WorldWideScience

Sample records for angeles county california

  1. Risks for abuse against pregnant Hispanic women: Morelos, Mexico and Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F

    2003-11-01

    Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.

  2. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities.

  3. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  4. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston-Martin, S.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.; Pike, M.C.; Wood, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  5. Structure, Quaternary history, and general geology of the Corral Canyon area, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    1965-01-01

    The Corral Canyon nuclear power plant site consists of about 305 acres near the mouth of Corral Canyon in the central Santa Monica Mountains; it is located on an east-trending segment of the Pacific Coast between Point Dume and Malibu Canyon, about 28 miles due west of Los Angeles. The Santa Monica Mountains are the southwesternmost mainland part of the Transverse Ranges province, the east-trending features of which transect the otherwise relatively uniform northwesterly trend of the geomorphic and geologic features of coastal California. The south margin of the Transverse Ranges is marked by the Santa Monica fault system, which extends eastward near the 34th parallel for at least 145 miles from near Santa Cruz Island to the San Andreas fault zone. In the central Santa Monica Mountains area the Santa Monica fault system includes the Malibu Coast fault and Malibu Coast zone of deformation on the north; from the south it includes an inferred fault--the Anacapa fault--considered to follow an east-trending topographic escarpmemt on the sea floor about 5 miles south of the Malibu Coast fault. The low-lying terrain south of the fault system, including the Los Angeles basin and the largely submerged Continental Borderland offshore, are dominated by northwest-trending structural features. The Malibu Coat zone is a wide, east-trending band of asymmetrically folded, sheared, and faulted bedrock that extends for more than 20 miles along the north margin of the Santa Monica fault system west of Santa Monica. Near the north margin of the Malibu Coast zone the north-dipping, east-trending Malibu Coast fault juxtaposes unlike, in part contemporaneous sedimentary rock sections; it is inferred to be the near-surface expression of a major crustal boundary between completely unrelated basement rocks. Comparison of contemporaneous structural features and stratigraphic sections (Late Cretaceous to middle Miocene sedimentary, rocks and middle Miocene volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks

  6. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  7. Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Kleeman, Michael J; Wu, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Low birth weight (LBW, pollution, but it is still unclear which sources or components of air pollution might be in play. The association between ultrafine particles and LBW has never been studied. To study the relationships between LBW in term born infants and exposure to particles by size fraction, source and chemical composition, and complementary components of air pollution in Los Angeles County (California, USA) over the period 2001-2008. Birth certificates (n=960,945) were geocoded to maternal residence. Primary particulate matter (PM) concentrations by source and composition were modeled. Measured fine PM, nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations were interpolated using empirical Bayesian kriging. Traffic indices were estimated. Associations between LBW and air pollution metrics were examined using generalized additive models, adjusting for maternal age, parity, race/ethnicity, education, neighborhood income, gestational age and infant sex. Increased LBW risks were associated with the mass of primary fine and ultrafine PM, with several major sources (especially gasoline, wood burning and commercial meat cooking) of primary PM, and chemical species in primary PM (elemental and organic carbon, potassium, iron, chromium, nickel, and titanium but not lead or arsenic). Increased LBW risks were also associated with total fine PM mass, nitrogen dioxide and local traffic indices (especially within 50 m from home), but not with ozone. Stronger associations were observed in infants born to women with low socioeconomic status, chronic hypertension, diabetes and a high body mass index. This study supports previously reported associations between traffic-related pollutants and LBW and suggests other pollution sources and components, including ultrafine particles, as possible risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Agua Dulce Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  9. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Croker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR, two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

  10. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  11. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in waters of the Lower Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stephanie; Kuleck, Gary; Dorsey, John H; Leary, Christopher; Lum, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Screening for the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was done at the Ballona Creek and Wetlands, an urban-impacted wetland system in Los Angeles, California. The goals were (1) to assess the overall prevalence of ARB, and (2) compare differences in ARB abundance and the types of antibiotic resistance (AR) among the following sample types: lagoon water from Del Rey Lagoon, urban runoff from Ballona Creek, and water from the Ballona Wetlands (tidal water flooding in from the adjacent estuary, and ebbing out from the salt marsh). Antibiotic resistance distributions were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to develop the cumulative frequency of bacteria having resistance of up to eight antibiotics. Distributions from the environmental water samples were compared to unchlorinated secondary effluent from the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant that was used as comparator samples likely to have an abundance of ARB. As expected, densities of total and ARB were highest in secondary effluent, followed by urban runoff. Samples of water flooding into the wetlands showed similar results to urban runoff; however, a reduction in densities of total and ARB occurred in water ebbing out of the wetlands. During preliminary work to identify ARB species, several bacterial species of relevance to human illness (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas veronii, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Staphylococcus intermedius) were isolated from sampled waters. If wetlands are a sink for ARB, construction and restoration of wetlands can help in the mediation of this human and environmental health concern.

  12. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Kuang, Shan N; Hernandez, Rina; Chong, Melissa C; Ewing, Peter J; Fleischer, Jen; Meng, Jia; Chu, Sheena; Terashita, Dawn; English, L'Tanya; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2016-05-04

    Antibiotic resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial infections including bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed 38 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County for the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, tri-locus multiplex PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme) were used to examine clonal relationships of the outbreak isolates. Broth microdilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing were employed to characterize antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Trilocus multiplex PCR showed these isolates belong to Global Clones I and II, which were confirmed to ST1 and ST2, respectively, by multi-locus sequence typing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis identified two clonal clusters, one with 20 isolates (Global Clone I) and the other with nine (Global Clone II), which dominated the two outbreaks. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 14 antibiotics indicated that all isolates were resistant to antibiotics belonging to four or more categories of antimicrobial agents. In particular, over three fourth of 38 isolates were found to be resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Additionally, all isolates were found to be resistant to piperacillin, four cephalosporin antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Resistance phenotypes of these strains to fluoroquinolones were correlated with point mutations in gyrA and parC genes that render reduced affinity to target proteins. ISAba1 was detected immediately upstream of the bla OXA-23 gene present in those isolates that were found to be resistant to both carbapenems. Class 1 integron-associated resistance gene cassettes appear to contribute to resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The two outbreaks were

  13. Do Sexually Oriented Massage Parlors Cluster in Specific Neighborhoods? A Spatial Analysis of Indoor Sex Work in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anna J.; Takahashi, Lois; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social determinants of health may be substantially affected by spatial factors, which together may explain the persistence of health inequities. Clustering of possible sources of negative health and social outcomes points to a spatial focus for future interventions. We analyzed the spatial clustering of sex work businesses in Southern California to examine where and why they cluster. We explored economic and legal factors as possible explanations of clustering. Methods We manually coded data from a website used by paying members to post reviews of female massage parlor workers. We identified clusters of sexually oriented massage parlor businesses using spatial autocorrelation tests. We conducted spatial regression using census tract data to identify predictors of clustering. Results A total of 889 venues were identified. Clusters of tracts having higher-than-expected numbers of sexually oriented massage parlors (“hot spots”) were located outside downtowns. These hot spots were characterized by a higher proportion of adult males, a higher proportion of households below the federal poverty level, and a smaller average household size. Conclusion Sexually oriented massage parlors in Los Angeles and Orange counties cluster in particular neighborhoods. More research is needed to ascertain the causal factors of such clusters and how interventions can be designed to leverage these spatial factors. PMID:26327731

  14. THE NEGRO IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Relations Educational Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    BASIC PROBLEMS OF POPULATION GROWTH, HOUSING SEGREGATION, SUBSTANDARD HOUSING, DWELLING UNIT POPULATION DENSITY, EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND THE ATTITUDE OF THE NEGRO ARE PRESENTED. THE INCREASE IN NONWHITE POPULATION IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY BETWEEN 1950 AND 1960 WAS 113.7 PERCENT. MOST NONWHITES, 93.7 PERCENT, LIVE IN THE CENTRAL DISTRICT, THEY LIVE…

  15. Reduction of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in the Ballona Wetlands saltwater marsh (Los Angeles County, California, USA) with implications for restoration actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carter, Patrick M; Bergquist, Sean; Sagarin, Rafe

    2010-08-01

    A benefit of wetland preservation and restoration is the ecosystem service of improving water quality, typically assessed based on bacterial loading. The Ballona Wetlands, a degraded salt marsh of approximately 100 ac located on the southern border of Marina Del Rey (Los Angeles County, California, USA) are currently the focus of publicly funded restoration planning. The wetlands receive tidal water, usually contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) from the adjacent Ballona Creek and Estuary. During the summer of 2007, two 24-h studies were conducted to determine FIB tidal dynamics within the wetland. Measurements of water flow and mean FIB concentrations (n = 3) were measured every 1.5 h to determine total FIB load estimates. FIB loading rates (MPN/s) were greatest during flood tides as water entered the wetlands, and then again during spring tide conditions when sediments were resuspended during swifter spring ebb flows. During daylight hours, the wetland acted as a sink for these bacteria as loads diminished, presumably by sunlight and other processes. Conversely, during late afternoon and night, the wetlands shifted to being a source as excess FIB departed on ebb flows. Therefore, the wetlands act as both a source and sink for FIB depending on tidal conditions and exposure to sunlight. Future restoration actions would result in a tradeoff - increased tidal channels offer a greater surface area for FIB inactivation, but also would result in a greater volume of FIB-contaminated resuspended sediments carried out of the wetlands on stronger ebb flows. As levels of FIB in Ballona Creek and Estuary diminish through recently established regulatory actions, the wetlands could shift into a greater sink for FIB. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating changes to sodium content in school meals at a large, urban school district in Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Burbage, Lindsey; Wood, Michelle; Butler, Rebecca K; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Children consume more than one-third of their daily food intake in schools, suggesting that these environments are ideal places for intervening on poor dietary behaviors. To assess the impact of strategy-focused menu planning on the sodium content of student meals served in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). Pre- and post-LAUSD menu change analyses for school years (SY) 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 were performed using nutritional analysis data and food production records. The analyses assessed changes in sodium content by meal categories. 900+ schools, grades K-12, operated by the LAUSD. The LAUSD Food Services Branch, which serves about 650 000 meals per day. A multistage menu planning approach that focused on implementing evidence-based strategies to improve the nutritional content of school breakfast and lunch menus. Engagement and formation of multisectoral partnerships, including public health and parent/student groups, were vital elements of the intervention process. Sodium content changes in the LAUSD menu, SY 2010-2011 versus SY 2011-2012; other measures include documentation of program reach. From SY 2010-2011 to SY 2011-2012, the mean unweighted sodium levels for elementary (K-5) breakfast and for secondary (6-12) breakfast and lunch decreased. These changes met or exceeded the 2014-2015 US Department of Agriculture sodium targets for school meals and for secondary breakfast, the 2022-2023 target(s). These results, however, were not as notable once student food selection patterns (weighted data) and condiments were considered in the analysis. Use of strategy-focused menu planning as a mechanism to reduce sodium in school meals appeared to be promising, demonstrating favorable declines in mean sodium levels for at least 3 of 4 meal categories in the LAUSD. Student food selection patterns and condiments use, however, can affect the strength of the intervention.

  17. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a local policy to reduce sodium consumption in the County of Los Angeles government, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Dunet, Diane O; Simon, Paul A

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 organizations from the County of Los Angeles government departments that purchased, distributed, or sold food; public and private non-County entities that had previously implemented food procurement policies in their organizations; and large organizations that catered food to the County. Study participants reported 3 key facilitators: their organization's authority to impose nutrition standards, their organization's desire to provide nutritious food, and the opportunity to build on existing nutrition policies. Eight key barriers were identified: 1) unique features among food service settings, 2) costs and unavailability of low-sodium foods, 3) complexity of food service arrangements, 4) lack of consumer demand for low-sodium foods, 5) undesirable taste of low-sodium foods, 6) preference for prepackaged products, 7) lack of knowledge and experience in operationalizing sodium standards, and 8) existing multiyear contracts that are difficult to change. Despite perceived barriers, several participants indicated that their organizations have successfully implemented nutritional standards that include limits on sodium. Developing or changing policies for procuring food represents a potentially feasible strategy for reducing sodium consumption in food service venues controlled by the County of Los Angeles. The facilitators and barriers identified here can inform the formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation of sodium reduction policies in other jurisdictions.

  18. Virus fate and transport during recharge using recycled water at a research field site in the Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles County, California, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Yanko, William A.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Jackson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria distributions in subsurface water samples collected at a research field site in Los Angeles County were found to increase from nondetectable levels immediately before artificial recharge using tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water). This rapid increase indicates that bacteria can move through the soil with the percolating recycled water over intervals of a few days and vertical and horizontal distances of about 3 meters. This conclusion formed the basis for three field-scale experiments using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human enteric viruses and bromide as a conservative tracer to determine the fate and transport of viruses in recycled water during subsurface transport under actual recharge conditions. The research field site consists of a test basin constructed adjacent to a large recharge facility (spreading grounds) located in the Montebello Forebay of Los Angeles County, California. The soil beneath the test basin is predominantly medium to coarse, moderately sorted, grayish-brown sand. The three tracer experiments were conducted during August 1997, August-September 1998, and August 2000. For each experiment, prepared solutions of bacteriophage and bromide were sprayed on the surface of the water in the test basin and injected, using peristaltic pumps, directly into the feed pipe delivering the recycled water to the test basin. Extensive data were obtained for water samples collected from the test basin itself and from depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.6 meters below the bottom of the test basin. The rate of bacteriophage inactivation in the recycled water, independent of any processes occurring in the subsurface, was determined from measurements on water samples from the test basin. Regression analysis of the ratios of bacteriophage to bromide was used to determine the attenuation rates for MS2 and PRD1, defined as the logarithmic reduction in the ratio during each

  19. SURVEY, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. Characterization of potential transport pathways and implications for groundwater management near an anticline in the Central Basin area, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Wagner, Brian J.; Land, Michael; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Groundwater Basin (Central Basin) of southern Los Angeles County includes ~280 mi2 of the Los Angeles Coastal Plain and serves as the primary source of water for more than two million residents. In the Santa Fe Springs–Whittier–Norwalk area, located in the northeastern part of the basin, several sources of volatile organic compounds have been identified. The volatile organic compunds are thought to have contributed to a large, commingled contaminant plume in groundwater that extends south-southwest downgradient from the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site across folded geologic strata, known as the Santa Fe Springs Anticline. A multifaceted study—that incorporated a three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic geologic model, two-dimensional groundwater particle-tracking simulations, and new groundwater chemistry data—was conducted to gain insight into the geologic and hydrologic controls on contaminant migration in the study area and to assess the potential for this shallow groundwater contamination to migrate into producing aquifer zones. Conceptual flow models were developed along a flow-parallel cross section based on the modeled stratigraphic architecture, observed geochemistry, and numerical model simulations that generally agree with observed water levels and contaminant distributions. These models predict that contaminants introduced into groundwater at shallow depths near the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site and along the study cross section will likely migrate downgradient to depths intercepted by public supply wells. These conclusions, however, are subject to limitations and simplifications inherent in the modeling approaches used, as well as a significant scarcity of available geologic and hydrogeochemical information at depth and in the downgradient parts of the study area.

  1. An Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) Hospitals, Wildfires Highest Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaine, Sabrina A; Sato, Mizuki; Jin, Yufang; Godwin, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Although many studies have delineated the variety and magnitude of impacts that climate change is likely to have on health, very little is known about how well hospitals are poised to respond to these impacts. Hypothesis/Problem The hypothesis is that most modern hospitals in urban areas in the United States need to augment their current disaster planning to include climate-related impacts. Using Los Angeles County (California USA) as a case study, historical data for emergency department (ED) visits and projections for extreme-heat events were used to determine how much climate change is likely to increase ED visits by mid-century for each hospital. In addition, historical data about the location of wildfires in Los Angeles County and projections for increased frequency of both wildfires and flooding related to sea-level rise were used to identify which area hospitals will have an increased risk of climate-related wildfires or flooding at mid-century. Only a small fraction of the total number of predicted ED visits at mid-century would likely to be due to climate change. By contrast, a significant portion of hospitals in Los Angeles County are in close proximity to very high fire hazard severity zones (VHFHSZs) and would be at greater risk to wildfire impacts as a result of climate change by mid-century. One hospital in Los Angeles County was anticipated to be at greater risk due to flooding by mid-century as a result of climate-related sea-level rise. This analysis suggests that several Los Angeles County hospitals should focus their climate-change-related planning on building resiliency to wildfires. Adelaine SA , Sato M , Jin Y , Godwin H . An assessment of climate change impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, wildfires highest priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):556-562.

  2. Use of Water-Quality Indicators and Environmental Tracers to Determine the Fate and Transport of Recycled Water in Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert A.; Schroeder, Roy A.

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water) has been used to replenish the Central Basin in Los Angeles County for over 40 years. Therefore, this area provides an excellent location to investigate (1) the fate and transport of wastewater constituents as they travel from the point of recharge to points of withdrawal, and (2) the long-term effects that artificial recharge using recycled water has on the quality of the ground-water basin. The U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting such investigations in this area for about 10 years, beginning in 1992. For this investigation, a variety of inorganic, organic, and isotopic constituents were analyzed in samples from 23 production wells within 500 feet of the San Gabriel and Rio Hondo Coastal Basin Spreading Grounds, and tritium/helium-3, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and nitrogen isotopes were analyzed in five multiple-well monitoring sites along a 10-mile flow path extending from just upgradient of the spreading grounds southward through the Central Basin. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients and level of significance calculated for about 40 water-quality indicators and several physical features show significant correlations between numerous inorganic and organic constituents that indicate the presence of wastewater. On the basis of a simple two-member mixing model, chloride, boron, ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nanometers, and excitation-emission fluorescence yielded the most reasonable estimates of wastewater percentages in the production wells. Tritium/helium-3 age determinations indicated that samples of ground water tested range in age from less than 2 to more than 50 years. Chloride and boron concentrations, along with tritium/helium-3 age determinations, indicate more rapid recharge and (or) displacement of pre-existing ground water at the San Gabriel Coastal Basin Spreading Grounds than at the Rio Hondo Coastal Basin Spreading Grounds. Nitrogen-15 enrichment of the ground

  3. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Leslie, Phillip; Run, Grace; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Reporter, Roshan; Aguirre, Arturo; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    Although health departments routinely inspect restaurants to assess compliance with established hygienic standards, few data are available on the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing foodborne disease. The study reported here assessed the impact on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County of a restaurant hygiene grading system that utilized publicly posted grade cards. The grading systm was introduced in January 1998. Hospital discharge data on foodborne-disease hospitalizations were analyzed for Los Angeles County and, as a control, for the rest of California during the period 1993-2000. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was done to measure the effect of the grading progam on these hospitalizations. After baseline temporal and geographic trends were adjusted for, the restaurant hygiene grading program was associated with a 13.1 percent decrease (p restaurant hygiene grading with public posting of results is an effective intervention for reducing the burden of foodborne disease.

  4. Analysis of the Effects of ENSO and Atmospheric Rivers on Precipitation in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, A.; Lamb, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Winter 2016-2017 season in California was marked by substantial amounts of precipitation; this resulted in critically-low reservoirs filling up and the removal of most of California from drought status. The year prior was characterized by one of the strongest El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, though it did not produce nearly enough precipitation as the 2016-2017 season. The major contributors to the increased rainfall during the 2016-2017 season were climactic phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers (ARs), which transport water vapor through the atmosphere in narrow bands, and are known to produce extreme rain events. Determining the exact timing, landfall areas, and total precipitation amounts of ARs is currently of great interest; a recent study showed that extreme weather events are likely to increase in California in the coming years, which motivates research into how phenomenon such as ENSO and ARs play a role. Using long-term daily rain gauge data provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, we compute the precipitation volume and storm count for various locations in Los Angeles County and identify anomalies. These data will then be compared with the occurrence and intensity of AR and ENSO events by using NOAA's NOI and ESRL AR data. The results can be used to provide a better grasp of extreme climactic patterns and their effects on the amount of precipitation in the region.

  5. BASE MAP DATASET, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  6. HIV transmission in the adult film industry--Los Angeles, California, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-23

    In April 2004, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LACDHS) received reports of work-related exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the heterosexual segment of the adult film industry in California. This report summarizes an investigation by LACDHS into four work-related HIV-transmission cases among adult film industry workers. The investigation was initiated April 20, 2004, and joined by the California Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) on April 21, 2004, and by CDC on May 18, 2004. This investigation identified important and remediable gaps in the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the adult film industry.

  7. Impact of population density on collision rates in a rapidly developing rural, exurban area of Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kelly; Sternfeld, Isabelle; Melnick, Douglas Sloan

    2013-04-01

    To determine if the commonly acknowledged relationships between population density and traffic collisions are found at the subcounty level and to describe how collision characteristics may vary substantially at a local level, with a particular emphasis on exurban areas. Los Angeles County collision data were obtained from the California Highway Patrol and the census tract and service planning area (SPA) for each collision were determined. The correlation between population density and collision rates by census tract was calculated within each SPA and for the entire county. Primary collision factors were compared for geographic areas of different population densities within one exurban SPA in Los Angeles County. An inverse relationship was found between collision rates and population density within Los Angeles County. Primary collisions factors were different in areas of the county with different population densities, with driving or biking under the influence particularly common in the most rural area. Subcounty analyses are very important to the study of traffic collisions. Traffic problems in rapidly developing exurban areas may be quite different from those in older, more established areas.

  8. Water Control Manual: Sepulveda Dam and Reservoir, Los Angeles River, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Generally the quality of urban base flow has been so poor that these facilities are 4-7 rarely used. A downstream reach with cobblestone invert near...by the Los Angeles County Drainage Area Review (see table 1-01; Draft: Los Angeles County Drainage Area Review: Part I, Hydrology Report). b. Rubber ...Dam. The City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power construct a rubber dam approximately 10 miles below Sepulveda Dam for diversion of water into

  9. Community characteristics and violence against homeless women in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, Kevin C; Robinson, Paul Langham; Baker, Richard S; Gelberg, Lillian

    2007-02-01

    Research on violence against homeless women has focused mainly on individual rather than community-level risk factors. Using an ecological conceptual framework, we estimated the independent association of community characteristics with sexual and physical assault in a probability sample of 974 homeless women. Participants were interviewed at 66 assistance programs in Los Angeles County, California in 1997. Individual responses were linked to community-level data from land use files and the U.S. Census by the facility ZIP codes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that women using service providers in closer proximity to Skid Row had higher odds of physical assault (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.03, 2.14). A number of individual characteristics were also associated with violent victimization. To reduce violence against homeless women, ensuring the safety of locations for shelters and other assistance programs should be a planning priority for local housing authorities.

  10. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority climate change adaptation pilot project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project Report details the project background of the recently-completed Los Angeles County : Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project as well as the various wor...

  11. The 2007 los angeles mommy and baby study: a multilevel, population-based study of maternal and infant health in los angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin M; Wakeel, Fathima; Herman, Dena; Higgins, Chandra; Shi, Lu; Chow, Jessica; Sun, Stacy; Lu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study's development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study's implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518) and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264). Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20-34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC's varied demographic groups.

  12. The 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study: A Multilevel, Population-Based Study of Maternal and Infant Health in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin M. Chao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study’s development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study’s implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518 and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264. Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20–34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC’s varied demographic groups.

