor relationships, and poor treatment outcomes. Previous research has demonstrated a moderate relationship between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet this research also highlights that anger has not been rigorously measured in the context of PTSD. Thus, this study concerns the development of a complimentary measure to assess anger in the context o...
Guillaume Flamerie de Lachapelle
Full Text Available Although the anger of the princeps and the metus which it is supposed to inspire in the populus are generally blamed in the De clementia, it seems sometimes that a regulated anger and a timor temperatus are well-considered, which appears to be contrary to Stoic doctrine. This fact might be due to three features of the book: the importance of modus; Nero’s personality – whom the De clementia was directed to (this is probably the most important factor; the progressive clarification of the theory of clementia.
The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger
Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer
Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and…
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress, anger and alexithymia in a group of patients affected by myofascial pain (MP in the facial region.Methods: 45 MP patients (mean (SD age: 38.9 (11.6 and 45 female healthy controls (mean (SD age: 37.8 (13.7 were assessed medically and psychologically. The medically evaluation consisted of muscle palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles. The psychological evaluation included the assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory – short form, anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y, emotional distress (Distress Thermometer, anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory - 2 and alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale.Results: the MP patients showed significantly higher scores in the depression, anxiety and emotional distress inventories. With regard to anger, only the Anger Expression-In scale showed a significant difference between the groups, with higher scores for the MP patients. In addition, the MP patients showed significantly higher alexithymic scores, in particular in the Difficulty in identifying feelings (F1 subscale of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20. Alexithymia was positively correlated with the Anger Expression-In scale. Both anger and alexithymia showed significant positive correlations with anxiety scores, but only anger was positively correlated with depression. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms associated with a higher prevalence of alexithymia and expression-in modality to cope with anger was found in the MP patients. Because the presence of such psychological aspects could contribute to generate or exacerbate the suffering of these patients, our results highlight the need to include accurate investigation of psychological aspects in MP patients in normal clinical practice in order to allow clinicians to carry out more efficacious management and treatment strategies.
Chan, Jade K Y; Consedine, Nathan S
Migraine is a prevalent and disabling health condition. While there have been some suggestions that personality may be linked to migraine incidence, dose-response links to disability or impact are yet to be conducted and multivariate analyses are uncommon. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the personality characteristics differentiating migraine and probable migraine sufferers from matched controls in multivariate models and assess the possibility of a dose-response relationship. Fifty migraine sufferers and 50 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls in New Zealand completed personality measures including negative affectivity, coping, and monitoring-blunting. Logistic regressions indicated that migraine status was concurrently predicted by Type D negative affectivity, more frequent venting and planning coping, and lower monitoring. There was little evidence to suggest a consistent dose-response type effect of personality on migraine; lower impact and disability were associated with greater openness to experiences, acceptance, and behavioural disengagement. A personality profile characterised by moderate levels of negative emotion and irritability together with failures in inhibitory self-regulation may be associated with an increased risk of strict and probable migraine.
de Oliveira, Rita F.; Wann, John P.
In two experiments, we used an automatic car simulator to examine the steering control, speed regulation and response to hazards of young adults with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and limited driving experience. In Experiment 1 participants either used the accelerator pedal to regulate their speed, or used the brake pedal when they…
Full Text Available Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.
Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges
Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.
Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges
Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849
Barnes, Vernon A; Johnson, Maribeth H; Williams, Redford B; Williams, Virginia P
The Williams LifeSkills ® (WLS) anger and stress management workshop provides training in strategies to cope with stressful situations and build supportive relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of school-based Williams LifeSkills training on anger, anxiety and blood pressure in adolescents. 159 adolescents (mean age±SD=15.7±1.4 years) were randomized to WLS (n=86) or control (CTL, n=73) groups. The WLS group engaged in twelve 50-min WLS training sessions conducted by teachers at school. Anger-in and anxiety scores decreased and anger control scores increased in the WLS group across the six-month follow-up period compared to the CTL group (group x visit, p s<0.05). Daytime diastolic BP was lower across the follow-up in the WLS group ( p =0.08). DBP was significantly lower across the follow-up period in the WLS group among those with higher SBP at baseline ( p =0.04). These findings demonstrate beneficial impact of WLS upon self-reported anger-in, anger-control, anxiety levels and ambulatory DBP in the natural environment in healthy normotensive youth.
Yalcin, Bektas Murat; Unal, Mustafa; Pirdal, Hasan; Karahan, Tevfik Fikret
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented anger management and stress control program on smokers' quit rates. Of 2348 smokers, 350 were randomly allocated into study and control groups (n = 175 each). An individualized therapy cessation technique was selected for each participant (combination of behavioral counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, and/or pharmacotherapy). The participants in the control group attended a standard quit program, whereas the study group also received an additional 5-session (90 minutes each) cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented program aimed at improving their anger and stress coping skills. At the beginning of the study, both groups were asked to complete the Trait Anger Scale (TAS) of the State and Trait Anger Scale and the Self-Confident (SCS) and Hopeless (HS) subscales of the Stress Coping Styles Inventory; pretest smoking status of both groups and their coping skills were compared with each other as soon as the program ended (post-test results) and after 3 and 6 months (first and second follow-up tests). Although there was no difference between pretest scores on the TAS (P = .234), SCS (P = .130), and HS (P = .148) subscales, post-test results indicate that the study groups' TAS and HS scores decreased and SCS scores increased (P .05). The study group had a better quit level after 6 months compared with the control group (44% vs 27.4%; P smoking. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Matúš Grežo; Ľubor Pilárik
The aim of the research was to examine the impact of anger on moral reasoning and decision making. We were interested in whether anger leads to more punitive attributions and to greater willingness to help when one perceives immoral behavior. Participants (N=61) of the experimental design were randomly divided into two groups. The results show that anger may lead to more automatic information processing and also to an intuition based judgment. Angry participants chose harsher punishments and ...
Full Text Available This research has been carried out in order to determine anger expression and anger management styles in operating room nurses. By applying an in-depth interview technique on operating room nurses working in a private hospital, a qualitative study has been performed in order to determine anger expression and anger management styles in operating room nurses. The interview consisted of ten questions such as demographic questions addressing the workers’ age, sex, education level and duration of employment in the organization they work, aiming to determine their anger expression and anger management styles. Since operating room environments contain various risk factors, and require active team work in a stressful dynamic setting under excessive workload, , it has been found that operating room nurses display their anger through loud speaking, fail to settle their anger positively, fail to control their anger in a behavioural pattern despite their cognitive awareness in anger management. Thus, it has been suggested that operating room nurses should be trained on anger management methods so that they can manage their anger in a stressful operating room environment.
Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina
To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available ... connection on the first try. Friendships and support networks take time to develop. Anger Many heart patients ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger ...
Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn
Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....
Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley
Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…
Full Text Available A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for a need of cognition free self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other, without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing cognition free regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger or aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger or aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading the extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1 or by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2; then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and view sad, fear, or neutral materials respectively to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results found participants yielded a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was induced afterward, and a higher level of anger when fear was induced afterward. These results provided evidence supporting the hypothesis of mutual promotion or counteraction relationships among these types of emotion and implied a cognition free approach for regulating anger and aggressive behavior.
Bardgett, Megan E.; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S.; Andrade, Mary Ann
Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240
Abedzadeh Zavareh, Moammad Sadegh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hidarnia, Ali Reza
Anger can be defined a natural emotional response that is gradually formed to protect us in dealing with threats, damages, assaults, and failures; while hatred is a change of attitude which is built following the persistence of anger towards a subject or an individual. One of the main reasons of adolescents' reference to the counseling centers is their anger accompanied by violence. This study aims to determine the social cognitive factors associated with anger among a population of adolescents in the west of Iran based on the social cognitive theory. Samples were selected based on multi-stage cluster sampling. Method including the first and the second-grade male high school students from Ilam town (N=360). The Spielberger's anger questionnaire (STAXI 2) and a self-designed questionnaire based on Bandura's social cognitive theory were employed as the data collection instruments in the present study. Of the selected population, 200 students were the first-grade and 160 students were the second-grade students. 135 students were the first child of the family, 150 students were the second or the third birth, and 75 students were the fifth or above in their families. Descriptive tests and correlation analysis were used to conduct the statistical analysis. Although there was a significant and inverse relationship between all the components of the theory and anger, the strongest relationship was seen in self-efficacy (-0.585) and the weakest relationship was seen in modeling (-0.297). If was concluded that helping people to know their abilities and have a better personal judgment in this case, can influence their anger control. In addition, the process of stress management can effectively increase an individual's emotional coping.
Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldo, Luigi; Leombruni, Paolo
This study explored the functional correlates of anger amongst therapeutic community inpatients. The sample consisted of 44 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenic/schizoaffective disorder who were involved in a community treatment program. Assessment involved administration of the Health of Nation Outcome Scales and the Global Assessment of Functioning as well as self-evaluations using the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Angry feelings and coping skills were self-assessed with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90 Hostility Scale. Multiple regression analyses correlated anger with functioning, controlling for psychopathology. Angry feelings related to self-harm, hyperactivity, physical problems, and to global weight independently from Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale scores. They also predicted interest and pleasure in housekeeping, quality of social relationships and relational exchanges. Results showed that angry feelings were not merely derivations of schizophrenic psychopathology; rather, they were independently related to self-damaging behaviors, to attentional demands towards the staff, to agreement to community tasks and to low quality of social relationships. Indeed, anger was related to adaptation's level in a therapeutic community setting demonstrated by subjects with psychoses and it may represent an indirect measure of their experienced quality of life. Therapeutic and management approaches to anger amongst subjects with schizophrenia are discussed.
Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L
Emotional eating appears to contribute to weight gain, but the characteristics that make one vulnerable to emotional eating remain unclear. The present study examined whether two negative affect response styles, rumination and distraction, influenced palatable food intake following an anger mood induction in normal weight and obese adults. We hypothesized that higher rumination and lower distraction would be associated with greater vulnerability to anger-induced eating, particularly among obese individuals. Sixty-one participants (74% female, mean age=34.6) underwent neutral and anger mood inductions in counterbalanced order. Directly following each mood induction, participants were provided with 2400 kcal of highly palatable snack foods in the context of a laboratory taste test. Results revealed that distraction influenced energy intake following the mood induction for obese but not normal weight individuals. Obese participants who reported greater use of distraction strategies consumed fewer calories than those reporting less use of distraction strategies. These findings were independent of subjective hunger levels, individual differences in mood responses and trait anger, and other factors. Rumination did not account for changes in energy intake among obese or normal weight participants. Among obese individuals, the tendency to utilize fewer negative affect distraction strategies appears to be associated with vulnerability to eating in response to anger. Future research should determine whether coping skills training can reduce emotional eating tendencies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen
Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Why, Yong Peng; Johnston, Derek W
Cynicism moderated by interpersonal anger has been found to be related to cardiovascular reactivity. This paper reports two studies; Study 1 used an Anger Recall task, which aroused interpersonal anger, while participants in Study 2 engaged in a multitasking computer task, which aroused non-interpersonal anger via systematic manipulation of the functioning of the computer mouse. The Cynicism by State Anger interaction was significant for blood pressure arousal in Study 2 but not for Study 1: in Study 2, when State Anger was high, cynicism was positively related to blood pressure arousal but when State Anger was low, cynicism was negatively related to blood pressure arousal. For both studies, when State Anger was low, cynicism was positively related to cardiac output arousal and negatively related to vascular arousal. The results suggest that Cynicism-State Anger interaction can be generalised to non-social anger-arousing situations for hemodynamic processes but blood pressure reactivity is task-dependent. The implication for the role of job control and cardiovascular health during human-computer interactions is discussed.
Gilam, Gadi; Abend, Rany; Shani, Hagai; Ben-Zion, Ziv; Hendler, Talma
The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a canonical social decision-making task whereby a proposer divides a sum of money between himself and a responder who accepts or rejects the offer. Studies consistently demonstrate that unfair offers induce anger, and that rejecting such offers relates to aggression. Nevertheless, the UG is limited in interpersonal provocations common to real-life experiences of anger. Moreover, the psychometric properties of the UG as an anger-induction paradigm have yet to be evaluated. Here, to induce a more intense and genuine anger experience, we implemented a modified UG whereby short written provocations congruent with unfairness levels accompanied each offer. We aimed to test whether this anger-infused UG led to more anger and aggressive responses relative to the standard UG and to establish the reliability and validity of both versions. Participants performed either the anger-infused UG or a standard version, repeated twice, a week apart. They also performed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, a reactive aggression paradigm, and completed emotion ratings and a trait anger inventory. Results indicate similar decreases in acceptance rates with increase in offer unfairness, and increases in reported anger, across both UG versions. Both versions demonstrated strong test-retest reliability. However, the anger-infused UG led to significantly stronger relations with reactive aggression and trait anger compared to the standard UG, providing evidence for better validity. The development of the anger-infused UG as a reliable and valid paradigm is pivotal for the induction and assessment of interpersonal anger and its aggressive expression in basic and clinical research settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Yildiz, Mustafa; Sahan, Hasan; Tekin, Murat; Ulukan, Mehmet; Mehtap, Bekir
The purpose of this study was to analyse the anger expression styles, the continuous anger and personality types of players who play football in the professional league. The research group consisted of 133 soccer players who are playing in sports teams in the Turkish Super League: Ankara Sport Club, Gençlerbirliği Sports Club and Hacettepe Sports Club in the first league, Turk Telekom sports in the second league, and Keçiören Gücü Sports and Ankarademir Sports playing in the third league in the 2008-2009 football season. The Eysenck personality inventory was modified to Turkish by Bayar in 1983, having been developed by Eysenck and Eysenck in 1975 and the continuous anger-anger style scale (SOTO) was modified to Turkish by Ozer in 1994. The state trait anger scale (STAS) was originally developed by Spielberger in 1983. All these were used on soccer players participating in the study to determine the continuous anger and anger styles in this study. In the interpretation of data, a meaningfulness of p < 0.05, was applied by using regression analysis, the Kruskal Wallis Test, the one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) test and the Tukey test to find the differences among the groups. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programme was used to find the accounted values and to evaluate the data. According to the results of this study, regarding the education level variable, while there was a meaningful difference between the continuous anger sub-dimension and anger control sub-dimension than continuous anger-anger expression styles, no significant difference was found among personality type sub-dimensions (psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, false). In addition, a significant relationship was found between psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, and lie sub-dimensions and the personality type sub-dimensions of professional players' constant anger-anger expression styles.
Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P
Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.
The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative ...
Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly
RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…
Full Text Available Background. Anger manifestations in emergency departments (EDs occur daily, interrupting workflow and exposing staff to risk. Objectives. How staff assess and recognize patients’ angry outbursts in EDs and elucidate responses to anger expressions, while considering effects of institution guidelines. Methods. Observations of staff patient interaction in EDs and personal interviews of staff (n=38 were conducted. Two questionnaires were administered (n=80 & n=144. Assessment was based mainly on regression statistic tests. Results. Staff recognizes two types of anger displays. Magnitude of anger expressions were correlated with staff’s fear level. Staff’s responses ranged from ignoring incidents, giving in to patients’ requests or immediately calling security. When staff felt fear and became angry they tended to call security. Staff was more likely to ignore anger when incident responsibility was assigned to patients. Discussion. Anger encounters are differentiated according to intensity level, which influences interpretations and response. Organizational policy has an effect on staff’s response. Conclusions. Staff recognizes anger at varying levels and responds accordingly. The level of danger staff feels is a catalyst in giving in or calling security. Call security is influenced by fear, and anger. Permanent guidelines can help staff in responding to anger encounters.
Full Text Available Introduction: The affective component of pain incorporates various emotions, primarily negative in quality. A great emphasis has been traditionally given to the role of depression and anxiety in chronic pain. More recently, the focus has been directed towards hostility and anger, as fundamental components of the emotional experience of chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a literature’s review about the association between chronic pain, anger and hostility. Discussion: Patients with several chronic disorders are characterized by high levels of trait anger and hostility. On the other hand, the manner in which angry feelings are typically handled (anger management style, especially the marked tendency to suppress or express angry feelings, is a particularly important determinant of the chronic pain severity. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are involved in the development, maintenance and treatment of chronic pain. Further research is needed to clarify its relationship with chronic pain and to evaluate the effects of anger management on treatment outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction: The affective component of pain incorporates various emotions, primarily negative in quality. A great emphasis has been traditionally given to the role of depression and anxiety in chronic pain. More recently, the focus has been directed towards hostility and anger, as fundamental components of the emotional experience of chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a literature’s review about the association between chronic pain, anger and hostility. Discussion: Patients with several chronic disorders are characterized by high levels of trait anger and hostility. On the other hand, the manner in which angry feelings are typically handled (anger management style, especially the marked tendency to suppress or express angry feelings, is a particularly important determinant of the chronic pain severity. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are involved in the development, maintenance and treatment of chronic pain. Further research is needed to clarify its relationship with chronic pain and to evaluate the effects of anger management on treatment outcomes.
Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A
The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18-34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners.
Full Text Available The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency has yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18 to 34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 minutes of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 minutes of silence (control. Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier rather it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners.
Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo
To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ciarrocchi, Joseph W.; Brelsford, Gina M.
This study addresses whether aspects of spirituality and religion predict psychological and emotional well-being in a general population over and above personality and coping through the use of drugs or alcohol. Results are consistent with self-control theory and positive psychology approaches. (Contains 3 tables.)
Putman, P.L.J.; Roelofs, K.
The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to
Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian
The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers.
O'Neal, Colleen R; Weston, Lynsey C; He, Xin; Huang, Keng-Yen; Pine, Daniel S; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]. A videotaped parent-child interaction was coded for parental socialization of preschooler anger, and psychiatric interviews of depression were conducted three times across preadolescence and adolescence. Major depression diagnoses increased from preadolescence to adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated parent discouragement of child anger was a significant predictor of an increase in the child's later depression from preadolescence to adolescence, and child anger intensity was a significant moderator. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. ... waiting room or in a supervised cardiac rehab program. Ask them what keeps them going and share ...
Full Text Available ... your anxiety with harmful habits, such as drinking alcohol or taking sleeping pills. Self-medicating can have ... your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. ...
Full Text Available ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make you angry. Also write ...
Full Text Available ... frequent or extreme anger can cause your blood pressure and heart rate to rise, and make your heart work harder. Sometimes anger also causes angina (chest pain) because vessels constrict (narrow), reducing blood and oxygen to the ...
Full Text Available ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger ... complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.
Full Text Available ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger ... When you feel angry, use a three-step approach: stop, ask yourself questions, then react. The first ...
Buss, Kristin A.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.
Research suggests that sadness expressions may be more beneficial to children than other emotions when eliciting support from caregivers. It is unclear, however, when children develop the ability to regulate their displays of distress. The current study addressed this question. Distress facial expressions (e.g., fear, anger, and sadness) were…
Zwaag, M. van der; Fairclough, S.; Spiridon, E.; Westerink, J.H.D.
Driver anger could be potentially harmful for road safety and long-term health. Because of its mood inducing properties, music is assumed to be a potential medium that could prevent anger induction duringdriving. In the current study the influence of music on anger, mood, skin conductance, and systolic blood pressure was investigated during anger inducing scenarios in a driving simulator. 100 participants were split into five groups: four listened to different types of music (high/ low energy...
Zilioli, Samuele; Imami, Ledina; Ong, Anthony D; Lumley, Mark A; Gruenewald, Tara
Recent evidence suggests that experiences of discrimination contribute to socioeconomic status health disparities. The current study examined if the experience and regulation of anger-an expected emotional response to discrimination-serves as an explanatory factor for the previously documented links between socioeconomic disadvantage (SED), discrimination, and allostatic load. Data were drawn from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 909 adults who participated in the biomarkers subproject. Results revealed that perceived discrimination was associated with higher levels of allostatic load. Furthermore, we found evidence that perceived discrimination and anger control sequentially explained the relationship between SED and allostatic load, such that greater discrimination was associated with lower levels of anger control, which, in turn accounted for the effects of discrimination on allostatic load. These results remained significant after controlling for negative affect, positive affect, other forms of anger expression, as well as demographic covariates. Our findings suggest that low anger control may be an important psychological pathway through which experiences of discrimination influence health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger.
They always lead to antagonistic responses and aggressive behaviours in sporting activities. The study examined whether a combination of anger, hostility, and verbal utterances would predict physical aggressive behaviour among student-athletes in South African universities. A cross-sectional study of 300 student-athletes ...
Zwaag, M. van der; Fairclough, S.; Spiridon, E.; Westerink, J.H.D.
Driver anger could be potentially harmful for road safety and long-term health. Because of its mood inducing properties, music is assumed to be a potential medium that could prevent anger induction duringdriving. In the current study the influence of music on anger, mood, skin conductance, and
Whiting, Diane; Bryant, Richard A.
Anger is a common problem in trauma-exposed individuals. This study investigated factors that contribute to post-traumatic anger in civilian trauma survivors. Fifty-one trauma-exposed individuals were assessed for expressed anger, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), daily hassles, maladaptive cognitions and blame. PTSD and non-PTSD participants…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in anger traits of university students and teacher candidates studying in various social and cultural regions, of Batman and Denizli, Turkey. Modelling anger and anger expression style scale according to some variables such as age, gender, education level, number of siblings, parents'…
Jordan M. Nechvatal
Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.
Joel S. Karp, principal investigator
The overall objective of our project was to develop PET scanners and imaging techniques that achieve high performance and excellent image quality. Our approach was based upon 3-D imaging (no septa) with position-sensitive Anger-logic detectors, whereby the encoding ratio of resolution elements to number of photo-multiplier tube channels is very high. This design led to a series of PET systems that emphasized cost-effectiveness and practicality in a clinical environment.
The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention
Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A
Individual differences in conduct problems arise in part from proneness to anger/frustration and poor self-regulation of behavior. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of these connections is not known. Using a twin design, we examined genetic and environmental covariation underlying the well-documented correlations between anger/frustration, poor attention regulation (i.e., task persistence), and conduct problems in childhood. Participants included 105 pairs of MZ twins and 154 pairs of same-sex DZ twins (4-8 year olds). Independent observers rated child persistence and affect based on behavior during a challenging in-home cognitive and literacy assessment. Teachers and parents provided reports of conduct problems. Persistence, anger/frustration, and conduct problems included moderate heritable and nonshared environmental variance; conduct problems included moderate shared environmental variance as well. Persistence and anger/frustration had independent genetic covariance with conduct problems and nonshared environmental covariance with each other. The findings indicate genetically distinct though inter-related influences linking affective and self-regulatory aspects of temperament with behavior problems in childhood.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.
Background Individual differences in conduct problems arise in part from proneness to anger/frustration and poor self-regulation of behavior. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of these connections is not known. Method Using a twin design, we examined genetic and environmental covariation underlying the well-documented correlations between anger/frustration, poor attention regulation (i.e., task persistence), and conduct problems in childhood. Participants included 105 pairs of MZ twins and 154 pairs of same-sex DZ twins (4–8 year olds). Independent observers rated child persistence and affect based on behavior during a challenging in-home cognitive and literacy assessment. Teachers and parents provided reports of conduct problems. Results Persistence, anger/frustration, and conduct problems included moderate heritable and nonshared environmental variance; conduct problems included moderate shared environmental variance as well. Persistence and anger/frustration had independent genetic covariance with conduct problems and nonshared environmental covariance with each other. Conclusions The findings indicate genetically distinct though inter-related influences linking affective and self-regulatory aspects of temperament with behavior problems in childhood. PMID:17244273
In the course of your day, when you interpret or count a radioimmunoassay or a sample of blood or body fluid, you will probably use a variant of the well counter invented by Hal O. Anger in the early 1950s. If you obtain or read a patient image, it probably came from some type of his gamma camera. If yoy do or see a single photon emission computed tomography study, Hal Anger showed the feasibility. Even if you are working with positrons, some of the early imaging work was done by devices Hal Anger invented. This article deals primarily with the years I spent with Hal, 1962 to 1964. I was fortunate to have the opportunity to spend this time with him when he had just completed the development of his 11-in gamma camera, the first multipurpose camera suitable for diverse clinical examinations. In retrospect, it is easy to see why Hal was honored by the Society of Nuclear Medicine as one of its pioneers and why he was the first recipient of the Ben Cassen Prize. However, it was not always clear that Hal's creative road would lead to such deserved distinction. I have tried to portray the beginnings of this journey to the best of my recollections.
Miller, Jonas G.; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Utendale, William T.; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D.
This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4–6-year-old children’s dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N = 180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children’s better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children’s adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament. PMID:23274169
Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly
Examined the influence of emotion, audience, gender, and age on fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders' reported emotion management, emotional self-efficacy, and expectancies. Found that eighth graders regulated emotion most and expected the least maternal support. Children expressed greater self-efficacy and regulation for sadness than for anger.…
Julie J. Exline
Full Text Available Many people report occasional feelings of anger toward God. However, most evidence pertains to western, predominantly Christian populations. In this study, Indian university students (N = 139; 78% Hindu completed a survey about anger toward God(s. Polytheists (45% chose one god to focus on. Measurement invariance tests supported comparisons of anger toward God between the predominantly Hindu Indian sample and three mostly Christian U.S. undergraduate samples (Ns = 1040, 1811, 918. Indian participants reported more current and situation-specific anger toward God than U.S. participants, but less anger toward God over their lifetimes. In the Indian sample, anger toward God correlated positively with other indicators of religious/spiritual struggle, seeing God as cruel and distant, and seeing anger toward God as morally acceptable. Regarding an event involving suffering, anger toward God related positively to the event’s harmfulness, seeing God as responsible, seeing God’s actions as negative, and responses involving substance use and protest toward God. Generally, these findings replicated those from prior U.S. samples. Polytheists who preferred some gods over others or chose to follow a different god reported greater anger toward gods. Results uphold the comparability of anger toward God(s between Indian and U.S. undergraduates while beginning to reveal key differences.