  13. Effect of environmental perchlorate on thyroid function in pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina, and Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Spencer, Carole A; Mestman, Jorge H; Lee, Richard H; Bergoglio, Liliana M; Mereshian, Paula; He, Xuemei; Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether environmental perchlorate exposure adversely affects thyroid function in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. First-trimester pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in the Los Angeles County Hospital, Los Angeles, California, and in the Hospital Universitario de Maternidad dependent Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, between 2004 and 2007. Spot urine and blood specimens were obtained during the clinic visit. Urinary perchlorate, iodine, and creatinine were measured, and thyroid function tests were performed. The study included 134 pregnant women from Los Angeles, California (mean gestational age ± SD = 9.1 ± 2.2 weeks), and 107 pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina (mean gestational age = 10.0 ± 2.0 weeks). Median urinary iodine values were 144 μg/L in California and 130 μg/L in Argentina. Urinary perchlorate levels were detectable in all women (California: median, 7.8 μg/L [range, 0.4-284 μg/L] and Argentina: median, 13.5 μg/L [range, 1.1-676 μg/L]). Serum thyroperoxidase antibodies were detectable in 21 women from California (16%) and in 17 women from Argentina (16%). Using Spearman rank correlation analyses, there was no association between urinary perchlorate concentrations and serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine index, or total triiodothyronine values, including within the subset of women with urinary iodine values less than 100 μg/L. In multivariate analyses using the combined Argentina and California data sets and adjusting for urinary iodine concentrations, urinary creatinine, gestational age, and thyroperoxidase antibody status, urinary perchlorate was not a significant predictor of thyroid function. Low-level perchlorate exposure is ubiquitous, but is not associated with altered thyroid function among women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. 2017 Sustainable LA Environmental Report Card for Los Angeles County: Energy & Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Federico, Felicia; Rauser, Casandra; Gold, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Sustainable LA Environmental Report Card (ERC) for Los Angeles County (LA County) on Energy and Air Quality offers an in-depth look at the region’s sustainability efforts focusing on the energy we use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the air we breathe. The LA County Environmental Report Card is the only comprehensive environmental report card for a megacity in the world. This ERC assesses 21 indicators that fall into five categories: Stationary Energy Use; Transportation; Renewable En...

  15. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA), formerly named the Board of Corrections, the administrator of funding. California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice…

  16. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion…

  17. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a study relating to California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful…

  18. Photo Gallery from the Los Angeles River Watershed (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photo gallery of the Los Angeles River Watershed area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  19. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This document is the second quarterly progress report for the evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs for the Los Angeles County Probation Department. The report covers the period from July 1, 2008, through September 30, 2008. The intent of the report is to provide Probation and the community-based organizations (CBOs)…

  20. County business patterns, 1996 : California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. Water quality improvement policies: lessons learned from the implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Hyun Park; Michael Stenstrom; Stephanie Pincetl

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had...

  2. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  3. Methamphetamine use among women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) use is a continuing problem in the United States and is associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few studies have examined the meth use/STI risk association among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California, from 2009 to 2010. Routinely collected clinic intake data were used to compare the prevalence of meth use among women with different demographics/sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of meth use. There were 1.4% (n = 277) women who reported meth use, with a mean age of 29 years. Prevalence was highest among Whites and those reporting both male and female partners. Most women who reported meth use also reported polysubstance use. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, condom use, having a new sex partner, and other illicit substance use, women who reported sex with an injection drug user were nearly 10 times more likely to report meth use as compared with those who did not (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.86-16.75). Other factors associated with meth use included sex with a recently incarcerated partner (AOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16-4.86), anonymous partner (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.04), and transactional sex (AOR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.69-6.32). Women who tested positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea were 1.48 times more likely to use meth as compared with those who did not. Female meth users have high-risk behaviors that could increase their risk for STIs/HIV.

  4. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004 Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among at-risk and young offenders. The Board of Corrections…

  5. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile-justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA) (formerly named the Board of Corrections) the administrator of funding. A 2001 California Senate bill extended the funding and changed the…

  6. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion of probation, (2) arrests, (3) probation violations, (4)…

  7. Seeking solace in West Hollywood: sexual orientation-based hate crimes in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzer, Rebecca L

    2010-01-01

    Many thriving "gay communities" across the United States report high levels of sexual orientation-based hate crimes every year, raising questions about the level of safety in these gay communities and neighborhoods. This study examines hate crime data from 2002-2006 in Los Angeles County and the relationship those hate crimes have to West Hollywood, the best known gay community of Los Angeles County. Results suggest that although West Hollywood does consistently report high numbers of hate crimes, this does not reflect a greatly increased risk to any one lesbian, gay, or bisexual person. Results suggest that we need to consider other variables as predictors (such as poverty, business density, and population density) in determining safe versus unsafe space, rather than just the percentage of lesbians, gay, and bisexuals in a population.

  8. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Nelly; Lightstone, Amy S; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M; Sturm, Roland

    2015-09-03

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents' residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents' homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation.

  9. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  10. Any space left? Homeless resistance by place-type in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Marr, Matt; Snow, David

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a more nuanced concept of homeless resistance, incorporating a range of resistance behaviors (exit, adaptation, persistence, and voice) that bridge the gap between current frameworks that either romanticize or ignore it. We also consider the possibility that different kinds of space may theoretically allow for different kinds of resistance. To this end, we employ an ecological approach to homeless space by classifying Los Angeles County into three place-types (prime, trans...

  11. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  12. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  13. Modeling spatial effects of PM2.5 on term low birth weight in Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, Eric; Ghosh, Jokay; Jerrett, Michael; Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio; Beckerman, Bernardo; Cockburn, Myles; Liverani, Silvia; Su, Jason; Li, Arthur; Kile, Molly L; Ritz, Beate; Molitor, John

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiological studies suggest that elevated exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with higher prevalence of term low birth weight (TLBW). Previous studies have generally assumed the exposure–response of PM 2.5 on TLBW to be the same throughout a large geographical area. Health effects related to PM 2.5 exposures, however, may not be uniformly distributed spatially, creating a need for studies that explicitly investigate the spatial distribution of the exposure–response relationship between individual-level exposure to PM 2.5 and TLBW. Here, we examine the overall and spatially varying exposure–response relationship between PM 2.5 and TLBW throughout urban Los Angeles (LA) County, California. We estimated PM 2.5 from a combination of land use regression (LUR), aerosol optical depth from remote sensing, and atmospheric modeling techniques. Exposures were assigned to LA County individual pregnancies identified from electronic birth certificates between the years 1995-2006 (N=1,359,284) provided by the California Department of Public Health. We used a single pollutant multivariate logistic regression model, with multilevel spatially structured and unstructured random effects set in a Bayesian framework to estimate global and spatially varying pollutant effects on TLBW at the census tract level. Overall, increased PM 2.5 level was associated with higher prevalence of TLBW county-wide. The spatial random effects model, however, demonstrated that the exposure–response for PM 2.5 and TLBW was not uniform across urban LA County. Rather, the magnitude and certainty of the exposure–response estimates for PM 2.5 on log odds of TLBW were greatest in the urban core of Central and Southern LA County census tracts. These results suggest that the effects may be spatially patterned, and that simply estimating global pollutant effects obscures disparities suggested by spatial patterns of effects. Studies that incorporate spatial

  14. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  15. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, K F; Wekesa, J W; Nwadike, C N; Zambrano, M L; Karpathy, S E; Cecil, D; Burns, J; Hu, R; Eremeeva, M E

    2012-12-01

    Los Angeles and Orange Counties are known endemic areas for murine typhus in California; however, no recent reports of flea-borne rickettsioses are known from adjacent San Bernardino County. Sixty-five opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were trapped in the suburban residential and industrial zones of the southwestern part of San Bernardino County in 2007. Sixty out of 65 opossums were infested with fleas, primarily cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835). The flea minimum infection rate with Rickettsia felis was 13.3% in pooled samples and the prevalence was 23.7% in single fleas, with two gltA genotypes detected. In spite of historic records of murine typhus in this area, no evidence for circulation of R. typhi in fleas was found during the present study. Factors contributing to the absence of R. typhi in these cat fleas in contrast to its presence in cat fleas from Orange and Los Angeles Counties are unknown and need to be investigated further in San Bernardino County. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  17. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  18. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the California Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Board of Corrections (BOC) as the administrator of funding. A 2001 Senate Bill extended the funding and changed the program's name to the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  19. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…

  20. The conundrum of police officer-involved homicides: Counter-data in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Currie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from critical data studies and related fields to investigate police officer-involved homicide data for Los Angeles County. We frame police officer-involved homicide data as a rhetorical tool that can reify certain assumptions about the world and extend regimes of power. We highlight the possibility that this type of sensitive civic data can be investigated and employed within local communities through creative practice. Community involvement with data can create a countervailing force to powerful dominant narratives and supplement activist projects that hold local officials accountable for their actions. Our analysis examines four Los Angeles County police officer-involved homicide data sets. First, we provide accounts of the semantics, granularity, scale and transparency of this local data. Then, we describe a “counter data action,” an event that invited members of the community to identify the limits and challenges present in police officer-involved homicide data and to propose new methods for deriving meaning from these indicators and statistics.

  1. The Male-female Birth Ratio in California and the 1992 April Riots in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, V

    2015-06-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births. This is usually expressed as M/F, the ratio of male to total live births. A multitude of external influences have been shown to reduce this ratio, including stress provoked through witnessing violent events; M/F dips occur three to four months later. The April 1992 Los Angeles riots constituted six days of extreme civil unrest in the city of Los Angeles. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether M/F dipped in California following this event. Monthly male and female live births for California were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the State of California for 1992 and for January 1993. This study analysed 649 073 live births; M/F was lowest in August 1992 (0.5085). This was significantly lower than for the period after (September 1992 to January 1993, p = 0.044). The ratio of male to total live births was higher in January to July 1992 than in August 1992, but this difference was not statistically significant. Stress has been shown to reduce M/F through an excess of male fetal loss during gestation and/or from gender-biased conception favouring females. Only the former mechanism is supported by these findings. This is the first time that violent events at state level have been shown to have potentially influenced M/F.

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  3. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  4. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  5. Chagas Disease Awareness among Latin American Immigrants Living in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M.; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18–60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  6. An Innovative Project Breaks Down Barriers to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable Young Children in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J; Illum, Jackie; Martinez, Ana; Pourat, Nadereh

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high rate of untreated tooth decay, many young children in California under six years of age have never been to a dentist. Numerous and complex barriers to access to oral health care for young children exist, and a multifaceted approach is required to improve receipt of preventive and treatment services that could improve the oral health of this population. This policy brief describes the UCLA-First 5 LA 21st Century Dental Homes Project, which was designed to improve oral health care for young children in 12 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinic sites with co-located dental and primary care services and its accessibility in their service areas throughout Los Angeles County. The project funded infrastructure and staffing, provided technical assistance to improve operations, trained clinical personnel to provide oral health care to young children, implemented a quality improvement learning collaborative, trained parents and child care providers in oral hygiene and healthy habits, and disseminated information to promote effective policies. Early data on the project indicated twofold increases in delivery of both diagnostics and treatment visits for young children, and a threefold increase in preventive services for young children during the program.

  7. Epidemiologic investigation of a cluster of workplace HIV infections in the adult film industry: Los Angeles, California, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melanie M; Rotblatt, Harlan; Brooks, John T; Montoya, Jorge; Aynalem, Getahun; Smith, Lisa; Kenney, Kerry; Laubacher, Lori; Bustamante, Tony; Kim-Farley, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Bernard, Bruce; Daar, Eric; Kerndt, Peter R

    2007-01-15

    Adult film production is a legal, multibillion dollar industry in California. In response to reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by an adult film worker, we sought to determine the extent of HIV infection among exposed workers and to identify means of improving worker safety. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services initiated an outbreak investigation that included interviews of infected workers to elicit information about recent sex partners, review of the testing agency's medical records and laboratory results, molecular analysis of HIV isolates from the 4 infected workers, and a risk assessment of HIV transmission in the adult film industry. Many adult film workers participate in a monthly program of screening for HIV infection by means of polymerase chain reaction-based technology to detect HIV DNA in blood. A male performer tested negative for HIV on 12 February 2004 and 17 March 2004, then tested positive for HIV on 9 April 2004. During the period between the negative test results, he experienced a flulike illness after performing unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse for an adult film produced outside the United States by a US company. After returning to California, he performed unprotected sex acts for adult films with 13 female partners who had all tested negative for HIV in the preceding 30 days; 3 subsequently tested positive for HIV (a 23% attack rate). Contact tracing identified no reasonable sources of infection other than the male index patient. Although current testing methods may shorten the window period to diagnosis of new HIV infection, they fail to prevent occupational acquisition of HIV in this setting. A California Occupational Safety and Health Administration-approved written health and safety program that emphasizes primary prevention is needed for this industry.

  8. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Regional Cultural History, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    value because of its Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, "padre historically valuable fittings of museum quality. presidente " of the Franciscan missions. This...them an Englishman working out of Lima, Peru , over the stones upon the visited the San Gabriel Mission "making a beach, we stopped, waiting for

  9. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Cultural Resource Survey, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    de Lasuen, "padre historically valuable fittings of museum quality. presidente " of the Franciscan missions. This vantage point atop the rugged bluffs... Peru , over the stones upon the visited the Sa’ Gabriel Mission "making a beach, we stopped, waiting for contract with Padre Payeras, the prefect of

  10. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Prehistory and Early History, Los Angeles County, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    that the Spanish called wrote Abel Stearns, the owner, "I wish you cienegas. For instance, Beverly Hills and most would deputize someone to attend the... villae as the largest political unit. Within a According to Kroeber (ref. 6) they had a village were two basic societal divisions that "mythIc-ritual

  11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION AT CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blekhman, David

    2011-09-30

    California State University, Los Angeles, has partnered with the Department of Energy in addressing the workforce preparation and public education needs of the fuel cell industry and the US economy through a comprehensive set of curriculum development and training activities: * Developing and offering several courses in fuel cell technologies, hydrogen and alternative fuels production, alternative and renewable energy technologies as means of zero emissions hydrogen economy, and sustainable environment. * Establishing a zero emissions PEM fuel cell and hydrogen laboratory supporting curriculum and graduate students teaching and research experiences. * Providing engaging capstone projects for multi-disciplinary teams of senior undergraduate students. * Fostering partnerships with automotive OEMs and energy providers. * Organizing and participating in synergistic projects and activities that grow the program and assure its sustainability.

  12. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Plesch, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  13. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  14. State of spirituality-infused mental health services in Los Angeles County wellness and client-run centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Subica, Andrew M; Kim, Min Ah; Van Nguyen, Kevin; Lim, Caroline S; Mancuso, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Spiritual coping is associated with positive mental health outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness, yet spirituality-infused services are seldom offered in public sector mental health agencies. The Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health introduced a policy addressing spirituality in 2012. This study explored the breadth and degree to which spirituality-infused activities were being offered in 53 Los Angeles wellness and recovery centers after the policy was widely disseminated. More than 98 % of the centers offered options for spirituality-infused activities; one-third offered spirituality-focused groups. Los Angeles's progress may guide implementation of spirituality-infused services in other state or local public mental health systems.

  15. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  16. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Air Force Base, California Figure 3-6 Los Angeles County Significant Ecological Areas 76 Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility... Ecological Areas designated by Los Angeles County (refer to Section 3.7.2);  Potential wildlife movement corridors; and 81 Environmental Assessment...412th Test Wing Civil Engineer Group Environmental Management Division Edwards Air Force Base, California ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR PROPOSED

  17. Widening socio-economic disparities in early childhood obesity in Los Angeles County after the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Whaley, Shannon E; Crespi, Catherine M; Prelip, Michael L; Wang, May C

    2018-04-02

    While economic crises can increase socio-economic disparities in health, little is known about the impact of the 2008-09 Great Recession on obesity prevalence among children, especially low-income children. The present study examined whether socio-economic disparities in obesity among children of pre-school age participating in a federal nutrition assistance programme have changed since the recession. A pre-post observational study using administrative data of pre-school-aged programme participants from 2003 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the relationship between obesity prevalence (BMI≥95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's growth charts) and three measures of socio-economic status (household income, household educational attainment, neighbourhood-level median household income) changed after the recession by examining the interaction between each socio-economic status measure and a 5-year time-period variable (2003-07 v. 2010-14), stratified by child's age and adjusted for child's sociodemographic characteristics. Los Angeles County, California, USA. Children aged 2-4 years (n 1 637 788) participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. The magnitude of the association of household income and household education with obesity increased after 2008-09 among 3- and 4-year-olds and 2- and 3-year-olds, respectively. However, the magnitude of the association of neighbourhood-level median household income with obesity did not change after 2008-09. Disparities in obesity by household-level socio-economic status widened after the recession, while disparities by neighbourhood-level socio-economic status remained the same. The widening household-level socio-economic disparities suggest that obesity prevention efforts should target the most vulnerable low-income children.

  18. Years off Your Life? The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy by Neighborhood and Race/Ethnicity in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Redelings, Matthew; Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001?2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates f...

  19. Returns on Investment in California County Departments of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the average return on investment for the overall activities of county departments of public health in California. Methods. I gathered the elements necessary to estimate the average return on investment for county departments of public health in California during the period 2001 to 2008–2009. These came from peer-reviewed journal articles published as part of a larger project to develop a method for determining return on investment for public health by using a health economics framework. I combined these elements by using the standard formula for computing return on investment, and performed a sensitivity analysis. Then I compared the return on investment for county departments of public health with the returns on investment generated for various aspects of medical care. Results. The estimated return on investment from $1 invested in county departments of public health in California ranges from $67.07 to $88.21. Conclusions. The very large estimated return on investment for California county departments of public health relative to the return on investment for selected aspects of medical care suggests that public health is a wise investment. PMID:27310339

  20. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  1. Check Yourself: a social marketing campaign to increase syphilis screening in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Montoya, Jorge A; Rotblatt, Harlan; O'Leary, Christopher; Kerndt, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched Check Yourself, a new social marketing campaign, as part of ongoing efforts to address the persistent syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the county. The goals of the campaign were to increase syphilis testing and knowledge among MSM. Check Yourself was planned with careful attention to the principles of social marketing, including formative research, market segmentation, and an emphasis on building a strong brand. A cross-sectional survey using a time-location sample was conducted in 2009 for the evaluation. The survey assessed demographics, syphilis knowledge, and recent syphilis testing as well as unaided awareness, aided awareness, and confirmed awareness, meaning that a person had both awareness of the campaign and could correctly identify that the campaign was about syphilis. The total sample size was 306. Unaided awareness for Check Yourself was 20.7%, and aided awareness was 67.5%, bringing total campaign awareness to 88.2%; confirmed awareness was 30.4%. Unaided campaign awareness was associated with syphilis knowledge and important risk behaviors for syphilis, indicating that the campaign reached an appropriate audience. Total awareness was not associated with recent syphilis testing in a multivariate model. However, MSM with confirmed awareness were more than 6 times more likely to have been recently tested. The evaluation of Check Yourself found that the campaign had a very strong brand among MSM. Although total awareness was not associated with syphilis testing, confirmed awareness, a more robust measure, was strongly associated.

  2. Organochlorine contaminants and maternal offloading in the lecithotrophic Pacific angel shark (Squatina californica) collected from southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Lowe, Christopher G

    2015-08-15

    Pacific angel sharks (Squatina californica) are a benthic elasmobranch that occupy intermediate trophic level positions in coastal food webs. Angel sharks' life history characteristics make them susceptible to accumulating high amounts of contaminants. Four angel sharks were opportunistically captured in southern California and their liver and uterine contents were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs and other pesticides. High DDT:PCB ratios were found in the sharks indicating direct or indirect foraging near a local EPA Superfund Site. Organic contaminants were measured in ovulated eggs, indicating that females are able to maternally offload contaminants. Despite the potential mismatch between ovarian and uterine fecundity, we estimated females to offload approximately 13±5% of their total body load, which represents the upper limit of this capability. Although low in sample size, the initial findings from this study suggest that habitat use might play an important role in contaminant accumulation in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health's Health Hazard Assessment: putting the "health" into hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brandon; Bagwell, Dee Ann; Dora, Vinita; Khan, Sinan; Plough, Alonzo

    2013-01-01

    A ll communities, explicitly or implicitly, assess and prepare for the natural and manmade hazards that they know could impact their community. The commonality of hazard-based threats in most all communities does not usually result in standard or evidence-based preparedness practice and outcomes across those communities. Without specific efforts to build a shared perspective and prioritization, "all-hazards" preparedness can result in a random hodgepodge of priorities and preparedness strategies, resulting in diminished emergency response capabilities. Traditional risk assessments, with a focus on physical infrastructure, do not present the potential health and medical impacts of specific hazards and threats. With the implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's capability-based planning, there is broad recognition that a health-focused hazard assessment process--that engages the "Whole of Community"--is needed. Los Angeles County's Health Hazard Assessment and Prioritization tool provides a practical and innovative approach to enhance existing planning capacities. Successful utilization of this tool can provide a way for local and state health agencies and officials to more effectively identify the health consequences related to hazard-specific threats and risk, determine priorities, and develop improved and better coordinated agency planning, including community engagement in prioritization.

  4. Public Health Investment in Team Care: Increasing Access to Clinical Preventive Services in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Kuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of federal and local efforts to increase access to high quality, clinical preventive services (CPS in underserved populations, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH partnered with six local health system and community organization partners to promote the use of team care for CPS delivery. Although these partners were at different stages of organizational capacity, post-program review suggests that each organization advanced team care in their clinical or community environments, potentially affecting >250,000 client visits per year. Despite existing infrastructure and DPH’s funding support of CPS integration, partner efforts faced several challenges. They included lack of sustainable funding for prevention services; limited access to community resources that support disease prevention; and difficulties in changing health-care provider behavior. Although team care can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for delivering CPS, downstream sustainability of this model of practice requires further state and national policy changes that prioritize prevention. Public health is well positioned to facilitate these policy discussions and to assist health system and community organizations in strengthening CPS integration.

  5. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.

  6. A stockability equation for forest land in Siskiyou County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil. McKay

    1985-01-01

    An equation is presented that estimates the relative stocking capacity of forest land in Siskiyou County, California, from the amount of precipitation and the presence of significant indicator plants. The equation is a toot for identifying sites incapable of supporting normal stocking. Estimated relative stocking capacity may be used to discount normal yields to levels...

  7. Uptake and Repeat Use of Postexposure Prophylaxis in a Community-Based Clinic in Los Angeles, California

    OpenAIRE

    Beymer, Matthew R.; Bolan, Robert K.; Flynn, Risa P.; Kerrone, Dustin R.; Pieribone, David L.; Kulkarni, Sonali P.; Stitt, Jackelyn C.; Mejia, Everardo; Landovitz, Raphael J.

    2014-01-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has become an important tool for HIV prevention in the men who have sex with men (MSM) communities within Los Angeles County. However, it is unclear as to whether the most sexually at-risk MSM populations are accessing PEP services. Furthermore, it is unclear what behavioral risk factors differentiate individuals who utilize PEP once (single PEP) versus those who utilize it multiple times (re-PEP). Data were collected between May 2011 and December 2012 on all cl...

  8. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  9. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation among homeless youth in los angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 70% of homeless youth smoke cigarettes, but their use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is unknown. This paper reports on ATP use among past-month smokers in Los Angeles County, including whether it differs by demographic characteristics, homelessness severity, past-year quit attempts, and readiness to quit smoking. Given the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, we also report on perceptions of harm and reasons for using this product. We surveyed 292 unaccompanied homeless youth who were randomly sampled from street sites. Participants had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and 1 cigarette during the past month. Seventy-two percent of youth reported past-month ATP use (e-cigarettes = 51%; little cigars/cigarillos = 46%; hookah = 31%; other smokeless tobacco product = 24%; chewing tobacco/moist snuff = 19%). Current ATP use was unrelated to most demographic characteristics or having a past-year quit attempt. However, youth who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days were significantly less likely to report current use of hookahs, other smokeless tobacco products, or e-cigarettes. Among lifetime e-cigarette users, the most common reasons for use included not having to go outside to smoke (38%) and being able to deal with situations or places where they cannot smoke (36%); it was less common to report using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (17%-18%). Dual use of ATPs among homeless youth smokers is common and is more likely among those who have no immediate plans to quit smoking. Effective and easily disseminable strategies for reducing all forms of tobacco use among homeless youth are urgently needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Delayed presentation for care during acute myocardial infarction in a Hispanic population of Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sean O; Magana, Renee N; Korn, Carrie S; Genna, Tammy; Bretsky, Philip M

    2002-01-01

    Delay in seeking care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been well described in some populations, but little research has been conducted on delay by minority groups, such as Latinos and Asians. This study sought to determine the degree of delay and mode of access of patients with AMI presenting to an inner-city hospital serving an ethnically diverse population. This study was a retrospective case series of Latino, Asian, African-American and Caucasian patients diagnosed in the emergency department (ED) with chest pain (CP) and AMI, during a 2-year period. Three hundred thirty seven cases were studied, with the average delay in presentation for care being 44.3 hours, with a median of 8.8 hours. Before seeking care for symptoms of AMI, Latinos delayed an average of 41.5 hours (median 9.2 hours); African Americans delayed an average of 30.8 hours (median 3.5 hours); Asians delayed an average of 92 hours (median 12 hours); and Caucasians delayed an average of 31.6 hours (median 3.2 hours). The mode of transportation used by the different groups to travel to the ED was also significantly different, with Latinos and Asians utilizing private transportation the majority of the time (70% and 83%, respectively). There is a significant delay in presentation for care in patients experiencing AMI in Los Angeles County, greatest among the Asian and Latino populations. Once the decision to seek assistance is made, an under-utilization of EMS compounds the problem. Socioeconomic status, language, and cultural practices pose unique barriers to recognizing and addressing symptoms of AMI in this population.

  11. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 91-395-2244, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.E.; Miller, A.

    1992-08-01

    In response to a request from an employee of the Veterans Administration Medical Center (SIC-8062), Los Angeles, California, an investigation was undertaken of exposures to chemicals in the laboratory department, excessive heat and humidity in the kitchen area of the dietetics department, and carbon-monoxide (630080) exposures inside the building. In three of five personal breathing zone samples taken in the histopathology laboratory, formaldehyde (50000) was detected at concentrations up to 0.17 part per million (ppm) and it was also present in all four of the area air samples at concentrations up to 1.1ppm. The predominant symptoms associated with work in the laboratory included occasional headaches and nose/throat irritation. Mild episodes of dermal irritation and rash were also reported. All carbon-monoxide levels were less than 5ppm. In the kitchens, relative humidity levels were below the recommended range. Temperatures were above the range of temperatures recommended for a medium level of work. The authors conclude that a potential carcinogenic risk existed for workers in laboratories which use formaldehyde. The authors recommend specific measures to lower the risk of formaldehyde exposures in the laboratory.

  12. Climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Vahmani, P.

    2016-12-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation, and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of about 3°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and ground. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to weakened sea-breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  13. Toward a nitrous oxide budget for a global megacity: Los Angeles, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas (nearly 300 times as powerful as carbon dioxide) and one of the major anthropogenic ozone depleting chemicals in the atmosphere. The strong global warming potential makes it a good target for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. But although the major anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide globally is from fertilized agricultural soils, only a very few studies have attempted a regional nitrous oxide budget. Here we present a synthesis of several recent efforts to constrain nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial soils, wastewater treatment plants, and the coastal ocean in the Los Angeles, California metro area, home to ~13 million residents. Landscaped soils such as lawns and athletic fields emit nitrous oxide at approximately the same rate as agricultural soils in the region, ~ 200 mg N m-2 yr-1. Wastewater recycling to conserve water resources in this arid region emits nitrous oxide at rates about 3 times higher than traditional carbon oxidation of wastewater, making water reclamation the dominant anthropogenic source in the region. However, we also estimated efflux of nitrous oxide from the coastal ocean using surface concentrations and estimates of wind-driven mixing, and we found that marine emissions may be up to 10 times higher than anthropogenic sources. We also measured stable isotopic composition (N-15 and O-18) of nitrous oxide from all of these sources, and we will present the implications of these and our emission rate data for top-down monitoring of regional nitrous oxide sources.

  14. Water quality improvement policies: lessons learned from the implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Stenstrom, Michael; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2009-03-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had insufficient revenues to deploy new projects in its budget. The bond initiative required a supermajority vote (two-thirds of the voters), hence the public had to be convinced that such funding both was necessary and would be effective. The bond act language included project solicitation from the public, as well as multiple benefit objectives. Accordingly, nonprofit organizations mobilized to present projects that included creating new parks, using schoolyards for flood control and groundwater recharge, and replacing parking lots with permeable surfaces, among others. Yet few, if any, of these projects were retained for funding, as the city itself also had a list of priorities and higher technical expertise in justifying them as delivering water quality improvements. Our case study of the implementation of Proposition O points to the potentially different priorities for the renovation of urban infrastructure that are held by nonprofit organizations and city agencies and the importance of structuring public processes clearly so that there are no misimpressions about funding and implementation responsibilities that can lead to disillusionment with government, especially under conditions of fiscal constraints.

  15. Not an 'iron pipeline', but many capillaries: regulating passive transactions in Los Angeles' secondary, illegal gun market

    OpenAIRE

    Chesnut, KY; Barragan, M; Gravel, J; Pifer, NA; Reiter, K; Sherman, N; Tita, GE

    2017-01-01

    California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns.Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities).Random sampling from a screened pool of ...

  16. Mechanical Analysis of Fault Interaction in the Puente Hills Region, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Cooke, M.

    2002-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Puente Hills thrust system (PHT) and the Whittier fault has been constructed using published cross sections, surface trace maps [Shaw (1999); Shaw and Suppe (1996); Wright (1991)] and products of the Southern California Earthquake Center. This study utilizes boundary element method models to validate the proposed fault geometry of the Puente Hills region via investigating fault interaction. The interaction between PHT and Whittier faults is evaluated within an elastic half-space under horizontal contraction and evidenced by slip rates on faults, strain energy density (SED), and Navier-Coulomb stress (NC) throughout the host rock. Modeled slip rates are compared to paleoseismic estimates to validate the proposed fault configuration while maps of SED and NC highlight regions of high strain in the host rock and likely faulting. Subsequently, the sensitivity of SED and NC distribution to changes in fault geometry illuminate the nature of fault interaction within this complex system of interacting faults. We explore interaction of faults within the PHT region using two sets of models. The first examines slip rates and SED and NC distribution within a local model of the PHT region while the second set incorporates the PHT faults within the context of the Los Angeles basin. Both sets explore the response of the fault system to systematic addition of faults. Adding faults within regions of high SED and NC does not influence slip on neighboring faults; however the addition of fault surfaces in regions of low/moderate SED and NC reduces slip along adjacent faults. The sensitivity of fault slip rates to direction of remote contraction in the Los Angeles Basin is examined with contraction directions of 036, 017, and 006.5 [Bawden (2001), Argus (1999), and Feigl (1993)]. Furthermore, variations on intersection geometry between the PHT and Whittier fault are explored. Portions of the PHT and Whittier faults show reasonable match to available

  17. Graphite deposits in Siskiyou County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynearson, Garn A.

    1945-01-01

    The graphite deposits examined are in sec. 7, T. 47 N., R. 11 W., Siskiyou County, Calif., on the summit of the Siskiyou Mts. between Elk Meadow and the northeast end of "mill 6220" (see map of the Seias quadrangle). Four claims, designated as the Black Jack Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 claims, and a five-acre mill site have been located by W. H. Gassaway, W. B. Stewart, and E. R. Stewart. Development consists of four small cuts and several shallow trenches.

  18. A suburban focus of endemic typhus in Los Angeles County: association with seropositive domestic cats and opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvillo, F J; Gondo, B; Emmons, R; Ryan, P; Waterman, S H; Tilzer, A; Andersen, E M; Murray, R A; Barr, R

    1993-02-01

    Thirty-three cases of locally acquired murine typhus were reported in Los Angeles County residents from May 1984 through February 1988. Only eight cases were reported over the previous 20-year period. Thirty (91%) cases resided within a suburban area encompassing approximately 50 km2 in northcentral Los Angeles or had contact with an animal from this area. Serologic testing (complement fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody) of selected animals in close association with human cases revealed a high prevalence of seropositivity among domestic cats and opossums. Nine (90%) of 10 resident cats tested had demonstrable antibody titers compared with none (0%) of 20 cats from a control area (P commensal rodents, and the classic vector of murine typhus, Xenopsylla cheopis, was not found. Ectoparasite indices form seropositive opossums revealed heavy infestations with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (mean flea count = 104.7), a species that readily bites humans. These data provide evidence that a suburban focus of murine typhus exists in Los Angeles that differs substantially from the classic transmission cycle, and that cats, opossums and C. felis may play an important role in the occurrence of human cases.

  19. Paleogene strata of the Eastern Los Angeles basin, California: Paleogeography and constraints on neogene structural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, T.H.; Beyer, L.A.; Enrico, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Post-Paleogene dextral slip of 8-9 km is demonstrated for the southeastern part of the Whittier fault zone in the eastern Los Angeles basin area of southern California. A linear axis of greatest thickness for the combined upper Paleocene and lower to lower-middle Eocene clastic formations intersects the fault zone and is offset by it to give the new measure. Fragmentary evidence hints that the Whittier structural zone may have exerted control on bathymetric-topographic relief and sedimentation even in latest Paleocene (ca. 54 Ma). A clear topographic influence was exerted by 20-17 Ma. Strike-slip and present deformational style is younger than ca. 8 Ma. Our Paleogene isopach map extends as far west as long 117??58'W and is a foundation for companion zonal maps of predominant lithology and depositional environments. Integration of new palynological data with published biostratigraphic results and both new and published lithologic and sedimentological interpretations support the zonal maps. Reconstruction of marine-nonmarine facies and fragmented basin margins yields a model for the northeastern corner of a Paleogene coastal basin. Palinspastic adjustment for the Neogene-Quaternary Whittier fault offset and a reasoned westerly extension of the northern edge of the basin model yield a reconstruction of Paleogene paleogeography-paleoceanography. Our reconstruction is based partly on the absence of both Paleocene and Eocene deposits beneath the unconformable base of the middle Miocene Topanga Group in a region nowhere less than 15 km wide between the Raymond-Sierra Madre-Cucamonga fault zone and the northern edge of the Paleocene basin. Thus, Paleogene strata of the Santa Monica Mountains could not have been offset from the northern extension of the Santa Ana Mountains by sinistral slip on those boundary faults. Structural rearrangements needed to accommodate the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges from the early Miocene starting position are thereby

  20. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  1. Application of three fault growth criteria to the Puente Hills thrust system, Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik L.; Cooke, Michele L.

    2005-10-01

    Three-dimensional mechanical models are used to evaluate the performance of different fault growth criteria in predicting successive growth of three échelon thrust faults similar to the segments of the Puente Hills thrust system of the Los Angeles basin, California. Four sequential Boundary Element Method models explore the growth of successive échelon faults within the system by simulating snapshots of deformation at different stages of development. These models use three criteria, (1) energy release rate, (2) strain energy density, and (3) Navier-Coulomb stress, to characterize the lateral growth of the fault system. We simulate the growth of an échelon thrust fault system to evaluate the suitability of each of these criteria for assessing fault growth. Each of these three factors predicts a portion of the incipient fault geometry (i.e. location or orientation); however, each provides different information. In each model, energy release rate along the westernmost (leading) tip of the Puente Hills thrust drops with growth of the next neighboring fault; this result supports the overall lateral development of successive échelon segments. Within each model, regions of high strain energy density and Navier-Coulomb stress envelope at least a portion of the next fault to develop, although the strain energy density has stronger correlation than Navier-Coulomb stress to the location of incipient faulting. In each model, one of the two predicted planes of maximum Navier-Coulomb stress ahead of the leading fault tip matches the strike but not the dip of the incipient fault plane recreating part of the fault orientation. The incipient fault dip is best predicted by the orientation of the strain energy density envelopes around the leading fault tip. Furthermore, the energy release rate and pattern of strain energy density can be used to characterize potential soft linkage (overlap) or hard linkage (connection) of échelon faults within the system.

  2. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management District... California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management District (EDAQMD) portion of the California SIP... 24, 1987 Federal Register, May 25, 1988, U.S. EPA, Air Quality Management Division, Office of Air...

  3. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near-infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space- and time-resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high-sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer-tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39 ± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-61% larger than the

  4. Advocacy Coalition for Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry: The Case of Los Angeles County's Measure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam Carl; Tavrow, Paula; McGrath, Mark Roy

    2017-06-01

    Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B. To reconstruct adult film industry counterefforts, the authors reviewed trade publications, social media, and blog posts. When legislative efforts failed, advocates engaged in a step-by-step strategy built around voters to achieve passage of a ballot initiative mandating condom use for all adult films produced in Los Angeles County. Although the industry immediately filed a lawsuit after passage of Measure B, its constitutionality has been upheld. Measure B passed because public health advocates were able to assemble scientific evidence, build public support, counter false claims, and maintain consistent messages throughout the campaign. The adult film industry lacked social capital, cohesion, and nimbleness. To bolster regulatory efforts, appealing to voters to favor safe workplaces may be an effective advocacy strategy for other industries.

  5. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bromley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5 and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education. We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  6. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P.; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2017-01-01

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5) and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods. PMID:29065491

  7. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2017-10-21

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups ( n = 5) and interviews ( n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions' strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  8. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  9. Restaurant owners' perspectives on a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions, Los Angeles County, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren; Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2014-03-20

    Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

  10. Ultrafine particles and associated pollutants on roadways and in community air of Los Angeles California, Beijing China, and the Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Frederick Dane

    Particles smaller than 10 microm in diameter are harmful to health. However, the smallest of these particles, ultrafine particles (UFP), equal to or smaller than 100 nm, may be especially harmful. Most are emitted by combustion sources, with transportation sources being a dominant contributor. While these particles have recently been under intense research, little is known regarding UFP concentrations or its components where people live, work, and commute. This dissertation reports on investigations of UFP and other pollutants in transportation-dominated areas. Included are findings from on-road, near-road and community monitoring studies performed in two megacities: Los Angeles, California and Beijing, China. A common feature of these studies was the application of advanced technologies to gather time-resolved measurements. An important finding made in Los Angeles was that real-time pollutant measurements could be made on busy roadways. UFP size distribution measurements made on a freeway with heavy-duty truck traffic demonstrated that UFP were much higher than on other highways or in community air. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were also much higher in these truck-dominated microenvironments. High correlations were found between UFP, black carbon (BC), particle counts, (NO), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring at Los Angeles International Airport demonstrated that aircraft are important sources of UFP. Elevated UFP counts were found 900 meters from a runway used for take offs, while smaller values were found 500 meters downwind of a runway used for landings. These measurements showed a persistence of UFP at the community boundary in excess of measurements from roadside studies. A peak UFP measurement of 4.8 million particles cm -3 was made approximately 75 meters from a jet aircraft waiting to takeoff. Measurements made in Beijing demonstrated that heavy-duty diesel truck activity severely impacts community air quality. Black carbon was a

  11. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Radio communications for port entities governing anchorages are as follows: Los Angeles-Long Beach... Defense charter, and vessels requiring use of the explosives anchorage. c. Bunkering and lightering are...

  12. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management...

  13. Los Angeles County Office Survey, Research Study Number 80-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitsky, Andrea

    A survey of area employers was conducted by Los Angeles City College in Fall 1979 to determine: (1) the skill requirements for entry-level secretarial and clerical workers, (2) the salaries earned by these employees, (3) the word processing equipment commonly used by employers, (4) future employment trends in secretarial/clerical fields, and (5)…

  14. Media Outlet and Consumer Reactions to Promotional Activities of the Choose Health LA Restaurants Program in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Montes, Christine; Robles, Brenda; Tyree, Rachel; Kuo, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess promotional activities undertaken to raise public awareness of the Choose Health LA Restaurants program in Los Angeles County, an environmental change strategy that recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size and healthier menu options. We used multiple methods to assess public awareness of and reactions to the promotional activities, including an assessment of the reach of core promotional activities, a content analysis of earned media, and an Internet panel survey. The study was conducted in Los Angeles County, home to more than 10 million residents. An online survey firm recruited participants for an Internet panel survey; to facilitate generalization of results to the county's population, statistical weights were applied to analyses of the survey data. Promotional activities to raise awareness of the program included community engagement, in-store promotion, and a media campaign. Outcomes included media impressions, the number of people who reported seeing the Choose Health LA Restaurants logo, and a description of the themes present in earned media. Collectively, paid media outlets reported 335 587 229 total impressions. The Internet panel survey showed that 12% of people reported seeing the program logo. Common themes in earned media included the Choose Health LA Restaurants program aims to provide restaurant patrons with more choices, represents a new opportunity for restaurants and public health to work together, will benefit participating restaurants, and will positively impact health. Promotional activities for the Choose Health LA Restaurants program achieved modest reach and positive reactions from media outlets and consumers. The program strategy and lessons learned can help inform present and future efforts to combine environmental and individually focused strategies that target key influences of consumer food selection.

  15. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (Pfoods 1·04 more times daily (Pconsumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  16. System Transformation Under the California Mental Health Services Act: Implementation of Full-Service Partnerships in L.A. County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Sarah L; Arns, Paul G; Padwa, Howard; Friedman, Jack R; Marrow, Jocelyn; Meldrum, Marcia L; Bromley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Erin L; Brekke, John S; Braslow, Joel T

    2017-06-01

    The study evaluated the effect of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) on the structure, volume, location, and patient centeredness of Los Angeles County public mental health services. This prospective mixed-methods study (2006-2013) was based in five Los Angeles County public mental health clinics, all with usual care and three with full-service partnerships (FSPs). FSPs are MHSA-funded programs designed to "do whatever it takes" to provide intensive, recovery-oriented, team-based, integrated services for clients with severe mental illness. FSPs were compared with usual care on outpatient services received (claims data) and on organizational climate, recovery orientation, and provider-client working alliance (surveys and semistructured interviews), with regression adjustment for client and provider characteristics. In the first year after admission, FSP clients (N=174) received significantly more outpatient services than did usual care clients (N=298) (5,238 versus 1,643 minutes, pservices were field based (22% versus 2%, pservices (psystem was able to transform service delivery in response to well-funded policy mandates. For providers, a structure emphasizing accountability and patient centeredness was associated with greater stress, despite smaller caseloads. For clients, service structure and volume created opportunities to build stronger provider-client relationships and address their needs and goals.

  17. The Hmong and Health Care in Merced County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Mochel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the linguistic and cultural barriersthe Hmong encounter when they attempt to access the healthcare delivery system in Merced County, California. Thetheoretical portion of the article discusses the concepts ofculture, culture change, and some psychological issues thatresult from culture contact. Western biomedicine is viewed asa cultural system. Following this theoretical section, thecultural and linguistic barriers confronted by the Hmong whenthey attempt the access health care in Merced are discussedas well as some successful programs in the development ofculturally sensitive health care. These include the SoutheastAsian Surgical Coordination Team and the Culture Broker Team.The last part of the article covers, in some detail, amultidisciplinary program in cross-cultural health which isbeing implemented by health workers in Merced County.

  18. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  19. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  20. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government's interest is approximately 78% and CUSA's interest is approximately 22%. The government's interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

  1. Space Radar Image of Orange County, California (annotated version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Orange County, Calif., shows the massive urbanization of this rapidly growing region located just south of Los Angeles. Orange County, sandwiched between rugged mountains and the Pacific Ocean, includes the communities of Anaheim, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach. Anaheim Stadium can be seen in the upper center of the image, as a small white ring to the right of a major freeway intersection. The large dark blue rectangular area in the upper left is the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station and adjacent wildlife refuge. Runways of the El Toro Marine Air Station appear as a black 'x' near the center of the image. The large purple area to the left of the the Air Station and extending to the coast is the scar left by the Laguna wildfire of October 1993. The sparse vegetation left in the wake of the fire provides a weak source of radar echoes, making the burn areas distinctively dark in the image. Another large burn area, from the Ortega fire of 1993, is seen in the mountains in the lower right of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 33.7 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 66.2 kilometers by 44.2 kilometers (41.0 miles by 27.4 miles). The colors are assigned todifferent frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  2. 77 FR 66499 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... San Bernardino, 285 East Hospitality Lane, San Bernardino, California 92408 (2) Sheraton Ontario..., November 13, 2012 from 5-7 p.m. at the Hilton San Bernardino, 285 East Hospitality Lane, San Bernardino...

  3. Exploration of spatial patterns of congenital anomalies in Los Angeles County using the vital statistics birth master file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rible, Radhika; Aguilar, Efren; Chen, Angela; Bader, Joshua L; Goodyear-Moya, Leslie; Singh, Karen Teekadai; Paulson, Suzanne E; Friedman, Julie; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Pregler, Janet

    2018-03-02

    Research has shown linkages between environmental exposures and population health metrics such as low birth weight and incidence of congenital anomalies. While the exact causal relationship between specific environmental teratogens and suspected corresponding congenital anomalies has largely not been established, spatial analysis of anomaly incidence can identify potential locations of increased risk. This study uses the Vital Statistics Birth Master File to map and analyze the rates of congenital anomalies of births from non-smoking mothers 15-35 years old within Los Angeles County. Hot spot analysis shows that the distribution of congenital anomalies is not randomly distributed throughout the county and identified the Antelope Valley and San Gabriel Foothills as two areas with elevated incidence rates. These results are not explained by potential confounders such as maternal age, race, smoking status, or socioeconomic status and seem to correlate well with the concentration of atmospheric ozone. This approach demonstrates the value of using spatial techniques to inform future research efforts and the need to establish and maintain a comprehensive reproductive health surveillance system.

  4. Ring-Shaped Seismicity Structures in Southern California: Possible Preparation for Large Earthquake in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    Some characteristics of seismicity in Southern California are studied. It is found that ring-shaped seismicity structures with threshold magnitudes M th of 4.1, 4.1, and 3.8 formed prior to three large ( M w > 7.0) earthquakes in 1992, 1999, and 2010, respectively. The sizes of these structures are several times smaller than for intracontinental strike-slip events with similar magnitudes. Two ring-shaped structures are identified in areas east of the city of Los Angeles, where relatively large earthquakes have not occurred for at least 150 years. The magnitudes of large events which can occur in the areas of these structures are estimated on the basis of the previously obtained correlation dependence of ring sizes on magnitudes of the strike-slip earthquakes. Large events with magnitudes of M w = 6.9 ± 0.2 and M w = 8.6 ± 0.2 can occur in the area to the east of the city of Los Angeles and in the rupture zone of the 1857 great Fort Tejon earthquake, respectively. We believe that ring-structure formation, similarly to the other regions, is connected with deep-seated fluid migration.

  5. 76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...) Placer County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 231, ``Industrial, Institutional and Commercial... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality...

  6. Mercury Concentrations in Pacific Angel Sharks (Squatina californica) and Prey Fishes from Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Sánchez, O; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Moreno-Sánchez, X G; Romo-Piñera, A K; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were quantified in muscle tissues of the Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica sampled from Southern Gulf of California, Mexico, considering total length, sex, diet and the dietary risk assessment. High Hg levels are typically associated with carnivorous fishes, however S. californica showed low Hg concentrations ( 0.05). Hg concentrations were highest in the darkedge mishipman: Porichthys analis (0.14 ± 0.08 µg g(-1)) and red-eye round herring Etrumeus teres (0.13 ± 0.05 µg g(-1)) relative to other prey species, which could suggest that Hg concentrations in S. californica were influenced by these species. Given the relatively low concentration of Hg across age-classes and sex, consumption of S. californica's muscle tissue poses limited risk to humans.

  7. Is crime associated with over-the-counter pharmacy syringe sales? Findings from Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Thomas J; Geraghty, Estella M; Azari, Rahman; Gold, Ellen B; DeRiemer, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    More than 50,000 new HIV infections occur annually in the United States. Injection drug users represent twelve percent of incident HIV infections each year. Pharmacy sales of over-the-counter (OTC) syringes have helped prevent HIV transmission among injection drug users in many states throughout the United States. However, concerns exist among some law enforcement officials, policymakers, pharmacists, and community members about potential links between OTC syringe sales and crime. We used a geographic information system and novel spatial and longitudinal analyses to determine whether implementation of pharmacy-based OTC syringe sales were associated with reported crime between January 2006 and December 2008 in Los Angeles Police Department Reporting Districts. We assessed reported crime pre- and post-OTC syringe sales initiation as well as longitudinal associations between crime and OTC syringe-selling pharmacies. By December 2008, 9.3% (94/1010) of Los Angeles Police Department Reporting Districts had at least one OTC syringe-selling pharmacy. Overall reported crime counts and reported crime rates decreased between 2006 and 2008 in all 1010 Reporting Districts. Using generalized estimating equations and adjusting for potential confounders, reported crime rates were negatively associated with OTC syringe sales (adjusted rate ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.99). Our findings demonstrate that OTC pharmacy syringe sales were not associated with increases in reported crime in local communities in Los Angeles during 2006-2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Risk-Based Policies for Pretrial Release and Split Sentencing in Los Angeles County Jails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericcan Usta

    Full Text Available Court-mandated downsizing of the CA prison system has led to a redistribution of detainees from prisons to CA county jails, and subsequent jail overcrowding. Using data that is representative of the LA County jail system, we build a mathematical model that tracks the flow of individuals during arraignment, pretrial release or detention, case disposition, jail sentence, and possible recidivism during pretrial release, after a failure to appear in court, during non-felony probation and during felony supervision. We assess 64 joint pretrial release and split-sentencing (where low-level felon sentences are split between jail time and mandatory supervision policies that are based on the type of charge (felony or non-felony and the risk category as determined by the CA Static Risk Assessment tool, and compare their performance to that of the policy LA County used in early 2014, before split sentencing was in use. In our model, policies that offer split sentences to all low-level felons optimize the key tradeoff between public safety and jail congestion by, e.g., simultaneously reducing the rearrest rate by 7% and the mean jail population by 20% relative to the policy LA County used in 2014. The effectiveness of split sentencing is due to two facts: (i convicted felony offenders comprised ≈ 45% of LA County's jail population in 2014, and (ii compared to pretrial release, split sentencing exposes offenders to much less time under recidivism risk per saved jail day.