Sullman, M J M; Paxion, J; Stephens, A N
The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M=32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Aekyung; Won, Jongsoon; Kim, Oksoo; Lee, Sang E
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anger expression types in nurses and to analyze the differences between the anger expression types and interpersonal problems. The data were collected from 149 nurses working in general hospitals with 300 beds or more in Seoul or Gyeonggi province, Korea. For anger expression type, the anger expression scale from the Korean State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was used. For interpersonal problems, the short form of the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and Duncan's multiple comparisons test. Three anger expression types in nurses were found: low-anger expression, anger-in, and anger-in/control type. From the results of multivariate analysis of variance, there were significant differences between anger expression types and interpersonal problems (Wilks lambda F = 3.52, p interpersonal problems by Duncan's post hoc test (p interpersonal problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version. Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability.
Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail
Objective This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance use, diagnosis of depression, anger arousal and reactivity, and child abuse potential. Results Linear hierarchical regressions revealed that anger arousal and reactivity exceeded diagnostic and demographic variables in predicting maternal child abuse potential. Additionally, anger arousal and reactivity was found to be a partial mediator of the relationship between diagnostic category and child abuse potential. Conclusions Findings are discussed in relation to a multifaceted model of child abuse potential which broadens the existing literature to include an examination of depression and emotion regulation in order to more fully understand how substance use and child abuse potential are linked. Practice implications Models and approaches which help clients to manage and regulate difficult feeling states, specifically anger, could be helpful, and may be most readily applied in such populations. PMID:20170960
Perry, Justin C.; Fisher, Alexandra L.; Caemmerer, Jacqueline M.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Poklar, Ashley E.
Self-regulation is a well-known construct in educational and psychological research, as it is often related to academic success and well-being. Drawing from criticisms of a lack of context applied to the investigation of this construct, the current study examined the multi-dimensional role of social support (teachers, parents, peers) and coping…
Edwards, Meghan K; Rhodes, Ryan E; Loprinzi, Paul D
Exercise may help to cope with hectic or demanding events after a stressful situation occurs. Limited research has evaluated whether exercise, prior to a stressor, helps to facilitate subsequent emotional regulation. This pilot study addresses this novel paradigm. We employed a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of acute exercise on emotional regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to stretch (control group, N = 10), walk (N = 9), or jog (N = 8) for 15-minutes, after which they were exposed to a film clip intended to elicit a negative emotional response. Participants' emotions were monitored before and during exercise, as well as after the film clip. Emotional responses were evaluated using the Exercise Induced Feeling Inventory and Affective Circumplex Scale. A group x time splitplot interaction effect was significant for anger (p = .046) and anxiousness (p = .038). Follow-up analyses showed that only the stretching group (p = .048) had a significantly increased anger score from baseline to post-film clip, suggesting a protective emotional effect from walking and jogging. Exercise was effective in regulating anger and anxiousness after a stressful event. These findings provide evidence for potential preventive effects of exercise in facilitating emotional regulation.
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Lo Giudice, Rossana; Rainero, Innocenzo; Gramaglia, Carla; Marech, Lucrezia; Amianto, Federico; Gentile, Salvatore; Pinessi, Lorenzo
Migraine without aura causes acute and chronic pain and partially compromises patients' social functioning and work performance. Over the past years, psychiatric comorbidities were frequently observed in these patients, together with coping difficulties and typical personality traits. The aim of this study was to identify whether migraine patients and controls share distinctive personality traits. 105 consecutive patients suffering from migraine without aura referred to the Headache Center of Turin University were enrolled in the study and compared to a control group of 79 healthy subjects. Patients and controls completed several psychometric questionnaires, including the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Patients suffering from migraine show more depressive symptoms, difficult anger management with a tendency to hypercontrol, and a distinctive personality profile with high harm avoidance, high persistence and low self-directedness. When a logistic regression was performed, the only significant predictors of migraine were temperament variables. The results suggest that the personality traits and psychosomatic mechanisms of migraine patients may make them vulnerable to stress and less skilled in coping with pain. These traits correlate with dysregulated neurotransmitter systems which may also be part of the psychobiological components of personality, depressive disorders and migraine itself. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Visch, Valentijn T; Goudbeek, Martijn B; Mortillaro, Marcello
In two studies, the robustness of anger recognition of bodily expressions is tested. In the first study, video recordings of an actor expressing four distinct emotions (anger, despair, fear, and joy) were structurally manipulated as to image impairment and body segmentation. The results show that anger recognition is more robust than other emotions to image impairment and to body segmentation. Moreover, the study showed that arms expressing anger were more robustly recognised than arms expressing other emotions. Study 2 added face blurring as a variable to the bodily expressions and showed that it decreased accurate emotion recognition-but more for recognition of joy and despair than for anger and fear. In sum, the paper indicates the robustness of anger recognition in multileveled deteriorated bodily expressions.
Full Text Available Using questionnaires of violence and marital satisfaction, data were collected at pretest, posttest, and follow-up and analyzed by ANCOVA. Results indicated that training of anger management skills can significantly decrease family violence and increase marital satisfaction in householders. In addition, results of follow-up showed that effects of intervention lasted. The results of the study provide some evidence to suggest that training of anger management skills is an appropriate method for reducing violence and increasing marital satisfaction. Anger management skills training help women probably by reinforcement of the behavioral skills of regulation, change and create desirable emotions. As a consequence of decreased undesirable behaviors related to violence, desirable behavioral, emotional and cognitive changes were reinforced in family and marital satisfaction improved. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of anger management skills training on family violence and marital satisfaction of householders in Tehran. Methodology was Quasiexperimental on an available sample of 34 subjects from women referring to health houses in region-2 of Tehran and randomly assigned in experimental and control groups.
Lussier, Robert N
Human resources managers have reported increased violence (1) stating it can happen anywhere (2). One million workers are assaulted each year (3), and in some years more than 1,000 workers have been killed (4). Almost 25% of workplace violence incidences occur in the health-care industry (5). Women commit nearly one fourth of all threats or attacks (6). Have you ever gotten angry at work? Have you ever had to deal with an angry patient or coworker? Has there been any violence where you work? The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.
Full Text Available The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing brown spot disease on a number of citrus cultivars. To better understand the dynamics of signal regulation leading to oxidative and osmotic stress response and fungal infection on citrus, phenotypic characterization of the yeast SSK1 response regulator homolog was performed. It was determined that SSK1 responds to diverse environmental stimuli and plays a critical role in fungal pathogenesis. Experiments to determine the phenotypes resulting from the loss of SSK1 reveal that the SSK1 gene product may be fulfilling similar regulatory roles in signaling pathways involving a HOG1 MAP kinase during ROS resistance, osmotic resistance, fungicide sensitivity and fungal virulence. The SSK1 mutants display elevated sensitivity to oxidants, fail to detoxify H2O2 effectively, induce minor necrosis on susceptible citrus leaves, and displays resistance to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides. Unlike the SKN7 response regulator, SSK1 and HOG1 confer resistance to salt-induced osmotic stress via an unknown kinase sensor rather than the "two component" histidine kinase HSK1. SSK1 and HOG1 play a moderate role in sugar-induced osmotic stress. We also show that SSK1 mutants are impaired in their ability to produce germ tubes from conidia, indicating a role for the gene product in cell differentiation. SSK1 also is involved in multi-drug resistance. However, deletion of the yeast SHO1 (synthetic high osmolarity homolog resulted in no noticeable phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results show that A. alternata can sense and react to different types of stress via SSK1, HOG1 and SKN7 in a cooperative manner leading to proper physiological and pathological functions.
Full Text Available ... Many heart patients feel angry and upset about what's happened to them. But frequent or extreme anger can cause your blood pressure and heart rate to rise, and make your heart work harder. Sometimes anger also causes angina (chest pain) ...
Oberhausen, E.; Neumann, K. J.; Schiffler, W.
The uniformity of the Anger camera is a basic condition for the interpretation of scintiphotos and its importance increases with the accuracy of the evaluation method used for the interpretation of the scintiphotos. This is especially true for the use of three-dimensional multichannel-analysers with quantitative data output. With the standard method, used until now, all photo multipliers are tuned to give the same coun t-ra te when the crystal close to the centre of each photomultiplier is irradiatedby a collimated source. If there after the crystal is irradiated by a uniform flux of gamma rays, the density of the dots increases from the centre of the scintiphoto towards the outer edge. This means that uniformity has not been achieved. In clinical use hot spots would be simulated for those parts of an organ that are visualized at the outer part of the crystal. By using the magnetic core memory of a multichannel analyser for quantitative evaluation of the scintiphotos, we developed a method by which the photomultipliers are tuned with respect to their geometrical position. Thus, it is possible to achieve a uniformity within a few per cent over the whole crystal. The method and its theory are discussed. Data for the resolution of the Anger camera after this tuning process are given. (author)
Nisenzon, Anne N.; George, Steven Z.; Beneciuk, Jason M.; Wandner, Laura D.; Torres, Calia; Robinson, Michael E.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly condition that often becomes chronic if not properly addressed. Recent research has shown that psychosocial symptoms can complicate LBP, necessitating more comprehensive screening measures. The present study investigated the role of psychosocial factors, including anger regulation, in pain and disability using a screening measure designed for LBP treated with physical therapy. One-hundred and three LBP patients initiating physical therapy completed an established screening measure to assess risk for developing chronic pain, as well as psychosocial measures assessing anger, depression, anxiety, fear-avoidance, and pain-catastrophizing before and after four weeks of treatment. Dependent variables were pain intensity, physical impairment, and patient-reported disability. Risk subgrouping based on anger and other psychosocial measures was examined using established screening methods and through employing an empirical statistical approach. Analyses revealed that risk subgroups differed according to corresponding levels of negative affect, as opposed to anger alone. General psychosocial distress also predicted disability post-treatment, but, interestingly, did not have a strong relationship to pain. Subsequent hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedures divided patients into overall High and Low Distress groups, with follow-up analyses revealing that the High Distress group had higher baseline measures of pain, disability, and impairment. Findings suggest that anger may be part of generalized negative affect rather than a unique predictor when assessing risk for pain and disability in LBP treatment. Continued research in the area of screening for psychosocial prognostic indicators in LBP may ultimately guide treatment protocols in physical therapy for more comprehensive patient care. PMID:24281272
van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Manstead, A.S.R.
Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice
van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.
Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice
Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich
Full Text Available I try to show that a the treatise On Anger by Seneca includes not one but two therapeutic strategies designed to avoid anger and that b the second of these strategies –which has been neglected in the secondary literature– presents unsolvable problems when we contrast it with the Stoic theory of action, which is rooted in intellectualist premises.
Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.; Shaw, Rachel
This study reports a qualitative phenomenological investigation of anger and anger-related aggression in the context of the lives of individual women. Semistructured interviews with five women are analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. This inductive approach aims to capture the richness and complexity of the lived experience of…
Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Chakhssi, F.
Background. Anger is the main deregulated emotion in patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The aim of this study was to examine emotional, cognitive and physiological correlates of anger and compare these between ASPD patients with varying degree of psychopathy (PP) and control
... limited avenues for ventilating anger, the tendency to focus on majority ethnic groups while leaving the minority, conflict of interest and personality among political elites, the structural dysfunction of political parties, the nature of electoral process, institutional collaboration amongst others are responsible for political anger.
It is on this note that strategies in replacing anger arousal behaviours are advocated and to also make a rethink in every situation as a component of cognitive behaviour therapy. This would make adolescents and youth to be creative and become useful to self and society. Keywords: Efficacy, Anger Management, Effective ...
Guo, Yinghui; Zhang, Huiyun; Gao, Jie; Wei, Sheng; Song, Chunhong; Sun, Peng; Qiao, Mingqi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the genes associated with 'anger-in' (tendency to suppress anger) and 'anger-out' (tendency to express anger through verbal or physical means) emotions in humans. Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10/group), based on the type of model and the Chinese medicinal formulation administered, and the rat models were established. The five groups were as follows: Normal control (control), anger-in model (AIM), anger-in Jingqianshu-administered (AIA), anger-out model (AOM) and anger-out Jingqianping-administered (AOA). Open-field, resident-intruder and aggressive behavior tests were carried out, as well as gene expression analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The body weights of the rats in the AIM and AOM groups were significantly lower than those of the control group rats. The open-field test indicated that the scores in the AOM group were significantly higher (Pemotions. Jingqianping and Jingqianshu granules attenuated the changes in the mRNA expression of 5-Htr2C , GABA B R2 and 5-Htr3B , as indicated by RT-qPCR, and showed similar effects on protein expression, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that the anger-in and anger-out emotions of rats are closely associated with 5-Htr2C, GABA B R2 and 5-Htr3B genes, and that Jingqianshu and Jingqianping granules attenuate the abnormal behaviors of model rats. These findings may be useful for the treatment of emotional disorders associated with anger.
Melissa M. Gomes
Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses.
Priyanka Malhotra; Karobi Das; Sunita Sharma; Debasish Basu
Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises) on anger management. Mate...
There is a general belief that women do not express their anger as men do. Contrary to this general belief, this paper argues that women express their anger but they express it differently. Previous research has indicated that there are important gender differences in expression of anger and anger provoking situations. For example, women generally have expressed their anger through indirect ways (e.g. verbal aggression) while men have expressed their anger through physical aggression. After d...
This inquiry's purpose was to describe the meaning (essence) of moral perspective in adult women's experiences of anger expression. Moral perspectives have been perceived as pivotal to how one constructs and problem-solves real life dilemmas. Since some modes of anger expression have been identified as unhealthy, uncovering the meaning of moral perspectives in women's anger expression experiences could be significant to women's health. Through phenomenological interviews, 24 women, aged 21-65 (4 African-American and 20 Euro-American), reflected on an experience when they were angry and had to think about the right way to express their anger. Significant statements were extracted and thematized. Next, themes were clustered into the following essences of the experience: the realities of the self as moral, the morality of anger expression and the morality of outcomes.
Claire A. J. Bloxsom
Full Text Available The association between anger and criminal, particularly violent, behaviour is firmly established in the literature. However, most of the extant research has been conducted with clinical and legally sanctioned forensic populations. The present study sought to examine anger in a non forensic population using a self-report measure of delinquency. The Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI; Novaco, 2003 and the Self-Report Delinquency Questionnaire (Elliot & Ageton, 1980 were completed by male and female university students. The total anger score was associated with overall delinquency and specifically with crimes against the person and against property. Males reported higher levels of anger and a greater involvement in criminal acts. The practical implications of the findings within a legal context are discussed.
Unver, Yener; Yuce, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan
In Turkey, prison studies are rare and the mental health status of prisoners has not received proper attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional and descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger among a group of Turkish prisoners. Two self-reporting instruments (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 and Multidimensional Anger Scale) were filled out by 685 prisoners. Prisoners in the study group were found to be depressive, anxious, and stressed. Anger symptoms and aggressive behaviors were found to be at a moderate level. Prisoners with a history of being subjected to domestic violence in childhood had higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores than those without such a history. Young prisoners, those who had been previously imprisoned, with substance dependency and higher stress and anxiety levels reported more anger symptoms than others. Psychological support, together with stress and anger management programs, seems to be essential. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Brondolo, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shola; Brady, Nisha; Appel, Risa; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N; Sweeney, Monica
Ethnicity-related maltreatment (racism) is a significant stressor for many Americans and may contribute to racial disparities in health. Mechanisms linking this stressor to health status are not yet understood. This study tests the hypothesis that lifetime exposure to racism influences individuals' appraisals of and coping responses to new episodes of maltreatment. Participants included 420 Black and Latino patients and staff of community primary care practices in New York City. Participants completed the Brief Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire--Community Version. They also completed measures of appraisals and anger coping modified to inquire about responses to new episodes of ethnicity-related maltreatment. Individuals who had higher levels of lifetime exposure to discrimination were more likely to experience new episodes as threatening and potentially harmful. Exposure to ethnic discrimination was also positively related to the use of anger coping styles, but the magnitude of the relationship varied depending on the type of discrimination. Individuals who had been exposed to higher levels of workplace discrimination were more likely to suppress anger in new situations. Those who were exposed to ethnicity-related social exclusion or harassment were more likely to confront others and aggressively express their feelings. The significance of the relationship held even when controlling for mood and personality variables that might account for both racism and coping. No differences were found between Blacks and Latinos in the relationship of racism to appraisals and coping. These findings add to the growing empirical literature on strategies for coping with racism.
Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book; Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment; Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible......Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book; Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment; Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible...
Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Sheffield Morris, Amanda; Cui, Lixian; Henry, Carolyn S.; Criss, Michael M.
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of youth anger regulation and reactivity in the link between parenting and social adjustment among a sample of 84 youth residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods in a mid-southwestern city. Using path analysis, findings indicate that parents' responsive and discipline-related behaviors…
Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail
Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…
Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja
Based on the short form of the driving anger expression inventory (DAX-short, 15-item), the present study developed an adapted version of the DAX for cyclists (CAX, 14 items). The data basis was an online survey of 2000 inhabitants of Denmark. A principle component analysis on the translated DAX...... included one item and was left out. Based on the results, reliable subscales were developed. Drivers scored higher in verbal aggressive expression than cyclists, while there was no significant difference in constructive expression. The subscales for drivers and cyclists showed significant relations to age...... for exposure and other factors in linear regression analyses. These analyses also showed a relationship between a positive attitude towards driving and higher levels of anger expression among drivers, while this was not the case for cyclists....
Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with ...
Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.
The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815
Traditional corporate approaches toward anger and anxiety in the workplace have ignored or exacerbated the problem. Human emotions are not only essential for job performance, they are a free resource that can be harnessed in ethical ways to enhance job productivity. Most of the causes and costs of workplace anger and anxiety can be prevented. In an ideal workplace, employees are internally motivated and self regulating because they are hired with care, placed in jobs serving them as well as the company, and supported with the required resources to accomplish their jobs. When companies treat employees with dignity and make efforts to empower them, employee self confidence and performance grows. Occupational and environmental health nurses are in positions to alter dysfunctional aspects of corporate culture while simultaneously working with individual employees who are angry or anxious. Successful companies are those that nurture their workers while achieving their mission. They treat employees with dignity and respect while challenging them to reach their full potential.
Full Text Available The present study was designed to verify hypothesized predictor effects for five anger-related variables, i.e. trait anger, anger expression-out, anger expression-in, anger control-out, and anger-control-in. A sample of 138 students completed measures for FFM personality traits (NEO-FFI, self-esteem (SES, shyness (RCBS, and anger (STAXI-2. The study confirmed the effects of neuroticism and agreeableness as being the chief personality predictors of anger; however, for the domain of anger expression-in, an unexpected role of extraversion was revealed. Furthermore, introducing self-esteem and shyness changed some effects of FFM traits. Entering self-esteem as an additional predictor improved the predictability of anger control-in. Additionally, a mediation effect of shyness was revealed for the relation between extraversion and anger expression-in.
Johansen, Katrine Bindesbøl Holm; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore: (1) how victims of stalking experience the phenomenon in their daily life, (2) how the nature of stalking informs the victim's internal coping strategies, and (3) how the victims' internal coping strategies negatively affect their daily life...... indicate that rather than the stalkers' harassment itself; it is the unpredictability of the stalkers' potential actions that inform the victims' primary coping strategy-self-regulation. Self-regulation consists of various strategies victims employ to avoid the stalker. Our analysis shows that self......-regulation as a coping strategy has social and psychological consequences for the victims, leading to various degrees of social isolation and apprehension. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that it is necessary to consider how professionals advise victims to cope with their situation as how legal measures should focus...
Boerhout, Cees; Swart, Marte; Voskamp, Marjon; Troquete, Nadine A C; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Hoek, Hans W
The objective is to evaluate a body and movement-oriented intervention on aggression regulation, specifically aimed towards reducing anger internalization in patients with an eating disorder. Patients were randomized to treatment-as-usual (TAU) plus the intervention (n = 38) or to TAU only (n = 32). The intervention was delivered by a psychomotor therapist. TAU consisted of multidisciplinary day treatment (3-5 days per week during 3-9 months). Anger coping (Self-Expression and Control Scale) and eating pathology (Eating Disorder Examination-Self-report Questionnaire) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Differences between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores were tested by using repeated measures ANOVA. The intervention group showed a significantly larger decrease of anger internalization than the control group (η 2 = 0.16, p = 0.001). Both groups showed a significant reduction in eating pathology, but differences between groups were not significant. A body and movement-oriented therapy seems a viable add-on for treating anger internalization in patients with an eating disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
He, Jie; Jin, Xinyi; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Xiang; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei
Anger is a negative emotion associated with approach motivation and may influence children's attention preference. Three experiments examined the effect of anger on the attentional biases accompanying reward versus punishment cues in Chinese 5- and 6-year-olds. Experiment 1 tested children who were prone to report angry feelings in an unfair game. Experiment 2 measured children who were rated by parents and teachers for temperamental anger. Experiment 3 explored children who reported angry feelings in a frustrating attention task with rigged and noncontingent feedback after controlling for temperament anger. Results suggested that both the angry and anger-prone children were faster to engage attention toward the reward cues than toward the punishment cues in the three experiments. Furthermore, the angry children in the frustrating attention task (and those with poor attention focusing by parental report) were slower in disengaging attention away from the reward versus punishment cues (especially after negative feedback). Results support the approach motivation of anger, which can facilitate children's attention toward the appetitive approach-related information. The findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive and maladaptive function of anger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Güleç, Hüseyin; Sayar, Kemal; Topbaş, Murat; Karkucak, Murat; Ak, Ismail
Fibromyalgia syndrome is characterized by both somatic and psychic symptoms and it is suggested that psychic factors contribute to the clinical presentation of this syndrome. This study was planned to have a better understanding of fibromyalgia through elaborating the role of alexithymia and anger in the pathogenesis of this illness. The study was carried out in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic with 101 women with fibromyalgia syndrome, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis and 59 healthy women with no current or past medical history. The subjects were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items, Spielberger State-Trait Anger Inventory, Beck Depression Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and a sociodemographic data form. All these groups were similar to each other in means of age, years of education, marital and economical status. In the fibromyalgia syndrome group, the scores of anxiety and anger-in were calculated significantly higher than other groups. The depression and alexithymia scores were found higher than healthy group. These findings suggest that fibromyalgia patients suffer more anxiety and anger toward oneself, which is anger-in, than rheumatoid arthritis patients. Though the patient groups were more alexithymic than the healthy group, alexitimia scores of the two patient groups were not different. This situation suggest that anger-in, which is suppressed and unexpressed anger style is a part of the fibromyalgia syndrome together as well as high anxiety.
Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Peters, Jessica R.; Pond, Richard S.; DeWall, C. Nathan
Trait mindfulness, or the capacity for nonjudgmental, present-centered attention, predicts lower aggression in cross-sectional samples, an effect mediated by reduced anger rumination. Experimental work also implicates state mindfulness (i.e., fluctuations around one's typical mindfulness) in aggression. Despite evidence that both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggression, their relative impact and their mechanisms remain unclear. Higher trait mindfulness and state increases in mindfulness facets may reduce aggression-related outcomes by (1) limiting the intensity of anger, or (2) limiting rumination on anger experiences. The present study tests two hypotheses: First, that both trait and state mindfulness contribute unique variance to lower aggressiveness, and second, that the impact of both trait and state mindfulness on aggressiveness will be uniquely partially mediated by both anger intensity and anger rumination. 86 participants completed trait measures of mindfulness, anger intensity, and anger rumination, then completed diaries for 35 days assessing mindfulness, anger intensity, anger rumination, anger expression, and self-reported and behavioral aggressiveness. Using multilevel zero-inflated regression, we examined unique contributions of trait and state mindfulness facets to daily anger expression and aggressiveness. We also examined the mediating roles of anger intensity and anger rumination at both trait and state levels. Mindfulness facets predicted anger expression and aggressiveness indirectly through anger rumination after controlling for indirect pathways through anger intensity. Individuals with high or fluctuating aggression may benefit from mindfulness training to reduce both intensity of and rumination on anger. PMID:27429667
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van Kleef, G.A.; van Dijk, E.; Steinel, W.; Harinck, F.; van Beest, I.
This paper reviews research on the role of anger in conflict.We distinguish between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of anger, the former referring to the impact of parties’ feelings of anger on their own behavior and the latter referring to the impact of one parties’ anger on the other’s
A Agha Yusefi
Full Text Available Objective: Given that drug addiction is not merely related to a specific individual or group, and few studies have investigated the role of anger in the development of drug addiction, this study was done to investigate the role of the components of anger in predicting addiction potential. Method: A descriptive-correlation research design was used for the conduct of this study. The number of 309 medical students in Kermanshah city was selected using stratified cluster sampling and completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS and Zargar’s addiction potential questionnaire. Results: The results showed that ate anger, trait anger, anger expression-out (AXO, anger expression-in (AXI, the overall index for the expression of anger were significantly associated with addiction potential. Similarly, anger control-out (ACO, anger control-in (ACI were correlated with addiction potential. In addition, the regression analysis results indicated that the components of state anger and anger expression-in (AXI together can predict 35% of changes related to addiction potential. Conclusion: State anger and anger expression-in (AXI as subjective components of anger have a significant role in predicting addiction potential among medical students. Anger management programs for medical students, as the most important segment of the society in the field of public health, are recommended to assign more credit to these two components.
Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Gondan, Matthias; Novaco, Raymond
Purpose. The present study of forensic hospital patients examined whether their imagination of violence is related to self-reported anger, psychological distress, and to staff observations of aggressive behaviour in hospital. In view of the relevance of psychological trauma for anger and aggression......, we further investigate whether the associations of imagined violence to anger and aggression are stronger when the patient has trauma-related intrusion symptoms. Methods. Participating male forensic inpatients (N = 54) were individually tested and followed-up for five months. Aggressive episodes were...... the follow-up period. Imagined violence and trauma-related intrusions separately contributed to anger and aggressive behaviour. Conclusions. The study calls attention to violent images as an important variable involved in aggressive responding. The role of violent images as a mediator of the well...
Aekyung Han, RN, PhD
Conclusions: Based on this research, the development of an anger expression intervention program for nurses is recommended to establish the means of expressing the suppressed emotions, which would help the nurses experience less interpersonal problems.
Vartanian, Lenny R; Thomas, Margaret A; Vanman, Eric J
Emotions form an important part of stereotyping and prejudice, but little is known about how intergroup emotions are associated with anti-fat prejudice. This study examined the relation between negative intergroup emotions (disgust, contempt, and anger) and the stereotypes of obese people. A community sample (n = 380) and an undergraduate sample (n = 96) rated obese people on common obesity stereotypes (e.g., lazy, sloppy), and also indicated the extent to which they felt disgust, contempt, and anger toward obese people. In both samples, participants reported feeling more disgust and contempt than anger toward obese people. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that disgust was a significant positive predictor of obesity stereotypes, but contempt and anger were not. Overall, these findings provide further evidence that disgust plays an important role in prejudice toward obese people.
The virtually unrelenting stress of practicing medicine in the United States today is undoubtedly exerting powerful negative effects on the mood and, by implication, the effectiveness of American plastic surgeons. The author points out that anger is at the root of malpractice claims and offers physicians advice on how to prepare their patients for the realities of plastic surgery. By creating an atmosphere of trust and partnership, physicians can relieve their patients' anxieties and diffuse their anger.
This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the context of rapid globalization where people are exposed to diverse cultural forces that may conflict with each other are particularly salient when dealing with anger. Anger frequently results from thwarted wants and needs. In globalizing developing economies, young people often face inequitable access and opportunities that may be cause for distress-anger and depression. However, the skills to deal with anger are frequently culturally determined and may not be effective in situations where multiple cultural rules are operational. For example, India being a collectivist culture traditionally encourages the suppression of anger. However, situations and rules of conduct in a global economic order require the assertive expression of anger and the confrontation of conflict. Research that is methodologically and culturally appropriate is needed in exploring these issues and ameliorating distress associated with inequity, conflicts, and challenges. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boerhout, Cees; Swart, Marte; Van Busschbach, Jooske T; Hoek, Hans W
The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of a brief body and movement oriented intervention on aggression regulation and eating disorder pathology for individuals with eating disorders. In a first randomized controlled trial, 40 women were allocated to either the aggression regulation intervention plus supportive contact or a control condition of supportive contact only. The intervention was delivered by a psychomotor therapist. Participants completed questionnaires on anger coping and eating disorder pathology. Independent samples t-tests were performed on the difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment scores. Twenty-nine participants completed questionnaires at pre-intervention and post-intervention. The intervention resulted in a significantly greater improvement of anger coping, as well as of eating disorder pathology. Results indicate that body and movement-oriented aggression regulation may be a viable add-on for treating eating disorders. It tackles a difficult to treat emotion which may have a role in blocking the entire process of treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Franzblau, Lauren; Chung, Kevin C
To understand psychosocial outcomes, coping and adjustment after complete avulsion traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI). We conducted a grounded theory analysis of 12 semi-structured patient interviews exploring psychosocial outcomes, augmented by quantitative evaluation of self-reported mental health and social functioning, body image and coping strategies obtained via three questionnaires (SF-36, Brief COPE and modified SWAP). Subjects' main sources of psychological stress were chronic pain, unemployment, decreased self-efficacy and social-emotional consequences of poor body image. One third of participants reported depression, half experienced anger and frustration and two-thirds were dissatisfied with the appearance of their affected limbs. Acceptance, active coping, planning and emotional support were the most frequently used coping strategies. Patients encounter high levels of physical and psychological stress after complete avulsion BPI and must find ways to cope to adjust to their injuries. They face similar challenges to patients with spinal cord injuries, for whom many models describing coping and adjustment exist. Similar models could facilitate more complete adjustment and rehabilitation of BPI patients and help to reduce the prevalence of negative stress responses, including anger and depression. Future patients would benefit from a multidisciplinary treatment program, involving medical and mental health services.
Noemi Peres HONORATO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual’s personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas , Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject’s personality (anger trait, temperament and character after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. CONCLUSION The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.
Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems
Lubke, G.H.; Ouwens, K.G.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Trull, T.J.; Boomsma, D.I.
Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by
Tsenkova, Vera K.; Carr, Deborah; Coe, Christopher L.; Ryff, Carol D.
OBJECTIVE Anger has been linked to cardiovascular disease, but few studies have examined the relationship between anger and type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate associations among different indicators of anger expression, adiposity, and nondiabetic glucose metabolism in a national survey of adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 939 adults without diabetes in the Midlife in the US study (MIDUS II). Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Spielberger’s Anger Expression inventory was used to measure suppressed anger (anger-in), expressed anger (anger-out), and controlled anger (anger-control). We investigated the relationship between anger and glucose metabolism, and whether anger amplified the adverse relationship between body weight distribution (body mass index=BMI and waist-to-hip ratio=WHR) and glucose metabolism. RESULTS Multivariate-adjusted analyses revealed an association between anger-out and both insulin and insulin resistance. As predicted, anger-in amplified the relationships between BMI and insulin and insulin resistance, while anger-out amplified the association between WHR and insulin and insulin resistance. Low anger-control was associated with higher glucose. None of the three anger measures was significantly associated with HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS Our findings extend previous research on anger as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes by demonstrating that anger expression is associated with clinical indicators of glycemic control, especially among those with pre-existing risk due to obesity and high central adiposity. PMID:23065351
Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…
Ng, Reuben; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo
Background: The New Freedom Commission on Mental Health urged that mental health services be transformed from a reactive approach of treatment to a proactive one of prevention and building resilience. In response, the present study delineates the role of resilience in reducing psychopathology. Objective: The study examined the mediational role of…
Hood, Suzanne; Amir, Shimon
The body's internal timekeeping system is an under-recognized but highly influential force in behaviors and emotions including anger and reactive aggression. Predictable cycles or rhythms in behavior are expressed on several different time scales such as circadian ( circa diem , or approximately 24-h rhythms) and infradian (exceeding 24 h, such as monthly or seasonal cycles). The circadian timekeeping system underlying rhythmic behaviors in mammals is constituted by a network of clocks distributed throughout the brain and body, the activity of which synchronizes to a central pacemaker, or master clock. Our daily experiences with the external environment including social activity strongly influence the exact timing of this network. In the present review, we examine evidence from a number of species and propose that anger and reactive aggression interact in multiple ways with circadian clocks. Specifically, we argue that: (i) there are predictable rhythms in the expression of aggression and anger; (ii) disruptions of the normal functioning of the circadian system increase the likelihood of aggressive behaviors; and (iii) conversely, chronic expression of anger can disrupt normal rhythmic cycles of physiological activities and create conditions for pathologies such as cardiovascular disease to develop. Taken together, these observations suggest that a comprehensive perspective on anger and reactive aggression must incorporate an understanding of the role of the circadian timing system in these intense affective states.
Milligan, Rhonda-Jane; Waller, Glenn; Andrews, Bernice
Women in prison have high levels of impulsive damaging behaviours, including disordered eating. In addition, they display pathological levels of the emotional precursors that have been associated with eating disorders, particularly anger. The present study examines levels of disordered eating behaviours in female prisoners, and whether those behaviours are associated with anger. The sample consisted of 91 sentenced women at a medium-sized prison in the UK. The women completed an interview-based screening tool for eating disorders, alongside a standardised measure of anger. Using the established cut-off on the measure concerned, 25% of the women were at risk for an eating disorder. This prevalence rate is exactly twice that observed in a non-eating-disordered community sample, using the same measure. Furthermore, different facets of anger were associated with different aspects of eating psychopathology. The most plausible explanation for this association appears to be that many women enter prison with high levels of anger-driven impulsivity, and that the constraints of the prison environment result in a focus on eating behaviours. Future research directions are discussed.
Full Text Available The body’s internal timekeeping system is an under-recognized but highly influential force in behaviors and emotions including anger and reactive aggression. Predictable cycles or rhythms in behavior are expressed on several different time scales such as circadian (circa diem, or approximately 24-h rhythms and infradian (exceeding 24 h, such as monthly or seasonal cycles. The circadian timekeeping system underlying rhythmic behaviors in mammals is constituted by a network of clocks distributed throughout the brain and body, the activity of which synchronizes to a central pacemaker, or master clock. Our daily experiences with the external environment including social activity strongly influence the exact timing of this network. In the present review, we examine evidence from a number of species and propose that anger and reactive aggression interact in multiple ways with circadian clocks. Specifically, we argue that: (i there are predictable rhythms in the expression of aggression and anger; (ii disruptions of the normal functioning of the circadian system increase the likelihood of aggressive behaviors; and (iii conversely, chronic expression of anger can disrupt normal rhythmic cycles of physiological activities and create conditions for pathologies such as cardiovascular disease to develop. Taken together, these observations suggest that a comprehensive perspective on anger and reactive aggression must incorporate an understanding of the role of the circadian timing system in these intense affective states.
Mill, Aire; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu
The main aim of the current study was to examine the role of co-occurring emotions and their interactive effects with the Big Five personality traits in anger expression. Everyday anger expression (“anger-in” and “anger-out” behavior) was studied with the experience-sampling method in a group of 110 participants for 14 consecutive days on 7 random occasions per day. Our results showed that the simultaneously co-occurring emotions that buffer against anger expression are sadness, surprise, disgust, disappointment, and irritation for anger-in behavior, and fear, sadness and disappointment for anger-out reactions. While previous studies have shown that differentiating one's current affect into discrete emotion categories buffers against anger expression (Pond et al., 2012), our study further demonstrated the existence of specific interactive effects between the experience of momentary emotions and personality traits that lead to higher levels of either suppression or expression of anger behavior (or both). For example, the interaction between the trait Openness and co-occurring surprise, in predicting anger-in behavior, indicates that less open people hold their anger back more, and more open people use less anger-in behavior. Co-occurring disgust increases anger-out reactions in people low in Conscientiousness, but decreases anger-out reactions in people high in Conscientiousness. People high in Neuroticism are less likely to engage in anger-in behavior when experiencing disgust, surprise, or irritation alongside anger, but show more anger out in the case of co-occurring contempt. The results of the current study help to further clarify the interactions between the basic personality traits and the experience of momentary co-occurring emotions in determining anger behavior. PMID:29479333
This paper describes Doing Anger Differently (DAD), a group treatment for young adolescent boys with high levels of anger. The approach is school-based, 10 weeks long, and utilizes music in the form of percussion to engage this difficult to treat population into treatment and to represent the experience of anger. A tri-level intervention is described: the experience of anger and its influence on action; the formation of meaning and identity resulting from anger and aggression; and the emphasis on group work and the interpersonal basis of anger. Techniques used throughout the group are discussed and illustrative case vignettes are provided.
van Wijk-Herbrink, Marjolein; Andrea, Helene; Verheul, Roel
This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a large sample of patients with PDs (n = 1,435). Explorative factor analyses indicated that the nine CERQ subscales can be clustered into three higher-order factors (adaptive coping, non-adaptive coping and external attribution style). When compared to a general population sample, the PD sample particularly scored higher on nonadaptive coping styles. A higher number of PDs was related to a particularly higher level of nonadaptive coping and less mature defensive functioning, but also to lower levels of adaptive coping and external attribution. This study is the first to suggest that three higher-order coping styles can be identified among PD patients, and that these coping styles are related to the presence and number of PDs.
Huizink, A.C.; Robles de Medina, P.G.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.
Background: In high-risk populations (e.g., adolescents, substance abusers), coping strategies in pregnancy have been :studied. Avoidance of the stressful situation and aggressive coping are frequently used and related to postnatal depression and other negative outcomes. Little is known about coping
Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Munezawa, Takeshi; Ikeda, Maki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Higuchi, Susumu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Suzuki, Kenji; Ohida, Takashi
This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of anger and impulsivity and its associated factors through a nationwide survey of junior and senior high school adolescent students in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire covering (1) personal data, (2) lifestyle, (3) mental health status, and (4) feelings of anger and impulsivity was distributed to junior and senior high school students in Japan. Among the total of 10,955 junior high schools and 5,115 senior high schools nationwide, 130 and 110 were randomly selected, respectively. Of those, 92 junior and 80 senior high schools participated in the survey. The survey period was from December 2008 to the end of January 2009. A total of 95,680 questionnaires were collected. After excluding invalid responses, the remaining 94,777 responses (response rate: 62.3%) were analyzed. From the questions regarding anger and impulsivity, 8.7% (95% CI, 8.5%-8.9%) and 7.5% (95% CI, 7.3%-7.7%) of the participants were considered to have experienced intense anger and impulsivity, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios for experiencing intense feelings of anger were significantly higher (all P values breakfast, did not wish to go to university, had short sleep duration, had decreased positive feelings, had increased depressive feelings, or used mobile phones for longer hours. The odds ratios for experiencing intense impulsivity were significantly higher among students who smoked, consumed alcohol, skipped breakfast, did not participate in club activities, had short sleep duration, had decreased positive feelings, had increased depressive feelings, or used mobile phones for longer hours. The results suggest that healthy lifestyle habits, good sleep habits, and improved mental health are important for preventing intense feelings of anger and impulsivity among adolescents. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke
Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability-anger
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to investigate the psychological profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS as compared to patients with other chronic pain syndromes (CP and healthy subjects (HS; 2 to examine the associations between anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination in FS patients. FS patients (N=30, CP patients (N=30 and HS (N=30 completed measurements of anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination. FS patients showed higher levels of state and trait anxiety, worry and angry rumination than CP patients and HS, and higher levels of depression than HS. Worry and angry rumination were strongly associated in the FS group. FS patients may use worry and rumination as coping strategies to deal with their negative emotional experience, which might impair their emotional wellbeing. Findings from the present study add to our understanding of the psychological profile of FS patients, and have important implications for developing a tailored CBT protocol for pain management in FS patients.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.
Full Text Available ... Failure Living With HF and Advanced HF High Blood Pressure Get the Facts About High Blood Pressure Know Your Numbers Understand Symptoms & Risks Learn ... But frequent or extreme anger can cause your blood pressure and heart rate to rise, and make ...
Full Text Available ... Living With HF and Advanced HF High Blood Pressure Get the Facts About High Blood Pressure Know Your Numbers Understand Symptoms & Risks Learn How ... frequent or extreme anger can cause your blood pressure and heart rate to rise, and make your ...
Shea, M. T
The long-term goal of this research is to provide an effective intervention for the prevention of secondary and escalating effects of poor anger control associated with trauma-related anger problems...
Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.
Meffert, Susan M.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon; Inslicht, Sabra; Chemtob, Claude; Neylan, Thomas; Marmar, Charles R.
It is unknown whether anger is a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, arises as a consequence of PTSD, or both. Two hypotheses were tested in 180 police recruits: Greater trait anger during training will predict greater PTSD symptoms at one year; greater PTSD symptoms at one year will predict greater state anger at one year. Both hypotheses were confirmed, suggesting that trait anger is a risk factor for PTSD symptoms, but that PTSD symptoms are al...
Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.
Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy
We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.
Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Ahmad, Nor Shafrin; Khairani, Mohd Zahuri
Adolescences is an important transitional phase in human development where they experience physiological as well as psychological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are often understood by teachers, parents, and even the adolescents themselves. Thus, conflicts exist and adolescents are affected from the conflict physically and emotionally. An important state of emotions that result from this conflict is anger. This article describes the development and validation of the 34-item Adolescent Anger Inventory (AAI) to measure types of anger among Malaysian adolescents. A sample of 2,834 adolescents in secondary school who provide responses that were analyzed using Rasch model measurement framework. The 4 response category worked satisfactorily for the scale developed. A total of 11 items did not fit to the model's expectations, and thus dropped from the final scale. The scale also demonstrated satisfactory reliability and separation evidence. Also, items in the AAI depicted no evidence of DIF between 14- and 16-year-old adolescents. Nevertheless, the AAI did not have sufficient items to target adolescents with a high level of physical aggressive anger.
Çevik, Gülsen Büyüksahin
The current research aims to study university students' levels of anger and satisfaction with life, based on gender, years of attendance, accommodation, and whether they experience adjustment problems. The current research participants included a total of 484 individuals (X-bar age = 22.56; SD = 1.72; range = 19-37), with 269 (55.6%) males and 215…
Ho, Betty P. V.; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark
Anger related behaviours such as aggression are known to be an area of difficulty for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A national internet forum for parents of children with ASD was selected out of other similar forums from six English speaking countries. Information about the angry episodes of 121 children with ASD as described by…
Graham, Jennifer E.; Lobel, Marci; DeLuca, Robyn Stein
Other than postpartum depression, little is known about women's emotional responses to childbirth and subsequent stressors. Anger was explored on the basis of theory and evidence that it is a likely emotional response in this context. During their third trimester of pregnancy and approximately six weeks after delivery, 163 participants completed…
Preventive safety system of vehicle is highlighted to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Driver's state adaptive driving safety system may be one of candidates of the safety system. Identifying driver's psychosomatic states is indispensable to establish those safety systems. Anger of driver state is often seen in traffic ...
Data analysis was performed with descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, percentage) using SPSS software. Results: The mean of the knowledge of the physicians and nurses of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences from the psychological skills of anger management was 30.2 (standard deviation is equal to 1.53) that ...
Wagner, Valentin; Klein, Julian; Hanich, Julian; Shah, Mira; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobsen, Thomas
We investigated cognitive “art schema” effects—as resulting from framing a situation as one of art reception—on the enjoyability of negative emotions by means of an elaborate disguised anger induction in the field. Because situations of both art reception and participation in lab experiments are
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio
Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…
Jackson, Jennifer; Kuppens, Peter; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
The expression of anger is considered to be abnormal in depression, yet its role is only poorly understood. In the present study we sought to clarify this role by examining the moderating influence of the family environment on overall levels of anger expression and anger reactivity in depressed and non-depressed adolescents during conflictual…
Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…
Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Dervisevic, Ajla; Stenager, Elsebeth
No systematic research has been conducted to determine whether anger-prone and potentially externalizing, aggressive individuals have anger bias when perceiving facial expressions within neuropsychological paradigms. However, such knowledge is relevant because anger bias may be a cognitive pathway...... that mediates aggression in individuals susceptible to externalizing behavior. This paper therefore aims to clarify whether anger-prone and aggressive populations are emotionally biased towards perceiving others as angry and hostile when processing facial expressions in neuropsychological paradigms......, it involved a broader bias pattern where anger and hostility were perceived from ambiguous and even unambiguous non-hostile expressions. The review provides preliminary evidence that anger-prone and aggressive populations are characterized by bias towards perceiving others as angry and hostile when processing...
Kwon, Kyongboon; Hanrahan, Amanda R.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.
We examined emotional expressivity (i.e., happiness, sadness, and anger) and emotion regulation (regulation of exuberance, sadness, and anger) as they relate to academic functioning (motivation, engagement, and achievement). Also, we tested the premise that emotional expressivity and emotion regulation are indirectly associated with achievement…
Miron-Spektor, Ella; Efrat-Treister, Dorit; Rafaeli, Anat; Schwarz-Cohen, Orit
The authors examine whether and how observing anger influences thinking processes and problem-solving ability. In 3 studies, the authors show that participants who listened to an angry customer were more successful in solving analytic problems, but less successful in solving creative problems compared with participants who listened to an…
Sofia Zyga; Evmorfia Koukia; Antonios Travlos; Stavroula Mitrousi
Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar ...
Moeller, Stine Bjerrum; Novaco, Raymond; Heinola-Nielsen, Vivian
Anger has high prevalence in clinical and forensic settings, and it is associated with aggressive behavior and ward atmosphere on psychiatric units. Dysregulated anger is a clinical problem in Danish mental health care systems, but no anger assessment instruments have been validated in Danish...... investigated with samples of 477 nonclinical, 250 clinical, 167 male prisoner, and 64 male forensic participants. Anger prevalence and its relationship with other anger measures, anxiety/depression, and aggression were examined. NAS-PI was found to have high reliability, concurrent validity, and discriminant...
Tan, Lin; Smith, Cynthia L
Drawing from the functional theory of emotion, anger is proposed to serve adaptive functions such as motivating children to persist in overcoming difficulties to achieve their goals, whereas sadness helps children to shift attention away from goals that they determine cannot be attained. Despite the theorized importance of anger to persistence, it does not always relate to persistence in expected ways empirically; the role that sadness might play in how anger relates to persistence is often not considered even though children often experience both anger and sadness when goals are blocked. We hypothesized that how anger relates to persistence would depend on the level of sadness that children felt and, thus, tested sadness as a moderator of the relation of anger to persistence. We expected that the relation of anger to persistence would be stronger when sadness is lower. Child anger, sadness, and persistence were observed in a locked-box frustration task when children were 4 or 5 years old (N = 116). Although higher levels of child anger were associated with more persistence, the association between anger and persistence was stronger when sadness was lower than when sadness was higher. The findings indicate that children's ability to use the motivational aspects of anger to promote persistence may depend on the levels of sadness felt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lotfian, Sara; Ziaee, Vahid; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali
The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n = 70) or karate (n = 66), while the control group was composed of swimmers (n = 59) and nonathletes (n = 96). Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.001) decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers. PMID:22164178
Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sara; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Memari, Amir-Hossein
Objective Karate and judo are originally Japanese martial arts which may have different influences on adolescents’ behavior. This study was conducted to examine the total anger rate and its subscale-reactive anger, instrumental anger, and anger control-rates in young karateka and judoka. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 to 19-year old boys. Adolescents included in the study were judoka (n=70), karateka (n=66), swimmers (n=59), and non athletes (n=96). One stage cluster sampling method was used to select judoka, karateka, and swimmers from sport clubs in Tehran. Students of governmental schools at the same area were chosen as the non-athletes group. The “Adolescent Anger Rating Scale” questionnaire was utilized to assess the anger rate. Findings The mean age of participants was 12.90(±2.06) years. The total anger rates were 45.40 (±5.61) in judoka, 41.53(±5.63) in karateka, 41.19(±5.33) in swimmers, and 45.44 (±8.58) in non athletes. In total anger scale karateka and swimmers had a significantly lower score compared to judoka and non athletes. In instrumental anger subscale the difference was significant just between karateka and non athletes. In reactive anger subscale judoka showed higher scores than swimmers. In anger control subscale the difference was significant between judoka and swimmers and also judoka and karateka. The difference of anger control between karateka and non athletes was significant. Conclusion The findings of this study propose a difference in the anger rate between judoka and karateka. In contrary to the results of previous studies, judo training may have no influence on anger control, while karate training could be beneficial. PMID:23056853
Cha, N H; Sok, S R
According to previous studies, nursing students' anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem significantly affected the physical and mental well-being of patients. It is of utmost importance that the relationship among them is thoroughly investigated in this study. The purpose of this study was to examine the degrees of anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem of Korean nursing students and to examine the correlations among them. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The subjects consisted of 320 Korean nursing students at colleges in S and G city, Korea. The measurements were based on the Korean standard STAXI (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revision) and SLCS-R (Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale-Revised Version). In the analysis of the degrees of variances, the subjects showed lower anger repression, anger expression, control of anger and depression. The degree of self-esteem revealed a higher than the median value. There were significant correlations among anger expression patterns (anger repression, anger expression and anger control), depression and self-esteem. The study limitations were the degree of representativeness of the setting and sample, and its generalizability. Based on the findings of this study, interventions are needed for Korean nursing students in order to promote anger management and improved self-esteem. The development of an anger control programme for nursing students should focus on lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. One of the policy issues focused on providing anger management programmes for lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. This study will enable nursing students to recognize the importance of controlling their anger, enhancing their self-esteem, establishing positive emotions and improving their overall well-being as future professional nurses. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H; Holt, Cheryl L
Prospective research indicates that poor emotional functioning predicts obesity. The maladaptive coping hypothesis proposes that unhealthy eating is used to regulate emotion, leading to obesity. Given research suggesting that many utilize religion to cope with distress, we hypothesized that positive and negative religious coping would moderate links between emotional functioning and obesity. In addition, previous research focused on Christians and the relevance of religious coping to the Jewish context, where obesity may be of particular concern, was examined. 212 Jewish participants completed self-report health and emotional functioning measures as well as the Jewish Religious Coping scale. Moderation analysis indicated that negative coping had no effect, while positive coping was a significant moderator. Specifically, poor emotional functioning predicted increased obesity among those with low, but not high, positive religious coping. This effect remained even after several possible confounding factors were controlled for, and the effect was large. These findings further support the maladaptive coping hypothesis, indicating that religious coping may provide an alternative strategy to maladaptive eating. They also illustrate a possible mechanism by which religiosity correlates with better health and support the relevance of religious coping to the Jewish context.