  9. Portland cement based fast-setting concrete demonstration, district 07, Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The California Department of Transportation currently uses fast-setting concrete to accommodate short working windows. The current special provision for fast-setting concrete requires that the concrete reach a flexural strength of 2.8 MPa (400 psi) b...

  10. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  11. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marin County (California, USA has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while  statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified.

  12. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  13. Identifying Potential Areas of Human Zika Infection in the City of Los Angeles, California by Use of Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    As of April 2017, California is the third most prevalent state on the United States for Zika Infection and Southern California has an ever growing population of Aedes mosquitos. Zika is a disease which poses a significant risk to humans and other mammals due to its effects on pregnancy. This emerging disease is highly contagious due to its spread of infection primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitos. Aedes mosquitos are able to breed in small rain collecting containers which allow the species to persevere in urban and semi urban environments. We hope to identify potential areas with risk of human infection within Los Angeles and its surrounding areas. This study integrates remote sensing, GIS, statistical, and environmental techniques to study favorable habitats for this particular species of mosquitos and their larvae. The study of the geographic and landscape factors which promote the larvae development allow for the disease spread to be analyzed and modeled. There are several goals in the development of this study. These include the coordination of statistical data with local epidemiology departments, identify workflows to improve efficiency, create models which can be utilized for disease prevention, and identify geographic risk factors for the spread of Zika.

  14. A Public-Private Partnership to Mitigate Food Insecurity and Food Waste in Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Silva, Bernadet; Handler, Eric; Wolfe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity is a global issue that arises owing to systemic socioeconomic inequities and environmental constraints. To highlight the existence and the extent of food insecurity and food waste, the Orange County Health Department in Orange County, California, created a coalition called "Waste Not Orange County." Orange County is the sixth most populous county in California and has the highest median income, yet 11.4% of those residing in Orange County are food insecure, and 24.0% live in poverty. The overall vision of the coalition is to mitigate hunger in Orange County by educating the community about food donations, identifying food-insecure individuals, and connecting those individuals to sources of food. We examine the coalition's impacts between 2014 and 2016.

  15. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171

  16. How the 2008 stock market crash and seasons affect total and cardiac deaths in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan Glen; Pezzullo, John Christopher; McDonald, Scott Andrew; Poole, William Kenneth; Kloner, Robert Alan

    2012-05-15

    Various stressors trigger cardiac death. The objective was to investigate a possible relation between a stock market crash and cardiac death in a large population within the United States. We obtained daily stock market data (Dow Jones Industrial Average Index), death certificate data for daily deaths in Los Angeles County (LA), and annual LA population estimates for 2005 through 2008. The 4 years death rate curves (2005 through 2008) were averaged into a single curve to illustrate annual trends. Data were "deseasonalized" by subtracting from the daily observed value the average value for that day of year. There was marked seasonal variation in total and cardiac death rates. Even in the mild LA climate, death rates were higher in winter versus summer including total death (+17%), circulatory death (+24%), coronary heart disease death (+28%), and myocardial infarction death (+38%) rates (p stock market crash in October 2008 did not affect death rates in LA. Death rates remained at or below seasonal averages during the stock market crash. In conclusion, after correcting for seasonal variation, the stock market crash in October 2008 was not associated with an increase in total or cardiac death in LA. Annual coronary heart disease death rates continue to decrease. However, seasonal variation (specifically winter) remains a trigger for death and coronary heart disease death even in LA where winters are mild. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parenting and proximity to social services: Lessons from Los Angeles County in the community context of child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Klein, Sacha

    2015-07-01

    Using a sample of 438 parents in Los Angeles County, CA, this study examines the role of proximity to social services in child neglect. In an extension of social disorganization theory, it seeks to understand the potential sources of support in neighborhoods for families. It uses ordinary least squares regression to examine driving distance from parents' residences to four types of services (child care, domestic violence, mental health/substance abuse, and poverty). The results show an association between proximity to mental health and substance abuse services and parents' self-reported neglectful behaviors. Additionally, higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, unemployment, and low education), having older children, respondents being male, and respondents being older parents are associated with higher levels of child neglect, while being white is associated with lower levels. Overall, the findings suggest a potentially protective role of geographic access to mental health and substance abuse services in child maltreatment. Additional research on the pathways through which proximity to services influences child neglect is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Long; Wei Jiahua; Huang Yuefei; Wang Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. - Highlights: → An improved urban NPS model was developed. → It performs well in areas where storm events have great temporal variation. → Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined. - An improved urban NPS model was developed. Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined.

  19. Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow

  20. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  1. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  2. Evapotranspiration of urban landscapes in Los Angeles, California at the municipal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, E.; Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Pataki, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), an essential process in biosphere-atmosphere interactions, is highly uncertain in cities that maintain cultivated and irrigated landscapes. We estimated ET of irrigated landscapes in Los Angeles by combining empirical models of turfgrass ET and tree transpiration derived from in situ measurements with previously developed remotely sensed estimates of vegetation cover and ground-based vegetation surveys. We modeled irrigated landscapes as a two-component system comprised of trees and turfgrass to assess annual and spatial patterns of ET. Annual ET from vegetated landscapes (ETveg) was 1110 ± 53 mm/yr and ET from the whole city (vegetated and nonvegetated areas, ETland) was three times smaller, reflecting the fractional vegetation cover. With the exception of May and June, monthly ETland was significantly higher than predicted by the North American Land Data Assimilation System. ETveg was close to potential ET, indicating abundant irrigation inputs. Monthly averaged ETveg varied from 1.5 ± 0.1 mm/d (December) to 4.3 ± 0.2 mm/d (June). Turfgrass was responsible for ˜70% of ETveg. For trees, angiosperm species (71% of all trees) contributed over 90% to total tree transpiration, while coniferous and palm species made very small contributions. ETland was linearly correlated with median household income across the city, confirming the importance of social factors in determining spatial distribution of urban vegetation. These estimates have important implications for constraining the municipal water budget of Los Angeles and improving regional-scale hydrologic models, as well as for developing water-saving practices. The methodology used in this study is also transferable to other semiarid regions for quantification of urban landscape ET.

  3. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  4. CMS: LiDAR-derived Biomass, Canopy Height and Cover, Sonoma County, California, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of above-ground biomass (AGB), canopy height, and percent tree cover at 30-m spatial resolution for Sonoma County, California, USA,...

  5. Diet and obesity in Los Angeles County 2007-2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 "Fast-Food Ban"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the impact of the "Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban", a zoning regulation that has restricted opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food markets. About 10% of food outlets are new since the regulation, but there is little evidence that the composition has changed differentially across areas. Data from the California Health Interview Survey show that fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity rates have increased from 2007 to 2011/2012 in all areas. The increase in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity since the ban has been significantly larger in South Los Angeles than elsewhere. A positive development has been a drop in soft drink consumption since 2007, but that drop is of similar magnitude in all areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance program…

  7. Crack cocaine use among persons with tuberculosis--Contra Costa County, California, 1987-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-26

    From January 1, 1987, through June 30, 1990, 44 cases of tuberculosis (TB) occurred among residents of Contra Costa County, California, who were known to use crack cocaine. To investigate a possible association between crack cocaine use and TB, local health officials conducted a retrospective study of TB cases among residents of Contra Costa County.

  8. 77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental protection, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air...

  9. 78 FR 896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air...

  10. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  11. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD... BTU/hr and internal combustion engines with a rated brake horse power of 50 or greater. Under...

  12. 78 FR 70005 - Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Base... of the Pacific Ocean surrounding San Nicolas Island, California. Naval Base Ventura County is... and operated by the U.S. Navy as part of Naval Base Ventura County. DATES: Written comments must be...

  13. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Socioeconomic Dimensions of Shared Accommodations: the Case of Airbnb in LOS Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Koohikamali, M.; Pick, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts' participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.

  14. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  15. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS AND SOCIOECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF SHARED ACCOMMODATIONS: THE CASE OF AIRBNB IN LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts’ participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.

  17. The Impact of Proposition 13 on Public Employee Relations: The Case of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimmer, Gene

    1982-01-01

    The impact of Proposition 13 and subsequent state bailout legislation on public employee relations in the City and County of Los Angeles (California) has been a new collective bargaining environment. The 1979 negotiations, where a countywide strike was narrowly averted, illustrate the hardening of management attitudes and union militancy. (MLF)

  18. Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Ban-Weiss, G.

    2016-08-01

    During 2012-2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought-tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Transforming lawns to drought-tolerant vegetation resulted in daytime warming of up to 1.9°C, largely due to decreases in irrigation that shifted surface energy partitioning toward higher sensible and lower latent heat flux. During nighttime, however, adopting drought-tolerant vegetation caused mean cooling of 3.2°C, due to changes in soil thermodynamic properties and heat exchange dynamics between the surface and subsurface. Our results show that nocturnal cooling effects, which are larger in magnitude and of great importance for public health during heat events, could counterbalance the daytime warming attributed to the studied water conservation strategy. A more aggressive implementation, assuming all urban vegetation was replaced with drought-tolerant vegetation, resulted in an average daytime cooling of 0.2°C, largely due to strengthened sea breeze patterns, highlighting the important role of land surface roughness in this coastal megacity.

  19. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The Break Up: Evaluation of an Anti-Smoking Educational Campaign for Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge A; Tyree, Rachel; Aragon, Linda; Weber, Mark; Le Veque, Matthew; Anderson, Christopher M; Soler, Robin E; Kent, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults in the United States have a higher prevalence of smoking than their heterosexual counterparts. In 2013, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a social marketing and outreach campaign called Break Up to reduce the prevalence of smoking in LGB communities. Break Up was evaluated using cross-sectional, street-intercept surveys before and near the end of campaign. Surveys measured demographics, campaign awareness, and self-reported smoking-related outcomes. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify whether campaign awareness was associated with smoking-related outcomes. Calls by LGB persons to a smokers' helpline were also measured. Among those interviewed at endline, 32.7% reported Break Up awareness. Awareness was associated with thinking of quitting smoking and ever taking steps to quit but not with smoking cessation (defined as not smoking in the past 30 days among those who had smoked in the past 6 months). There was a 0.7% increase in the percentage of weekly calls by LGB persons to the helpline in the year after the campaign. Break Up reached about a third of its intended audience. The campaign was associated with smoking cessation precursors and may have led to an increase in helpline utilization, but there is no evidence it affected quit attempts. This study adds to the limited literature on tobacco programs for LGB persons and, as far as we know, is one of the first to evaluate tobacco-free social marketing in this important yet understudied population.

  1. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahía de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  2. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    scheduled airlines provide Santa Maria and the surrounding region with flights to Los Angeles and San Francisco . Currently, Sky West Airlines flies to Los...Angeles International and has a shuttle service to Delta Airlines. West Air flies to Los Angeles and San Francisco and has a shuttle service to United...physiographic province, is characterized by flat to gently sloping topography. Bedrock surface outcrops include the Perris Block, Gavilan Hills, Lakeview

  3. Determination of a Holocene Slip Rate on the Puente Hills Blind-Thrust Fault, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, S. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.

    2001-12-01

    Paleoseismologic observations of slip histories and slip rates of faults that break the surface are available at an ever-increasing rate, but the nature of blind-thrust faults has kept paleoearthquake information on these faults out of reach. The complex network of blind thrust faults beneath the Los Angeles metropolitan region includes the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT), which extends southeastward for >35 km from beneath downtown Los Angeles into northern Orange County. This thrust is active, as demonstrated by the occurrence of the 1987 Mw 6.0 Whittier Narrows earthquake (Shaw and Shearer 1999). Despite our awareness of the hazard posed by this fault, we do not know its current slip rate or its earthquake history prior to the 1987 event. To determine these critical data, we have begun a two-phase project in which we will acquire high-resolution seismic reflection data and excavate paleoseismologic boreholes and trenches across the zone of active folding associated with major earthquakes on the PHT. We have acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles along two transects across the zone of active folding. In our eastern most profile, along Trojan Way in La Mirada, the seismic reflection data show that the locus of active folding extends to 1.5- 2-m-thick reddish-brown argillic horizon. This soil indicates that the geomorphic surface atop the scarp is late Pleistocene in age. The 9 m height of the scarp provides a minimum estimate of total structural relief since stabilization of the ground surface. These observations yield an approximate uplift rate on the order of a few tenths of a mm/yr. Assuming simple hangingwall block translation and given the 19° -22° N dip of the PHT beneath the site, we calculate a minimum average late Pleistocene-Recent dip-slip rate of \\sim 0.2 to 1.1 mm/yr. This slip-rate range is based on our crude age estimates of the late Pleistocene soil. 14C dating of detrital charcoal recovered from the borehole will allow us to

  4. Observation of elevated air pollutant concentrations in a residential neighborhood of Los Angeles California using a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shishan; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.

    2012-05-01

    We observed elevated air pollutant concentrations, especially of ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and NO, across the residential neighborhood of the Boyle Heights Community (BH) of Los Angeles, California. Using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured in BH in spring and summer of 2008. Pollutant concentrations varied significantly in the two seasons, on different days, and by time of day, with an overall average UFP concentration in the residential areas of ∼33 000 cm-3. The averaged UFP, BC, and NO concentrations measured on Soto St, a major surface street in BH, were 57 000 cm-3, 5.1 μg m-3, and 67 ppb, respectively. Concentrations of UFP across the residential areas in BH were nearly uniform spatially, in contrast to other areas in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles where UFP concentrations exhibit strong gradients downwind of roadways. We attribute this “UFP cloud” to high traffic volumes, including heavy duty diesel trucks on the freeways which surround and traverse BH, and substantial numbers of high-emitting vehicles (HEVs) on the surface streets traversing BH. Additionally, the high density of stop signs and lights and short block lengths, requiring frequent accelerations of vehicles, may contribute. The data also support a role for photochemical production of UFP in the afternoon. UFP concentration peaks (5 s average) of up to 9 million particles cm-3 were also observed immediately behind HEVs when they accelerated from stop lights in the BH neighborhood and areas immediately adjacent. Although encounters with HEV during mornings accounted for only about 6% and 17% of time spent monitoring residential areas and major surface streets, HEV contributed to about 28% and 53% of total ultrafine particles measured on the route, respectively. The observation of elevated pollutant concentrations across the Boyle Heights community highlights

  5. Bay Area Counties, California, 2006, Tele Atlas(R)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dynamap(R)/2000 County Boundary file with a shoreline buffer is a non-generalized polygon layer that represents all U.S. government-defined entities named County. A...

  6. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  7. 78 FR 75293 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; 2012 Los Angeles County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ..., cardiovascular function, kidneys, immune system, and red blood cells. Children are particularly vulnerable to... particulate air (HEPA) filters at specified locations. [ssquf] We discuss below how Rule 1420.1's compliance...

  8. 78 FR 46676 - Environmental Impact Statement; Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... December 2012 to keep the public, agencies, and elected officials appraised of the status of the project... inadequate capacity and accessibility along the existing east-west trending roadways as well as an increase...

  9. Prison Radicalization in County Jails: Disrupting Terrorist Acts Through Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Sophia Moskalenko describes the “pyramid,”37 Fathali Moghaddam a “staircase,”38 and Zeyno Baran refers to a “ conveyor belt .”39 The process often...Prisons, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, and the Los Angeles County jail system . Data from these entities was collected...Corrections and Rehabilitation, and the Los Angeles County jail system . Data from these entities was collected and examined for “smart practices

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Teleretinal Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program in the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Lauren P; Vasquez, Carolina; Martinez, Carlos; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Mangione, Carol M

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age in the United States. In the Los Angeles County safety net, a nonvertically integrated system serving underinsured and uninsured patients, the prevalence of DR is approximately 50%, and owing to limited specialty care resources, the average wait times for screening for DR have been 8 months or more. To determine whether a primary care-based teleretinal DR screening (TDRS) program reduces wait times for screening and improves timeliness of needed care in the Los Angeles County safety net. Quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest evaluation of exposure to primary care-based TDRS at 5 of 15 Los Angeles County Department of Health Services safety net clinics from September 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, with a subgroup analysis of random samples of 600 patients before and after the intervention (1200 total). Primary care clinic-based teleretinal screening for DR. Annual rates of screening for DR before and after implementation of the TDRS program across the 5 clinics, time to screening for DR in a random sample of patients from these clinics, and a description of the larger framework of program implementation. Among the 21 222 patients who underwent the screening (12 790 female, 8084 male, and 348 other gender or not specified; mean [SD] age, 57.4 [9.6] years), the median time to screening for DR decreased from 158 days (interquartile range, 68-324 days) before the intervention to 17 days (interquartile range, 8-50 days) after initiation of the program (P screening rates for DR increased from 5942 of 14 633 patients (40.6%) before implementation to 7470 of 13 133 patients (56.9%) after initiation of the program at all 15 targeted clinics (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9; P = .002). Of the 21 222 patients who were screened, 14 595 (68.8%) did not require referral to an eye care professional, 4160 (19.6%) were referred for treatment or monitoring of DR, and 2461 (11

  11. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  12. Heterogeneous Costs of Alcohol and Drug Problems Across Cities and Counties in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Nygaard, Peter; Gaidus, Andrew; Grube, Joel W; Ponicki, William R; Lawrence, Bruce A; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of economic and social costs related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and abuse are usually made at state and national levels. Ecological analyses demonstrate, however, that substantial variations exist in the incidence and prevalence of AOD use and problems including impaired driving, violence, and chronic disease between smaller geopolitical units like counties and cities. This study examines the ranges of these costs across counties and cities in California. We used estimates of the incidence and prevalence of AOD use, abuse, and related problems to calculate costs in 2010 dollars for all 58 counties and an ecological sample of 50 cities with populations between 50,000 and 500,000 persons in California. The estimates were built from archival and public-use survey data collected at state, county, and city levels over the years from 2009 to 2010. Costs related to alcohol use and related problems exceeded those related to illegal drugs across all counties and most cities in the study. Substantial heterogeneities in costs were observed between cities within counties. AOD costs are heterogeneously distributed across counties and cities, reflecting the degree to which different populations are engaged in use and abuse across the state. These findings provide a strong argument for the distribution of treatment and prevention resources proportional to need. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. 77 FR 66910 - Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Transportation Engineer/Border Engineer, Federal Highway Administration--California Division, 401 B Street, Suite...[aacute]nchez, Senior Transportation Engineer/Border Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, San Diego... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement, San...

  14. Calleguas Creek Simi Valley to Moorpark Ventura County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Regulus calendula * Loggerhead shrike Lanius ludovicianus *Starling Sturnus vulgaris ’V ireos Vireo spp. Orange-crowned warbler Vermnivora celata...bachmani Audubon cottontail S. audubonji *California ground squirrel Otospermophilus beecheyl Western gray squirrel Sciurus griseus Pocket gopher

  15. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  16. 76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento... Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD... Guidelines for Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Parts Coatings,'' EPA-453/R-08-003, September 2008. 7...

  17. Fine sediment sources in coastal watersheds with uplifted marine terraces in northwest Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Sungnome Madrone; Andrew P. Stubblefield

    2012-01-01

    Erosion in the Mill and Luffenholtz Creek watersheds in Humboldt County, California, with their extensive clay soils, can lead to high turbidity levels in receiving bodies of water, increasing the costs of treating water for domestic water supplies. Detailed road and erosion surveys and monitoring of suspended sediment, discharge, and turbidity levels in Mill Creek (3....

  18. 75 FR 39581 - Yosemite Valley Plan; Yosemite National Park; Mariposa, Madera, and Tuolumne Counties, California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Yosemite Valley Plan; Yosemite National Park; Mariposa, Madera, and Tuolumne Counties, California; Notice of Revised Record of Decision SUMMARY: On December 29, 2000, the National Park Service (NPS) executed a Record of Decision selecting Alternative 2...

  19. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD...

  20. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California Implementation... ) emissions from sources of fugitive dust such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  1. Comparison of nutrition standards and other recommended procurement practices for improving institutional food offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

    2013-03-01

    National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contracts codifies an institution's commitment to increasing the availability of healthful food options in their food service venues and vending machines. These procurement requirements, in turn, have the potential to positively influence consumers' food-purchasing behaviors. Although these strategies are becoming increasingly popular, much remains unknown about their context, the processes required to implement them effectively, and the factors that facilitate their sustainability, especially in such broad and diverse settings as schools, county government facilities, and cities. To contribute to this gap in information, we reviewed and compared nutrition standards and other best practices implemented recently in a large school district, in a large county government, and across 10 municipalities in Los Angeles County. We report lessons learned from these efforts.

  2. The unhealthy food environment does not modify the association between obesity and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Harrison, Gail G; Wang, May C; Seto, Edmund Y W; Pebley, Anne R

    2017-01-14

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but not much is known about the mechanisms behind this association. The objective of this study was to determine if the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets modifies the association between obesity and participation in SNAP. Data comes from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey; included are a subsample of adults (18+ years) who were SNAP participants or eligible non-participants (N = 1,176). We carried out multilevel analyses with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m 2 ), SNAP participation, and the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets as dependent, independent and modifying variables, respectively, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, working status, mental health, and neighborhood poverty. SNAP participants had double the odds of obesity compared to eligible non-participants (OR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.44-2.83). However, the neighborhood density of unhealthy food outlets did not modify this association. SNAP participation was associated with higher odds of obesity in our primarily Hispanic sample in Los Angeles County, with no effect modification found for the unhealthy portion of the food environment. More research is needed with additional food environment measures to confirm our null findings. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking SNAP participation and obesity as they remain unclear.

  3. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  4. Approval of California Air Plan Revisions, San Diego County Air District; VOC Emissions From Polyester Resin Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) relating to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from polyester resin operations.

  5. 78 FR 36823 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties, Cal AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... construct an approximately 65- mile high-speed passenger rail line between Merced and Fresno, California...

  6. Multiple introductions of the eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claytor, Sieara C; Muchlinski, Alan E; Torres, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) have been introduced into California within the past 130 years. Recently, their range has been expanding at an alarming rate. Genetic diversity was assessed in 101 control region sequences of eastern fox squirrels from three geographic regions within California (Los Angeles County, Alameda and Contra Costa counties and Sacramento County) to determine if a single or multiple introductions occurred within California, as indicated by the detection of multiple haplotypes. A total of 11 haplotypes were discovered, with haplotypes rarely shared among geographic regions and no clustering by region in a haplotype network. This suggests that the introduction to different regions within California came from different source populations within the native range of the species. Haplotype diversity was highest in Los Angeles County. Due to a lack of phylogeographic structure in fox squirrels in their native range, it is difficult to identify the sources of all introductions.

  7. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  8. Modeling the efficacy of future BMP implementation to improve water quality in the highly urbanized watersheds of Dominguez Channel and Machado Lake in Los Angeles California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Gold, M.; Mika, K.

    2016-12-01

    Dominguez Channel and Machado Lake watersheds are located in highly urbanized southern Los Angeles County. The 16 mile long channel that runs through the Dominguez Channel watershed (DCW) captures stormwater from a drainage area of 71 square miles and discharges directly into the Los Angeles Harbor. Machado Lake, located within the Machado Lake watershed (MLW) and directly adjacent to DCW, has a surface area of 40 acres and receives stormwater from 25 square miles. The water quality of receiving streams and waterbodies in DCW and MLW are increasingly polluted from stormwater runoff and highly concentrated areas of industrial activities. The main concern of water impairment within DCW includes copper and zinc while MLW is focused on nutrients, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous. The implementation of Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) within the watershed aim to mitigate the effects of urbanization by reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume, and storm peak flow. We utilize the EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) model in order to assess the impact of BMPs within the DCW and MLW watersheds by forecasting flow regimes and water quality time series data. Six compliance scenarios are simulated in SUSTAIN to assess pollutant load reduction and cost effectiveness. They each utilize a various suite of the five BMPs selected, which include vegetated swales, bioretention cells, dry ponds, infiltration trenches and porous pavement. Preliminary results show that while the six compliance options reduce pollutant loads by at least 73% in DCW, copper and zinc are only 9% and 50% in compliance, respectively, in terms of the wet weather TMDLs. This study further analyzes these results by comparing DCW to other previously modelled watersheds in Los Angeles, including Ballona Creek watershed and the Los Angeles River watershed. Observed water quality sampling from Machado Lake has shown the mean

  9. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  10. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen L.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  11. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Kass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo. However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005. The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes.

  12. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system in southern Nevada and adjacent California. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, located within this flow system, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy to determine its suitability as a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. To assist the US Department of Energy with its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the US Geological Survey developed a parameter-estimation model of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system. Results from sensitivity analyses made using the parameter-estimation model indicated that simulated rates of evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa had the largest effect on the calculation of transmissivity values at Yucca Mountain of all the model-boundary conditions and, therefore, that evapotranspiration required careful definition. 72 refs., 59 figs., 26 tab

  13. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system in southern Nevada and adjacent California. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, located within this flow system, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy to determine its suitability as a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. To assist the US Department of Energy with its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the US Geological Survey developed a parameter-estimation model of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system. Results from sensitivity analyses made using the parameter-estimation model indicated that simulated rates of evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa had the largest effect on the calculation of transmissivity values at Yucca Mountain of all the model-boundary conditions and, therefore, that evapotranspiration required careful definition. 72 refs., 59 figs., 26 tab.

  14. 78 FR 21580 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego County Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego... District (SBCAPCD) and San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portions of the California.... Federal eRulemaking Portal: www.regulations.gov . Follow the on- line instructions. 2. Email: steckel...

  15. Estimating spatially and temporally varying recharge and runoff from precipitation and urban irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  16. Structural Inequities and Social Networks Impact Hormone Use and Misuse Among Transgender Women in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kirsty; Fletcher, Jesse B; Holloway, Ian W; Reback, Cathy J

    2018-01-08

    In order to reduce gender dysphoria and combat stigma, transgender women often affirm their gender through social and medical transition, which may include cross-sex hormone therapy. This study examined associations between medically monitored hormone use and hormone misuse (non-prescribed hormone use including "fillers"), structural inequities (access to housing, health insurance, and income), and social network dynamics among 271 transgender women in Los Angeles. Hormone use status was coded trichotomously (hormone use, hormone misuse, no hormone use), and robust multinomial logistic regression as well as novel social network analysis was conducted to examine associations. Results demonstrated that younger, African-American/Black transgender women were most likely to engage in hormone misuse compared to transgender women who were older or non-African-American/Black. One-third of the sample reported sex work as a main source of income, and this group was more likely to misuse hormones than those with another primary source of income. Transgender women with access to stable housing and health insurance were most likely to engage in medically monitored hormone use. Social network analysis revealed that transgender women with a greater number of hormone-using network alters were most likely to misuse hormones, but that using the Internet to find transgender friends mitigated this association. Results demonstrate the multifaceted risk profile of transgender women who use and misuse hormones, including that social networks play an important role in hormone usage among transgender women.

  17. A prospective study of risk and protective factors for substance use among impoverished women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Elliott, Marc N; Williamson, Stephanie

    2005-10-01

    Alcohol and drug use are significant public health problems facing homeless women, but few prospective studies have examined risk and protective factors for substance use in this population. This 6-month prospective study identified psychosocial, behavioral, and economic predictors of drinking to intoxication, crack use, and marijuana use in a probability sample of 402 women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County with a simple majority of homeless residents (92% of these women had a history of homelessness). Engaging in sexual risk behavior and having depressive symptoms were risk factors for more frequent intoxication, marijuana use, and crack use. Drinking to intoxication was additionally predicted by perceived HIV susceptibility, lower social support, more avoidant and less active coping, and lower self-esteem. Additional predictors of marijuana use included partner alcohol misuse and less social support, whereas more frequent crack use was additionally predicted by partner alcohol misuse, lack of economic resources, and more avoidant and less active coping. These findings suggest that effective substance use programs may need an integrative approach that addresses other types of risk behaviors, assists women in strengthening their support networks and learning effective coping skills, and provides access to basic services (e.g., housing, health care). For women in relationships, there may be a further need to address issues of partner substance use.

  18. Implementation of a hepatitis A/B vaccination program using an accelerated schedule among high-risk inmates, Los Angeles County Jail, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumbrado, John; Stirland, Ali; Cox, Garrett; El-Amin, Alvin Nelson; Miranda, Armidia; Carter, Ann; Malek, Mark

    2012-11-06

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccination for men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users against hepatitis A and B. This study is the first report of a hepatitis vaccination program in a United States jail with a combined vaccine using an accelerated schedule. Los Angeles County has the largest jail system in the nation and Men's Central Jail (MCJ) is the largest facility within that system. MCJ includes a unit for self-identified MSM, where approximately 2700 inmates are housed per year. Starting in August 2007, a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was offered to all inmates housed in this special unit. Using an accelerated schedule (0-, 7-, 21-30 days, 12-month booster), a total of 3931 doses were administered to 1633 inmates as of June 2010. Of those, 77% received 2 doses, 58% received 3 doses, and 11% received the booster dose. Inmates who screened positive for a sexually transmitted infection in this unit were 1.3 times more likely to be vaccinated (95% CI 1.2-1.4) compared to others in the same housing unit who screened negative. Hepatitis vaccination initiatives can be successfully implemented in an urban jail among an extremely high-risk population using the accelerated, combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Ours may be a useful model for other programs to vaccinate incarcerated populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  20. Nest site selection by greater sage-grouse in Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolada, Eric J.; Sedinger, James S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of nesting habitat is believed to be a factor in the decline of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) throughout its range. Few data are available for sage-grouse in Mono County, California, USA, in the most southwestern portion of the species' range. We studied habitat selection of nesting sage-grouse in Mono County, California, from 2003 to 2005 by capturing and radiotracking females to identify nesting locations. We sampled vegetation at nest sites and randomly selected sites within 200 m of nests and within each of 5 subareas within Mono County. Nest sites were characterized by 42.4 ± 1.3% (x ¯ ± SE) shrub canopy cover, 10.5 ± 1.0 cm residual grass height, and 2.7 ± 1.0% residual grass cover. Shrub cover was the only variable found to differentiate nest sites from randomly selected sites. Unlike some other studies, we did not find understory vegetation to be important for selecting nest sites. Mean shrub cover was 38.7 ± 1.5% at random sites within 200 m of nests and 33.6 ± 1.6% at random sites at the approximate scale of home ranges, indicating that nesting females selected nesting areas that contained denser shrubs than their home range, and nest sites that contained greater shrub cover than the vicinity immediately surrounding nests. Our results suggest that managers should consider managing for greater shrub cover in Mono County than what is currently called for in other parts of sage-grouse range and that management for sage-grouse habitat may need to be tied more closely to local conditions.

  1. Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

    OpenAIRE

    Vahmani, P; Ban-Weiss, G

    2016-01-01

    ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. During 2012–2014, drought in California resulted in policies to reduce water consumption. One measure pursued was replacing lawns with landscapes that minimize water consumption, such as drought-tolerant vegetation. If implemented at broad scale, this strategy would result in reductions in irrigation and changes in land surface characteristics. In this study, we employ a modified regional climate model to assess the climatic consequences...

  2. Neotectonics of the southern Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada and Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    A complex pattern of active faults occurs in the southern Amargosa Desert, southern Nye, County, Nevada. These faults can be grouped into three main fault systems: (1) a NE-striking zone of faults that forms the southwest extension of the left-lateral Rock Valley fault zone, in the much larger Spotted Range-Mine Mountain structural zone, (2) a N-striking fault zone coinciding with a NNW-trending alignment of springs that is either a northward continuation of a fault along the west side of the Resting Spring Range or a N-striking branch fault of the Pahrump fault system, and (3) a NW-striking fault zone which is parallel to the Pahrump fault system, but is offset approximately 5 km with a left step in southern Ash Meadows. These three fault zones suggest extension is occurring in an E-W direction, which is compatible with the ∼N10W structural grain prevalent in the Death Valley extensional region to the west

  3. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R

    2015-10-22

    Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.

  4. California Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in the Spanish-Speaking Community (Los Angeles, California, April 1-2, 1978). Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the implications and impact of the prevalence of hypertension in Spanish-speaking populations in California. Approximately 150 experts in health fields, representing all levels of government, public and private health care providers, consumers, and health…

  5. Framing the Local Context and Estimating the Health Impact of CPPW Obesity Prevention Strategies in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda; Trogdon, Justin G; Ferencik, Rachel; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have described the range and health impacts of obesity prevention strategies in local communities supported by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program. To address this gap, we reviewed implemented strategies in Los Angeles County (LAC) for 3 program focus areas: physical activity-promotion, health marketing, and creation of healthy food environments. Local context and results from an impact simulation are presented. Information on population reach and program milestones was synthesized to describe historical and programmatic progress of the obesity prevention efforts during 2010-2012. To forecast health impacts, the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) was used to simulate population health outcomes, including projected changes in obesity burden and health behaviors 30 years into the future. LAC with more than 9.8 million residents. Low-income adults and youth who were the intended audiences of the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program in LAC. Implemented strategies for the 3 focus areas. Documentation of program reach and PRISM forecasting of obesity rates and health impacts. Implemented strategies in LAC ranged from best practices in healthy food procurement (estimated reach: 600 000 students, 300 000 meals per day) to completed shared-use agreements (10+ agreements across 5 school districts) to a series of strategically designed health marketing campaigns on healthy eating (>515 million impressions). On the basis of PRISM simulations, these highlighted program activities have the potential to reduce by 2040 the number of youth (-29 870) and adults (-94 136) with obesity, youth (-112 453) and adults (-855 855) below recommended levels of physical activity, and youth (-14 544) and adults (-28 835) who consumed excess junk food, as compared with baseline (2010-2011). Program context and PRISM-simulated health impacts showed modest but promising results in LAC, which may lead to further population health improvements in the

  6. The Los Angeles basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintoul, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1890s, Edward L Doheny, a mining prospector down on his luck, observed residents of Los Angeles gathering brea from the area's tar pits for use as fuel in coal-scarce California. Realizing that this crude tar was petroleum that had congealed upon contact with the open air, Doheny explored the residential neighborhood near Westlake Park, pooled resources with Charles A Canfield, an old mining crony, and purchased a city lot for $400. This paper reports that drilling wells in the Los Angeles City field posed the problem of making oil production compatible with urban living. Residents had to deal with noise, dirt, traffic, odors, and waste disposal. At least one solution to the waste disposal problem proved unique. A homeowner with a rig in his backyard had no place for a sump in which to run waste water and mud. However, his house had a basement, and that's where the mud went

  7. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  8. Social determinants of health in the Mixtec and Zapotec community in Ventura County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Young, Sandra; Crespi, Catherine M; Vega, Roena Rabelo; Cayetano, Reggie T; Bastani, Roshan

    2015-02-03

    There are an estimated 165,000 indigenous Mexicans living in California, including Mixtec and Zapotec immigrant farm workers. Because many of these immigrants speak only their native non-written languages, there is little information about the needs of this community. An academic-community partnership research team developed a survey to assess basic needs that are known to be social determinants of health in the Mixtec and Zapotec community in Ventura County. In summer 2013, Spanish-Mixteco and Spanish-Zapoteco bilingual promotoras conducted surveys in Spanish, Mixteco and Zapoteco in the greater Oxnard area in Ventura County, California to assess the following basic needs: ability of adults and children to obtain health services; household needs regarding work opportunities, food, housing, transportation, safety and education; and discrimination. Independent variables included respondent characteristics such as age, gender, marital status, living part of the year in another city, and household characteristics such as Spanish spoken in the household, number of household members and number of health care providers/agencies used. Several sets of analyses examined the relationship between basic needs and independent variables. Respondents (N = 989) reported insufficient employment opportunities (74%), food for the family (59%) or housing (48%), lack of transportation (59%), and discrimination or bullying (34%). Most reported access to medical care for children (90%), but only 57% of respondents were able to get health care for themselves. Many basic needs in the Mixtec and Zapotec community in Ventura County are unmet. It will require many different resources and services to address the needs of this community and to overcome longstanding inequities that are experienced by immigrant farm workers. Our findings will guide the development of future health programs and will serve as a baseline to evaluate the impact of services to improve the health conditions in this

  9. Lithostratigraphic, borehole-geophysical, hydrogeologic, and hydrochemical data from the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Orlando, Patricia v.P.; Borchers, James W.; Everett, Rhett; Solt, Michael; McGann, Mary; Lowers, Heather; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District, carried out an investigation of aquifer-system deformation associated with groundwater-level changes at the Bayside Groundwater Project near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of the Bayside Groundwater Project, East Bay Municipal Utility District proposed an aquifer storage and recovery program for 1 million gallons of water per day. The potential for aquifer-system compaction and expansion, and related subsidence, uplift, or both, resulting from aquifer storage and recovery activities were investigated and monitored in the Bayside Groundwater Project. In addition, baseline analysis of groundwater and substrata properties were performed to assess the potential effect of such activities. Chemical and physical data, obtained from the subsurface at four sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay in the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California, were collected during the study. The results of the study were provided to the East Bay Municipal Utility District and other agencies to evaluate the chemical and mechanical responses of aquifers underlying the East Bay Plain to the future injection and recovery of imported water from the Sierra Nevada of California.

  10. Mapping Episodic Stream Activity for the Ridgecrest Solar Power Project, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux-Yost, S. N.; Brady, R. H., III; Vyverberg, K.; Weinman, B.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale renewable energy projects are being developed in the California desert region on large tracts of predominantly undeveloped land (total area of developed land for individual project sites vary from 327 acres to 8,230 acres). The absence of a standard method of identifying and accounting for episodic streams in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions is an area of conflict between project developers and the government agencies responsible for protecting natural resources and permitting renewable energy projects. There is a need for an accurate dryland stream delineation protocol that is consistent, efficient, accessible, and accurately reflects the extent and distribution of streams on a site. Dryland stream delineation protocol based on a scientific, geomorphic and ecological understanding of dryland stream processes will help ensure dryland streams are accurately identified for the purposes of environmental impact assessments and project permitting. Such a method is currently being developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). This thesis work critically evaluates the stream delineation and stream impact assessment previously completed by the developer for the proposed renewable energy project in El Paso Fan, El Paso Mountains, Ridgecrest, Kern County, California. This evaluation is then compared and contrasted with the results achieved in the field using the MESA (Mapping Episodic Stream Activity) stream delineation methods and protocols and mobile GIS mapping technology.

  11. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

  12. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  13. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  14. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  15. Two “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” strains recently found in California harbor different prophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), an a-proteobacterium, is associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB; yellow shoot disease). In California, CLas was first detected in the residential neighborhoods in Los Angeles County of Hacienda Heights (HH) in 2012 and in San Gabriel (SG) in 2015. Altho...

  16. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  17. 77 FR 34991 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of California, Santa Barbara, Repository of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... permission of the private land owner, as part of W. Harrison's doctorate dissertation research at the... Barbara County, CA, by W. Harrison and P. Lyons, as part of Harrison's doctorate dissertation research... joint UCSB and University of California, Los Angeles, summer field school, directed by Claude Warren...

  18. Diet and Obesity in Los Angeles County 2007–2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 “Fast-Food Ban”?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of “Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban”, a zoning regulation that restricts opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food mark...

  19. NAVEL BASE VENTURA COUNTY, PORT HUENEME, CALIFORNIA EPA CHARACTERIZATION TEST CELL REPORT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS IN THE TEST CELL AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the geophysical surveys at the EPA Characterization Test Cell (CTC) area (Site) at Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California is to locate geophysical anomalies indicative of metallic objects within the area of the cell. The goal was to provide backgroun...

  20. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  1. Who Tills the Soil? Mexican-American Workers Replace the Small Farmer in California: An Example from Colusa County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Jerry A.

    1979-01-01

    Documenting the impact of technological advancements upon the American farmer, this article describes a rural California county where the small farmers have had to sell or lease their land to larger enterprises who then recruit Mexican American farm workers to replace the labor once provided by the small farmer. (JC)

  2. The travel behavior and needs of the poor : a study of welfare recipients in Fresno County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    This study looks at the travel behavior and needs of welfare recipients in Fresno County, California, using data from focus groups and a random survey of welfare recipients. The purpose of this study is to: Understand the travel behavior of welfare r...

  3. 78 FR 21537 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego County Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego... Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD..., by one of the following methods: 1. Federal eRulemaking Portal: www.regulations.gov . Follow the on...

  4. Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: Applications to Civilian Infrastructure in Orange and Western Riverside Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    develop both the wireless networks and the integrated, seamless, and transparent information management system that will deliver seismic, geodetic, oceanographic, hydrological, ecological, and physical data to a variety of end users in real-time in the San Diego region. CSRC is interested in providing users access to real-time, accurate GPS data for a wide variety of applications including RTK surveying/GIS and positioning of moving platforms such as aircraft and emergency vehicles. SCIGN is interested in upgrading sites to high-frequency real-time operations for rapid earthquake response and GPS seismology. The successful outcome of the project will allow the implementation of similar systems elsewhere, particularly in plate boundary zones with significant populations and civilian infrastructure. CSRC would like to deploy the GPS/Seismic System in other parts of California, in particular San Diego, Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area.

  5. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) habitat selection as a function of land use and terrain, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-04-16

    Beginning in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Bloom Biological, Inc., began telemetry research on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in the San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties of southern California. This work was supported by the San Diego Association of Governments, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 2014, we have tracked more than 40 eagles, although this report focuses only on San Diego County eagles.An important objective of this research is to develop habitat selection models for golden eagles. Here we provide predictions of population-level habitat selection for golden eagles in San Diego County based on environmental covariates related to land use and terrain.

  6. Male-to-Female Transgender and Transsexual Clients of HIV Service Programs in Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jordan W.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2007-01-01

    Data on HIV risk were collected with the Countywide Risk Assessment Survey from 2126 participants; 92 were male-to-female transgender persons (i.e., cross-dressers, and those who identify with the opposite sex), and 9 were male-to-female transsexual individuals (i.e., those who have undergone gender-reassignment surgery or other procedures). Transgender-identified individuals were more likely than the rest of the sample to have received hormone injections, offensive comments, and HIV testing; injected hormones with a used needle; been Asian or American Indian; been paid for sexual intercourse; and lived in unstable housing but less likely to have used heroin. Transgender-identified individuals are at high risk for HIV infection because of reuse of needles and being paid for sexual intercourse. PMID:17463365

  7. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) Rule 130--Definitions and Mendocino County Air Quality Management... (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management...

  8. Intestinal parasites among Indochinese refugees and Mexican immigrants resettled in Contra Costa County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaa, F

    1981-02-01

    Stool examinations of 186 Indochinese refugees and 90 immigrants from Mexico resettled in Contra Costa, County, California, have shown that 60 percent of refugees and 39 percent of immigrants are infected with one or more species of pathogenic protozoa and helminths. The mean prevalences of infections among refugees and immigrants, respectively, were: hookworms, 25 and 2 percent; whipworm, 22 and 12 percent; Ascaris, 20 and 12 percent; Giardia lamblia, 11 and 11 percent; Strongyloides, 9 and 1 percent; and Entamoeba histolytica, 2 and 4 percent. clonorchis sinensis was found in 13 percent of refugees and dwarf tapeworm in 9 percent of immigrants. Rates of infection varied with age and sex. Treatment of these parasitic infections is important and justified because: the prevalence is high; some species are highly pathogenic and directly transmittable; most species have long life spans; and safe broad-spectrum drugs are now available.

  9. Physical, Mental, and Financial Impacts From Drought in Two California Counties, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Tracy; Conway, David; Haught, Karen; Jackson, Rebecca; Kreutzer, Richard; Lockman, Andrew; Minnick, Sharon; Roisman, Rachel; Rozell, David; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Tafoya, Dana; Wilken, Jason A

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate health impacts of drought during the most severe drought in California's recorded history with a rapid assessment method. We conducted Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response during October through November 2015 in Tulare County and Mariposa County to evaluate household water access, acute stressors, exacerbations of chronic diseases and behavioral health issues, and financial impacts. We evaluated pairwise associations by logistic regression with pooled data. By assessment area, households reported not having running water (3%-12%); impacts on finances (25%-39%), property (39%-54%), health (10%-20%), and peace of mind (33%-61%); worsening of a chronic disease (16%-46%); acute stress (8%-26%); and considering moving (14%-34%). Impacts on finances or property were each associated with impacts on health and peace of mind, and acute stress. Drought-impacted households might perceive physical and mental health effects and might experience financial or property impacts related to the drought. Public Health Implications. Local jurisdictions should consider implementing drought assistance programs, including behavioral health, and consider rapid assessments to inform public health action.

  10. Devitoite, A New Heterophyllosilcate Mineral with Astrophyllite-Like Layers from Eastern Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampf, Anthony R.; Rossman, George R.; Steele, Ian M.; Pluth, Joseph J.; Dunning, Gail E.; Walstrom, Robert E. (CIT); (NHM-LA); (UC)

    2010-03-30

    Devitoite, [Ba{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(CO{sub 3})] [Fe{sup 2+}{sub 7}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 2}(Si{sub 4}O{sup 12}){sub 2}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 4}], is a new mineral species from the Esquire No.8 claim along Big Creek in eastern Fresno County, California, U.S.A. It is also found at the nearby Esquire No.7 claim and at Trumbull Peak in Mariposa County. The mineral is named for Alfred (Fred) DeVito (1937-2004). Devitoite crystallized very late in a sequence of minerals resulting from fluids interacting with a quartz-sanbornite vein along its margin with the country rock. The mineral occurs in subparallel intergrowths of very thin brown blades, flattened on {l_brace}001{r_brace} and elongate and striated parallel to [100]. The mineral has a cream to pale brown streak, a silky luster, a Mohs hardness of approximately 4, and two cleavages: {l_brace}001{r_brace} perfect and {l_brace}010{r_brace} good.

  11. Evidence of Mercurial Contamination and Denundation Downstream of New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsinger, H. E.; Sharma, R. K.; Weinman, B.

    2014-12-01

    California's Central Valley water quality and soils are essential to the survival of the valley's communities and agriculture. Therefore, detection of possible contaminants within the valley streams and soils are paramount to the protection of this land and the people that depend upon it. Here we explore the impact of the contaminated stream beds near the New Idria Mercury Mine site, San Benito County, California. Previous work by Ganguli et al. (2000) has been done in this area to determine the mercury levels associated with the water that flows near the ghost town of New Idria. We performed geochemical analyses on the finer bed sediments from channels draining the area, as well as the coarser sediments taken from along the channel banks, to determine mercury transport downriver from the source. Using a novel application of tau, a mass transfer coefficient typically used in critical zone studies or soil production and weathering rates, we determine downstream weathering, accumulation, and transport of mercury. Our initial geochemical data showed higher tau values upstream as well as within the banks of the contaminated streambed and a greater accumulation of mercury near the pollution source (i.e., mine tailings, (τ ~ 103)). Tau results also show elevated mercurial levels existing downstream, with accumulations in mid- (τ ~ 102) and down-stream (τ ~ 10) reaches. Combining tau results with more traditional indices of chemical weathering (CIA) support consistent overall Hg-weathering processes with low levels of chemical weathering and higher dominance of coupled physical-anthropogenic weathering.