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Inês; Barbosa, António; Barroso, Eduardo; Monteiro, Estela
The theoretical model of coping mechanisms (CM), is based on a discussion between it's main determinant factors: individual and situational (related to the 2 approaches of coping: dispositional and constitutional). Actually the most used classification of CM is based on the division of CM in two main dimensions: coping focused on emotions and coping focused on problem resolution. It is essential that classification methods of CM have in consideration the coexistence of stable dispositional elements with a situational variability. Some instruments to evaluate CM are introduced, based on different theories. Coping can influence health threw different mechanisms (neuroendocrine system, health threatening behaviours and adherence) and is included in two of the more important theoretical models applied to health (Moos & Schafer's and Leventhal's). Based on a systematic literature review we concluded that the most prevalent CM in pre transplantation period are acceptance, active coping, seeking support, and the less used are self-blame and avoidance. In post transplantation period the more prevalent CM continue to be active coping and seeking support associated to confrontation, selfconfidence, religion and coping focused in the problem. Evasive, emotive and fatalistic CM are associated to less control sensed by patients. Confrontation is associated to a better quality of life and avoidance to a reduction of quality of life and higher depression levels and denial to non-adherence increase. Control sensed by patients, CM related to the expression of emotions and denial change threw clinical evolution of transplanted patients.
Cooper, Denise C; Thayer, Julian F; Waldstein, Shari R
Prayer is often used to cope with racism-related stress. Little is known about its impact on cardiovascular function. This study examined how prayer coping relates to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), post-stress recovery, and affective reactivity in response to racism-related stress. African American women (n =81; mean age=20 years) reported their use of prayer coping on the Perceived Racism Scale and completed anger recall and racism recall tasks while undergoing monitoring of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and hemodynamic measures. Prayer coping was examined for associations with CVR, recovery, and affective change scores using general linear models with repeated measures. Higher prayer coping was associated with decreased state stress and DBP reactivity during racism recall (p'sracism recall recovery(p'sracism by utilizing prayer may have cardiovascular benefits for African American women.
Full Text Available La modélisation chrono-chorématique d’Angers (Maine-et-Loire du Ier siècle av. J.-C. au XIIIe siècle rend aisément lisibles les éléments majeurs de la topographie historique, dépassant le niveau du point pour atteindre celui de la surface. La confrontation des modèles obtenus permet de repérer les transformations et les persistances et met en évidence la dynamique urbaine. La confrontation avec des modèles théoriques replace Angers par rapport à un idéal-type et met en avant les spécificités propres à l’objet d’étude.
Jatteau, Michel; Lelong, Pierre; Normand, Gerard; Ott, Jean; Pauvert, Joseph; Pergrale, Jean
Most of the radionuclide imaging equipments used for the diagnosis in nuclear medicine include a scintillation camera of the Anger type. Following a period of camera improvements connected to pure technological advances, perfecting the camera can only result nowadays from more thorough studies based on numerical approaches and computer simulations. Two important contributions to an optimization study of Anger gamma-ray cameras are presented, the first one being related to the light collection by the photomultiplier tubes, i.e. one of the processes which determine for a large part the performance parameters; the second one being connected to the computation of the intrinsic geometrical and spectral resolutions, which are two of the main characteristics acting on the image quality. The validity of computer simulation is shown by comparison between theoretical and experimental results before the simulation programmes to study the influence of various parameters are used [fr
Manolete S. Moscoso
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to focus on unique issues that are encountered in the crosscultural adaptation of measures of emotions. We take into consideration the cross-cultural equivalence of the concept of emotion, and how cultural differences influence the meaning of words that are utilized to describe these concepts. The critical need to take the state-trait distinction into account in adapting measures of emotional states and personality traits is then discussed. The effects of language and culture in adapting measures of the experience, expression, and control of anger in Latin-America are also reviewed. The construction of the Latin American Multicultural State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory is described.
Full Text Available The author considers the phenomenon of honor (timē by examining Aristotle’s description of it and its role in ethical and political life. His study of honor leads him to two related phenomena, anger (orgē and belittlement or contempt (oligōria; examining them helps him define honor more precisely. With his examination of honor the author shows how densely interwoven Aristotle’s ethical theory is; he illuminates such diverse things as the human good, political life and friendship, virtue, vice, incontinence, flattery, wealth and pleasure; he shows how the metaphysical principles of dunamis and energeia are at work in human affairs; he treats the passion of anger as well as the moral attitude of contempt that provokes it, and he situates both within the study of rhetoric.
Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM
Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts
Lindebaum, Dirk; Geddes, Deanna
The aim of this article is to conceptually delineate moral anger from other related constructs. Drawing upon social functional accounts of anger, we contend that distilling the finer nuances of morally motivated anger and its expression can increase the precision with which we examine prosocial forms of anger (e.g., redressing injustice), in general, and moral anger, in particular. Without this differentiation, we assert that (i) moral anger remains theoretically elusive, (ii) that this thwarts our ability to methodologically capture the unique variance moral anger can explain in important work outcomes, and that (iii) this can promote ill-informed organizational policies and practice. We offer a four-factor definition of moral anger and demonstrate the utility of this characterization as a distinct construct with application for workplace phenomena such as, but not limited to, whistle-blowing. Next, we outline a future research agenda, including how to operationalize the construct and address issues of construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Finally, we argue for greater appreciation of anger's prosocial functions and concomitant understanding that many anger displays can be justified and lack harmful intent. If allowed and addressed with interest and concern, these emotional displays can lead to improved organizational practice. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estlander, Ann-Mari; Knaster, Peter; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
There is an abundance of studies concerning depression and pain, while the mechanisms and the relationships of anger expression and pain are less well known. The validity of commonly used depression questionnaires as measures of depression in pain patients has been questioned, as they include items which can be related to the pain problem as well as to signs of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pain severity, various signs of depression, and anger management style. Subjects were 100 consecutive patients referred to the Helsinki University Pain Clinic. Demographic data and pain intensity (VAS) were collected by a questionnaire. Two subscales (negative view and physical function) from the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anger Expression Scales (Anger-in and Anger-out) from the Spielberg State Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 were used to assess depression and anger expression, respectively. The results showed that pain severity modulates the relationship between anger expression and physical signs of depression. In patients with more severe pain, the relationships between anger management style, specifically, inhibition of anger and depression were strong, while no such relationships were found in the group of patients with less severe pain. No correlations were found between pain intensity and depression as measured by the sum score of the BDI. However, analysing separately the two subscales of the BDI, negative view and physical function, significant positive relationships between pain intensity and both subscales appeared.
Summary The aim of this article is to conceptually delineate moral anger from other related constructs. Drawing upon social functional accounts of anger, we contend that distilling the finer nuances of morally motivated anger and its expression can increase the precision with which we examine prosocial forms of anger (e.g., redressing injustice), in general, and moral anger, in particular. Without this differentiation, we assert that (i) moral anger remains theoretically elusive, (ii) that this thwarts our ability to methodologically capture the unique variance moral anger can explain in important work outcomes, and that (iii) this can promote ill‐informed organizational policies and practice. We offer a four‐factor definition of moral anger and demonstrate the utility of this characterization as a distinct construct with application for workplace phenomena such as, but not limited to, whistle‐blowing. Next, we outline a future research agenda, including how to operationalize the construct and address issues of construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Finally, we argue for greater appreciation of anger's prosocial functions and concomitant understanding that many anger displays can be justified and lack harmful intent. If allowed and addressed with interest and concern, these emotional displays can lead to improved organizational practice. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27773966
Kartal Yağız, Ayşegül; Kuğu, Nesim; Semiz, Murat; Kavakçı, Önder
The aim of the present study was to investigate both the prevalence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and itsassociation of trait anger and anger expression, eating attitudes and body perceptions in university students having the said disorder. One thousand students from Cumhuriyet University were included in the study. During the initial stage, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and socio-demographic data form were administered to the students. Those obtaining 30 points or more in LSAS were called for a psychiatric interview. The students diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (n=87) and the control group (n=87) were administered Eating Attitude Test (EAT), Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) and The State Trait Anger Scale (STAXI). The point prevalence of social anxiety disorder was found to be 9.4% in those attending the study. Trait anger, anger-in and anger-out scores were statistically significantly higher; anger control and multidimensional body-self relations scale points were statistically lower at the SAB group when compared to the control group. The MBSRQ scores correlated negatively, while the EAT scores correlated positively, with anger-in scores in students with SAD. SAD is a common disorder in university students. Our study, showed that repressed anger could adversely affect body image and eating behaviors in SAD. In students having social anxiety disorder, approaches aiming at appropriate anger expression and positive body perception may yield positive results to treatment in students with SAD.
Full Text Available Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises on anger management. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Specific exercise was planned for anger management based on a thorough literature review, which consisted of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises (brisk walking and jogging to be taught in a two-week period. Results: Anger was assessed by using standardised tool and after intervention for fifteen days, significant reduction in anger score was found in experimental group. Conclusion: Physical exercises were found to be effective for managing the anger among substance dependence subjects.
Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Lewis, Tené T.; Coe, Christopher L.; Ryff, Carol D.
Background Racial differences in anger frequency and expression styles have been found. Further, African Americans receive fewer health benefits from higher education than Whites. Purpose To investigate racial differences in how anger moderates the association between education and inflammation. Methods Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) participants (N = 1,200; 43.0% male; 18.5% African American) provided education and anger data via survey assessments. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen were determined from a fasting blood sample following an overnight clinic visit. Results African Americans reported higher anger-out, IL-6, and fibrinogen and lower anger-control than Whites. Anger-out predicted higher IL-6 and fibrinogen among African Americans with higher education, whereas trait anger and anger-out predicted lower fibrinogen among Whites with higher education. Anger-out marginally predicted higher IL-6 in less educated Whites. Conclusions Findings underscore racial differences in the benefits and consequences of educational attainment, and how social inequities and anger are manifest in inflammatory physiology. PMID:25715901
Gayathri S. Prabhu
Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to determine the practice of students in good anger management skills and to what extent their anger can affect their studies, work, and social interactions. In this study the relationship between anger management and the effects on the mental health of medical students was evaluated. A survey was also done to determine duration of the feeling of anger which lasts among medical students and its consequences. Materials and Methods. A newly developed questionnaire was utilized which included a simplified version of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory and the modified Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (to measure the mental health. Results. The data suggests that although students with high anger tendencies display poor mental health, there is no lowering of the mental health/PHQ-9 score as the anger management technique’s effectiveness rises. “Friends” was cited as the major triggering factor for anger, whereby the feelings can last for up to a day and somewhat affect their concentration on normal activities. Conclusion. When anger is suppressed and not let out, it can be an underlying factor for anxiety and depression. Therefore, more emphasis needs to be placed on educating students on how to manage their anger especially in a stressful environment away from home.
Víctor Marín Puchades
Full Text Available Road anger constitutes one of the determinant factors related to safety outcomes (e.g., accidents, near misses. Although cyclists are considered vulnerable road users due to their relatively high rate of fatalities in traffic, previous research has solely focused on car drivers, and no study has yet investigated the effect of anger on cyclists’ safety outcomes. The present research aims to investigate, for the first time, the effects of cycling anger toward different types of road users on near misses involving such road users and near misses in general. Using a daily diary web-based questionnaire, we collected data about daily trips, bicycle use, near misses experienced, cyclist’s anger and demographic information from 254 Spanish cyclists. Poisson regression was used to assess the association of cycling anger with near misses, which is a count variable. No relationship was found between general cycling anger and near misses occurrence. Anger toward specific road users had different effects on the probability of near misses with different road users. Anger toward the interaction with car drivers increased the probability of near misses involving cyclists and pedestrians. Anger toward interaction with pedestrians was associated with higher probability of near misses with pedestrians. Anger toward cyclists exerted no effect on the probability of near misses with any road user (i.e., car drivers, cyclists or pedestrians, whereas anger toward the interactions with the police had a diminishing effect on the occurrence of near misses’ involving all types of road users. The present study demonstrated that the effect of road anger on safety outcomes among cyclists is different from that of motorists. Moreover, the target of anger played an important role on safety both for the cyclist and the specific road users. Possible explanations for these differences are based on the difference in status and power with motorists, as well as on the potential
Koh, Kyung Bong; Kim, Dong Kee; Kim, Shin Young; Park, Joong Kyu; Han, Mooyoung
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between anger management style, depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder patients. The subjects comprised 71 patients with anxiety disorders and 47 with somatoform disorders. The level of anger expression or anger suppression was assessed by the Anger Expression Scale, the severity of anxiety and depression by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) anxiety and depression subscales, and the severity of somatic symptoms by the Somatization Rating Scale and the SCL-90-R somatization subscale. The results of path analyses showed that anger suppression had only an indirect effect on somatic symptoms through depression and anxiety in each of the disorders. In addition, only anxiety had a direct effect on somatic symptoms in anxiety disorder patients, whereas both anxiety and depression had direct effects on somatic symptoms in somatoform disorder patients. However, the anxiety disorder group showed a significant negative correlation between anger expression and anger suppression in the path from anger-out to anger-in to depression to anxiety to somatic symptoms, unlike the somatoform disorder group. The results suggest that anger suppression, but not anger expression, is associated with mood, i.e. depression and anxiety, and somatic symptoms characterize anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder patients. Anxiety is likely to be an important source of somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders, whereas both anxiety and depression are likely to be important sources of somatic symptoms in somatoform disorders. In addition, anger suppression preceded by inhibited anger expression is associated with anxiety and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders.
Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P
Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Turner, Monique Mitchell; Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth; Vallone, Donna
Turner's Anger Activism Model (AAM) contends anger and efficacy interact in a unique way to determine message responses to campaign materials. This study tested the AAM using responses to 2 truth antismoking advertisements collected in August-October 2014 via an online, cross-sectional survey of 15- to 21-year-olds. Those aware of each of the truth advertisements (n = 319 for each) were organized into 4 anger/efficacy groups. Analysis of variance and regressions were conducted to understand group differences in message-related cognitions (persuasiveness, receptivity, conversation). Message cognitions were highest among the high anger/high efficacy group and lowest among the low anger/low efficacy group.
Steinmann, Ravit; Gat, Inbal; Nir-Gottlieb, Ofir; Shahar, Ben; Diamond, Gary M
Twenty-six clients who received 10 sessions of either attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) or individual emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for unresolved anger toward a parent were interviewed 6 months after completing treatment. Interviews were analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. Clients in both conditions reported improved relationships with parents, gaining a new perspective of their parent, increased compassion toward parent, less reactivity to anger, feeling cleaned-out, and acquiring new coping strategies. Whereas ABFT clients more often reported improved relationships with parents, EFT clients more often reported feeling cleaned-out. Clients in both groups attributed change to productive emotional processing. Also, clients in both groups attributed change to saying difficult things that had never been said before directly to parents, though more so in ABFT. Whereas ABFT clients noted the importance of their parents participating in treatment and mutual vulnerability, EFT clients noted the importance of remembering previously avoided memories and feelings, and getting their anger of their chest. While some EFT clients reported that therapy had a negative impact on their relationship with their parents and increased their anger, some ABFT clients reported that the positive impact of therapy during the active phase of treatment did not last, though there were no meaningful between-groups differences regarding these negative treatment outcomes and processes. Results are discussed in the context of previous quantitative findings from the same sample, and in the context of prior research on experiential and emotion-focused therapies. Implications for future research are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
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Van't Riet, Jonathan; Schaap, Gabi; Kleemans, Mariska
Anger expression is increasingly prevalent in Western mass media, particularly in messages that aim to persuade the audience of a certain point of view. There is a dearth of research, however, investigating whether expressing anger in mediated messages is indeed effective as a persuasive strategy. In the present research, the results of four experiments showed that expressing anger in a persuasive message was perceived as less socially appropriate than expressing non-emotional disagreement. There was also evidence that perceived appropriateness mediated a negative persuasive effect of anger expression (Study 2-4) and that anger expression resulted in perceptions of the persuasive source as unfriendly and incompetent (Studies 1 and 2). In all, the findings suggest that politicians and other public figures should be cautious in using anger as a persuasive instrument.
Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, Jiyoung; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Miyamoto, Yuri; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Karasawa, Mayumi; Coe, Christopher L.; Kawakami, Norito; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol D.
Expression of anger is associated with biological health risk (BHR) in Western cultures. However, recent evidence documenting culturally divergent functions of anger expression suggests that the link between anger expression and BHR may be moderated by culture. To test this prediction, we examined large probability samples of both Japanese and Americans with multiple measures of BHR including pro-inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and indices of cardiovascular malfunction (systolic blood pressure and Total/HDL cholesterol ratio). We found that the positive link between anger expression and increased BHR was robust for Americans. As predicted, however, this association was diametrically reversed for Japanese, with anger expression predicting reduced BHR. The pattern was unique to the expressive facet of anger and remained after controlling for age, gender, health status, health behaviors, social status, and reported experience of negative emotions. Implications for socio-cultural modulation of bio-physiological responses are discussed. PMID:25564521
Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Burgess, Emilee E; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E
Psychological characteristics associated with eating motives of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) were identified in 192 undergraduates. Coping was characterized by greater BMI, emotion-triggered eating, and eating concern and also by binge-eating and perceived stress reactivity in females. Reward Enhancement was characterized by greater BMI, anxiety- and depression-eating in females and by anger/frustration-eating in males. Conformity was strongly characterized by binge-eating and by failure-based stress and all eating disorder traits in females and by anger/frustration- and anxiety-eating in males. The sex-divergent patterns of these traits across PEMS motives highlight the heterogeneity of hedonic eating. The traits may also be maintaining the motives, hence adresseing them should improve treatments for obesity, binge-eating, and foster healthier coping, reward, and psychosocial interactions.
Cardenal, Violeta; Cerezo, M Victoria; Martínez, Joaquina; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; José Blanca, M
This study had a twofold goal: to define differences in psychological aspects between cancer patients and a control group and to explore the predictive value of such aspects for the evolution of the disease two years later. Firstly, personality, anxiety, anger and depression were assessed in both groups. Results of t-analyses revealed significant group differences. In personality, cancer patients had higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness than the control group. In emotional variables, cancer patients had higher levels of anxiety and some aspects of anger, but there were no group differences in depression levels. Secondly, applying a quasi-prospective design, the predictive value of personality, emotions and coping styles for the evolution of cancer (favourable or unfavourable) was explored using generalized linear models and logistic regression. A four-predictor logistic model was fitted: Anger Expression-In, Resignation, Self-blame and Conscientiousness, indicating that the higher Anger Expression-in, Resignation, and Self-blame scores together with a lower Conscientiousness score, the more likely it is for patients' cancer to evolve unfavourably. These results indicate the crucial role of psychological aspects for the evolution of the disease and the need to include such aspects in the design of clinical interventions.
Amianto, Federico; Siccardi, Sara; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Fassino, Secondo
The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saldaña, Eva; Quiles, Yolanda; Martín, Nuria; del Pilar Salorio, Ma
This work was undertaken to analyze general levels of anger in patients with eating disorders (ED) compared to a normative group, diagnosis-dependent differences in expressing anger, and the relation between anger dimensions and specific items of the Eating Disorder Inventory, third revision (EDI-3) (emotional dysregulation, interpersonal deficit, low self-esteem, and asceticism) and body mass index (BMI). The study participants were 58 women with a diagnosis of ED hospitalized at the Reina Sofia General University Hospital in Murcia. The women had a mean age of 25.68 (SD=7.00) years. The distribution of ED diagnoses was 27.58% anorexia nervosa with food restriction (AN-R), 15.51% anorexia nervosa with purging (AN-P), 41.37% bulimia nervosa (BN), and 15.51% eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). ED was evaluated using the EDI-3 and anger was assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-2 (STAXI-2). The general anger levels of the patients with ED were higher than those of the normative group compared. Patients diagnosed of AN-R had significantly higher scores than patients diagnosed of BN on the internal control of anger scale. The emotional dysregulation, interpersonal deficit, low self-esteem, and asceticism scales correlated significantly with different anger dimensions. No significant relation was found between body mass index (BMI) and anger. These results show the importance of including anger management in any therapeutic approach to EDs.
Exline, Julie J; Krause, Steven J; Broer, Karen A
This study examined anger and protest behaviors toward God among 80 US adults seeking treatment for chronic headaches (66 women, 14 men; 71 completed treatment). Measures were administered before and after an intensive 3-week outpatient treatment program. At both times, anger and protest toward God correlated with lower pain acceptance, more emotional distress, and greater perceived disability. However, when considered simultaneously, anger predicted sustained distress, whereas protest behaviors (e.g., complaining, questioning, arguing) predicted both reduced distress and an increased sense of meaning. These findings suggest the utility of distinguishing between anger toward God and behaviors suggesting assertiveness toward God.
Sinaceur, Marwan; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Neale, Margaret A; Adam, Hajo; Haag, Christophe
Is communicating anger or threats more effective in eliciting concessions in negotiation? Recent research has emphasized the effectiveness of anger communication, an emotional strategy. In this article, we argue that anger communication conveys an implied threat, and we document that issuing threats is a more effective negotiation strategy than communicating anger. In 3 computer-mediated negotiation experiments, participants received either angry or threatening messages from a simulated counterpart. Experiment 1 showed that perceptions of threat mediated the effect of anger (vs. a control) on concessions. Experiment 2 showed that (a) threat communication elicited greater concessions than anger communication and (b) poise (being confident and in control of one's own feelings and decisions) ascribed to the counterpart mediated the positive effect of threat compared to anger on concessions. Experiment 3 replicated this positive effect of threat over anger when recipients had an attractive alternative to a negotiated agreement. These findings qualify previous research on anger communication in negotiation. Implications for the understanding of emotion and negotiation are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Garcia-Silva, Jaqueline; Navarrete Navarrete, Nuria; Ruano Rodríguez, Ana; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel; Mediavilla García, Juan Diego; Caballo, Vicente E
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic conditions that include abdominal obesity, reduction in cholesterol concentrations linked to high density lipoproteins (HLDc), elevated triglycerides, increased blood pressure and hyperglycaemia. Given that this is a multicausal disease, the aim of this study is to identify the psychological, emotional and lifestyle variables that can have an influence on the different MetS components. A cross-sectional study with 103 patients with diagnostic criteria for MetS (47 male and 56 female). Anthropometric, clinical and analytical measurements were collected to assess the variables associated with MetS. The main psychological and emotional variables were also assessed. Different multiple linear regression tests were performed to identify which variables were predictive of MetS. The dependent variables were body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference, HDLc, and quality of life, and the predictive variables were psychological stress, anger and adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The results showed that psychological stress was a predictor of quality of life (β=-0.55, P≤0). Similarly, anger was a predictor of BMI (β=0.23, P=.047) and abdominal circumference (β=0.27, P=.021). As expected, adherence to a Mediterranean diet was a predictor of HDLc (β=0.2, P=.045) and of quality of life (β=-0.18, P=.031). The results confirm a link between adherence to certain dietary habits and lifestyle, however they go one step further and show the importance of psychological and emotional factors like psychological stress and anger in some MetS components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.
Muller, L; Spitz, E
This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for
Laura K. Gee
Full Text Available The ability to punish free-riders can increase the provision of public goods. However, sometimes, the benefit of increased public good provision is outweighed by the costs of punishments. One reason a group may punish to the point that net welfare is reduced is that punishment can express anger about free-riding. If this is the case, then tools that regulate emotions could decrease the use of punishments while keeping welfare high, possibly depending on pre-existing levels of aggression. In this lab experiment, we find that adopting an objective attitude (objective, through a form of emotion regulation called cognitive reappraisal, decreases the use of punishments and makes a statistically insignificant improvement to both net earnings and self-reported emotions compared to a control condition (natural. Although the interaction between the emotion regulation treatment and level of aggression is not significant, only low aggression types reduce their punishments; the results are of the same direction, but statistically insignificant for high aggression types. Overall, our findings suggest that pairing emotion regulation with punishments can decrease the use of punishments without harming monetary and mental welfare.
The author considers the phenomenon of honor (timē) by examining Aristotle’s description of it and its role in ethical and political life. His study of honor leads him to two related phenomena, anger (orgē) and belittlement or contempt (oligōria); examining them helps him define honor more precisely. With his examination of honor the author shows how densely interwoven Aristotle’s ethical theory is; he illuminates such diverse things as the human good, political life and friendship, virtue, v...
Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice
To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).......To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)....
Grunewald, M.; Kuefner, M.A.; Ketelsen, D.; Alibek, S.; Bautz, W.A.; Greess, H.; Neuhuber, W.N.
To create radiology-related interdisciplinary programs for the undergraduate education in terms of the new ''Approbation Regulation''. Medical students developed in collaboration with radiologists and clinical partners virtual, radiology-related interdisciplinary training courses for different fields. Students and teachers evaluated the acceptance of the programs' structure and content as well as the possibility to replace the radiologist partly during interdisciplinary lessons. Six target group oriented virtual, radiology-related interdisciplinary training courses were developed which will relieve the implementation of the new AR's demands for more interdisciplinary education in small groups and the dreaded shortage of personnel. By the use of web- and CDRom-based interdisciplinary course models different fields of medicine and diagnostic radiology can be bridged in the sense of the new AR's demands as well as manpower in radiology can be saved. (orig.) [de
The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between anger expression and interpersonal competency in South Korean nursing students. Interpersonal competency allows nursing students to increase their self-confidence in caring for patients. There is evidence of complex relationships between anger expression, self-efficacy and interpersonal competency. Self-efficacy could be considered a potential mediator in the association between anger expression and interpersonal competency in nursing students. However, few studies have investigated the mediatory role of self-efficacy in this association. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. In total, 207 Korean nursing students completed a structured questionnaire. Measurement tools included the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Self-efficacy Scale and Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire. Significant correlations were observed between anger expression, self-efficacy and interpersonal competency. Self-efficacy exerted a partial mediatory effect on the relationships between interpersonal competency and anger-in and anger-control within the anger expression subscales. The study demonstrated that appropriate anger expression could result in enhanced interpersonal competency via an increase in self-efficacy. The results concerning the mediatory role of self-efficacy in the association between anger expression and interpersonal competency have provided new knowledge for nursing educators, managers and researchers, allowing them to support nursing students' interpersonal competency. Nursing schools should be required to evaluate students' anger expression patterns and to increase self-efficacy when developing education programmes that provide interpersonal training for nursing students. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders.