  12. New observations on the Middle Fork Eel River coal-bearing beds, Mendocino County, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Russell H. [Mendocino County Museum, 400 East Commercial Street, Willits, CA 95490 (United States); Bartley, Sylvia E. [Noyo Hill House, 28953 Highway 20, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 (United States); Springer, David J. [College of the Redwoods-Mendocino Coast, 1211 Del Mar Drive, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 (United States); Erwin, Diane M. [Museum of Paleontology, 1101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mid-19th century reports of ''immense'' coal outcrops in the Middle Fork Eel River (MFER) drainage near Round Valley in California's northern Coast Ranges fueled the early geological interest in this area, with mine development the primary focus of many studies. It was not until Samuel G. Clark's 1940 ''Geology of the Covelo District, Mendocino County, California,'' that the coal was placed in its regional geologic context and assigned to the Miocene, a determination that relied primarily on a Desmostylus hesperus molar found in shale overlying the coal and an associated equivocal, though Miocene-compatible, marine molluscan fauna. Our investigation of the MFER coal-bearing beds has provided new data from foraminifera, marine mollusks, fish remains, and the first reported fossil plants, which as a whole support Clark's Miocene age assignment. We also present an updated stratigraphy proposing under modern-day stratigraphic protocols that the informal name Sand Bank beds (SBb) be used in place of the Temblor Formation to refer to the SBb coal-bearing fluvial-marine unit. Analysis of the SBb stratigraphy and sedimentology reveals the presence of a fluvial system that flowed from a distal upland region southward toward the paleocoast of California. An abundant diverse palynoflora containing lycophytes, ferns, conifers, and mesic, thermophillic herbaceous and woody angiosperms indicates the drainage flowed through a coastal swampy forested bottomland and estuarine environment before emptying into a coastal basin. Presence of Taxodium-like wood, foliage, pollen, and other ''hydrophiles'' suggests the MFER coal was a local mire buried by the progradation of the SBb fluvial system during a regressive phase, an interpretation to be tested with future field work and detailed compositional analysis of the coal. (author)

  13. Tracking lichen community composition changes due to declining air quality over the last century: the Nash legacy in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Riddell; Sarah Jovan; Pamela E. Padgett; Ken. Sweat

    2011-01-01

    Southern California's South Coast Air Basin includes the heavily urbanized Los Angeles and Orange counties, the inland urban and suburban areas, and the surrounding mountain ranges. Historically high air pollution makes the region a natural laboratory for investigating human impacts on natural systems. Regional lichen distribution records from the early 1900s...

  14. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control...

  15. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD...

  16. Geomorphological Hazards in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Richard F.

    This is a topical book that deals with the geomorphological and geological engineering problems associated with hillslope processes and sediment transport in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. There are few large cities in the United States where the problems of urban growth include such a distinctive physical environment, as well as the potential hazards of brush fires, earthquakes, and floods that occur in Los Angeles. The research and data used in the book are restricted to Los Angeles County and cover the period 1914-1978. The author has done a commendable job of synthesizing a large mass of data from diverse sources, including federal, state, and local agency reports, plus data from private groups such as professional technical societies and consultants.

  17. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  18. Opportunities and obstacles for rangeland conservation in San Diego County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Farley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working landscapes such as rangelands are increasingly recognized as having high conservation value, providing a variety of ecosystem services, including food, fiber, habitat, recreation, open space, carbon storage, and water, in addition to a broad range of social benefits. However, conversion of rangelands to other land uses has been prevalent throughout the western United States, leading to greater attention in the conservation community to the importance of collaborating with private landowners. The level of interest in collaborative conservation among private landowners and the types of conservation programs they choose to participate in depend on the social, economic, and environmental context. We used GIS analysis and interviews with ranchers to evaluate rangeland conversion and participation in conservation programs among ranchers in San Diego County, California, USA, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot with high plant species richness and a large number of endemic and rare species. We found that > 25% of rangelands were converted to other uses, primarily urbanization, over the past 25 years while the area of public rangeland increased by 9%. Interviews revealed that ranchers in San Diego County have had limited involvement with most conservation programs, and a critical factor for nonparticipation was providing programs access to private land, along with other issues related to trust and social values. Among ranchers who had participated in conservation programs, the payment level and the agency or organization administering the program were key factors. Our results provide insight into factors influencing whether and when ranchers are likely to participate in conservation initiatives and illustrate that private and public land conservation are strongly linked and would be more effective if the two strategies were better integrated.

  19. Characterizing urbanization, and agricultural and conservation land-use change in Riverside County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiongwen; Li, Bai-Lian; Allen, Michael F

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring trends in urbanization and land use related to population growth and changing social and economic conditions is an important tool for developing in land use and habitat conservation policy. We analyzed urbanization and agricultural land-use change in Riverside County, California from 1984 to 2002, comparing maps every two years on the basis of aerial photographs. Matrix analysis combined with information theory was applied to study land type conversion. Results showed that the total area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" increased the most whereas total area of "Prime Farmland" decreased most. Land-use characterized as "Grazing Land,"Farmland of Local Importance," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance" also decreased. Mean patch size also decreased for "Grazing Land,"Water Area,"Other Land," and "Prime Farmland." The diversity of land types decreased dramatically after 1992. Urbanization patterns were different among three city groups (Riverside City, Coachella Valley, and Blythe), indicating the different times for "leapfrog" development in the three areas. Furthermore, the unpredictability and change in composition of land use increased after 1996 due to intensified urbanization. If the current driving forces continue, our model projects that in 2020 the area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" may increase between 25% and 39% in comparison with 2002. Percentages of most agricultural land types are projected to decrease, especially "Farmland of Local Importance,"Prime Farmland," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance." If the county's goal is to preserve agricultural lands and natural biodiversity, while maintaining sustainable development, current land-use policies and practices should be changed. This study demonstrates new useful methods for monitoring and detection of change of land-use processes.

  20. Geologic Map and Map Database of Eastern Sonoma and Western Napa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.; Brabb, E.E.; Jones, D.L.; Barnes, J.; Nicholson, R.S.; Stamski, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new 1:100,000-scale geologic map, derived from a set of geologic map databases (Arc-Info coverages) containing information at 1:62,500-scale resolution, and a new description of the geologic map units and structural relations in the map area. Prepared as part of the San Francisco Bay Region Mapping Project, the study area includes the north-central part of the San Francisco Bay region, and forms the final piece of the effort to generate new, digital geologic maps and map databases for an area which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. Geologic mapping in Lake County in the north-central part of the map extent was not within the scope of the Project. The map and map database integrates both previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the authors (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage eswn-so and the textfile eswn-so.txt). This report contains new ideas about the geologic structures in the map area, including the active San Andreas Fault system, as well as the geologic units and their relations. Together, the map (or map database) and the unit descriptions in this report describe the composition, distribution, and orientation of geologic materials and structures within the study area at regional scale. Regional geologic information is important for analysis of earthquake shaking, liquifaction susceptibility, landslide susceptibility, engineering materials properties, mineral resources and hazards, as well as groundwater resources and hazards. These data also assist in answering questions about the geologic history and development of the California Coast Ranges.

  1. Ecological factors influencing nest survival of greater sage-grouse in Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolada, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Sedinger, James S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in 5 subareas of Mono County, California, USA, from 2003 to 2005 to 1) evaluate the importance of key vegetation variables for nest success, and 2) to compare nest success in this population with other greater sage-grouse populations. We captured and radiotracked females (n  =  72) to identify nest sites and monitor nest survival. We measured vegetation at nest sites and within a 10-m radius around each nest to evaluate possible vegetation factors influencing nest survival. We estimated daily nest survival and the effect of explanatory variables on daily nest survival using nest-survival models in Program MARK. We assessed effects on daily nest survival of total, sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and nonsagebrush live shrub-cover, Robel visual obstruction, the mean of grass residual height and grass residual cover measurements within 10 m of the nest shrub, and area of the shrub, shrub height, and shrub type at the nest site itself. Assuming a 38-day exposure period, we estimated nest survival at 43.4%, with percent cover of shrubs other than sagebrush as the variable most related to nest survival. Nest survival increased with increasing cover of shrubs other than sagebrush. Also, daily nest survival decreased with nest age, and there was considerable variation in nest survival among the 5 subareas. Our results indicate that greater shrub cover and a diversity of shrub species within sagebrush habitats may be more important to sage-grouse nest success in Mono County than has been reported elsewhere.

  2. Bionomics and Vector Potential of Culex thriambus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Lake County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Brittany M; Thiemann, Tara C; Bridges, Danielle N; Williams, Alan E; Koschik, Michelle L; Ryan, Bonnie M; Scott, Jamesina J

    2016-11-01

    California statewide West Nile virus (WNV) minimum infection rates in Culex thriambus Dyar mosquitoes are high; however, few specimens are submitted and tested each year, as their distribution seems limited to larval habitats along riparian systems. To evaluate the role of Cx. thriambus in the amplification, maintenance, and overwintering of WNV in Lake County, CA, the bionomics and vector potential of the species was investigated during 2014 and 2015. Culex thriambus was the most abundant mosquito species, with 1,153 adults and 7,624 immatures collected by vacuum aspiration and dip sampling, respectively, at the primary study site. Detection of WNV in four mosquito pools during September through November coincided with peak seasonality. Females entered and maintained a reproductive diapause during winter under field and seminatural conditions. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. thriambus females by October and was terminated by 30 March. Some parous females (7.1%) and those in host-seeking arrest (7.1%) were collected throughout the winter period. An accrual of 679.51 degree-days (°D) was necessary for diapause termination under seminatural conditions. Culex thriambus females fed on 16 different avian species during spring and summer, and no mammalian feeds were detected. West Nile viral RNA was detected in four of 42 Cx. thriambus pools tested during June through November and infection rates ranged from 3.53-28.15/1,000 tested. In summary, WNV transmission may be increased along riparian corridors throughout California where Cx. thriambus mosquitoes remain relatively abundant. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Social Diffusion of Water Conservation: A Study of Residential Turf Rebate Programs in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, K.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Feldman, D.

    2017-12-01

    From 2011 to 2017, the combination of record low precipitation and extreme warm temperatures resulted in the most severe drought in California's written history. In April 2015, Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order mandating a statewide 25% reduction in potable urban water usage. Under such circumstances, outdoor watering is an obvious target for restriction, because it can account for a large fraction of total domestic water usage, up to 50% in the arid southwest [Syme et. al 2004, Cameron et. al 2012]. In this study we analyzed one such effort, in which the Irvine Ranch Water District (IRWD) in Orange County (California) offered a financial incentive through a turf rebate program to encourage Irvine residents to replace turf grass with drought tolerant landscaping. We focused specifically on the number of residents who applied to the turf rebate program. Our hypothesis was that the observed application rate (number of applicants per month) is influenced by a combination of (a) financial incentives issued by IRWD, (b) drought awareness, and (c) the fraction of neighbors that have already applied to the program (a phenomenon that can be described quantitatively through models of social contagion or social diffusion [Karsai et. al 2014]). Our preliminary results indicate that applications to the program occurred in geographic "hot spots", consistent with the idea that early adopters may have influenced neighbors to retrofit their lawns. We are currently evaluating the geographic, demographic, and temporal drivers that influence the rate of spontaneous adoption, the rate of adoption under influence, and the total size of the susceptible population. Overall, our goal is to identify the key factors that contribute to early rapid uptake of conservation behavior, and the rapid diffusion of that behavior through the community.

  4. Risk Based Reservoir Operations Using Ensemble Streamflow Predictions for Lake Mendocino in Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C.; Mendoza, J.; Whitin, B.; Hartman, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Ensemble Forecast Operations (EFO) is a risk based approach of reservoir flood operations that incorporates ensemble streamflow predictions (ESPs) made by NOAA's California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). With the EFO approach, each member of an ESP is individually modeled to forecast system conditions and calculate risk of reaching critical operational thresholds. Reservoir release decisions are computed which seek to manage forecasted risk to established risk tolerance levels. A water management model was developed for Lake Mendocino, a 111,000 acre-foot reservoir located near Ukiah, California, to evaluate the viability of the EFO alternative to improve water supply reliability but not increase downstream flood risk. Lake Mendocino is a dual use reservoir, which is owned and operated for flood control by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and is operated for water supply by the Sonoma County Water Agency. Due to recent changes in the operations of an upstream hydroelectric facility, this reservoir has suffered from water supply reliability issues since 2007. The EFO alternative was simulated using a 26-year (1985-2010) ESP hindcast generated by the CNRFC, which approximates flow forecasts for 61 ensemble members for a 15-day horizon. Model simulation results of the EFO alternative demonstrate a 36% increase in median end of water year (September 30) storage levels over existing operations. Additionally, model results show no increase in occurrence of flows above flood stage for points downstream of Lake Mendocino. This investigation demonstrates that the EFO alternative may be a viable approach for managing Lake Mendocino for multiple purposes (water supply, flood mitigation, ecosystems) and warrants further investigation through additional modeling and analysis.

  5. Water-quality data for the Russian River Basin, Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Stoeckel, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, has been collecting chemical, microbiological, and isotopic data from surface-water and groundwater sites in Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. The investigation is being conducted to determine water-quality baseline conditions for the Russian River during the summer months and to characterize the water-quality in the area of the Sonoma County Water Agency's water-supply facility where Russian River water is diverted and treated by riverbank filtration. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 14 Russian River sites, 8 tributary sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 14 groundwater wells, and a wastewater treatment plant between the city of Ukiah and the town of Duncans Mills for the period August 2005 through October 2010.

  6. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project

  7. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  8. Mineral resource potential map of the John Muir Wilderness, Fresno, Inyo, Madera, and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bray, E.A.; Dellinger, D.A.; Diggles, M.F.; Oliver, H.W.; Johnson, F.L.; Thurber, H.K.; Morris, R.W.; Perers, T.J.; Lindsey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the John Muir Wilderness, Inyo and Sierra National Forests, Fresno, lnyo, Madera, and Mono Counties, California. The area was established as a wilderness by Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964.

  9. Survey of canine and feline populations: Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R; Vaida, M L

    1975-03-01

    Age, sex, breed, and reproductive data were obtained on canine and feline populations in Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California. The demographic data were determined as of Dec 31, 1970, the reproductive data for all of 1970. The total of 27,076 households interviewed represented 5% of all households in the area. The canine and feline populations were estimated as 224,815 and 151,176, respectively. There was 1 dog for 7.3 persons and 1 cat for 10.8 persons. Almost half of the households included at least 1 dog or 1 cat. From the proportional distribution by age, it appeared that growth in the canine population may have peaked in 1968, with subsequent declines in pups entering households in 1969 and 1970. It was found that 47.8% of bitches and 64.6% of queens were neutered. Intact bitches of all ages averaged 0.2 litters each, those of queens, 0.9 litters each. The highest reproducing ages for both bitches and queens was between 1 and 3 years of age. In that age range, 62.9% of all canine litters and 74.4% of all feline litters were born; there were 0.4 litters per intact bitch and 1.6 litters per intact queen.

  10. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  11. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  12. Geothermal Loan Guarantee Program: Westmorland Development Project, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by DOE to finance geothermal exploration, development, and testing by Mapco Geothermal, Inc. and Republic Geothermal, Inc. in the Westmorland area of Imperial County, California. Initial drilling and flow testing of up to three production wells will occur in the exploratory phase. Exploration is proposed for either or both of two portions of the leasehold area. If exploration confirms the presence of a viable resource in the Sweetwater area, the preferred site based on limited temperature data, then up to 19 new production wells and three new injection wells may be drilled and tested there in preparation for the construction of a 55-MW double-flash electric power plant. If, however, the Sweetwater resource proves infeasible, further exploration and possible full-field development may occur instead at the Dearborn-Kalin-Landers area. At this site, up to 19 new production wells and three new injection wells may be drilled and tested, with six existing wells also used for injection. This environmental assessment chiefly addresses effects of the drilling and testing program. In summary, this paper discusses the proposed action, describes the existing environment and discusses the potential environmental impacts. 75 refs. (LSP)

  13. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale para a língua portuguesa Translation and cultural adaptation of the Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale to portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Oku

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: os objetivos deste estudo foram traduzir a versão original da avaliação funcional de ombro Modified-University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale da língua inglesa para a portuguesa e adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira. MÉTODOS: a escala foi traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para a população brasileira de acordo com a metodologia internacionalmente aceita descrita por Guillemin et al(28. A versão traduzida e revisada pelo comitê foi aplicada em dois grupos (indivíduos leigos com idade entre 45 e 75 anos e profissionais da saúde para avaliação do nível de compreensão das alternativas. Encontrando 15% ou mais de alternativas "não-compreendidas", os termos foram substituídos por palavras equivalentes de modo que não fossem alterados conceito, estrutura e propriedade de base do instrumento, e reaplicadas até que valores menores que 15% fossem alcançados. RESULTADOS: foram necessárias três aplicações. Cada grupo continha 20 indivíduos selecionados consecutivamente, totalizando 120 pessoas. Para obtenção da versão final, foram modificadas cinco alternativas do domínio dor e quatro alternativas do domínio função. Além dessas alterações, foram identificados problemas, por ambos os grupos, quanto à estrutura da escala, sugerindo a continuação do estudo de sua validade e possíveis modificações desta.OBJECTIVES: the aims of this study were to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese the Modified - University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale and to cross-culturally adapt it to the Brazilian environment. METHODS: the scale was translated to Portuguese and back translated into English according to internationally recommended process described by Guillemin et al(28. The translated and revised version was administered to two groups (patients between 45 and 75 years old and health professionals to evaluate the comprehension level of the items. If 15% or more of health

  14. Earthquake-by-earthquake fold growth above the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, Los Angeles, California: Implications for fold kinematics and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Lorraine A.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Dolan, James F.; Shaw, John H.; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2007-03-01

    Boreholes and high-resolution seismic reflection data collected across the forelimb growth triangle above the central segment of the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT) beneath Los Angeles, California, provide a detailed record of incremental fold growth during large earthquakes on this major blind thrust fault. These data document fold growth within a discrete kink band that narrows upward from ˜460 m at the base of the Quaternary section (200-250 m depth) to 82% at 250 m depth) folding and uplift occur within discrete kink bands, thereby enabling us to develop a paleoseismic history of the underlying blind thrust fault. The borehole data reveal that the youngest part of the growth triangle in the uppermost 20 m comprises three stratigraphically discrete growth intervals marked by southward thickening sedimentary strata that are separated by intervals in which sediments do not change thickness across the site. We interpret the intervals of growth as occurring after the formation of now-buried paleofold scarps during three large PHT earthquakes in the past 8 kyr. The intervening intervals of no growth record periods of structural quiescence and deposition at the regional, near-horizontal stream gradient at the study site. Minimum uplift in each of the scarp-forming events, which occurred at 0.2-2.2 ka (event Y), 3.0-6.3 ka (event X), and 6.6-8.1 ka (event W), ranged from ˜1.1 to ˜1.6 m, indicating minimum thrust displacements of ≥2.5 to 4.5 m. Such large displacements are consistent with the occurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes (Mw > 7). Cumulative, minimum uplift in the past three events was 3.3 to 4.7 m, suggesting cumulative thrust displacement of ≥7 to 10.5 m. These values yield a minimum Holocene slip rate for the PHT of ≥0.9 to 1.6 mm/yr. The borehole and seismic reflection data demonstrate that dip within the kink band is acquired incrementally, such that older strata that have been deformed by more earthquakes dip more steeply than younger strata

  15. California Annual Pesticide Use Summary Data by County, Township, and Section, 1991-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — The California Pesticide Use Report data contains very detailed information across space and time. It is summarized by the following categories: 1) Individual...

  16. Welfare Reform in California. State and County Implementation of CalWORKs in the Second Year

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klerman, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    .... California's response to PRWORA was the California Work and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program-a "work-first" program that provides support services to help recipients move from welfare to work and toward self-sufficiency...

  17. Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among LA County Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-31

    This podcast features Nelly Mejia, winner of the journal’s 2015 Student Research Paper Contest and PhD Candidate at the Pardee RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica, California. Nelly discusses her winning paper, which examined the relationship between neighborhood food outlet locations and the diet and body mass index of adults living in Los Angeles County, California.  Created: 8/31/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/31/2015.

  18. Measuring Spatio-temporal Trends in Residential Landscape Irrigation Extent and Rate in Los Angeles, California Using SPOT-5 Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YJ; McFadden, JP; Clarke, KC; Roberts, DA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Irrigation is a large component of urban water budgets in semi-arid regions and is critical for the management of landscape vegetation and water resources. This is particularly true for Mediterranean climate cities such as Los Angeles, where water availability is limited during dry summers. These interactions were examined by using 10-m resolution satellite imagery and a database of monthly water use records for all residential water customer...

  19. Location of odor sources and the affected population in Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report is divided into four sections. The first two sections contain general background information on Imperial County. The third section is a general discussion of odor sources in Imperial County, and the fourth maps the specific odor sources, the expected areas of perception, and the affected populations. this mapping is done for the Imperial Valley and each of the four Imperial County KGRA's (Known Geothermal Resource Areas) where odor from the development of the geothermal energy may affect population.

  20. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  1. Data from a thick unsaturated zone in Joshua Tree, San Bernardino County, California, 2007--09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Matthew; Izbicki, John; Teague, Nicholas; O'Leary, David R.; Clark, Dennis; Land, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected on the physical properties of unsaturated alluvial deposits, the chemical composition of leachate extracted from unsaturated alluvial deposits, the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and unsaturated-zone water, and the chemical composition of unsaturated-zone gas at four monitoring sites in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in the town of Joshua Tree, San Bernardino County, California. The presence of denitrifying and nitrate-reducing bacteria from unsaturated alluvial deposits was evaluated for two of these monitoring sites that underlie unsewered residential development. Four unsaturated-zone monitoring sites were installed in the Joshua Tree area—two in an unsewered residential development and two adjacent to a proposed artificial-recharge site in an undeveloped area. The two boreholes in residential development areas were installed by using the ODEX air-hammer method. One borehole was drilled through the unsaturated zone to a depth of 541 ft (feet) below land surface; a well screened across the water table was installed. Groundwater was sampled from this well. The second borehole was drilled to a depth of 81 ft below land surface. Drilling procedures, lithologic and geophysical data, construction details, and instrumentation placed in these boreholes are described. Core material was analyzed for water content, bulk density, matric potential, particle size, and water retention. The leachate from over 500 subsamples of cores and cuttings was analyzed for soluble anions, including fluoride, sulfate, bromide, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, and orthophosphate. Groundwater was analyzed for major ions, inorganic compounds, select trace elements, and isotopic composition. Unsaturated-zone water from suction-cup lysimeters was analyzed for major ions, inorganic compounds, select trace elements, and isotopic composition. Unsaturated-zone gas samples were analyzed for argon, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, ethane

  2. Latina Adolescent Childbearing in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Pamela I.

    This book is about teenage pregnancy among Latina teenagers in East Los Angeles (California). It focuses on teenage pregnancy and motherhood among economically disadvantaged Latinas aged 17 and under. The young mothers in this study were participants in a series of intervention efforts to prevent repeat pregnancy at a family planning clinic. This…

  3. Differences in reproductive risk factors for breast cancer in middle-aged women in Marin County, California and a sociodemographically similar area of Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uratsu Connie S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White, it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of middle-aged MC women with those of a demographically similar population. Methods A random sample of 1500 middle-aged female members of a large Northern California health plan, half from Marin County (MC and half from a comparison area in East/Central Contra Costa County (ECCC, were mailed a survey covering family history, reproductive history, use of oral contraceptives (OC and hormone replacement therapy (HRT, behavioral health risks, recency of breast screening, and demographic characteristics. Weighted data were used to compare prevalence of individual breast cancer risk factors and Gail scores. Age-adjusted cumulative breast cancer incidence rates (2000–2004 were also calculated for female health plan members aged 40–64 residing in the two geographic areas. Results Survey response was 57.1% (n = 427 and 47.9% (n = 359 for MC and ECCC samples, respectively. Women in the two areas were similar in SES, race, obesity, exercise frequency, current smoking, ever use of OCs and HRT, age at onset of menarche, high mammography rates, family history of breast cancer, and Gail scores. However, MC women were significantly more likely than ECCC women to be former smokers (43.6% vs. 31.2%, have Ashkenazi Jewish heritage (12.8% vs. 7.1%, have no live births before age 30 (52.7% vs. 40.8%, and be nulliparous (29.2% vs. 15.4%, and less likely to never or rarely consume alcohol (34.4% vs. 41.9%. MC and ECCC women had comparable 2000–2004 invasive breast cancer incidence rates. Conclusion

  4. Radio and television use in Butte County, California: application to fire prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1975-01-01

    A sample of Butte County residents were interviewed about their radio and television use habits. Their responses were analyzed in terms of demographic, social, and economic characteristics. The findings can be used in developing more effective fire prevention programs. Most people in Butte County listen to the radio or watch television but they differ widely in the way...

  5. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (B) San Diego County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 2...

  6. Reconnaissance Report for Navigation Improvements (Reduction of Shoaling) at Santa Cruz Harbor Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Central California Coast. Ghost Town Publications, Canmel CA 93921. Rickets , Edward F., Jack Calvin & Joel W. Hedgepeth. 1985. Between Pacific Tides...banning of DDT, birds have begun to return in force. The brown pelican now breeds in waters of southern California and Mexico and migrate into the Santa

  7. Reinstatement of Eschatoporiini Blaisdell, 1906, a unique tribe of blind cavernicolous Tenebrionidae from California, with a new species from Napa County (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Lagriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf L. Aalbu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Eschatoporini Blaisdell, 1906 is reinstated, based on molecular and morphological data, and the spelling corrected as Eschatoporiini. The tribe currently includes only the cave-dwelling genus Eschatoporis Blaisdell, 1906 from California, which is associated with underground aquifers. A second species of Eschatoporis is described from a cave in Napa County, California. The phylogenetic placement of Eschatoporiini within the Lagriinae is examined, and notes on the biology of Eschatoporis are provided.

  8. Description and Evaluation of the Cultural Resources within Brea, Carbon Canyon, Fullerton and San Antonio Reservoirs, Santa Ana River Basin, Orange, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    the mud seeps of La Vida Hot Springs on Carbon Canyon Road (Palou 1966 Butz, 1970). Environmental zones within the project areas include a portion of...5 * " ". ’" -ř" """ . . . 4 17 " September 15, 1977 Ms. Patricia Marts University of California Drylands Institute Archaeological Research Unit 4

  9. The impact of retail beverage service training and social host laws on adolescents' DUI rates in San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Romano, Eduardo; Caldwell, Susan; Taylor, Eileen

    2018-02-17

    Driving under the influence (DUI) citations are still a serious concern among drivers aged 16-20 years and have been shown to be related to increased risk of fatal and nonfatal crashes. A battery of laws and policies has been enacted to address this concern. Though numerous studies have evaluated these policies, there is still a need for comprehensive policy evaluations that take into account a variety of contextual factors. Previous effort by this research team examined the impact of 20 minimum legal drinking age-21 laws in the state of California, as they impacted alcohol-related crash rates among drivers under 21 years of age while at the same time accounting for alcohol and gas taxes, unemployment rates, sex distribution among drivers, and sobriety checkpoints. The current research seeks to expand this evaluation to the county level (San Diego County). More specifically, we evaluate the impact of measures subject to county control such as retail beverage service (RBS) laws and social host (SH) laws, as well as media coverage, city employment, alcohol outlet density, number of sworn officers, alcohol consumption, and taxation policies, to determine the most effective point of intervention for communities seeking to reduce underage DUI citations. Annual DUI citation data (2000 to 2013), RBS and SH policies, and city-wide demographic, economic, and environmental information were collected and applied to each of the 20 cities in San Diego County, California. A structural equation model was fit to estimate the relative contribution of the variables of interest to DUI citation rates. Alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet density both demonstrated a significant increase in DUI rates, whereas RBS laws, SH laws, alcohol tax rates, media clusters, gas tax rates, and unemployment rates demonstrated significant decreases in DUI rates. At the county level, although RBS laws, SH laws, and media efforts were found to contribute to a significant reduction in DUI rates, the

  10. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  11. Development and implementation of a community health survey for public health accreditation: Case study from a rural county in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kevin; Do-Reynoso, Van; Zarate-Gonzalez, Gilda; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra

    2018-04-01

    To describe the planning, development, pilot testing, fielding, and outcomes of a community health survey in a rural California county pursuing public health accreditation. Community partners helped the local health department develop the community health survey. Extensive English- and Spanish-language pilot testing was conducted over a period of four months. Final survey fielding was conducted online and at 20 community sites. 2189 completed surveys were collected. Total costs for developing and fielding the survey were approximately $25,000. Survey results indicated that alcoholism/drug abuse, breathing problems, and obesity were the primary health concerns of county residents. Benefits of conducting the community survey included strengthening inter-organizational partnerships between community partners, engaging a large and diverse respondent sample, and gathering information on a nuanced set of health indicators. Challenges included an unexpectedly high number of respondents and managing the needs of respondents with disabilities or poor literacy. The information gathered from the community health survey was used in the implementation of a county-wide multi-agency strategic plan to address health priorities identified in the CHA. Engaging a broad set of community partners throughout the survey process was critical for ensuring the project's relevance and long-term regional impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD... October 20, 2011. * * * * * (423) * * * (i) * * * (C) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  13. 77 FR 58313 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County, Antelope Valley and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Valley and Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Agencies AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD), Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control.... ``Control Techniques Guidelines for Miscellaneous Metal and Plastic Parts Coatings'', EPA, September 2008...

  14. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State... primary deficiencies for Rule 502 pertain to an inadequate definition of the term ``Regulated NSR...

  15. The industrial resurgence of Southern California? Advanced ground transportation equipment manufacturing and local economic develoment

    OpenAIRE

    A J Scott; D Bergman

    1995-01-01

    Southern California is in a deeply rooted process of economic restructuring. Much of the region's manufacturing base is made up of two groups of industries: a declining aerospace - defense sector, and a low-wage, low-skill sweatshop sector. What are the prospects for creating a growing manufacturing base focused on high-wage, high-skill industries? In this paper we examine the opportunities presented by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's S183 billion thirty-year ca...

  16. Merced County Streams Project, Castle Reservoir, California Intensive Cultural Resources Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-29

    valley averages 50 miles. The valley floor (the Plains) is flat and virtually featureless except for waterways. in prehistoric times, the southern or...has not been indexed in any way, and use of the papers without a locational name is virtually impossible. Even a page-by-page reading of the paper may...and party 1916 Soil survey of the Merced area, California. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Wood, Raymond F. 1954 California’s Agua Fria

  17. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  18. Structural injury underlying mottling in ponderosa pine needles exposed to ambient ozone concentrations in the San Bernardino Mountains near Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Vollenweider; Mark E. Fenn; Terry Menard; Madeleine Gunthardt-Goerg; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, southern California experienced the worst ozone pollution ever reported. Peak ozone concentrations have, however, declined steadily since 1980. In this study, the structural injuries underlying ozone symptoms in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) collected in summer 2006 from one of the most polluted sites in the San...

  19. Community-Based Health and Exposure Study around Urban Oil Developments in South Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Shamasunder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers, we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6 and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.

  20. Community-Based Health and Exposure Study around Urban Oil Developments in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasunder, Bhavna; Collier-Oxandale, Ashley; Blickley, Jessica; Sadd, James; Chan, Marissa; Navarro, Sandy; Hannigan, Michael; Wong, Nicole J

    2018-01-15

    Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers), we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park) surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6) and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.

  1. Environmental changes in the Tule Lake basin, Siskiyou and Modoc Counties, California, from 3 to 2 million years before present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, David P.; Bradbury, J. Platt; Rieck, Hugh J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    1990-01-01

    Pollen and diatom analyses of a core from the town of Tulelake, Siskiyou County, California, for the period between 3 and 2 Ma reveal a paleoclimatic and paleolimnologic sequence recording a long, warm time interval that lasted from about 2.9 to 2.6 Ma and had a short, cooler interval within it. During this warm interval, the regional vegetation surrounding ancient Tule Lake was a mixed coniferous forest, and Tule Lake was a warm monomictic lake. Approximate modern analogs for this Pliocene fossil record at Tulelake are found at least 2 degrees farther south. The Tulelake warm interval appears to have correlatives in the North Atlantic oxygen isotope record and in the pollen record of the Reuverian in the Netherlands. An interval beginning at about 2.4 Ma was characterized at Tule Lake by slow sedimentation, by changes in the relative amounts of algae in the lake, and by an increase in the maximum percentages of Artemisia pollen.

  2. Oiled seabird rescue at the J.V. Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, San Mateo County, California, 1968-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Records of oiled and injured seabirds at the J.V. Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, San Mateo County, California, were collated from the daily log at the Reserve for the period 1968-1995. These records serve to demonstrate that oil spills and chronic oiling have occurred frequently in this area, just south of San Francisco. Common Murres (Uria aalge) were the most frequently-oiled species rescued at the Reserve. Greater efforts should be made by wildlife rehabilitators to collate large volumes of past data (prior to the early 1990s) on oiled and injured seabirds for similar documentation of large or moderate oil spills (including undocumented or poorly-known spills), chronic oiling from small spills, and injuries from other sources.

  3. Cone penetration tests and soil borings at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Noce, Thomas E.; Lienkaemper, James J.

    2011-01-01

    In support of a study to investigate the history of the Green Valley Fault, 13 cone penetration test soundings and 3 auger borings were made at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California. Three borings were made at or near two of the cone penetration test soundings. The soils are mostly clayey with a few sandy layers or lenses. Fine-grained soils range from low plasticity sandy lean clay to very plastic fat clay. Lack of stratigraphic correlation in the subsurface prevented us from determining whether any channels had been offset at this site. Because the soils are generally very clayey and few sand layers or lenses are loose, the liquefaction potential at the site is very low.

  4. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  5. Blue oak plant communities of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Borchert; Nancy D. Cunha; Patricia C. Krosse; Marcee L. Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    An ecological classification system has been developed for the Pacific Southwest Region of the Forest Service. As part of that classification effort, blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands and forests of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties in Los Padres National Forest were classified into I3 plant communities using...

  6. 76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... various air pollution sources. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  7. GIS-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE DRIFT CASE STUDY: FRESNO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the potential risk of herbicide drift and accidentally damaging neighboring crops or surrounding native vegetation. This study is the first to use the California Pesticide Use Reporting database within a mapping framework (known as a Geographic Information S...

  8. Range Improvement Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-15

    south Vandenberg, including chert, volcanic rhyolite (vessels and beads), chalcedony, agate, and quartz crystals. Spanne (1974) also included harder...Occasional Papers 9:47-59. 1977 Archaeological Evaluation of Union Oil Company Wastewater Line and Related Facilities: Guadalupe Oil Field, California. Ms

  9. Ventura County, California Survey Report for Beach Erosion Control. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    Sierra Club Southern California Asacciation of Goverments Valley N’ Shores Realty, Oxnard Indivi duals Ron Conti 13 Jerry Fairbanks D an W. G reen...shorelines, now uplifted, are seen as marine terraces, especially at Punta Gorda where there are 200- to 400-foot-high cliffs. Downcoast from the Ventura

  10. 75 FR 69002 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... and in hard copy at EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California. While all documents... INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Steckel, EPA Region IX, (415) 947-4115, [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY... taken by ICAPCD for the past ten years.\\4\\ \\4\\ EPA AIRS Facility Subsystem Quick Look Report generated...

  11. Walking the California County Lines with Pesticides on the Mind - A Tale of Two Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has numerous aquatic threatened and endangered species and there is evidence that these species may be affected by non-target pesticide runoff. Modeling can play an important role in assessing the impact of pesticides but it requires complete data on pesticide use, mo...

  12. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813

  13. Evaluation of treatment options for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: assessment of appropriateness, using the validated semi-quantitative RAND corporation/University of California, Los Angeles methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, M E; Bellmunt, J; Eisen, T; Escudier, B; Mickisch, G; Patard, J; Porta, C; Ravaud, A; Schmidinger, M; Schöffski, P; Sternberg, C N; Szczylik, C; De Nigris, E; Wheeler, C; Kirpekar, S

    2012-05-01

    A diverse range of treatment options and interventions are available for the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), allowing clinicians to tailor therapy to best meet their patient's needs and situation. However, choosing from the plethora of options can be problematic. RCC treatment guidelines advise on the most efficacious agents based upon specific clinical trial populations, but these do not always take into account all the patient factors that influence the suitability of treatment options for individual patients. This study used the validated RAND/UCLA (RAND corporation/University of California, Los Angeles) 'appropriateness methodology' to integrate clinical efficacy data with expert opinion concerning the use of specific RCC treatment options for particular patient scenarios, in an attempt to facilitate the widespread implementation of patient-focussed treatment choices. Use of the methodology has allowed us to develop treatment algorithms for patients with locally-advanced RCC and for those with metastatic disease post-nephrectomy or with primary tumour in situ. The algorithms take into account patient-specific characteristics such as tumour histology, prior treatment and known risk factors to advise whether a particular treatment intervention is appropriate, not appropriate or of uncertain appropriateness. Use of this methodology aims to develop a formalised process by which expert opinion can be integrated with clinical data and used as an additional source of information that can provide further guidance concerning difficult treatment decisions when data are absent or sparse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  15. An assessment of fecal indicator and other bacteria from an urbanized coastal lagoon in the City of Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H; Carmona-Galindo, Víctor D; Leary, Christopher; Huh, Julie; Valdez, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    A study was performed in Del Rey Lagoon, City of Los Angeles, to determine if the lagoon was as a source or sink for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and to screen for the presence of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. The lagoon receives tidal flows from the adjacent Ballona Estuary whose water usually is contaminated with FIB originating from the highly urbanized Ballona Creek Watershed. During 16 sampling events from February 2008 through March 2009, replicate water samples (n = 3) were collected 1 h prior to the high tide and 1 h prior to the following low tide. FIB concentrations were measured by the defined substrate method (IDEXX, Westbrook, Me) followed by culturing of bacterial isolates sampled from positive IDEXX Quanti-Tray wells and were identified using the Vitek 2 Compact (bioMérieux, Durham, NC). Mean concentrations of FIB often differed by an order of magnitude from flood to ebb flow conditions. The lagoon tended to act as a sink for total coliforms based on the ratio of mean flood to ebb densities (R (F/E)) >1.0 during 56 % of the sampling events and during ebb flows, as a source for E. coli and enterococci (R (F/E) <1.69 % of events). Approximately 54 species were identified from 277 isolates cultured from the IDEXX Quanti-Trays. Of these, 54 % were species known to include pathogenic strains that can be naturally occurring, introduced in runoff, or originated from other sources. Diversity and cluster analyses indicated a dynamic assemblage that changes in species composition with day-to-day fluctuations as well as tidal action. The concept of monitoring the lagoon and estuary as a sentinel habitat for pathogenic assemblages is discussed.

  16. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations, Contra Costa, County, California. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Combustibles - Various materials in the waste stream which are burnable , shas paper, plastic, lawn clippings, leaves and other light, organic... calculated . The HU provides a standardized basis for comparing habitat changes over time and space. iv 4 - - GLOSSARY Hazardous Haste - (California Health...Combustion - A system using a furnace constructed with walls of welded steel tubes through which water is circulated to absorb the heat of combustion. The

  17. Geotechnical Data Inventory, Southern California Coastal Zone, Cape San Martin (Monterey County) to Mexican Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    sediment include the Martinez, Domengine, Modelo , Repetto, Pico, along with Pleistocene formations. Geologic maps reviewed for this inventory suggest...that the Modelo , Pico, and Pleistocene formations may be the most important produces of littoral zone sediment In the drainage basin. Coast Ranges...Province 1.14 The Coast Ranges Province extends from Point Arguello on th% south to the California Oregon border to the north (see fig. 1). In the Coast

  18. Potential for Induced Seismicity Related to the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project Pilot Test, Solano County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, L.; Chiaramonte, L.; Daley, T.M.; Wilson, D.; Foxall, W.; Beyer, J.H.

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this technical report is to analyze the potential for induced seismicity due to a proposed small-scale CO{sub 2} injection project in the Montezuma Hills. We reviewed currently available public information, including 32 years of recorded seismic events, locations of mapped faults, and estimates of the stress state of the region. We also reviewed proprietary geological information acquired by Shell, including seismic reflection imaging in the area, and found that the data and interpretations used by Shell are appropriate and satisfactory for the purpose of this report. The closest known fault to the proposed injection site is the Kirby Hills Fault. It appears to be active, and microearthquakes as large as magnitude 3.7 have been associated with the fault near the site over the past 32 years. Most of these small events occurred 9-17 miles (15-28 km) below the surface, which is deep for this part of California. However, the geographic locations of the many events in the standard seismicity catalog for the area are subject to considerable uncertainty because of the lack of nearby seismic stations; so attributing the recorded earthquakes to motion along any specific fault is also uncertain. Nonetheless, the Kirby Hills Fault is the closest to the proposed injection site and is therefore our primary consideration for evaluating the potential seismic impacts, if any, from injection. Our planned installation of seismic monitoring stations near the site will greatly improve earthquake location accuracy. Shell seismic data also indicate two unnamed faults more than 3 miles east of the project site. These faults do not reach the surface as they are truncated by an unconformity at a depth of about 2,000 feet (610 m). The unconformity is identified as occurring during the Oligocene Epoch, 33.9-23.03 million years ago, which indicates that these faults are not currently active. Farther east are the Rio Vista Fault and Midland Fault at distances of about 6 miles

  19. Concordance between self-reported STI history and biomedical results among men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Nicole J; Beymer, Matthew R; Javanbakht, Marjan; Shover, Chelsea L; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-11-01

    HIV studies and risk assessments among men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use self-reported STI history as a proxy for true STI history. The objective of our study was to assess the validity of self-reported STI history through comparison with laboratory-confirmed biomedical results. Data were analysed for MSM attending the Los Angeles LGBT Center (the Center) from August 2011 to July 2015. We identified 10 529 unique MSM who received testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and/or syphilis and had a later visit in which they self-reported their STI history to a clinic counsellor during a risk assessment. MSM who had an STI in the past year self-reported their STI history with 51%-56% accuracy, and MSM who had an STI more than a year ago self-reported their STI history with 65%-72% accuracy. Among MSM with any positive STIs at the Center, black/African-American and Hispanic MSM were more likely to inaccurately self-report their positive results for gonorrhoea (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.01; aOR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.70). Additionally, HIV-positive MSM were more likely to inaccurately self-report their positive results for gonorrhoea (aOR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.18) and/or syphilis (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.47). This is the first study that attempts to evaluate the validity of self-reported STI history among MSM. We found that self-reported STI history may not be an appropriate proxy for true STI history in certain settings and minority populations. Clinical guidelines and research studies that rely on self-reported STI history will need to modify their recommendations in light of the limited validity of these data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  1. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  2. Meteorological Data Inventory, Southern California, Coastal Zone, Ragged Point (San Luis Obispo County) to Mexican Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Heavy continuous rain, severe floods Feb. 1884 All Continuous rain, severe floods Jan. 9, 1907 Santa Ynez River 4 day storm, 11.8" rain at San Marcos ...Ventura Mar. 2, 1938 All 4 day storm, heavy floods Jan. 15, 1952 All 4 day storm, 15" at San Marcos Pass Nov. 20, 1967 Santa Barbara, Ventura 4 day local...Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley. Ritter, J.K., (1972), "Cyclic Sedimentation in Agua Hedionda Lagoon, Southern 109 California", Proc: ACSE

  3. Draft environmental impact report. California Department of Water Resources, Bottle Rock geothermal power plant, Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) proposes to construct the Bottle Rock power plant, a 55 MW geothermal power plant, at The Geysers Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). The plant is projected to begin operation in April of 1983, and will be located in Lake County near the Sonoma County line on approximately 7.2 acres of the Francisco leasehold. The steam to operate the power plant, approximately 1,000,000 pounds/h, will be provided by McCulloch Geothermal Corporation. The power plant's appearance and operation will be basically the same as the units in operation or under construction in the KGRA. The power plant and related facilities will consist of a 55 MW turbine generator, a 1.1 mile (1.81 km) long transmission line, a condensing system, cooling tower, electrical switchyard, gas storage facility, cistern, and an atmospheric emission control system. DWR plans to abate hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions through the use of the Stretford Process which scrubs the H/sub 2/S from the condenser vent gas stream and catalytically oxides the gas to elemental sulfur. If the Stretford Process does not meet emission limitations, a secondary H/sub 2/S abatement system using hydrogen peroxide/iron catalyst is proposed. The Bottle Rock project and other existing and future geothermal projects in the KGRA may result in cumulative impacts to soils, biological resources, water quality, geothermal steam resources, air quality, public health, land use, recreation, cultural resources, and aesthetics.

  4. Decommissioning of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit No. 3, Docket No. 50-133, Humboldt County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the SAFSTOR option for decommissioning the Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3, located four miles southwest of the city of Eureka in Humboldt County, California, are assessed. Humboldt Bay Unit 3, a 65-MWe boiling water reactor, was operated commercially from August 1963 until July 1976, at which time it was shut down for seismic modifications. The facility would be stored safely for approximately 30 years. Estimated annual purchases of materials and supplies resulting from SAFSTOR activities are expected to be $20,000 (1984 dollars), and these purchases are expected to be made in Humboldt County. A fuel-handling accident would result in atmospheric radionuclide releases that are well below EPA Protective Action Guide (PAG) levels. Damage to all the stored-fuel assemblies resulting from a nonmechanistic heavy-load drop would result in atmospheric radionuclide releases that are also well below the PAG levels. There is a negligibly small likelihood that seismic loads or other mechanical loads would generate criticality among the spent fuel assemblies stored in the pool. The upper limits of potential lung, liver, and bone doses resulting from an instantaneous expulsion to the atmosphere of the entire water/radionuclide content of the spent-fuel pool are very small fractions of the PAG levels. A rupture of the spent-fuel pool or the liquid radwaste tanks would result in a total body dose to an average individual via the seafood chain that would be less than the dose from natural background levels. Doses from recreational activities in Humboldt Bay would be negligible

  5. Association of urban runoff with coastal water quality in Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Ryan H; Semenza, Jan C; Baker, Dean B; Olson, Betty H

    2002-01-01

    The associations between storm events, urban runoff, and coastal water quality have not been well investigated. A temporal and spatial analysis of 2 years of data was conducted to determine associations between urban river discharge and indicator bacteria levels for Southern California beaches and evaluate the contribution of anomalous precipitation to the association. Data show beaches next to rivers had the highest bacterial levels in both wet and dry seasons. Bacterial levels rose substantially across all sites during wet months, and river discharge and bacterial levels were all highest during the winter with the most rainfall. Precipitation was significantly associated (Spearman rank bivariate correlation, P water discharged from the rivers. River discharge was significantly associated with bacterial levels at 20 out of 22 beaches, with the strongest associations at sites next to rivers. The results indicate that urban river discharge is a primary source of Southern California's coastal water pollution and, as a result, swimming at beaches near rivers may pose a significant public health risk. The strong association found between precipitation and water pollution may be relevant to studies of potential health effects associated with climate change.

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, Margarita Peak Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Santa Ysabel Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  8. Internal architecture of the proto-Kern Canyon Fault at Engineer's Point, Lake Isabella Dam site, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Z. S.; Andrews, G. D.; Brown, S. R.; Krugh, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The core of the Cretaceous (?) proto-Kern Canyon Fault (KCF) is exposed continuously for 1.25 km along Engineer's Point at Lake Isabella, Kern County, California. The proto-KCF is notable for (1) its long and complex history within, and perhaps preceding the Sierra Nevada batholith, and (2) hosting the Quaternary Kern Canyon Fault, an active fault that threatens the integrity of the Lake Isabella auxiliary dam and surrounding communities. We are investigating the internal architecture of the proto-KCF to explore its control on the likely behavior of the modern KCF. The proto-KCF is developed in the Alta Sierra biotite-granodiorite pluton. A traverse across Engineer's Point, perpendicular to the proto-KCF trace, reveals gradational increases in fracture density, fracture length, bulk alteration, and decreases in fracture spacing and grain size toward the fault core. Mapping of the fault core reveals two prominent and laterally extensive zones: (1) continuous foliated blastomylonitic granodiorite with steeply-dipping, anastomosing shear bands and minor mylonite planes, and (2) foliated orange and green fault breccia with intergranular gouge, strong C/S fabric, and a central gouge plane. The fault breccia zone is intruded by a lensoidal, post-deformation dacite dike, probably ca. 105 - 102 Ma (Nadin & Saleeby, 2008) and is weakly overprinted by a set of cross-cutting spaced, short, brittle fractures, often coated in calcite, which we infer to be genetically related to the modern KCF. We present our structural and lithological data that will be supported by mineralogical and geochemical analyses. E. Nadin & J. Saleeby (2008) Disruption of regional primary structure of the Sierra Nevada batholith by the Kern Canyon fault system, California: Geological Society of America Special Paper 438, p. 429-454.

  9. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development was investigated. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and Modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources. Although both positive and negative findings were found in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent. The applications studied were; greenhouse heating, kiln drying, onion dehydration, feedlots, and aquaculture.