Full Text Available Coping behavior is defined as individuals’ transactions to cope with the various demands (internal and external. Coping strategies aim to address the situation and demands which pressing, challenging, taxing and exceed the resources (resources. Coping resources affects the coping strategies that will be done in addressing the issue. The aim of this article was to explore further coping stategies mentioned by several scholars, including Stuart and Sundeen (1991, Lazarus and Folkman (1984, as well as Friedman (1998. Method used was literature review. Result found that coping strategies have two basic forms, namely problem focused form of coping mechanism/direct action and emotion focused of coping/palliative form
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA and low Self-Directedness (SD predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.
Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild
-living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home...
Wadsworth, Martha E; Bendezú, Jason J; Loughlin-Presnal, John; Ahlkvist, Jarl A; Tilghman-Osborne, Emile; Bianco, Hannah; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana
This random assignment experimental study examined the intersection of children's coping and physiologic stress reactivity and recovery patterns in a sample of preadolescent boys and girls. A sample of 82 fourth-grade and fifth-grade (M age = 10.59 years old) child-parent dyads participated in the present study. Children participated in the Trier Social Stress Test and were randomly assigned to one of two post-Trier Social Stress Test experimental coping conditions-behavioral distraction or cognitive avoidance. Children's characteristic ways of coping were examined as moderators of the effect of experimental coping condition on cortisol reactivity and recovery patterns. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that children's characteristic coping and experimental coping condition interacted to predict differential cortisol recovery patterns. Children who characteristically engaged in primary control engagement coping strategies were able to more quickly down-regulate salivary cortisol when primed to distract themselves than when primed to avoid, and vice versa. The opposite pattern was true for characteristic disengagement coping in the context of coping condition, suggesting that regulatory fit between children's characteristic ways of coping and cues from their coping environment may lead to more and less adaptive physiologic recovery profiles. This study provides some of the first evidence that coping "gets under the skin" and that children's characteristic ways of coping may constrain or enhance a child's ability to make use of environmental coping resources.
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun
The primary aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between some components of social information processing (hostile interpretation and anger) and aggressive behavior. The secondary aim was to assess whether emotion regulation, hostile interpretation, and anger account for gender differences…
The paper uses a phenomenological analysis of interviews with a professional string quartet to critique the notion of ‘skilled coping’ as used by Hubert Dreyfus. According to Dreyfus, skilled coping is a way of being and acting in which one is immersed in one’s actions such that one is not thinking...... or reflecting. He uses examples from various experts, such a chess-, baseball-, and soccer players, to illustrate this. I argue that his account suffers from a reductive dualism between coping and reflection and further from a lack of clarity. I use my work with the string quartet to illustrate that so...
Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and
van Kleef, G.A.; Anastasopoulou, C.; Nijstad, B.A.
We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM)—the desire to
Fleming, Jacqueline; Barner, Celious III; Hudson, Betsy; Rosignon-Carmouche, Lee A.
Examined the relationship between anger, violence, and academic performance among troubled adolescents participating in a risk reduction intervention that stressed emotional confrontation and behavior change support. Surveys indicated that anger management was unrelated to violence or academic performance. Loss of control over time, concentration,…
Hoeksma, J.B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Schipper, E.; Koot, H.M.
Although it accounts for the prototypical course of emotions, the attractor concept has hardly ever been used empirically. Authors applied Empirical Differential Equations (EDE) to frequent (hourly) anger ratings to find the attractor of anger. The attractor concept, its neurological basis, and EDE
Hogan, Brenda E; Linden, Wolfgang
Research on anger suggests a link with blood pressure (BP), but the findings are complex and highly variable; this is at least partly attributable to measurement issues. In this study we used a new model of anger responding that comprises 6 independent anger response styles in 2 dimensions: Aggression, Assertion, Social Support Seeking, Diffusion, Avoidance, and Rumination. Linear and interactive relations between the anger response styles and resting and ambulatory BP were tested, controlling for traditional risk factors and level of hostility. Data from 2 samples of different cardiovascular health status were examined. In Study 1, 109 healthy participants (45 men and 64 women) were recruited. Study 2 involved a sample of 159 hypertensive patients (90 men and 69 women). All participants provided demographic and health information; completed the Behavioral Anger Response Questionnaire, a hostility measure; and underwent resting BP measurement. Study 2 participants also provided 24-hr ambulatory BPs. Examination of linear effects revealed inconsistent associations between anger response styles and BP. The moderating effect of Rumination on the relationship between the other anger response styles and BP was examined next. Rumination had a deleterious influence on the relation between Avoidance and Assertion and resting and ambulatory BP levels. The moderating influence of Rumination on Social Support Seeking varied between the genders. Overall, the results suggest that rumination is a critical moderating variable in the relation of anger and BP.
Full Text Available Carryover effects of emotions that lead to biases in social judgments are commonly observed. We suggest that such effects may be influenced by the ability to engage or disengage attention from emotional stimuli. We assessed the ability to activate and inhibit attention to anger stimuli, experimentally induced anger in a demanding task, and measured social judgment toward an ambiguous target. Results show that higher activation and higher inhibition of anger-related information predicted more biased evaluations of the ambiguous target when individuals were experiencing anger, but not in an emotionally neutral condition. Interestingly, the effect of activation and inhibition in the anger condition emerged only when such variables were entered simultaneously in the regression model, indicating that they had an additive effect in predicting carryover effects of anger on social judgement. Results are consistent with a cooperative suppression effect (Conger, 1974 of activation and inhibition and may be explained by either an increased accessibility of anger-related cues leading to more biased social judgments, or by an instance in which being good at engaging in and disengaging attention from emotional cues might have depleted participants’ resources making carryover effects of anger more likely to occur. Ultimately, the finding highlight that individual differences in attentional processes are important moderators for carryover effects of emotions.
Kosturn, Carole F.; Marlatt, G. Alan
In an attempt to test the role of situational factors on alcohol consumption, this laboratory study was designed to determine if angered subjects would drink more in a tasting task than nonangered subjects. It was hypothesized (1) that subjects who were angered would drink more in the tasting task than control subjects; and (2) that subjects who…
Fischer, A.H.; Evers, C.
On the basis of Social Role Theory and a social functional view of emotions, we argue that gender differences in anger experiences and expression are related to men’s and women’s relationship context. We hypothesized that women in traditional relationship contexts would express their anger less
Wang, L.; Northcraft, G.B.; Van Kleef, G.A.
This paper focuses on the hidden costs of expressing anger in negotiations. Two experimental studies show that an opponent’s expression of anger can elicit both concessionary and retaliatory responses by focal negotiators. In the first study, equal-power negotiators exhibited overt concessionary
Full Text Available Nowadays, anger while driving on the road is a crucial issue in Malaysia. The anger of driver may lead to traffic crashes. Road accident issue is an important agenda in every country. Driver behaviour and attitude such as impatience, hasty and hot-tempered on the road has become one of the causes in road accidents. Uncontrolled anger will affect the behavior of oneself during driving and could cause an individual to display aggressive attitude. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify contributing factor in anger of drivers and evaluate the Driver Anger Scale (DAS in Batu Pahat, Johor. In addition, this study also analyzes the relationship between driver anger and the factor of DAS. Cross sectional study method was conducted in this study by distributing 250 questionnaires to car drivers. The data collectied was analyzed by descriptive, chi-square test, correlation and regression analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. The findings show that the discourtesy was reported as the most dominant factor contributing to driver anger. As a recommendation, to overcome driver anger issue, the authorities should prepare an action plan, promote and nurture public to practice good driving behaviour. Moreover, curriculum and driver training lesson should be improved to create better attitude among drivers. Drivers also should change their driving attitude by becoming safe drivers and exhibiting defensive driving skills on the road.
This article reviews the role of the ancient Israelite humoral theory in the motivation of anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible. It is argued that the role of the folk theory of bodily fluids on the cognitive interpretation of anger in the Hebrew Bible has been underestimated. While the study of universal bodily experience as ...
Feindler, Eva L.; Engel, Emily C.
The development, implementation, and evaluation of anger management programs have proliferated over the past decade. The programs aim to moderate the intensity, frequency, and severity of anger expression, and facilitate alternative nonaggressive responses to conflict and frustration. Cognitive-behavioral theory highlights cognitive processes such…
Eisel, Harry E.
Incorporated hypnotherapy with age regression into cognitive therapeutic approach with prisoners having history of anger. Technique involved age regression to establish first significant event causing current anger, catharsis of feelings for original event, and reorientation of event while under hypnosis. Results indicated decrease in acting-out…
Kuppens, T.; Pollet, T.V.; Teixeira, C.P.; Demoulin, S.; Roberts, S.C.; Little, A.C.
Emotions influence information processing because they are assumed to carry valuable information. We predict that induced anger will increase ethnic but not gender intergroup bias because anger is related to conflicts for resources, and ethnic groups typically compete for resources, whereas gender
Kuppens, Toon; Pollet, Thomas V.; Teixeira, Catia P.; Demoulin, Stephanie; Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C.
Emotions influence information processing because they are assumed to carry valuable information. We predict that induced anger will increase ethnic but not gender intergroup bias because anger is related to conflicts for resources, and ethnic groups typically compete for resources, whereas gender
Martin, Sarah E.; Boekamp, John R.; McConville, David W.; Wheeler, Elizabeth E.
This study examined emotion perception processes in preschool aged children presenting with clinically significant emotional and behavior problems, with emphasis on sadness perception accuracy (i.e., the ability to correctly identify sadness from expressive and situational cues) and anger perception bias (i.e., the tendency to perceive anger in…
Laurent, Sean M; Nuñez, Narina L; Schweitzer, Kimberly A
Two experiments (Experiment 1 N = 149, Experiment 2 N = 141) investigated how two mental states that underlie how perceivers reason about intentional action (awareness of action and desire for an outcome) influence blame and punishment for unintended (i.e., negligent) harms, and the role of anger in this process. Specifically, this research explores how the presence of awareness (of risk in acting, or simply of acting) and/or desire in an acting agent's mental states influences perceptions of negligence, judgements that the acting agent owes restitution to a victim, and the desire to punish the agent, mediated by anger. In both experiments, awareness and desire led to increased anger at the agent and increased perception of negligence. Anger mediated the effect of awareness and desire on negligence rather than negligence mediating the effect of mental states on anger. Anger also mediated punishment, and negligence mediated the effects of anger on restitution. We discuss how perceivers consider mental states such as awareness, desire, and knowledge when reasoning about blame and punishment for unintended harms, and the role of anger in this process.
van Kleef, Gerben A.; Anastasopoulou, Christina; Nijstad, Bernard A.
We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM) the desire to
Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail
This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (pspirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts.
Mushtaq, Asia; Lochman, John E; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Sabih, Fazaila
Aggression is a characteristic feature of many psychiatric disorders. To address the scarceness for evidence-based interventions for behavioral problems in Pakistan, we evaluated the effectiveness of culturally adapted version of Coping Power Program. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which Coping Power Program is capable of reducing aggressive behavior and improving competent behavior, when delivered in a different culture, i.e., Pakistan. With randomized control trial (RCT) of pre- and post-testing, 112 fourth grade boys were allocated to Coping Power intervention condition and waitlist control condition. The intervention group showed significant reduction in aggression at post assessment, in comparison to control group. Boys who received Coping Power intervention also showed improvements in behavior, social skills, and social cognitive processes, with better anger control and problem solving strategies, in comparison to the control group. The results of the study provide preliminary evidence, supporting the effectiveness of Coping Power Program for Pakistani children. Despite its limitations, the results of this study are promising and suggest that Coping Power is an effective intervention to reduce behavioral problems and promote healthy and positive behaviors in children, even when implemented in different contexts with greater potential for violence exposure.
Sanz, Jesús; García-Vera, María Paz; Magán, Inés
This study was aimed at examining the relationships of the personality dimensions of the five-factor model or Big Five with trait anger and with two specific traits of hostility (mistrust and confrontational attitude), and identifying the similarities and differences between trait anger and hostility in the framework of the Big Five. In a sample of 353 male and female adults, the Big Five explained a significant percentage of individual differences in trait anger and hostility after controlling the effects due to the relationship between both constructs and content overlapping across scales. In addition, trait anger was primarily associated with neuroticism, whereas mistrust and confrontational attitude were principally related to low agreeableness. These findings are discussed in the context of the anger-hostility-aggression syndrome and the capability of the Big Five for organizing and clarifying related personality constructs.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether social support, burnout, and anger expression are related with each other among emergency nurses working in private- or public-sector hospitals. The sample consisted of 100 emergency nurses working in the private or public sector in Ankara, Turkey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and The Trait-Anger and Anger Expression Scale were used. The results demonstrated that social support did not differentiate among the nurses working in the private sector or in the public sector according to the burnout subscales' scores. However, nurses in the private sector find it more difficult to express their anger. The state-trait anger levels of the nurses differ according to the burnout levels and also according to the sector that they are working in. The congruence between this study's findings and the literature is discussed.
Leach, Colin Wayne; Iyer, Aarti; Pedersen, Anne
Three studies examined non-Aboriginal Australians' guilt and anger about their ingroup's advantage over structurally disadvantaged Aborigines. Study 1 showed that participants who perceived their ingroup as relatively advantaged perceived this inequality as unfair and felt guilt and anger about it. Anger, and to a lesser degree guilt, predicted the willingness to engage in political action regarding ingroup advantage. Study 2 showed both guilt and anger to be relatively self-focused because both were associated with appraising the ingroup's (rather than the government's) discrimination as responsible for ingroup advantage. Study 3 examined on participants especially willing to engage in political action to bring about systemic compensation to Aborigines. Anger about ingroup advantage was a potent predictor. Although guilt was associated with the abstract goal of systemic compensation, guilt did not explain willingness for political action. Results underline the importance of examining specific group-based emotions in intergroup relations.
Fitzgerald, Sheila T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Suchday, Sonia; Ewart, Craig K
This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that characteristics of work that contribute to job strain also increase anger in young service-sector workers. A new measure of anger directed at coworkers, supervisors, and customers was regressed on job strain indices (job control, coworker and supervisor support, dissatisfaction) in models that controlled for dispositional negative affect and work status. Results in a sample of 230 young Black and White men and women revealed that low levels of job control and social support, and high levels of job dissatisfaction, were independently associated with increased work-related anger. Moreover, social support moderated the impact of low job control on anger directed at coworkers. Findings indicate that anger experienced at work may be an early marker of job stress, which has been prospectively related to cardiovascular disease.
Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…
Sell, Aaron; Sznycer, Daniel; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Lim, Julian; Krauss, Andre; Feldman, Aneta; Rascanu, Ruxandra; Sugiyama, Lawrence; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i.e. the offender has too low a welfare tradeoff ratio (WTR) toward the angry individual. Twenty-three experiments in six cultures, including a group of foragers in the Ecuadorian Amazon, tested six predictions about the computational structure of anger derived from the recalibrational theory. Subjects judged that anger would intensify when: (i) the cost was large, (ii) the benefit the offender received from imposing the cost was small, or (iii) the offender imposed the cost despite knowing that the angered individual was the person to be harmed. Additionally, anger-based arguments conformed to a conceptual grammar of anger, such that offenders were inclined to argue that they held a high WTR toward the victim, e.g., "the cost I imposed on you was small", "the benefit I gained was large", or "I didn't know it was you I was harming." These results replicated across all six tested cultures: the US, Australia, Turkey, Romania, India, and Shuar hunter-horticulturalists in Ecuador. Results contradict key predictions about anger based on equity theory and social constructivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings ...
Madsen, Poul Thøis
explicitly refers to the actually existing economy or comments upon or relates to the question of theorizing versus reality. By analyzing (or generalizing) this empirical material it is demonstrated that Keynes copes with reality by generalizing from experience, giving priority to the most important parts...
Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ... or she can recommend treatment, perhaps including anti-anxiety medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, ...
Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with ......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home......-living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...
how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research...
Full Text Available ... Advocate for Heart.org Giving for Heart.org Media for Heart.org Arrhythmia About Arrhythmia Why Arrhythmia ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...
Williams, Roger T.; And Others
The authors suggest that the best way to deal effectively with stress is better management of one's life style. Some of the coping strategies include developing good eating and exercise habits, learning relaxation techniques, building an emotional support system, and anticipating and managing stressful life events. (SK)
Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild
-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...
Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja
found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...
Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.
This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from
Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina
This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.
Polman, Evan; Ruttan, Rachel L
In the current article the authors examined the impact of specific emotions on moral hypocrisy, the tendency among people to judge others more severely than they judge themselves. In two studies, they found that (a) anger increased moral hypocrisy, (b) guilt eliminated moral hypocrisy, and (c) envy reversed moral hypocrisy. In particular, these findings were observed in two domains. In Study 1, participants responded to moral dilemmas describing unethical behavior and rated how acceptable it would be if others engaged in the unethical behavior, or alternatively, if they themselves engaged in the unethical behavior. In Study 2, participants were asked how much they would like to donate to research on cancer, or alternatively, how much they think others should donate. The results demonstrate that specific emotions influence moral decision making, even when real money is at stake, and that emotions of the same valence have opposing effects on moral judgment.
Full Text Available Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus’ VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis.
Winterowd, Carrie; Harrist, Steve; Thomason, Nancy; Worth, Sheri; Carlozzi, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of spiritual beliefs and involvement with anger and stress in college students. The spirituality scales were positively related to perceived stress and most of the anger subscales. When stress was controlled, the spirituality subscales still contributed significantly to anger.
Reilly, Patrick M.; Shopshire, Michael S.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Campbell, Torri A.
This manual and workbook set focuses on anger management. The manual was designed for use by qualified substance abuse and mental health clinicians who work with substance abuse and mental health clients with concurrent anger programs. The manual describes a 12-week cognitive behavioral anger management group treatment. Each of the 12 90-minute…
Full Text Available Aim To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers’ ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel’s working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence. Conclusion In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way.
Yildiz Das, Gozde; Aydin Avci, Ilknur
To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers' ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel's working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence). In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way
Rose, John; Willner, Paul; Shead, Jennifer; Jahoda, Andrew; Gillespie, David; Townson, Julia; Lammie, Claire; Woodgate, Christopher; Stenfert Kroese, Biza; Felce, David; MacMahon, Pamela; Rose, Nikki; Stimpson, Aimee; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Hood, Kerenza
Background: Many people with intellectual disabilities display high levels of anger, and cognitive-behavioural anger management interventions are used routinely. However, for these methods to be used optimally, a better understanding is needed of different forms of anger assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of a…
Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.
Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…
Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.
There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…
Full Text Available The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n=70 or karate (n=66, while the control group was composed of swimmers (n=59 and nonathletes (n=96. Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P=0.001 decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers.
Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole
Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og det...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur...... trussel mod samfundsbygningen. Men kap. 6 viser de mange måder hvori gennem turismen bidrager til samfundsbygningen, og det er en historie som indledes med en grundig diskussion af opdagelsesrejsernes grundlæggende betydning, også kulturelt. Begge disse kapitler tilføjer coping tilgangen flere analytiske...
Benjamin, Orly; Kamin-Shaaltiel, Sharon
Employed married Israeli women responded to questions about their perceived weight, their husbands' evaluation of their appearance, and their expression of anger in marriage. Our data, based on 125 questionnaires and five in-depth interviews, supports the possibility that women who perceive themselves as overweight, that is, "fail" to live up to the standards of female beauty in society, often suppress their anger and express it in limited areas. Our findings suggest that women who have not been able to resist the appearance-directed normative imperative in the constitution of their feminine self have to work harder to meet gender norms that require "emotion work" in the form of anger avoidance.
Smith, D C; Adelman, H S; Nelson, P; Taylor, L
With regard to students with learning problems, findings indicate that the more severe the learning problem, the greater the tendency toward anger in response to conflicts at school. The relationship between learning problem severity and perceptions of control at school was not significant, but anger was negatively correlated to perceived control. None of the variables were significantly related to misbehavior. A stepwise regression analysis indicated perceived control as the most potent single variable accounting for the variance in anger scores. Overall, findings highlight implications for work focused on reactions to learning problems and factors associated with their cause and correction.
DeGrezia, Mary G; Scrandis, Debra
By 2015, 50% of HIV-infected individuals in the United States will be 50 years of age and older. Examining successful coping in older adults with HIV could expand existing coping toolkits, enhance disease management, and improve overall outcomes. We explored how urban, community-dwelling older adults (N = 40) coped with HIV infection, comorbidities, and related stressors. Participants completed an individual or focus group interview session using open-ended questions formulated from extended participant observation. Data were analyzed for theme development using interpretive hermeneutics and qualitative content analysis. Stressors included HIV, comorbidities, fear, anger, stigma, and finances. Three themes for successful coping were identified: accessing support, helping selves and helping others, and tapping into spirituality. Participants engaged in active, meaning-based strategies to successfully cope with HIV and related stressors. These strategies can be adapted for other older adults with HIV, leading to holistic care and improved outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santos, A Catarina; Ferro, José M
Anger is a frequent neuropsychiatric symptom after stroke, which can disrupt treatment and recovery, in particular by affecting adherence behaviour to treatment and health care education. This study aimed to follow-up a cohort of stroke patients 12 months after their stroke to describe the presence of anger, compare levels and profile of acute and post-acute anger and analyse its impact on the adherence to treatment and beliefs about stroke. We followed (13.3 months mean follow-up) 91 stroke patients with a standardized protocol, using State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) to assess the frequency and profile of anger and its components and one questionnaire to measure adherence to treatment and health education (meaning on the treatment) (Adh-T). We used as explanatory variables socio-demographic, clinical, stroke type and location information collected during the acute phase. Anger-state was detected in 15 (17%) patients, while anger-trait was present in 7 (8%) patients. The best regression model revealed that trait-anger, stroke location (posterior infarcts), and impact of stroke sequels were independent predictive factors for anger (R 2 = 43%). Patients with higher levels of anger expression had lower adherence rates, independently of the adherence dimension. In the chronic phase after stroke anger was related with posterior lesions, the impact of stroke consequences and anger as a personality trait. The detection and monitoring of anger could eventually prevent the negative impact of anger in care, especially in adherence to rehabilitation and secondary prevention.
Alberto eAmutio Careaga
Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a disabling syndrome. Results obtained with different therapies are very limited to date. The goal of this study was to verify whether the application of a mindfulness-based training program was effective in modifying anger, anxiety, and depression levels in a group of women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. This study is an experimental trial that employed a waiting list control group. Measures were taken at three different times: pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. The statistical analyses revealed a significant reduction of anger (trait levels, internal expression of anger, state anxiety, and depression in the experimental group as compared to the control group, as well as a significant increase in internal control of anger. It can be concluded that the mindfulness-based treatment was effective after seven weeks. These results were maintained three months after the end of the intervention.
Savage, Ruth A; Becker, Stefanie I; Lipp, Ottmar V
Prior reports of preferential detection of emotional expressions in visual search have yielded inconsistent results, even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression-related perceptual confounds. The current study investigated inconsistent reports of anger and happiness superiority effects using face stimuli drawn from the same database. Experiment 1 excluded procedural differences as a potential factor, replicating a happiness superiority effect in a procedure that previously yielded an anger superiority effect. Experiments 2a and 2b confirmed that image colour or poser gender did not account for prior inconsistent findings. Experiments 3a and 3b identified stimulus set as the critical variable, revealing happiness or anger superiority effects for two partially overlapping sets of face stimuli. The current results highlight the critical role of stimulus selection for the observation of happiness or anger superiority effects in visual search even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression related perceptual confounds and are drawn from a single database.
Ziegler, Daniel J; Smith, Phillip N
The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should display greater trait anger than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this prediction regarding the ABC model. 186 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Second Edition to measure irrational thinking and trait anger, respectively. Students who scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance scored significantly higher on Trait Anger than did those who scored lower on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs which is central to the model.
Van Doorn, E.A.; van Kleef, G.A.; van der Pligt, J.
How do instructors' emotional expressions influence students' learning performance? Scholars and practitioners alike have emphasized the importance of positive, nurturing emotions for successful learning. However, teachers may sometimes lose their temper and express anger at their pupils. Drawing on
Kim, Jungmeen; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Allen, Ben; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
This study examined stabilities of informant and context (home vs. classroom) latent factors regarding anger and attention. Participants included children from the National Institute of Child Health and Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development who were measured at 54 months, first grade, and third grade. Latent factors of anger and attention span were structured using different indicators based on mothers', fathers', caregivers', teachers', and observers' reports. We used structural equation modeling to examine the autoregressive effects within a context (stability), the concurrent associations between home and classroom contexts, and informant effects. The results indicated that for both anger and attention (1) there were significant informant effects that influenced stability in a context, (2) there was higher stability in home context than nonhome context, and (3) stability within a context increased over time. The findings suggested that anger was more prone to context effects and informant effects than attention.
Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.
It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...
Burns, John W; Bruehl, Stephen; France, Christopher R; Schuster, Erik; Orlowska, Daria; Chont, Melissa; Gupta, Rajnish K; Buvanendran, Asokumar
Long-term use of opioid analgesics may be ineffective or associated with significant negative side effects for some people. At present, there is no sound method of identifying optimal opioid candidates. Individuals with chronic low back pain (n = 89) and healthy control individuals (n = 102) underwent ischemic pain induction with placebo, opioid blockade (naloxone), and morphine in counterbalanced order. They completed the Spielberger Anger-Out subscale. Endogenous opioid function × Anger-out × Pain status (chronic pain, healthy control) interactions were tested for morphine responses to ischemic threshold, tolerance, and pain intensity (McGill Sensory and Affective subscales) and side effects. For individuals with chronic pain and healthy control participants, those with low endogenous opioid function and low anger-out scores exhibited the largest morphine analgesic responses, whereas those with high anger-out and low endogenous opioid function showed relatively weaker morphine analgesic responses. Further, individuals with chronic pain with low endogenous opioid function and low anger-out scores also reported the fewest negative effects to morphine, whereas those with low endogenous opioid function and high anger-out reported the most. Findings point toward individuals with chronic pain who may strike a favorable balance of good analgesia with few side effects, as well as those who have an unfavorable balance of poor analgesia and many side effects. We sought to identify optimal candidates for opioid pain management. Low back pain patients who express anger and also have deficient endogenous opioid function may be poor candidates for opioid therapy. In contrast, low back patients who tend not to express anger and who also have deficient endogenous opioid function may make optimal candidates for opioid therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.
Emotional eating appears to contribute to weight gain, but the characteristics that make one vulnerable to emotional eating remain unclear. The present study examined whether two negative affect response styles, rumination and distraction, influenced palatable food intake following an anger mood induction in normal weight and obese adults. We hypothesized that higher rumination and lower distraction would be associated with greater vulnerability to anger-induced eating, particularly among obe...
The author examines biblical characters who challenged the justice of God. He contends that these lamenters laid the foundation for the rabbinic tradition of chutzpah. They freely faced God with their disillusionment and anger. Their intimacy with the Divine is exemplary. The author acknowledges the ambiguities of God's response to despair and contextualizes lament in the case of a woman who has been sexually abused and seeks pastoral guidance. This article integrates exegesis and theology with theories of anger and intimacy.
Tzvieli, Arie; Zaig, Tamar; Ayal, Igal; Thieberger, Gil; Rothschild, Sarit; Barak, Yoram
Context • Buddhist texts direct practitioners to generate a feeling of love to stop the affliction of anger. Modern self-help practices and clinical psychology have demonstrated that generating emotions of love can reduce anger. More studies are needed, however, to identify the active components of interventions and their applicability in clinical populations. Objective • The study investigated the hypothesis that enhancing self-love through frequent listening to recorded self-loving messages can reduce anger. Design • The pilot study was designed to measure changes in anger level between baseline and postintervention in the course of 12 wk. Setting • The study occurred at Moa Oasis, Israel. Participants • Participants were adults enrolled in a program of study on advanced Tibetan Buddhism. Intervention • Participants were directed to record statements expressing love and appreciation of themselves in their own voices, inserting their names as the recipients of the messages. Participants listened to their recording for 2 min every morning, for 12 wk. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, the clinical anger score (CAS). Every 2 wk, they completed the short dimensions of anger reactions (DAR-5) scale to assess temporal changes in anger. Results • Eighty-six participants, 69 women and 17 men with a median age of 45 y and a range from 20 to 70 y, enrolled in the study. Fifty-six completed all designated tests. The mean CAS score decreased significantly, from 10.4 to 6.7 (P love and appreciation in reducing anger. The findings indicate that the technique merits replication in larger controlled studies. If supported, it could be applied in conflict resolution.
and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...... et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. SCAN 2 2007, 227–233...
A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH
Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...
Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Boung-Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo
It has been suggested that the serotonergic systems are associated with anger and aggressive behaviors. We investigated the association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the serotonergic genes and anger-related personality traits. A total of 228 healthy female Korean women participated in this study. All subjects were assessed with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and were genotyped for 3 polymorphisms: serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) A218C, and TPH2 G-703T. The Anger Expression-Out (AX-Out) subscale scores of the STAXI differed significantly between the genotypes for the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism (F = 4.825, p = 0.009). G/G homozygous subjects scored significantly higher on the AX-Out subscale than those with the G/T genotype. However, no significant differences were observed in the relationships between the STAXI subscale scores of subjects with other polymorphisms. This study suggests that the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism might contribute to anger-related traits, especially to the expression of anger. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Jang, Jin-Mahn; Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Lee, Keon-Hak; Kim, Myung Sig; Yoon, Myeong-Sook; Ko, Sung-Hee; Cho, Hye-Chung; Chung, Young-Chul
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationships of anger, self-esteem, and depression with suicidal ideation. A survey was conducted in a wide range of community areas across Jeollabuk-do Province, Korea. A total of 2964 subjects (mean age=44.4yr) participated in this study. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate predictors of suicidal ideation in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, depression, self-esteem, and anger. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that anger and self-esteem were significantly associated with suicidal ideation regardless of age and after controlling for depression. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of anger on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among females than males in adolescents, but not in other age groups. Additionally, there were some differences in sociodemographic predictors of suicidal ideation among age groups. Predictors included gender and family harmony in adolescents, marital status and family harmony in middle-aged individuals, and economic status and family harmony in elderly individuals. Our results revealed that anger and self-esteem play important roles in suicidal ideation beyond the effect of depression. Development and implementation of preventive strategies, including management of anger and self-esteem, could possibly reduce suicidal ideation and subsequent suicide attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heesink, Lieke; Edward Gladwin, Thomas; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack; Kleber, Rolf; Geuze, Elbert
Problems involving anger and aggression are common after military deployment, and may involve abnormal responses to threat. This study therefore investigated effects on neural activation related to threat and escapability among veterans with deployment experience. Twenty-seven male veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 30 Control veterans performed a virtual predator-task during fMRI measurement. In this task, threat and proximity were manipulated. The distance of cues determined their possibility for escape. Cues signaled impending attack by zooming in towards the participant. If Threat cues, but not Safe cues, reached the participants without being halted by a button press, an aversive noise (105dB scream) was presented. In both the Threat and the Safe condition, closer proximity of the virtual predator resulted in stronger activation in the cuneus in the Anger versus Control group. The results suggest that anger and aggression problems are related to a generalized sensitivity to proximity rather than preparatory processes related to task-contingent aversive stimuli. Anger and aggression problems in natural, dynamically changing environments may be related to an overall heightened vigilance, which is non-adaptively driven by proximity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Agneta H; Roseman, Ira J
This article reports 3 studies in which the authors examined (a) the distinctive characteristics of anger and contempt responses and (b) the interpersonal causes and effects of both emotions. In the 1st study, the authors examined the distinction between the 2 emotions; in the 2nd study, the authors tested whether contempt could be predicted from previous anger incidents with the same person; and in the 3rd study, the authors examined the effects of type of relationship on anger and contempt reactions. The results of the 3 studies show that anger and contempt often occur together but that there are clear distinctions between the 2 emotions: Anger is characterized more by short-term attack responses but long-term reconciliation, whereas contempt is characterized by rejection and social exclusion of the other person, both in the short-term and in the long-term. The authors also found that contempt may develop out of previously experienced anger and that a lack of intimacy with and perceived control over the behavior of the other person, as well as negative dispositional attributions about the other person, predicted the emergence of contempt. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Driving anger, called “road rage”, has become increasingly common nowadays, affecting road safety. A few researches focused on how to identify driving anger, however, there is still a gap in driving anger grading, especially in real traffic environment, which is beneficial to take corresponding intervening measures according to different anger intensity. This study proposes a method for discriminating driving anger states with different intensity based on Electroencephalogram (EEG spectral features. First, thirty drivers were recruited to conduct on-road experiments on a busy route in Wuhan, China where anger could be inducted by various road events, e.g., vehicles weaving/cutting in line, jaywalking/cyclist crossing, traffic congestion and waiting red light if they want to complete the experiments ahead of basic time for extra paid. Subsequently, significance analysis was used to select relative energy spectrum of β band (β% and relative energy spectrum of θ band (θ% for discriminating the different driving anger states. Finally, according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the optimal thresholds (best cut-off points of β% and θ% for identifying none anger state (i.e., neutral were determined to be 0.2183 ≤ θ% < 1, 0 < β% < 0.2586; low anger state is 0.1539 ≤ θ% < 0.2183, 0.2586 ≤ β% < 0.3269; moderate anger state is 0.1216 ≤ θ% < 0.1539, 0.3269 ≤ β% < 0.3674; high anger state is 0 < θ% < 0.1216, 0.3674 ≤ β% < 1. Moreover, the discrimination performances of verification indicate that, the overall accuracy (Acc of the optimal thresholds of β% for discriminating the four driving anger states is 80.21%, while 75.20% for that of θ%. The results can provide theoretical foundation for developing driving anger detection or warning devices based on the relevant optimal thresholds.
Hart, Tessa; Brockway, Jo Ann; Maiuro, Roland D; Vaccaro, Monica; Fann, Jesse R; Mellick, David; Harrison-Felix, Cindy; Barber, Jason; Temkin, Nancy
To test efficacy of 8-session, 1:1 treatment, anger self-management training (ASMT), for chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Three US outpatient treatment facilities. Ninety people with TBI and elevated self-reported anger; 76 significant others (SOs) provided collateral data. Multicenter randomized controlled trial with 2:1 randomization to ASMT or structurally equivalent comparison treatment, personal readjustment and education (PRE). Primary outcome assessment 1 week posttreatment; 8-week follow-up. Response to treatment defined as 1 or more standard deviation change in self-reported anger. SO-rated anger, emotional and behavioral status, satisfaction with life, timing of treatment response, participant and SO-rated global change, and treatment satisfaction. State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Revised Trait Anger (TA) and Anger Expression-Out (AX-O) subscales; Brief Anger-Aggression Questionnaire (BAAQ); Likert-type ratings of treatment satisfaction, global changes in anger and well-being. After treatment, ASMT response rate (68%) exceeded that of PRE (47%) on TA but not AX-O or BAAQ; this finding persisted at 8-week follow-up. No significant between-group differences in SO-reported response rates, emotional/behavioral status, or life satisfaction. ASMT participants were more satisfied with treatment and rated global change in anger as significantly better; SO ratings of global change in both anger and well-being were superior for ASMT. ASMT was efficacious and persistent for some aspects of problematic anger. More research is needed to determine optimal dose and essential ingredients of behavioral treatment for anger after TBI.
Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
Young, middle-aged, and older adults' emotion regulation strategies in interpersonal problems were examined. Participants imagined themselves in anger- or sadness-eliciting situations with a close friend. Factor analyses of a new questionnaire supported a 4-factor model of emotion regulation strategies, including passivity, expressing emotions, seeking emotional information or support, and solving the problem. Results suggest that age differences in emotion regulation (such as older adults' increased endorsement of passive emotion regulation relative to young adults) are partially due to older adults' decreased ability to integrate emotion and cognition, increased prioritization of emotion regulation goals, and decreased tendency to express anger. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Background: The present study examined common childhood fears, coping strategies and perceived efficacy of coping mechanisms among 8- to 13-year-old South African children (n = 141) living in four children\\'s homes. Method: Fears were assessed by means of the Fear List Method (FLM) and the Fear Survey Schedule ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between coping with and control over psychotic symptoms were examined using the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies-24, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive domain of executive functioning predicted quality and quantity of coping. Methods MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping categories: symptomatic coping (SC and non-symptomatic coping (NSC; combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the GIT (Groninger Intelligence Test, the Zoo map (BADS: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive function, Stroop-test and Trail making. Results Cognitive function was not associated with frequency of coping, nor did cognitive function differentially predict SC or NSC. Cognitive function similarly was not associated with symptom distress or level of perceived control over the symptom. Conclusion There was no evidence that cognitive function predicts quantity or quality of coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Variation in the realm of emotion regulation and social cognition may be more predictive of coping with psychotic symptoms.
Bak, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; Delespaul, Philippe; Huistra, Karola; Walraven, Wil; van Os, Jim
Background Associations between coping with and control over psychotic symptoms were examined using the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies-24, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive domain of executive functioning predicted quality and quantity of coping. Methods MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping categories: symptomatic coping (SC) and non-symptomatic coping (NSC; combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the GIT (Groninger Intelligence Test), the Zoo map (BADS: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive function), Stroop-test and Trail making. Results Cognitive function was not associated with frequency of coping, nor did cognitive function differentially predict SC or NSC. Cognitive function similarly was not associated with symptom distress or level of perceived control over the symptom. Conclusion There was no evidence that cognitive function predicts quantity or quality of coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Variation in the realm of emotion regulation and social cognition may be more predictive of coping with psychotic symptoms. PMID:18510757
"Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…
... Español Coping With an Alcoholic Parent KidsHealth / For Teens / Coping With an Alcoholic Parent What's in this article? Why Do People Drink Too Much? How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? What If a Parent Doesn't ...
Fennell, Alexander B; Benau, Erik M; Atchley, Ruth Ann
The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via a single session of meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 novice meditators (Experiment 1) and 12 practiced meditators (Experiment 2) completed autobiographical anger inductions prior to, and following, meditation training while respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured. Participants also reported subjective anger via a visual analog scale. At both stages, the experienced meditators' physiological reaction to the anger induction reflected that of relaxation: slowed breathing and heart rate and decreased blood pressure. Naïve meditators exhibited physiological reactions that were consistent with anger during the pre-meditation stage, while after meditation training and a second anger induction they elicited physiological evidence of relaxation. The current results examining meditation training show that the naïve group's physiological measures mimicked those of the experienced group following a single session of meditation training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
FACTS FOR LIFE Coping With a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Coping with breast cancer A breast cancer diagnosis can cause a wide range of ... as normal a routine as possible. Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting ...
Nunes, Ines Marques
is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...
Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.
Adam, Hajo; Shirako, Aiwa
The influence of culture on the social effects of emotions in negotiations has recently gained the attention of researchers, but to date this research has focused exclusively on the cultural background of the perceiver of the emotion expression. The current research offers the first investigation of how the cultural background of the expresser influences negotiation outcomes. On the basis of the stereotype that East Asians are emotionally inexpressive and European Americans are emotionally expressive, we predicted that anger will have a stronger signaling value when East Asians rather than European American negotiators express it. Specifically, we predicted that angry East Asian negotiators will be perceived as tougher and more threatening and therefore elicit great cooperation from counterparts compared with angry European American negotiators. Results from 4 negotiation studies supported our predictions. In Study 1, angry East Asian negotiators elicited greater cooperation than angry European American and Hispanic negotiators. In Study 2, angry East Asian negotiators elicited greater cooperation than angry European American ones, but emotionally neutral East Asian and European American negotiators elicited the same level of cooperation. Study 3 showed that this effect holds for both East Asian and European American perceivers and that it is mediated by angry East Asian negotiators being perceived as tougher and more threatening than angry European American negotiators. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that the effect emerges only when negotiators hold the stereotype of East Asians being emotionally inexpressive and European Americans being emotionally expressive. We discuss implications for our understanding of culture, emotions, and negotiations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Labys, Charlotte A; Dreyer, Chandré; Burns, Jonathan K
Millions of refugees are on the move globally, mostly settling in low- and middle-income (LMIC) "host" countries, where they often receive insufficient assistance and encounter a multitude of barriers. Despite a risk for developing mental illness, limited research exists on their struggles and coping strategies in these settings, especially outside of camps. Against this backdrop, our qualitative study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of refugee experiences in Durban, South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 18 adult refugees from Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo at a community-based support center in Durban. Participants described their problems, effects on mental health, and coping abilities. Interviews were recorded and analyzed for themes. Major problems were reported with work, xenophobia/racism, mental health, physical safety, housing, healthcare, and quality of life. Participants discussed feelings of worry, fear, emotional pain, anger, powerlessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, and passive suicidal ideation. Coping mechanisms consisted of friendships, church, praying, work, physical activities, family, learning the local language, and avoidance of thoughts. Many interviewees expressed a strong desire to either return to their homeland or move elsewhere. Refugees in South Africa face considerable hardships including xenophobia, physical abuse, and work/legal obstructions. More research is needed in LMICs to identify the challenges, psychological effects, and coping in such populations so that appropriate and accessible mental health services can be created for those who require them.
Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Barrick, Christopher
Spouses whose partner has an alcohol use disorder can experience considerable psychological distress. Yet, due to social, financial, relationship, and psychological barriers they often remain hidden, and underserved. To partially reduce treatment barriers for this population, this study evaluated the short-term efficacy of a self-paced, web-delivered coping skills training program for women experiencing distress as a result of living with a partner with an Alcohol Use Disorder. Participants (N = 89) were randomly assigned to either 8-weeks of an Internet-administered Coping Skills Training Program (iCST), or an 8-week Delayed Treatment Control (DTC). Participation in, and satisfaction with iCST was high. At the end of the 8-week access/delay period, iCST participants exhibited a significantly higher level of coping skills relative to DTC, d = 1.02, 95% CI [.64, 1.51], and reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms, d = −.65, 95% CI [−1.21, −.35], and situational anger, d = −.70, 95% CI [−1.62, −.64]. Moreover, iCST appeared to prevent an increase in symptoms among those with low baseline symptom levels; DTC did not. Skill acquisition appeared to partially mediate changes observed. Online coping skills training may be an effective way of reaching and helping a large number of this frequently underserved population. PMID:25347016
Snyder, Cyndy R
Multiracial people are often lauded as evidence of the waning significance of race and racism in the United States. In reality, the experiences of multiracial people illuminate the ways that racism still exists and efforts to classify people based on assumed racial characteristics for the purposes of inclusion and exclusion are alive and well. Multiracial individuals experience racism from multiple sources and in various forms, which has the potential to negatively impact their development and well-being. Thus, scholars and practitioners must better understand how the growing population of multiracial individuals learns to cope with such racism. The central aim of this qualitative interview study was to shed light on the ways in which multiracial individuals of African descent in the United States cope with and respond to racism. Findings are organized around 5 broad conceptual themes for coping with and addressing racism: avoidance and internalization, anger and violence, education and advocacy, seeking culture and community, and chameleon identities. Findings of this study speak to the dynamic nature of strategies used to cope with racism and hold implications for practices and programs designed to support positive racial identity development among multiracial individuals of African descent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In general, nurses who work in department of psychiatric are in fact interacting with emotional disorders of patients once providing their care services. higher levels of job motivation and satisfaction can markedly foster service improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anger and job motivation in nurses of a psychiatric hospital. Instrument & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive research in 2014, all 50 psychiatry nurses working at Kargarnejad Hospital of Kashan City, Iran, were entirely studied. A demographical questionnaire, the Anger Multiple Scale and the Job Motivation Scale were used for data gathering. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean score of anger was 3.01±0.36 and of job motivation was 1.70±0.86. There was a significant relationship between job motivation and the number of family members and conditions of employment of nurses (p=0.001. There was a significant inverse relationship between scores of anger and job motivation of psychiatry nurses of the hospital (r=-0.712; p=0.001. Conclusion: There is a relationship between anger and job motivation in nurses of Kashan Psychiatric hospital.
Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, So-Hee; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Boung-Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo
It has been suggested that polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene are associated with aggressive and impulsive behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the association of the MAO-A variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter region (MAO-A uVNTR) with anger-related personality traits. Specifically, MAO-A uVNTR polymorphisms were examined for associations with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) scores in 211 normal Korean women. All subjects were assessed using the STAXI and genotyped for MAO-A uVNTR status. The scores on the STAXI subscales differed significantly among the MAO-A uVNTR polymorphism genotypes in terms of anger expression-out (AX-Out) scores. Post hoc comparisons revealed significant differences between the 3/3 and 4/4, and between 3/4 and 4/4 polymorphisms. However, no significant difference was observed in other STAXI subscale scores among these genotypes. Subjects with the high-activity MAO-A uVNTR had significantly higher AX-Out scores than subjects with other genotypes. MAO-A uVNTR polymorphisms may contribute in part to the expression of anger. These findings support the hypothesis that this polymorphism in the MAO-A gene may be associated with anger-related personality traits in Korean women. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
López, J; Romero-Moreno, R; Márquez-González, M; Losada, A
Although previous studies indicate a negative association between caregivers' anger and health, the potential mechanisms linking this relationship are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mediating role of optimism in the relationship between anger and caregivers' physical health. Dementia caregivers (n = 108) were interviewed and filled out instruments assessing their anger (reaction), optimism and health (vitality). A mediational model was tested to determine whether optimism partially mediated the relationship between anger and vitality. Angry reaction was negatively associated with optimism and vitality; optimism was positively associated with vitality. Finally, the relationship between angry reaction and vitality decreased when optimism was entered simultaneously. A non-parametric bootstrap approach confirmed that optimism significantly mediated some of the relationship between angry reaction and vitality. These findings suggest that low optimism may help explain the association between caregivers' anger and reduced sense of vitality. The results provide a specific target for intervention with caregivers. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas anger management training untuk menurunkan agresivitas pada remaja disruptive behavior disorders. Subjek penelitian dipilih melalui screening dengan skala CPRS (Conduct Problem Risk Screen dan pengukuran agresivitas dengan skala Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ. AMT (Anger Management Training berupa psikoedukasi, yang mempelajari tentang pemahaman dasar marah, ekspresi marah dan akibatnya, mengidentifikasi diri saat marah, mengontrol pikiran marah dan menentukan tingkat kemarahan. Selanjutnya memahami anger management melalui film, relaksasi otot dan pernapasan, cara menyelesaikan konflik, cara mengontrol marah dan perencanaan dalam mengontrol marah. Adapun metode intervensi yang digunakan terdiri dari diskusi kasus, latihan individual, presentasi dan modelling perilaku. Penempatan subjek dengan random assignment dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Kelompok eksperimen berjumlah 10 orang, mendapat AMT selama 3 kali pertemuan dan setiap pertemuan memerlukan waktu 120 menit. Sementara subjek di kelompok kontrol juga berjumlah 10 orang, namun tidak mendapatkan perlakuan. Dapat disimpulkan anger management efektif untuk menurunkan agresivitas. Dalam hal ini subjek di kelompok eksperimen mengalami penurunan agresivitas setelah mendapat AMT dan subjek di kelompok kontrol mengalami peningkatan agresivitas karena tidak mendapatkan AMT. Selain itu AMT dapat pula diberikan pada individu yang memiliki kemampuan di bawah rata-rata, dengan memodifikasi program yang lebih berbentuk operasional konkrit. Kata kunci: anger management training, agresivitas, disruptive behavior disorders
Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Lorusso, Simona; Bruno, Antonio; Reale, Rosa; Ciura, Giulia La; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Retto, Giovanni; Sturlese, Emanuele; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio
To assess anger, as well as other negative emotions, in women who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) respect to women who conceived naturally, and explore the effect of anger on neonatal outcomes. We recorded personal and obstetric history of the patients, neonatal weight, Apgar score, obstetric and neonatal complications. We performed Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-SCID I and II in order to assess the DSM IV axis I and axis II, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety scale (SAS). On the STAXI-2 scale, the ART group scored higher than the natural conception group on measures of general tendency and personality disposition to get angry. Moreover, the ART group women showed quite low levels of tolerance to negative environmental feedback. Our results further suggest that trait anger provides the most meaningful contribution as predictor of weight at birth. No significant differences were found for anxiety and depression between the two groups. Our study highlights the important role of anger during pregnancy, and suggests the need for further studies on both biochemical and behavioural patterns in larger samples of women who became pregnant by ART.
Full Text Available Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American. Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual “Asia Disease Problem” task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger and risky decisions.
Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P
It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Almeida, Carla Maria; Horta, Maria Purificação
Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23). Those who injure themselves seem to have a lower self-esteem (p self-esteem seems to have different outcomes, according to the presence or absence of self-injury. Anger and self-esteem seem to influence the severity of diagnosis, but only in patients who self-injure. Anger and self-esteem may influence borderline patients differently according to the presence or absence of self-injury.
Campbell, Lauren; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Cribbie, Robert; Garfield, Hartley; Greenberg, Saul
This paper, based on two companion studies, presents an in-depth analysis of preschooler coping with vaccination pain. Study 1 employed an autoregressive cross-lagged path model to investigate the dynamic and reciprocal relationships between young children's coping responses (how they cope with pain and distress) and coping outcomes (pain behaviors) at the preschool vaccination. Expanding on this analysis, Study 2 then modeled preschool coping responses and outcomes using both caregiver and child variables from the child's 12-month vaccination (n=548), preschool vaccination (n=302), and a preschool psychological assessment (n=172). Summarizing over the five path models and post-hoc analyses over the two studies, novel transactional and longitudinal pathways predicting preschooler coping responses and outcomes were elucidated. Our research has provided empirical support for the need to differentiate between coping responses and coping outcomes: two different, yet interrelated, components of "coping." Among our key findings, the results suggest that: a preschooler's ability to cope is a powerful tool to reduce pain-related distress but must be maintained throughout the appointment; caregiver behavior and poorer pain regulation from the 12-month vaccination appointment predicted forward to preschool coping responses and/or outcomes; robust concurrent relationships exist between caregiver behaviors and both child coping responses and outcomes, and finally caregiver behaviors during vaccinations are not only critical to both child pain coping responses and outcomes in the short- and long-term but also show relationships to broader child cognitive abilities as well.