  10. Impact of emergency medical services stroke routing protocols on Primary Stroke Center certification in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberg, Sam; Song, Sarah; Saver, Jeffrey L; Mack, William J; Cen, Steven Y; Sanossian, Nerses

    2013-12-01

    Organized stroke systems of care include Primary Stroke Center (PSC) certification and preferential emergency medical services (EMS) routing of suspected patients with stroke to designated PSCs. Stroke EMS routing is not nationally governed; in California, routing is determined by county. EMS routing policies might provide an incentive for PSC accreditation. We evaluated the relationship between independent adoption of EMS routing protocols and PSC designation acquisition in California. Dates of PSC certification were obtained through The Joint Commissions Website and confirmatory calls to stroke coordinators. Starting date of county EMS PSC routing policies was obtained from county EMS agencies. We provide descriptive analysis of number of hospitals achieving PSC designation relative to implementation of EMS routing policies for all counties with PSCs. By June 2012, there were 131 California PSCs in 27 counties, and 22 of 58 counties had implemented EMS routing policies. The greatest number of PSCs was in Los Angeles (30) followed by San Diego (11), Orange (9), and Santa Clara (9) counties. Achievement of PSC designation occurred more frequently immediately before and after EMS routing: 51 PSCs (39%) within 1 year; 85 PSCs (65%) within 2 years. The yearly rate of eligible hospital conversion to PSC designation accelerated concurrent with EMS diversion policy adoption from 3.8% before to 16.2% during and decelerated afterward to 7.6%. Implementation of EMS routing policies may be an important factor driving PSC certification. National adoption of stroke routing policies may lead to more PSCs, positively impacting patient care.

  11. Gender differences in homicide in Contra Costa County, California: 1982-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C; Deosaransingh, K

    1997-01-01

    Homicide is the third leading cause of injury death for women in the United States. However, few studies have examined the circumstances specific to female homicide. This study examines gender differences in circumstances surrounding homicides in Contra Costa County for a 12-year period. Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) data for Contra Costa County from 1982 through 1993 were analyzed. Variables examined were gender of the victim, victim-offender relationship, age of victim, weapon used, location of homicide, precipitating circumstances, and gender of the offender. Forty-six percent of the women were killed by their spouse, other family member, or intimate partner, compared to only 11.4% of men. In contrast, men were more likely to be killed by a stranger than women (17.9% versus 10.9%, P = .02). A higher percentage of women than men were killed with a blunt object, a personal weapon (i.e., fists, feet, and teeth), or other weapon (24.9% versus 10.6%, p < .01), and in a residence (60.1% versus 34.8%, P < .001). Men were more likely than women to be killed by a firearm, in a public place (i.e., a parking lot or street), and while a felony was being committed. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that many female homicides may be the result of domestic violence, belying the myth that the principal perpetrators of homicides against women are strangers. The differences between female and male homicides indicate that gender-specific prevention strategies need to be pursued.

  12. Upper Clear Creek watershed aquatic chemistry and biota surveys, 2004-5, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Shasta County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Marissa L.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, performed a comprehensive aquatic biota survey of the upper Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, California, during 2004-5. Data collected in this study can provide resource managers with information regarding aquatic resources, watershed degradation, and regional biodiversity within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. Surveys of water chemistry, bed-sediment chemistry, algae assemblages, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, aquatic vertebrate assemblages, in-stream habitat characteristics, and sediment heterogeneity were conducted at 17 stream sites during both 2004 and 2005, with an additional 4 sites surveyed in 2005. A total of 67 bed-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace inorganic element concentrations. Forty-six water samples were analyzed for trace metals and nutrients. A total of 224 taxa of invertebrates were collected during these surveys. Eleven fish species, seven of which were native, and two species of larval amphibians, were collected. A total of 24 genera of soft algae and 159 taxa of diatoms were identified. To date, this survey represents the most comprehensive inventory of aquatic resources within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, and this information can serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts and to inform management decisions.

  13. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  14. Concentrations of mercury and other metals in black bass (Micropterus spp.) from Whiskeytown Lake, Shasta County, California, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of a reconnaissance study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine mercury (Hg) and other selected metal concentrations in Black bass (Micropterus spp.) from Whiskeytown Lake, Shasta County, California. Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) in fillets and whole bodies of each sampled fish. Selected metals scans were performed on whole bodies (less the fillets) by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Mercury concentrations in fillet samples ranged from 0.06 to 0.52 micrograms per gram (μg/g) wet weight (ww). Total mercury (HgT) in the same fish whole-body samples ranged from 0.04 to 0.37 (μg/g, ww). Mercury concentrations in 17 percent of "legal catch size" (≥305 millimeters in length) were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criterion for the protection of human health of 0.30 μg/g (ww). These data will serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts within Whiskeytown Lake.

  15. Measurements and Interpretation of Surface Mixing Ratios of CH4 and CO and δ 13C and δ D of CH4 in Air from Pacific Ocean Transects Between Auckland, New Zealand and Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajie, H. O.; Tyler, S. C.; Gotoh, A. A.; McMillan, A. M.; Rice, A. L.; Lowe, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    We report on measurements of atmospheric CH4 and CO mixing ratios and δ 13C of CH4 from air samples collected every 2.5 to 5° latitude along a transect over the Pacific Ocean using container ships of P&O Nedlloyd (formerly Blue Star) shipping line. Data presented here begins in June 1996 and extends to January 2002. Scientists from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand and from University of California, Irvine alternate sampling trips so that a transect between Auckland, New Zealand (35° S) and Los Angeles, California (35° N) can be sampled over a period of ˜15 days approximately every four months. Data sets from the two laboratories are intercalibrated through a sample exchange program. The data provide detail on the spatial and seasonal variation of CH4 and CO mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CH4 over the Pacific equatorial region, including the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and both northern and southern temperate zones to about 30° latitude, including the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Data from 18 transect samplings so far clearly show that δ 13C in the mid latitudes of both hemispheres are ˜6 months out of phase. In June, a minimum in δ 13C CH4 in the southern hemisphere (SH) coincides approximately with the maximum in the northern hemisphere (NH) seasonal cycle. Because the NH is less enriched in 13C than the SH this situation results in a remarkably flat gradient between 30° N and 30° S. In November the opposite situation occurs with the SH mid latitude maximum coinciding with the minimum in the NH cycle, leading to a relatively large gradient of ˜0.5‰ between the hemispheres. We discuss how CH4 and CO mixing ratios are related to the changing positions and strengths of the ITCZ and SPCZ and how this data can be used in multi-dimensional models of atmospheric chemistry and transport to better define CH4 sources and sinks both temporally and spatially.

  16. Prohibited Possessors and the Law: How Inmates in Los Angeles Jails Understand Firearm and Ammunition Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Barragan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 140 interviews with individuals detained in the Los Angeles County Jail system, this article examines what gun offenders know about gun and ammunition regulation in California. Though most respondents had a consistent, albeit general, understanding of the regulations limiting gun acquisition and possession, analysis suggests that their understanding of ammunition restrictions was more limited. Our sample’s awareness of firearms law is especially important to consider given that they are the very population targeted by firearms regulations and prohibitions at the local, state, and federal level. By examining what detained offenders know about firearms laws, we can better theorize about individual gaps in legal knowledge and the realistic expectations for how understanding of the law can affect behavior.

  17. Temporal Controls on Uplift and Slip Rates for the Puente Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, Southern Los Angeles Basin, Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, E. M.; Grant, L. B.; Owen, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Puente Hills (PH) are seismically active and tectonically uplifted by the Puente Hills Blind Thrust fault (PHBTF). The rate of uplift, and consequently, the late Quaternary slip rate of the eastern part of the PHBTF, herein named the Santa Ana segment, can be constrained by mapping and dating Quaternary stream terraces and strath surfaces in the Santa Ana River Canyon. The PH are cut by the 2-3 mm/yr right-lateral Whittier fault, itself capable of M6.7-7.2 earthquakes. The 7 mapped terraces and strath surfaces of the PH are cut by the Whittier fault with minimal vertical separation. OSL dating, soil age estimates, and correlation with sea level highstands constrains the PH uplift rate to 0.6-1.4 mm/yr based on OSL dates, and 0.2-0.8 mm/yr from other methods. The rates overlap in the range 0.6-0.8 mm/yr, and we propose that this is the most reliable estimate of uplift rate because it is based on several methods. An uplift rate of 0.6-0.8 mm/yr for the PH is also consistent with a 500 700 ka emergent age based on our geomorphic analysis of PH drainage basin development. Using a 30° dip angle produces a slip rate on the Santa Ana segment of the PHBTF of 1.2-1.6 mm/yr. Preliminary tectonic geomorphic analysis of the Santa Ana Mountains (SAM) suggests that they too are being uplifted and are probably seismically active. Shorelines preserved on the lower foothills of Peralta and Loma Ridges were correlated to eustatic sea levels for age estimations. Mapping and dating of terraces in the Santiago Creek drainage, and the older marine terraces indicates that the SAM are uplifting at 0.2-0.7 mm/yr, probably due to a blind thrust associated with partial termination of the Elsinore fault.

  18. The PST Project, Willie Herron's Street Mural Asco East of No West (2011 and the Mural Remix Tour: Power Relations on the Los Angeles Art Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zetterman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article departs from the huge art-curating project Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A., 1945-1980, a Getty funded initiative running in Southern California from October 2011 to April 2012 with a collaboration of more than sixty cultural institutions coming together to celebrate the birth of the L.A. art scene. One of the Pacific Standard Time (PST exhibitions was Asco: Elite of the Obscure, A Retrospective, 1972-1987, running from September to December 2011 at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA. This was the first retrospective of a conceptual performance group of Chicanos from East Los Angeles, who from the early 1970s to the mid 1980s acted out critical interventions in the politically contested urban space of Los Angles. In conjunction with the Asco retrospective at LACMA, the Getty Foundation co-sponsored a new street mural by the Chicano artist Willie Herron, paying homage to his years in the performance group Asco. The PST exhibition program also included so-called Mural Remix Tours, taking fine art audiences from LACMA to Herron's place-specific new mural in City Terrace in East Los Angeles. This article analyze the inclusion in the PST project of Herron's site-specific mural in City Terrace and the Mural Remix Tours to East Los Angeles with regard to the power relations of fine art and critical subculture, center and periphery, the mainstream and the marginal. As a physical monument dependent on a heavy sense of the past, Herron's new mural, titled Asco: East of No West, transforms the physical and social environment of City Terrace, changing its public space into an official place of memory. At the same time, as an art historical monument officially added to the civic map of Los Angeles, the mural becomes a permanent reminder of the segregation patterns that still exist in the urban space of Los Angeles.

  19. Surficial geology and stratigraphy of Pleistocene Lake Manix, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Wan, Elmira; McGeehin, John P.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2014-01-01

    Pluvial Lake Manix and its surrounding drainage basin, in the central Mojave Desert of California, has been a focus of paleoclimate, surficial processes, and neotectonic studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since about 2004. The USGS initiated studies of Lake Manix deposits to improve understanding of the paleoclimatic record and the shifts in atmospheric circulation that controlled precipitation in the Mojave Desert. Until approximately 25,000 years ago, Lake Manix was the terminus of the Mojave River, which drains northeasterly from the San Bernardino Mountains; the river currently terminates in the Soda Lake and Silver Lake playas. Pleistocene Lake Manix occupied several subbasins at its maximum extent. This map focuses on the extensive exposures created by incision of the Mojave River and its tributaries into the interbedded lacustrine and alluvial deposits within the central (Cady) and northeastern (Afton) subbasins of Lake Manix, and extends from the head of Afton Canyon to Manix Wash. The map illuminates the geomorphic development and depositional history of the lake and alluvial fans within the active tectonic setting of the eastern California shear zone, especially interactions with the left-lateral Manix fault. Lake Manix left an extraordinarily detailed but complex record of numerous transgressive-regressive sequences separated by desiccation and deposition of fan, eolian, and fluvial deposits, and punctuated by tectonic movements and a catastrophic flood that reconfigured the lake basin. Through careful observation of the intercalated lacustrine and fan sequences and by determining the precise elevations of unit contacts, this record was decoded to understand the response of the lake and river system to the interplay of climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic forces. These deposits are exposed in steep badland topography. Mapping was carried out mostly at scales of 1:12,000, although the map is presented at 1:24,000 scale, and employs custom unit

  20. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources, thus complimenting the recently completed ERDA-Susanville Study where a designated community was used as a ''laboratory'' in which land-use planning, institutional aspects, geological assessments, technical modeling and socioeconomic impacts were all examined in overview. During the course of the study, monthly progress reports were prepared and reviewed with the Commission so that emphasis on particular features of study could be changed as necessary to reflect updated findings and to redirect efforts into additional areas of potential promise as they became apparent. In this manner, a degree of flexibility was maintained which allowed a more comprehensive study than would have been otherwise possible. Although the report generates both positive and negative findings in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent.

  1. Quality of urban runoff, Tecolote Creek drainage area, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setmire, James G.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of storm runoff from a 9.2-square-mile urbanized watershed, Tecolote Creek, San Diego County, Calif., was studied during nine storms from September 1976 through May 1977. Specific conductance reached 2,100 micromhos and total residue concentrations reached 2,770 milligrams per liter. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in 95% of the samples exceeded 50 milligrams per liter, a concentration that may be sufficient to cause severe oxygen depletion in areas of the receiving water, Mission Bay. Lead concentrations in all samples exceeded concentrations thought to affect some aquatic organisms. Median total nitrogen and total orthophosphorus concentrations were far in excess of concentrations known to cause nuisance growth of algae in lakes. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations greatly exceeded recommended levels for primary contact recreation water. Concentrations of pesticides--heptachlor, malathion, chlordane, DDT, diazinon, and dieldrin--frequently exceeded the recommended maximums for marine or freshwater aquatic systems. Total loads of selected constituents are calculated and may be used to estimate the impact of runoff on the receiving water. (USGS)

  2. Scenic drive landslide of January-March 1998, La Honda, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, Angela S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wilson, Ray C.; Wells, Ray E.

    1998-01-01

    The small rural town of La Honda, Calif., is an unincorporated region of San Mateo County situated in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the western part of the San Francisco peninsula. Much of the town is underlain by a previously recognized ancient landslide complex. The ancient slide complex covers about 1.0 to 1.25 km2, parts of which have been historically active. This report describes a recent landslide involving part of Scenic Drive, La Honda, that became active in January 1998. This report does not describe other currently active landslides in La Honda, such as the January 1998 slide on lower Recreation Drive, or the history of sliding in the area. This report concerns the principal morphological features we observed and mapped between 11 February and 21 March 1998 on an enlargement of a 1:7500-scale air photo acquired 6 March 1998 and prior to that on a town property-line map, and by laser survey carried out between 26 February and 8 March. The principal objective of this report is to make available the detailed photographic and topographic base maps and associated description of surface morphological features.

  3. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Higley, J Mark; Sajecki, Jaime L; Chomel, Bruno B; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern California forests. Bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. Monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. In all, 321 bears were captured between May, 2001, and October, 2003, and blood samples were collected and tested for multiple zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. We found a PCR prevalence of 10% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a seroprevalence of 28% for Toxoplasma gondii, 26% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 26% for A. phagocytophilum, 8% for Trichinella spiralis, 8% for Francisella tularensis and 1% for Yersinia pestis. In addition, we tested bears for pathogens of domestic dogs and found a seroprevalence of 15% for canine distemper virus and 0.6% for canine parvovirus. Our findings show that black bears can become infected with pathogens that are an important public health concern, as well as pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and other wildlife species.

  4. Final Report: Natural State Models of The Geysers Geothermal System, Sonoma County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. H. Brikowski; D. L. Norton; D. D. Blackwell

    2001-12-31

    Final project report of natural state modeling effort for The Geysers geothermal field, California. Initial models examined the liquid-dominated state of the system, based on geologic constraints and calibrated to match observed whole rock delta-O18 isotope alteration. These models demonstrated that the early system was of generally low permeability (around 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}), with good hydraulic connectivity at depth (along the intrusive contact) and an intact caprock. Later effort in the project was directed at development of a two-phase, supercritical flow simulation package (EOS1sc) to accompany the Tough2 flow simulator. Geysers models made using this package show that ''simmering'', or the transient migration of vapor bubbles through the hydrothermal system, is the dominant transition state as the system progresses to vapor-dominated. Such a system is highly variable in space and time, making the rock record more difficult to interpret, since pressure-temperature indicators likely reflect only local, short duration conditions.

  5. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  6. Beyond "Little Taipei": The Development of Taiwanese Immigrant Businesses in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Fen

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative techniques, including a telephone survey of 310 Taiwanese business owners, were used to study the unique features of Taiwanese immigrant businesses in Los Angeles (California). When provided with entrepreneurial capital, Taiwanese enterprises grow rapidly in the context of Los Angeles's economic restructuring. (SLD)

  7. Water resources of the Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, John R.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Ysabel (consisting of three tracts) and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations are in north-central San Diego County, Calif. On both reservations fractured and weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks and alluvium are water bearing; however, no wells are known to derive their water entirely from alluvium. Well yields range from 2.5 to 250 gallons per minute. Springs occur where saturated fractured or weathered material intersects the land surface. Spring discharge ranged from 0 gallon per minute (November 1979) to 9.4 gallons per minute (November 1979). Few data are available for the surface water characteristics of the study area. One-time measurements of discharge at selected stream sites were made in late November 1979 and late May 1980; discharges ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to an estimated 3 cubic feet per second. Further study of the surface-water systems would provide a basis for estimating their development potential. The existing water-supply development on the Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation is adequate for the present residents. The Mesa Grande reservation was unoccupied in 1952, was reportedly unoccupied in November 1979, and has no developed water supply. Additional water can be developed for both reservations from the igneous and metamorphic rock, from presently undeveloped springs, and from perennial reaches of the larger streams. Except for excessive iron and sodium at some ground-water sites and excessive sodium at a few surface-water sites, the water is of suitable quality for domestic and agricultural use. (USGS)

  8. Sulfate mineralogy of fumaroles in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul M.; Lynch, David K.; Buckland, Kerry N.; Johnson, Patrick D.; Tratt, David M.

    2017-11-01

    The Salton Trough lies in the transition between the San Andreas Fault and oblique spreading centers and transform faults in the Gulf of California. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is the northernmost expression of those spreading centers. In 2007 two ammonia-emitting fumarole fields that had been submerged beneath the Salton Sea were exposed for the first time in nearly 50 years. As the sea level continued to drop these fields have developed a number of boiling pools, mud pots, gryphons and a unique suite of ammonium sulfate minerals. These have been studied over time with long-wave infrared remote sensing coupled with ground truth surveys backed by laboratory analyses of the minerals. Many vents lie at the center of concentric rings of mineralization with systematic occurrence of different minerals from center to edge. Three semi-concentric zones (fumarole, transition and evaporite) have been defined with respect to ammonia-emitting vents and bubbling pools. The scale of these zones range from several meters, localized around individual vents, to that of the fumarole fields as a whole. The fumarole zone is closest to the vents and locally contains cavernous sulfur crystals and significant deposits of gypsum, mascagnite, boussingaultite and other ammonium sulfates. The transition zone comprises a dark brown surficial band of inconspicuous sodium nitrate underlain by anhydrite/bassanite that is thought to have formed by ammonia-oxidizing microbes interacting with the ammonium sulfates of the outer fumarole zone. The evaporite zone is the outermost and contains blödite, thenardite and glauberite, which are typical of the sulfates associated with the shoreline of the Salton Sea. Remote sensing has shown that the mineral zones have remained relatively stable from 2013 to 2017, with minor variations depending on rainfall, temperature and levels of agricultural runoff.

  9. Geologic Map of the southern Inyo Mountains and vicinity, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Swanson, Brian J.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Dunne, George C.; Priest, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains are located in east-central California between Owens Valley on the west and Saline Valley on the east. This map encompasses the southernmost part of the Inyo Mountains and vicinity, which is centered on the high plateau of Conglomerate Mesa and extends from Owens Valley on the west to the Santa Rosa Hills, Lee Flat, and the Nelson Range on the east. The area includes parts of the Cerro Gordo Peak, Nelson Range, Keeler, and Santa Rosa Flat 7.5' quadrangles. Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, unconformities, and structural features exposed in the southern Inyo Mountains region provide information critical for reconstructing the complex Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern United States. Ordovician to Cretaceous rocks in the map area record a long geologic history during which the continental margin of the western United States gradually changed from a passive tectonic setting in the early and middle Paleozoic to an active tectonic setting in the Jurassic and Cretaceous. A major highlight of the map area is the unusually complete record of late Paleozoic to earliest Mesozoic (Pennsylvanian to Triassic) deformation and sedimentation that marked the transition between the passive and active margin settings. The area also provides an excellent record of Jurassic to Cretaceous deformation and igneous activity that characterized the middle to late Mesozoic active margin. This map provides a detailed depiction of all the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks and structural features known in the area. The area also contains important exposures of upper Cenozoic rocks related to the evolution of the Basin and Range province, although detailed mapping of these rocks was beyond the scope of this study.

  10. Characterizing sources of nitrate leaching from an irrigated dairy farm in Merced County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Martin L; Harter, Thomas; Leijnse, Anton; Mathews, Marsha C; Meyer, Roland D

    2009-11-03

    Dairy farms comprise a complex landscape of groundwater pollution sources. The objective of our work is to develop a method to quantify nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater from different management units at dairy farms. Total nitrate loads are determined by the sequential calibration of a sub-regional scale and a farm-scale three-dimensional groundwater flow and transport model using observations at different spatial scales. These observations include local measurements of groundwater heads and nitrate concentrations in an extensive monitoring well network, providing data at a scale of a few meters and measurements of discharge rates and nitrate concentrations in a tile-drain network, providing data integrated across multiple farms. The various measurement scales are different from the spatial scales of the calibration parameters, which are the recharge and nitrogen leaching rates from individual management units. The calibration procedure offers a conceptual framework for using field measurements at different spatial scales to estimate recharge N concentrations at the management unit scale. It provides a map of spatially varying dairy farming impact on groundwater nitrogen. The method is applied to a dairy farm located in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region in California. Potential sources within the dairy farm are divided into three categories, representing different manure management units: animal exercise yards and feeding areas (corrals), liquid manure holding ponds, and manure irrigated forage fields. Estimated average nitrogen leaching is 872 kg/ha/year, 807 kg/ha/year and 486 kg/ha/year for corrals, ponds and fields respectively. Results are applied to evaluate the accuracy of nitrogen mass balances often used by regulatory agencies to assess groundwater impacts. Calibrated leaching rates compare favorably to field and farm scale nitrogen mass balances. These data and interpretations provide a basis for developing improved management strategies.

  11. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  12. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  13. Los Angeles congestion reduction demonstration (Metro ExpressLanes) program. National evaluation : content analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the Content Analysis Test Plan for the national evaluation of the Los Angeles County Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) Progr...

  14. Skunk rabies in California (1992-2003)--implications for oral rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Ray T; Sun, Ben; Bourassa, Jean B; Hale, Robert L; Shwiff, Stephanie A; Jay, Michele T; Slate, Dennis

    2008-10-01

    Skunk-variant rabies is endemic in California (United States), and the development of oral vaccines and baits to vaccinate skunks is in progress. In 2003, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) began to quantify the impacts of skunk-variant rabies and to assess the feasibility of using oral rabies vaccination (ORV) as a containment measure. The CDPH rabies case data for skunks were spatially depicted and analyzed using a geographic information system. Statewide, rabid skunks (1992-2003) primarily occurred in seven physiographic regions: Central Coast, North Coast, North Sierra, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay and Delta, San Joaquin Valley, and South Sierra. Detailed analysis of rabid skunks in San Luis Obispo (SLO) and Santa Barbara (SB) counties showed that skunk rabies was endemic in the coastal plain of SLO County between 1992 and 2000, but only became epizootic in SB County during 2002. Despite the widespread distribution of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) throughout most of California, the skunk rabies variant has not been found in Los Angeles County since 1979. Results imply that future ORV campaigns for skunk-variant rabies in the Pacific Coastal Plain could deter spread from SLO into SB County, as well as deterring the reintroduction of skunk-variant rabies into southern California.

  15. Analysis of the apiclutural industry in relation to geothermal development and agriculture in the Imperial Valley, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, E.L.

    1979-04-01

    PART I: Continuous exposure to 30 ppB H/sub 2/S increased lifespan of caged worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., 33%; whereas, bees exposed > 13 days to 100 ppB and