Ryan, Jacqueline; Rapley, Mark; Dziurawiec, Suzanne
Contemporary psychiatric theory holds that a precipitant of major mental illness is the inability of some vulnerable individuals to cope with the difficulties of everyday life. Such mentally ill people are characterized as having deficient, dysfunctional, or absent coping skills. Recently, researchers have exerted considerable effort to distinguish between productive and nonproductive coping. In this article, we argue that not only are such conceptualizations reliant on reductive, circular logic, but they also miss the essentially rational, local, and individual nature of coping in psychiatric patients' lives. We used semistructured interviews and thematic analyses of psychiatric patients' descriptions of their coping. Patients reported that professional intervention reduced their ability to cope, that they distrusted the mental health system and its professionals, that coping mechanisms were misinterpreted, that situational crises modulated coping, and that sometimes coping was just "not coping." We argue for a more respectful, nuanced understanding of coping among mental health professionals. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pinheiro, Fernanda Amaral; Tróccoli, Bartholomeu Tôrres; Tamayo, Mauricio Robayo
Coping pode ser definido pela forma como as pessoas comumente reagem ao estresse. Estas reações estão relacionadas a fatores pessoais, demandas situacionais e recursos disponíveis (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Entretanto, medidas de coping geral raramente contemplam os fatores situacionais. A mensuração de coping no ambiente ocupacional deve considerar os recursos e estratégias disponíveis, permitir agilidade ao preenchimento e satisfazer critérios psicométricos usuais. O objetivo deste trabalho...
Full Text Available In addition to cope with usual stressful circumstances at work, nowadays, it is important to examine what kind of mental capacities of medical staff are adaptive in respect of a new type of stress – job insecurity. Special focus is put upon self structures as personality determinants and the role they have in coping.. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the self structures in active coping with job insecurity. It was supposed that the increasing integration of self structures leads to increasing use of active coping strategies. Perceived job insecurity was measured by The job insecurity perception scale (Knežević and Majstorović, 2013. The Ego Functioning Questionnaire (Majstorović, Legault and Green-Demers, 2008 was used to evaluate types of ego-functioning; coping were assessed by the Cybernetic coping scale (Edwards and Baglioni, 1993. In order to test the hypothesis the multivariate regression analysis was developed with self-regulation as predictor and active coping strategy as a criterion. A significant model F(3, 306 = 26,73, p < 0,001, was obtained with all the predictors selected as significant. The prediction directions were as expected - Integrated and Ego-investing self were positive predictors (β = 0,35, p < 0,001, and β = 0,16, p < 0,01, respectively, while the impersonal self singled out as a negative predictor (β = –0,13, p < 0,05. The results have shown that the development of self structures is valid predictor for the active coping of medical staff when facing with job insecurity.
... can be among the most difficult losses to bear. They may leave the survivors with a tremendous burden of guilt, anger and shame. Survivors may even feel responsible for the death. Seeking counseling during the first weeks after the ...
Wilkowski, Benjamin M.; Robinson, Michael D.; Gordon, Robert D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy
Previous research has shown that trait anger is associated with biases in attention and interpretation, but the temporal relation between these two types of biases remains unresolved. Indeed, two very different models can be derived from the literature. One model proposes that interpretation biases emerge from earlier biases in attention, whereas the other model proposes that hostile interpretations occur quickly, even prior to the allocation of attention to specific cues. Within the context of integrated visual scenes of ambiguously intended harm, the two models make opposite predictions that can be examined using an eye-tracking methodology. The present study (N = 45) therefore tracked participants’ allocation of attention to hostile and non-hostile cues in ambiguous visual scenes, and found support for the idea that high anger individuals make early hostile interpretations prior to encoding hostile and non-hostiles cues. The data are important in understanding associations between trait anger and cognitive biases. PMID:24920865
Birkley, Erica L; Eckhardt, Christopher I
Prior reviews have identified elevated trait anger as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Given that 10 years have passed since the last comprehensive review of this literature, we provide an updated meta-analytic review examining associations among anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and IPV for male and female perpetrators. One hundred and five effect sizes from 64 independent samples (61 studies) were included for analysis. IPV perpetration was moderately associated with the constructs of anger, hostility, and internalizing negative emotions. This association appeared stronger for those who perpetrated moderate to severe IPV compared to those who perpetrated low to moderate IPV, and did not vary across perpetrator sex, measurement method, relationship type, or perpetrator population. Implications and limitations of findings were reviewed in the context of theoretical models of IPV, and future directions for empirical and clinical endeavors were proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Doorn, Evert A; van Kleef, Gerben A; van der Pligt, Joop
How do instructors' emotional expressions influence students' learning performance? Scholars and practitioners alike have emphasized the importance of positive, nurturing emotions for successful learning. However, teachers may sometimes lose their temper and express anger at their pupils. Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory, we hypothesized that expressions of anger can benefit learning performance. In Experiment 1, participants who were confronted with an angry instructor exhibited more accurate recognition of word pairs after a week of learning, compared with those who were confronted with a happy instructor. In Experiment 2, we conceptually replicated this effect on a recall task, but only among participants in a promotion rather than prevention focus. Present findings thus show, for the 1st time, that instructor anger can enhance students' performance. Findings are consistent with a conceptualization of emotion as social information and call into question the generally endorsed positivity paradigm. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Connor, Kathryn M; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lee, Li-Ching
This study evaluates the relationship between spirituality, resilience, anger and health status, and posttraumatic symptom severity in trauma survivors. A community sample (N = 1,200) completed an online survey that included measures of resilience, spirituality (general beliefs and reincarnation), anger, forgiveness, and hatred. In survivors of violent trauma (n = 648), these measures were evaluated with respect to their relationship to physical and mental health, trauma-related distress, and posttraumatic symptom severity. Using multivariate regression models, general spiritual beliefs and anger emerged in association with each outcome, whereas resilience was associated with health status and posttraumatic symptom severity only. Forgiveness, hatred, and beliefs in reincarnation were not associated with outcome. The importance of these findings to treating trauma survivors is discussed.
Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja; Uchida, Yukiko; Feldman Barrett, Lisa
Two studies tested the idea that the situations that people encounter frequently and the situations that they associate most strongly with an emotion differ across cultures in ways that can be understood from what a culture condones or condemns. In a questionnaire study, N = 163 students from the United States and Japan perceived situations as more frequent to the extent that they elicited condoned emotions (anger in the United States, shame in Japan), and they perceived situations as less frequent to the extent that they elicited condemned emotions (shame in the United States, anger in Japan). In a second study, N = 160 students from the United States and Japan free-sorted the same situations. For each emotion, the situations could be organized along two cross-culturally common dimensions. Those situations that touched upon central cultural concerns were perceived to elicit stronger emotions. The largest cultural differences were found for shame; smaller, yet meaningful, differences were found for anger.
J. Agric. Sci. 23:145-156 (2013). Assessment of Food Insecurity and Coping. Mechanisms among Pastoral Households of Afar. National Regional State: The Case of Chifra .... practicing both farming and extensive livestock rearing. ..... trade, which is regulated by animal health certification system and which is becoming.
The author explored the relations among Taiwanese eighth-grade students' satisfactions of the basic psychological needs (i.e., the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy), engagement versus disengagement coping with academic stress, self-regulated learning, and academic burnout. Three hundred and ninety-six eighth-grade Taiwanese students…
M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)
textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV
van Wijk-Herbrink, M.; Andrea, H.; Verheul, R.
This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a
Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle
We present a novel study on the role of gender in perceptions of and emotions about in-group social image among American Muslims. Two hundred and five (147 females, 58 males) American Muslims completed a questionnaire on how Muslims feel in U.S. society. The study measured both stereotypical (i.e., 'frightening,' 'oppressed') as well as non-stereotypical in-group social images (i.e., 'powerful,' 'honorable'). In particular, participants were asked how much they believe Muslims are seen as 'frightening,' 'oppressed,' 'honorable,' and 'powerful' in U.S. society, and how much anger and sadness they feel about the way U.S. society views Muslims. Participants believed Muslims are seen in stereotypical ways (i.e., as 'frightening' and 'oppressed') more than in non-stereotypical ways (i.e., as 'powerful' and 'honorable'). Moreover, perceived in-group social image as 'powerful' or 'honorable' did not predict the intensity of felt anger or sadness. In contrast, the more participants believed Muslims are seen as 'frightening,' the more intense their anger and sadness. Furthermore, responses to perceived social image as 'oppressed' were moderated by gender. American Muslim female participants believed that Muslims are seen as 'oppressed' in U.S. society to a greater extent than male participants did. In addition, perceived social image as 'oppressed' only predicted anger for female participants: the more female participants believed Muslims are seen as 'oppressed,' the more intense their anger. This study contributes to the scarce literature on American Muslims in psychology, and shows that both anger and sadness are relevant to the study of perceived social image.
Hisli Şahin, Nesrin; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül; Alkan Pazvantoğlu, Emel
The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between interpersonal style, self concept, and anger in the context of sexual dysfunction. The sample consisted of males and females diagnosed as having sexual dysfunction (N=95) and males and females without a diagnosis of any kind of psychological disorder (N=95). The age range was between 18-53. The participants were given a detailed Demographic Information Questionnaire and the Interpersonal Styles Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Multidimensional Anger Scale, Social Comparison Scale and the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). The results showed that the two groups had significantly different scores on all of the measures, including their sub-scales. The regression analyses of the two groups revealed that for all of the participants, males and females, patients and non-patients, the GRISS scores could be significantly predicted by self-perception, satisfaction with life and relationships. These three variables were the common variables that predicted the GRISS scores regardless of sex. However, the specific predictive variable for the GRISS scores of the female patients, in addition to the three common variables, was vindictive anger reactions. For the non-patient females, these additional variables were belittling and insensitive interpersonal styles. On the other hand, for the male patients, the scores on the GRISS could be significantly predicted by the belittling interpersonal style and aggressive anger reactions, along with the three common variables listed above. For the non-patient males, the additional variable was avoidant interpersonal style. The above results indicate that sexual dysfunctions can be explained in part by the interpersonal style and anger management deficits of the patients. It is suggested that the addition of anger-management, and interpersonal communication skills training courses into the treatment protocol of sexual dysfunction disorders would be
Berzonsky, M D
This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.
... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...
Persyk, D. E.
A test instrument has been designed to measure the stability of PMT's (photomultiplier tubes) used in Anger scintillation cameras. The instrument is comprised of a number of glass capsules containing beta-emitting tritium with a blue phosphor to provide very stable light sources along with a data logger to monitor anode current. Three hundred sixty PMT's are simultaneously tested for anode luminous sensitivity, dark current, long-term drift rate, erratic gain instabilities and rms noise. This paper discusses results in the use of the instrument to test over 300 000 PMT's and the impact upon Anger camera reliability is assessed
Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Richtig, Erika; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Zampetti, Anna; Sampogna, Francesca; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Komericki, Peter; Strimitzer, Tanja; Linder, Michael Dennis
An observational, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether differences in coping behaviour (positive and negative strategies) between patients with either a recent diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM) or with benign dermatological disease, were predictive of the diagnosis. Coping strategies were assessed with the German version of the stress-coping questionnaire (SVF 120) in 46 inpatients for whom surgery was planned at the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Subjects were divided into two groups: patients with non-metastatic MM, and patients with benign dermatological diseases (controls). The risk for the diagnosis "melanoma" decreased with higher values of "situation control" (p = 0.007) and increased with higher values of resignation (p = 0.035) and trivialisation (p = 0.039). More-over, the risk for having a MM with thickness > 1 mm decreased in patients with higher values in positive coping strategies (p psychological interventions to improve coping in patients with MM, as differences in coping behaviour seem to appear even in the non-metastatic stage of the disease.
Adam Robert Nicholls
Full Text Available There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor, internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses, or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts towards goal attainment. Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I2, and R2 values assessed heterogeneity
Nicholls, Adam R; Taylor, Natalie J; Carroll, Sean; Perry, John L
There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor), internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses), or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts toward goal attainment). Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I 2 , and R 2 values assessed heterogeneity. Eighteen published
Nicholls, Adam R.; Taylor, Natalie J.; Carroll, Sean; Perry, John L.
There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor), internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses), or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts toward goal attainment). Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I2, and R2 values assessed heterogeneity. Eighteen published
Hawthorne, Graeme; Mouthaan, Joanne; Forbes, David; Novaco, Raymond W.
Anger is a key long-term outcome from trauma exposure, regardless of trauma type, and it is implicated as a moderator of response to treatment. It therefore seems important that anger is assessed in both epidemiological studies of trauma sequelae and in intervention evaluation research. This study
Tang, Li-Na; Ye, Xiao-Zhou; Yan, Qiu-Ge; Chang, Hong-Juan; Ma, Yu-Qiao; Liu, De-Bin; Li, Zhi-Gen; Yu, Yi-Zhen
The risk factors of high trait anger of juvenile offenders were explored through questionnaire study in a youth correctional facility of Hubei province, China. A total of 1090 juvenile offenders in Hubei province were investigated by self-compiled social-demographic questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). The risk factors were analyzed by chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS 19.0. A total of 1082 copies of valid questionnaires were collected. High trait anger group (n=316) was defined as those who scored in the upper 27th percentile of STAXI-II trait anger scale (TAS), and the rest were defined as low trait anger group (n=766). The risk factors associated with high level of trait anger included: childhood emotional abuse, childhood sexual abuse, step family, frequent drug abuse, and frequent internet using (P0.05). It was suggested that traumatic experience in childhood and unhealthy life style may significantly increase the level of trait anger in adulthood. The risk factors of high trait anger and their effects should be taken into consideration seriously.
Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsiligiannis, Georgia
This study investigated the efficacy of a psychoeducational group for Greek special education teachers, all but one of whom reported experiencing anger in class. An anger management program was designed, which included a short, four-session package to be given within two weeks. The results of a pretest-posttest comparison revealed reductions in…
Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David
We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to toddler anger/frustration via harsh parenting and parental depressive symptoms, with an additional focus on the moderating role of genetic influences as inferred from birth parent anger/frustration. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children who were 9 (T1) and 18 (T2) months old across the study period. Results indicated an indirect effect from T1 marital hostility to T2 toddler anger/frustration via T2 parental harsh discipline. Results also indicated that the association between marital hostility and toddler anger was moderated by birth mother anger/frustration. For children whose birth mothers reported high levels of anger/frustration, adoptive parents' marital hostility at T1 predicted toddler anger/frustration at T2. This relation did not hold for children whose birth mothers reported low levels of anger/frustration. The results suggest that children whose birth mothers report elevated frustration might inherit an emotional lability that makes them more sensitive to the effects of marital hostility.
Park, Su In; Kim, Sunah
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediation of self-efficacy in the relationship between anger and the functional health of homeless men in order to provide a basis for planning nursing interventions to improve the functional health of homeless persons. The participants were 137 homeless men who lived in homeless shelters or visited one center serving free meals for homeless persons in Seoul. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires and analyzed with the SPSS-WIN 20.0 program. The instruments were the Functional Health Pattern Screening Assessment Tool (FHPAST), Self-efficacy Scale (SES), and State-trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean version (STAXI-K). The mean score for functional health was 2.41. Overall self-efficacy was 70.82. state anger was 16.53, trait anger was 19.54, and anger expression was 25.31. There were signigicant correlations among the 3 variables, functional health, self-efficacy, and anger. Also, self-efficacy had a complete mediating effect in the relationship between anger and functional health. Based on the findings of this study, health management programs focusing on anger management and self-efficacy improvement are highly recommended to promote functional health in homeless persons.
Sportsman, Emily L.; Carlson, John S.; Guthrie, Kelly M.
Four fourth-grade boys participated in an anger management group using "Seeing Red: An Anger Management and Peacemaking Curriculum for Kids" facilitated by a school psychology intern and her supervisor (J. Simmonds, 2003). The group met for 30 min weekly for a total of 14 sessions. Lessons consisted of practicing skills and strategies related to…
Humphrey, Neil; Brooks, A. George
An increasing number of children and young people are being excluded from school as a direct result of anger management problems. The research literature suggests that short cognitive-behavioural intervention programmes may be effective in helping young people understand and control their anger. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the…
Full Text Available This book deals with coping strategies and defense mechanisms as two kinds of self-regulation of human behaviour. The defense mechanisms are described with some examples of fiction books.
Objective: To examine the relationship between illness representations, coping behaviour and adaptive outcome in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Design: Cross-sectional. Following Leventhal's self-regulation model (Leventhal, Meyer & Nerenz, 1980), it was hypothesized that illness
De Dominicis, Stefano; Fornara, Ferdinando; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta
Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to pl...
Hansen, Jesper Lau
Artiklen beskriver, hvordan arbejdet med børsret i stigende grad påvirkes af EU-retten, dels i form af materiel EU-retlig regulering, dels ved en forøgelse af regeludstedende aktører.......Artiklen beskriver, hvordan arbejdet med børsret i stigende grad påvirkes af EU-retten, dels i form af materiel EU-retlig regulering, dels ved en forøgelse af regeludstedende aktører....
Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice
Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously...... participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS...
Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Evans, Susan; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn
While anger is an important feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) it is unclear whether it is simply concomitant or plays a role in maintaining symptoms. A previous study of disaster workers responding to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (Evans et al., 2006) indicated that those with PTSD evidenced more severe anger than those without. The purpose of this study was to conduct a one-year follow-up to assess the role of anger in maintaining PTSD. Workers with PTSD continued to report more severe anger than those without; there were statistically significant associations between changes in anger, PTSD severity, depression, and psychiatric distress. Multiple regression analysis indicated initial anger severity to be a significant predictor of PTSD severity at follow-up, which is consistent with the notion that anger maintains PTSD. One implication is that disaster workers with high anger may benefit from early intervention to prevent chronic PTSD. PMID:19008736
Adams, Deana; Dahdah, Marie
most relevant needs. Self-reported deficits included short-term memory loss (STM), fatigue, anger, and personality changes, and the strategies that TBI survivors and caregivers identified tended to address their problems with these specific day-to-day deficits. Problem focused, emotion focused, and avoidant coping were utilized to some degree in their adjustment to home life and activities of daily living. Participants offered suggestions for mental health professionals addressing how to more effectively work with brain injury survivors and their primary caregivers. TBI survivors and caregivers had multiple self-reported unaddressed needs following their discharge from facility-based treatment. They reported spontaneously engaging in various coping and adaptive strategies to address their needs and deficits. However, further education regarding potential post-TBI challenges and strategies for addressing them are needed, including a need for community and mental health resources.
Full Text Available Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981 and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994, the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews from fourteen international ballet dancers were used adopting an idiographic approach through interpretative phenomenological analysis and tenets of grounded theory methodology. The results identified a main theme "Coping strategies: Coping within & without" and eight sub-categories: Denial, alienation, indecision, severance, acceptance, letting go, renegotiation and reconstruction. The individual can experience different responses, which trigger different coping processes and subsequently different types of support are sought. Finally the paper briefly discusses some of the implications for future career development and career guidance. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100210
Wu, Wei-Wen; Chang, Joanne T; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Liang, Shu-Yuan
Anger is considered a common method used by patients to relieve emotional frustrations. However, this emotional response is not a common research focus for adolescents with cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-concept mediated the relationship between anger and resilience for adolescent patients currently being treated for cancer. A cross-sectional study of 40 adolescents with cancer was conducted. The instruments included the Chinese Beck Self-Concept Inventory, the Chinese Beck Anger Inventory, and the Chinese Resilience Scale. Mediation analysis was also conducted. The results indicate that (1) variations in anger significantly account for 6.86% of observed variations in self-concept, (2) variations in self-concept significantly account for 52.83% of observed variations in resilience, (3) variations in anger significantly account for 10.96% of observed variations in resilience, and (4) when paths in conditions 1 and 2 were controlled, variations in anger through self-concept significantly account for 54.04% of observed variations in resilience, and variations in anger did not significantly account for observed variations in resilience. Gender and age might affect anger control. Despite worse physical functioning and an impacted appearance, participants had normative-to-positive self-concept levels, suggesting that their self-concept might not be affected by cancer. Self-concept might play a mediating role between anger and resilience, thus helping to bridge this knowledge gap. The current gap in knowledge regarding the mediating relationship necessitates the implementation of a large-scale study designed to verify the mediating role of self-concept between anger and resilience.
A set of prevalent emotions, including pity, anger, guilt, pride (self-esteem), gratitude, and resignation, shares a common characteristic, i.e., causal attributions appear to be sufficient antecedents for their elicitation. Research in the field of emotions has shown that the underlying properties or dimensions of attributions are the significant…
Full Text Available When irritated by other people, powerful people usually tend to express their anger explicitly and directly, whereas people in less powerful positions are more likely not to show their feelings freely. The neural mechanism behind power and its influence on expression tendency has been scarcely explored. This study recorded frontal EEG activity at rest and frontal EEG activation while participants were engaged in a writing task describing an anger-eliciting event, in which they were irritated by people with higher or lower social power. Participants’ anger levels and expression inclination levels were self-reported on nine-point visual analog Likert scales, and also rated by independent raters based on the essays they had written. The results showed that high social power was indeed associated with greater anger expression tendency and greater left frontal activation than low social power. This is in line with the approach-inhibition theory of power. The mid-frontal asymmetric activation served as a partial mediator between social power and expression inclination. This effect may relate to the functions of the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of information integration and evaluation and the control of motivation direction, as reported by previous studies.
Grindheim, Liv Torunn
This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…
Slavin-Spenny, Olga; Lumley, Mark A.; Thakur, Elyse R.; Nevedal, Dana C.; Hijazi, Alaa M.
Background and purpose Stress contributes to headaches, and effective interventions for headaches routinely include relaxation training (RT) to directly reduce negative emotions and arousal. Yet, suppressing negative emotions, particularly anger, appears to augment pain, and experimental studies suggest that expressing anger may reduce pain. Therefore, we developed and tested anger awareness and expression training (AAET) on people with headaches. Methods Young adults with headaches (N = 147) were randomized to AAET, RT, or a wait-list control. We assessed affect during sessions, and process and outcome variables at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Results On process measures, both interventions increased self-efficacy to manage headaches, but only AAET reduced alexithymia and increased emotional processing and assertiveness. Yet, both interventions were equally effective at improving headache outcomes relative to controls. Conclusions Enhancing anger awareness and expression may improve chronic headaches, although not more than RT. Researchers should study which patients are most likely to benefit from emotional expression versus emotional reduction approaches to chronic pain. PMID:23620190
Li, Caina; Sun, Ying; Ho, Man Yee; You, Jin; Shaver, Phillip R; Wang, Zhenhong
Prior research has documented a relationship between narcissism and aggression but has focused only on dispositional narcissism without considering situational factors that may increase narcissism temporarily. This study explored the possibility that an increase in state narcissism would foster aggressive responding by increasing anger and hostile attributional bias following unexpected provocation among 162 college students from China. We created a guided-imagination manipulation to heighten narcissism and investigated its effects on anger, aroused hostile attribution bias, and aggressive responses following a provocation with a 2 (narcissism/neutral manipulation) × 2 (unexpected provocation/positive evaluation condition) between-subjects design. We found that the manipulation did increase self-reported state narcissism. The increase in state narcissism in turn heightened aggression, and this relation was mediated by increased anger. Regardless of the level of state narcissism, individuals were more aggressive after being provoked and this effect of provocation was mediated by hostile attributional bias. The findings indicate that narcissism can be temporarily heightened in a nonclinical sample of individuals, and that the effect of state narcissism on aggression is mediated by anger. Differences between state and trait narcissism and possible influences of culture are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:333-345, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Breiner, Mary J; Tuomisto, Laura; Bouyea, Elizabeth; Gussak, David E; Aufderheide, Dean
A training partnership was established with the Florida Department of Corrections in 2003, and over the ensuing years, art therapy graduate student interns from Florida State University's Graduate Art Therapy Program have been placed in local prisons at different times. Recently, the art therapy interns worked closely with the supervising psychologist in one prison to alleviate and redirect aggression by integrating cognitive-behavioral techniques with art therapy directives. The art therapy interns and the psychologist developed a curriculum using a combination of workbook exercises and art tasks to develop and increase the participants' anger management skills, the Art Therapy Anger Management Protocol. This article provides an overview of art therapy in prison, the cognitive-behavioral approach to anger management with prison inmates, and how art therapy was used to support this approach. Examples of completed art tasks designed to correspond with the workbook curriculum are presented. Overall, this article presents the successful collaboration between the psychologist and art therapists and demonstrates how they facilitated improvement in the participants' anger management skills through this program.
Denson, T.F.; Dobson-Stone, C.; Ronay, R.D.; von Hippel, W.; Schira, M.M.
Aggressiveness is highly heritable. Recent experimental work has linked individual differences in a functional polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase-A gene (MAOA) to anger-driven aggression. Other work has implicated the dorsal ACC (dACC) in cognitive-emotional control and the amygdala in emotional
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio
The treatment of men with anger problems presents significant challenges for practitioners. This article discusses a cognitive-behavioral, individual therapy, approach within the framework of three single case studies involving men. Treatment challenges and methodology are presented. Key treatment issues included: establishing a therapeutic…
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Karataş, Zeynep
This study aimed to examine the mediating role of anger in the relationship between automatic thoughts and physical aggression in adolescents. The study included 224 adolescents in the 9th grade of 3 different high schools in central Burdur during the 2011-2012 academic year. Participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire and Automatic Thoughts Scale in their classrooms during counseling sessions. Data were analyzed using simple and multiple linear regression analysis. There were positive correlations between the adolescents' automatic thoughts, and physical aggression, and anger. According to regression analysis, automatic thoughts effectively predicted the level of physical aggression (b= 0.233, P thoughts and physical aggression (Sobel z = 5.646, P thoughts and physical aggression. Providing adolescents with anger management skills training is very important for the prevention of physical aggression. Such training programs should include components related to the development of an awareness of dysfunctional and anger-triggering automatic thoughts, and how to change them. As the study group included adolescents from Burdur, the findings can only be generalized to groups with similar characteristics.
Erreygers, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi; Vranjes, Ivana; Baillien, Elfi; De Witte, Hans
Adolescents tend to go to bed later and sleep less as they grow older, although their need for sleep stays the same throughout adolescence. Poor sleep has negative consequences on personal and interpersonal functioning, including increased aggressive tendencies. With adolescents' social life increasingly including interactions via digital media, these interactions may also become more aggressive when adolescents' sleep problems increase. One of the ways in which online aggression may be enacted is through cyberbullying. Although previous research has examined the role of sleep disruptions in offline bullying, the role of sleep in cyberbullying has not yet been addressed. Therefore, this study examines the longitudinal effect of poor sleep quality on later cyberbullying behavior. Thirteen- to fourteen-year-old adolescents completed self-report measures on sleep quality, anger, cyberbullying perpetration, and frequency of digital media use. Because one of the pathways through which sleep is proposed to be linked to aggression is an affective pathway, namely via angry affect, a mediation model of poor sleep quality predicting cyberbullying via feelings of anger was tested. Results from structural equation modeling and a bootstrap test indicated that poor sleep quality was indeed indirectly associated with later cyberbullying behavior through heightened feelings of anger, even when taking the effects of the use of digital media and previous cyberbullying behavior into account. This finding provides support for the proposed affective pathway linking sleep problems to aggression. As sleep problems and anger seem to play a predicting role in cyberbullying behavior, suggestions for cyberbullying intervention and prevention strategies are formulated.
Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Shea, Tracie; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H
Scarce data are available regarding the dimensional structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and how factors relate to external constructs. We evaluated six competing models of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, including Anhedonia, Externalizing Behaviors, and Hybrid models, using confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 412 trauma-exposed college students. We then examined whether PTSD symptom clusters were differentially related to measures of anger and impulsivity using Wald chi-square tests. The seven-factor Hybrid model was deemed optimal compared with the alternatives. All symptom clusters were associated with anger; the strongest association was between externalizing behaviors and anger (r = 0.54). All symptom clusters, except re-experiencing and avoidance, were associated with impulsivity, with the strongest association between externalizing behaviors and impulsivity (r = 0.49). A seven-factor Hybrid model provides superior fit to DSM-5 PTSD symptom data, with the externalizing behaviors factor being most strongly related to anger and impulsivity.
Kunst, M. J. J.; Winkel, F. W.; Bogaerts, S.
A mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design was employed to explore the association between posttraumatic anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; symptoms) in victims of civilian violence. It was speculated that this relationship is mainly due to concurrent recalled peritraumatic emotions. Such emotions may be interpreted to result from…
Figueiredo, A.; Doosje, B.; Pires Valentim, J.
Group-based emotions can be experienced by group members for the past misdeeds of their ingroup towards an outgroup.. The present study examines distinct antecedents and consequences of group-based compunction and anger in two countries with a history of colonization (Portugal, N = 280 and the
Forbes, David; Alkemade, Nathan; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Gallagher, Colin; Pattison, Phillipa; Lusher, Dean; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Snowdon, Elyse; Kellet, Connie; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Bryant, Richard A
Research has established the mental health sequelae following disaster, with studies now focused on understanding factors that mediate these outcomes. This study focused on anger, alcohol, subsequent life stressors and traumatic events as mediators in the development of mental health disorders following the 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires, Australia's worst natural disaster in over 100 years. This study examined data from 1017 (M = 404, F = 613) adult residents across 25 communities differentially affected by the fires and participating in the Beyond Bushfires research study. Data included measures of fire exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol abuse, anger and subsequent major life stressors and traumatic events. Structural equation modeling assessed the influence of factors mediating the effects of fire exposure on mental health outcomes. Three mediation models were tested. The final model recorded excellent fit and observed a direct relationship between disaster exposure and mental health outcomes (b = .192, p disaster exposure and development of mental health problems. The findings have significant implications for the assessment of anger post disaster, the provision of targeted anger-focused interventions and delivery of government and community assistance and support in addressing ongoing stressors in the post-disaster context to minimize subsequent mental health consequences. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Huber, Michaela; Van Boven, Leaf; Park, Bernadette; Pizzi, William T
We examined the effects of incidental anger on perceived and actual polarization between Democrats and Republicans in the context of two national tragedies, Hurricane Katrina (Study 1) and the mass shooting that targeted Representative Gabrielle Giffords in Arizona (Study 2). We hypothesized that because of its relevance to intergroup conflict, incidental anger exacerbates the political polarization effects of issue partisanship (the correlation between partisan identification and partisan attitudes), and, separately, the correlation between conservative partisan identification and perceived polarization between Democrats and Republicans. We further hypothesized that these effects would be strongest for Republican identification because Republican leaders were targets of public criticism in both tragedies and because conservative (Republican) ideology tends to be more sensitive to threat. In the studies, participants first completed an emotion induction procedure by recalling autobiographical events that made them angry (Studies 1 & 2), sad (Studies 1 & 2), or that involved recalling emotionally neutral events (Study 2). Participants later reported their attitudes regarding the two tragedies, their perceptions of the typical Democrat's and Republican's attitudes on those issues, and their identification with the Democratic and Republican parties. Compared with incidental sadness (Studies 1 and 2) and a neutral condition (Study 2), incidental anger exacerbated the associations between Republican identification and partisan attitudes, and, separately between Republican identification and perceived polarization between the attitudes of Democrats and Republicans. We discuss implications for anger's influence on political attitude formation and perceptions of group differences in political attitudes.
McKinney, Jessica M; Hirsch, Jameson K; Britton, Peter C
Suicide rates are higher in veterans compared to the general population, perhaps due to trauma exposure. Previous literature highlights depressive symptoms and anger as contributors to suicide risk. PTSD symptoms may indirectly affect suicide risk by increasing the severity of such cognitive-emotional factors. A sample of community dwelling veterans (N=545) completed online surveys, including the PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Multidimensional Health Profile-Psychosocial Functioning, and Differential Emotions Scale -IV. Bivariate and serial mediation analyses were conducted to test for direct and indirect effects of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk. In bivariate analyses, PTSD symptoms, depression, anger, and internal hostility were positively related to suicide risk. In serial mediation analyses, there was a significant total effect of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk in both models. PTSD symptoms were also indirectly related to suicidal behavior via depression and internal hostility, and via internal hostility alone. Anger was not a significant mediator. Our cross-sectional sample was predominantly White and male; prospective studies with diverse veterans are needed. Our findings may have implications for veteran suicide prevention. The effects of PTSD and depression on anger, particularly internal hostility, are related to suicide risk, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for the PTSD-suicide linkage. A multi-faceted therapeutic approach, targeting depression and internal hostility, via cognitive-behavioral techniques such as behavioral activation and cognitive restructuring, may reduce suicide risk in veterans who have experienced trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carver, Charles S.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
C. S. Carver and E. Harmon-Jones reviewed evidence consistent with the idea that anger arises from a behavioral approach system. Commentary on that article by A. J. Tomarken and D. H. Zald raised questions about the many elements involved in acts of approach and limitations on what information can be provided by electroencephalograms. Commentary…
Chronaki, Georgia; Benikos, Nicholas; Fairchild, Graeme; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S
Deficits in facial emotion processing, reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been linked to both early perceptual and later attentional components of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, the neural underpinnings of vocal emotion processing deficits in ADHD have yet to be characterised. Here, we report the first ERP study of vocal affective prosody processing in ADHD. Event-related potentials of 6-11-year-old children with ADHD (n = 25) and typically developing controls (n = 25) were recorded as they completed a task measuring recognition of vocal prosodic stimuli (angry, happy and neutral). Audiometric assessments were conducted to screen for hearing impairments. Children with ADHD were less accurate than controls at recognising vocal anger. Relative to controls, they displayed enhanced N100 and attenuated P300 components to vocal anger. The P300 effect was reduced, but remained significant, after controlling for N100 effects by rebaselining. Only the N100 effect was significant when children with ADHD and comorbid conduct disorder (n = 10) were excluded. This study provides the first evidence linking ADHD to atypical neural activity during the early perceptual stages of vocal anger processing. These effects may reflect preattentive hyper-vigilance to vocal anger in ADHD. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Olson, Lester C.
This essay argues that Audre Lorde's 1981 keynote speech, "The Uses of Anger: Women Responding to Racism," has much to contribute to communication scholars' understanding of human biases and rhetorical artistry. The significance of Lorde's subject is one reason for devoting critical attention to her speech, because, in contemporary public life in…
Karademir, Tamer; Türkçapar, Ünal
This research was done for the determination of how their anxiety levels' and anger expressions' get shaped according to some variances. For this reason there were 76 female 125 male totally 201 sportsmen, who participated to the table tennis championship between universities in 2016 and ages differ from 18 to 28, were included the research group.…
Kroeker, B. J.; And Others
The experiences of the Windsor, Ontario, Canada, chapter of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), in its development and progress through the grief-anger-social action continuum, are described. This article also portrays a model for problem resolution which emphasizes incorporating the respective strengths and efficiencies of self-help groups and…
This study investigated a current trend in anger-management groups labeled as leadership development. The goal of the investigation was to determine if leadership is a critical factor in working with angry youth. A total of 52 middle school-aged adolescents from 2 schools served as participants. Of those, 18 participants received a strength-based,…
de Vos, Bartholomeus
Although the experience of anger in intergroup conflict is typically viewed as a destructive force that is best kept under wraps, the current dissertation suggests that its communication can help de-escalate intergroup conflict because of its relational function. Specifically, this entails that the
Daria J. Kuss
Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.
Hoggan, Benjamin L; Dollard, Maureen F
Both workplace stress and road rage are reported to be on the increase. This study examined the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model of work stress and its relationship with general anger and driving anger in a community sample of 130 Australian workers. It also examined international differences in driving anger, with Australian motorists reporting lower levels of driving anger than American motorists but higher levels than British motorists. Hierarchical multiple regressions confirmed ERI increased driving anger via the mediating variables of general anger and overcommitment; individuals suffering ERI may develop increased general anger or overcommitment, in turn increasing propensity to experience driving anger. Regressions also showed that overcommitment (but not general anger) moderated the effect of ERI on driving anger; ERI has a greater influence on increasing driving anger in individuals with high overcommitment at work. The results have considerable implications for the safety and emotional health of individuals who perceive an imbalance between their efforts and rewards at work, and overcommitted individuals may be at greater risk. The wider implications of the relationship between work stress, emotional well-being and driving anger in employees, along with the potential of driver education interventions, are discussed as public health issues.
Fontana, M; Dauvergne, D; Létang, J M; Ley, J-L; Testa, É
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system's geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years. In this study we compare a commercial SPECT-Anger device, the General Electric HealthCare Infinia system with a High Energy General Purpose (HEGP) collimator, and the Compton camera prototype under development by the French collaboration CLaRyS, through Monte Carlo simulations (GATE-GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission-version 7.1 and GEANT4 version 9.6, respectively). Given the possible introduction of new radio-emitters at higher energies intrinsically allowed by the Compton camera detection principle, the two detectors are exposed to point-like sources at increasing primary gamma energies, from actual isotopes already suggested for nuclear medicine applications. The Compton camera prototype is first characterized for SPECT application by studying the main parameters affecting its imaging performance: detector energy resolution and random coincidence rate. The two detector performances are then compared in terms of radial event distribution, detection efficiency and final image, obtained by gamma transmission analysis for the Anger system, and with an iterative List Mode-Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-MLEM) algorithm for the Compton reconstruction. The results show for the Compton camera a detection efficiency increased by a factor larger than an order of magnitude with respect to the Anger camera, associated with an enhanced spatial resolution for energies beyond 500 keV. We discuss the advantages of Compton camera application for
Fontana, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Létang, J. M.; Ley, J.-L.; Testa, É.
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system’s geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years. In this study we compare a commercial SPECT-Anger device, the General Electric HealthCare Infinia system with a High Energy General Purpose (HEGP) collimator, and the Compton camera prototype under development by the French collaboration CLaRyS, through Monte Carlo simulations (GATE—GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission—version 7.1 and GEANT4 version 9.6, respectively). Given the possible introduction of new radio-emitters at higher energies intrinsically allowed by the Compton camera detection principle, the two detectors are exposed to point-like sources at increasing primary gamma energies, from actual isotopes already suggested for nuclear medicine applications. The Compton camera prototype is first characterized for SPECT application by studying the main parameters affecting its imaging performance: detector energy resolution and random coincidence rate. The two detector performances are then compared in terms of radial event distribution, detection efficiency and final image, obtained by gamma transmission analysis for the Anger system, and with an iterative List Mode-Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-MLEM) algorithm for the Compton reconstruction. The results show for the Compton camera a detection efficiency increased by a factor larger than an order of magnitude with respect to the Anger camera, associated with an enhanced spatial resolution for energies beyond 500 keV. We discuss the advantages of Compton camera application
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.
Ruiz, Montse C; Haapanen, Saara; Tolvanen, Asko; Robazza, Claudio; Duda, Joan L
This study examined the relationships between perceptions of the motivational climate, motivation regulations, and the intensity and functionality levels of athletes' pleasant and unpleasant emotional states. Specifically, we examined the hypothesised mediational role of motivation regulations in the climate-emotion relationship. We also tested a sequence in which emotions were assumed to be predicted by the motivational climate dimensions and then served as antecedents to variability in motivation regulations. Participants (N = 494) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that a perceived task-involving climate was a positive predictor of autonomous motivation and of the impact of functional anger, and a negative predictor of the intensity of anxiety and dysfunctional anger. Autonomous motivation was a partial mediator of perceptions of a task-involving climate and the impact of functional anger. An ego-involving climate was a positive predictor of controlled motivation, and of the intensity and impact of functional anger and the intensity of dysfunctional anger. Controlled motivation partially mediated the relationship between an ego-involving climate and the intensity of dysfunctional anger. Good fit to the data also emerged for the motivational climate, emotional states, and motivation regulations sequence. Findings provide support for the consideration of hedonic tone and functionality distinctions in the assessment of athletes' emotional states.
Lee, Alex G; Capanzana, Roxanne; Brockhurst, Jacqueline; Cheng, Michelle Y; Buckmaster, Christine L; Absher, Devin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M
Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping with gains in subsequent emotion regulation. Here we investigate the effects of learning to cope with stress on anterior cingulate cortex gene expression in monkeys and mice. Anterior cingulate cortex is involved in learning, memory, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Monkeys and mice were randomized to either stress coping or no-stress treatment conditions. Profiles of gene expression were acquired with HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for monkeys. Three genes identified in monkeys by arrays were then assessed in mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of a key gene (PEMT) involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis was increased in monkeys by coping but this result was not verified in mice. Another gene (SPRY2) that encodes a negative regulator of neurotrophic factor signaling was decreased in monkeys by coping but this result was only partly verified in mice. The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or without subsequent behavioral tests of emotionality. As evidence of coping effects distinct from repeated stress exposures per se, increased stargazin expression induced by coping correlated with diminished emotionality in mice. Stargazin modulates glutamate receptor signaling and plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nadkarni, Abhijit; Dabholkar, Hamid; McCambridge, Jim; Bhat, Bhargav; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Murthy, Pratima; Patel, Vikram
Purpose The explanatory models (EM) and coping strategies for mental health problems influence treatment seeking and the subsequent patient journey. The goal of this study was to explore the EMs and coping strategies for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods We conducted semi structured interviews with 29 men with AUD and 10 significant others (SO) in two sites in India. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Results The former were predominantly married, literate and employed; the latter were predominantly wives, literate and employed. Alcohol consumption and AUDs are seen to be mainly associated with psychosocial stress, with other factors being peer influences, availability of disposable income and drinking for pleasure. They are perceived to result in a range of adverse impacts on social life, family life, personal health and family finances. Various coping strategies were deployed by men with AUD and their significant others, for example avoidance, substitution, distraction, religious activities, support from AA/friends/family, restricting means to buy alcohol and anger management. Reduction/cessation in drinking, improved family relationships, improved emotional/physical wellbeing and better occupational functioning were the most desired treatment outcomes. Conclusion There are considerable similarities, as well as some key differences, observed between the EMs for AUD in India and those reported from other cultures which have implications for the global applicability and contextual adaptations of evidence based interventions for AUD. PMID:24309865
Jeong, Jae Sim; Son, Haeng Mi; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Son, Jun Seok; Shin, Kyong-sok; Yoonchang, Sung Won; Jin, Hye Young; Han, Si Hyeon; Han, Su Ha
This study was designed to survey psychologic discomfort and coping processes of health care workers that suffered needlestick injuries (NSIs). This qualitative analysis was performed with 15 health care workers who experienced NSIs. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews. The study subjects were asked the following: please describe the psychologic discomfort that you experienced after the NSI incidence. Data were evaluated by qualitative content analysis. Types of psychologic discomfort after NSI among health care workers included anxiety, anger, and feelings of guilt. Some personnel adopted active coping strategies, such as seeking first aid or reporting the incident to a monitoring system, whereas others used passive coping methods, such as avoidance of reporting the incident, vague expectancy to have no problems, and reliance on religious beliefs. Recommended support strategies to improve the prevention of NSIs were augmenting employee education and increasing recognition of techniques for avoiding NSIs. Medical institutions need to provide employees with repeated education so that they are familiar with guidelines for preventing NSIs and to stimulate their alertness to the risk of injuries at any time, in any place, and to anybody. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Katz, Laura; Tripp, Dean A; Carr, Lesley K; Mayer, Robert; Moldwin, Robert M; Nickel, J Curtis
To examine a self-regulation and coping model for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) that may help us understand the pain experience of patients with chronic IC/BPS. The model tested illness perceptions, illness-focused coping, emotional regulation, mental health and disability in a stepwise method using factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Step 1, explored the underlying constructs. Step 2, confirmed the measurement models to determine the structure/composition of the main constructs. Step 3, evaluated the model fit and specified pathways in the proposed IC/BPS self-regulation model. In all, 217 female patients with urologist diagnosed IC/BPS were recruited and diagnosed across tertiary care centres in North America. The data were collected through self-report questionnaires. An IC/BPS self-regulation model was supported. Physical disability was worsened by patient's negative perception of their illness, attempts to cope using illness-focused coping and poorer emotional regulation. Mental health was supported by perceptions that individuals could do something about their illness, using wellness-focused behavioural strategies and adaptive emotion regulation. The results clarify the complex and unique process of self-regulation in women with IC/BPS, implicating cognitive and coping targets, and highlighting emotional regulation. This knowledge should help clinicians understand and manage these patients' distress and disability. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hekkala, Riitta; Stein, Mari-Klara
Purpose: This study examines emotionologies (Stearns & Stearns, 1985), that is, attitudes that members of an inter-organizational information systems (IOIS) project hold toward emotions and their appropriate expression and regulation in this project. In order to understand attitudes toward emotio...... emotional dissonance, sometimes at the expense of risking open conflict among project members. With this in mind, one theoretical and practical suggestion is to further explore the potential constructive implications of experiencing and expressing fear in projects....
Full Text Available The purpose of current research was to examine the impact of anger level of mothers who have children with or without LD on the self-concept of children. The method of the study was comparative and correlational. Statistical population included all mothers of children with LD that were clients of LD centers and the mothers of children without LD recruited from the same location. In total, 82 children were selected in two sample groups ranging 8 -12 years of age with and without LD. Then, questionnaires of The State - Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2 and BaumrindChildren’s Self-concept Scale by Ahluwalia (1961 were filled.The data were analyzed by MANOVA and regression method. LD was not found as moderator variable in relation between anger and childrearing. Differences found between mother's children with and without LD in feeling angry, angry reaction, expression-out, anger expression - in, anger control - out, anger control - in, anger impact of behavior self-concept, educational self-concept and happy. There was a difference between children with and without LD in self-concept as well. Family as the most important agency that shapes child' past demand more basic research on childrearing styles of children with LD. It is essential to expand our research based knowledge about them. This study suggests differences between parenting styles of mothers with or without LD children that may have clinical implications for professionals involved in treatment of these children and their mothers.
Ford, Michael T; Wang, Yanxia; Jin, Jiafei; Eisenberger, Robert
Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in response to supportive treatment and anger toward their organizations in response to unsupportive treatment. Gratitude and anger, in turn, were expected to influence daily extrarole behavior. After developing short measures of organization-directed anger and gratitude in 2 pilot studies, we tested these hypotheses in a daily diary study of 54 workers providing 421 daily reports. Results indicate that perceived organizational support was related to chronic gratitude and anger, which is stable from day to day, and chronic gratitude was in turn related to chronic differences in organizational citizenship behavior. Episodic anger and gratitude, which vary daily, were related to daily supervisor interactional justice and helping behavior, respectively, and in turn predicted daily episodic variance in organizational citizenship and counterproductive work behavior. These findings suggest that the moral emotions of gratitude and anger toward the organization are indicators of employee affective well-being and play a mediating role in the effects of organizational and supervisor supportiveness on employee performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C
We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte
and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The `healthiest' adaptation related to factors within...
Rokach, Ami; Chin, Jackie; Sha'ked, Ami
Loneliness is a universal experience which transcends age, sex, geography, and culture. Religion, and often one's religiosity, are known to affect one's approach to life, behaviour, and social involvement. The present, preliminary study aimed to explore whether coping with loneliness is influenced by one's religious observance. The present study focused on Israeli Jews. 250 participants identified themselves as Secular, Conservative, or Orthodox, by answering a 34-item yes/no questionnaire on loneliness. The three groups statistically significantly differed in their manner of coping with loneliness only on the Religion and Faith subscale, as hypothesized. Similar studies with people of other religious denominations could further highlight that issue.
The paper characterizes the adaptation of Assessment of Beliefs and Behaviors in Coping. Its validity and reliability are shown. The scales of religious copings have been studied, namely: “Religion as a source of personal relationship with a higher power”, “Religion as a source of worldview that makes sense of life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of control in life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a s...
O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
This study examined whether global drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation moderates negative mood-drinking contingencies and negative mood-motivation contingencies at the daily level of analysis. Data came from a daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 1,636; 53% female; Mage = 19.2 years). Fixed-interval models tested whether global DTC motivation moderated relations between daily negative mood and that evening's drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether global DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness. However, only the daily Anxiety × Global DTC Motivation interaction for number of drinks consumed was consistent with hypotheses. Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with global DTC motivation were found. RESULTS indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by global levels of DTC motivation. These findings raise the possibility that global DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs.
Jung, Ye-Ha; Ha, Tae Min; Oh, Chang Young; Lee, Ui Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Jungwon; Park, Jae-Oh; Kang, Do-Hyung
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT) program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.
Fox, John R E; Smithson, Emily; Baillie, Sarah; Ferreira, Nuno; Mayr, Ingrid; Power, Michael J
The present study sought to investigate emotion regulation strategies in people with anorexia nervosa (AN) and whether the theoretical concept of 'emotion coupling' between anger and disgust could help to explain some of the specific eating disorder symptomatology in people with AN. This 'emotion coupling' hypothesis was tested using a mood induction procedure within laboratory conditions, where individuals with AN (n = 22) were matched with control participants (n = 19). Participants completed a bank of different measures prior to the study, and these included measures of eating pathology, core beliefs about the self and others, and emotion regulation strategies. Within the experimental part of this study, anger, disgust and body size estimation were measured prior to and after an anger induction procedure (i.e., a repeated measures design). People with AN demonstrated a significantly more internal-dysfunctional way to regulate their emotional states, when compared with matched controls. Within the 'emotional coupling' part of the study, participants showed a significant increase in levels of disgust and body size estimation following an anger induction when compared with matched controls. The significance of these results was considered in the light of the new Schematic, Propositional, Analogical and Associative Representation Systems in eating disorders model. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available One of the crucial features defining basic emotions and their prototypical facial expressions is their value for survival. Childhood traumatic experiences affect the effective recognition of facial expressions of negative emotions, normally allowing the recruitment of adequate behavioral responses to environmental threats. Specifically, anger becomes an extraordinarily salient stimulus unbalancing victims’ recognition of negative emotions. Despite the plethora of studies on this topic, to date, it is not clear whether this phenomenon reflects an overall response tendency toward anger recognition or a selective proneness to the salience of specific facial expressive cues of anger after trauma exposure. To address this issue, a group of underage Sierra Leonean Ebola virus disease survivors (mean age 15.40 years, SE 0.35; years of schooling 8.8 years, SE 0.46; 14 males and a control group (mean age 14.55, SE 0.30; years of schooling 8.07 years, SE 0.30, 15 males performed a forced-choice chimeric facial expressions recognition task. The chimeric facial expressions were obtained pairing upper and lower half faces of two different negative emotions (selected from anger, fear and sadness for a total of six different combinations. Overall, results showed that upper facial expressive cues were more salient than lower facial expressive cues. This priority was lost among Ebola virus disease survivors for the chimeric facial expressions of anger. In this case, differently from controls, Ebola virus disease survivors recognized anger regardless of the upper or lower position of the facial expressive cues of this emotion. The present results demonstrate that victims’ performance in the recognition of the facial expression of anger does not reflect an overall response tendency toward anger recognition, but rather the specific greater salience of facial expressive cues of anger. Furthermore, the present results show that traumatic experiences deeply modify
da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjaer; Perfalk, Erik
anger (difference in slopes, pcorrected = .04). In the violent offender group, striatal 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger (p = .0004), trait psychopathy (p = .008), and level of psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (p = .02). We found no group...... differences in 5-HT1BR binding. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time in humans a specific involvement of 5-HT1BR binding in anger and psychopathy. 5-HT1BRs putatively represent a molecular target for development of pharmacologic antiaggressive treatments....
Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van
It is of utmost importance to better understand how professionals in high-risk organizations, such as the military and police, appraise and cope with acute stress situations. The goal of this two-wave study was to investigate the role of two individual characteristics, coping style and coping
Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment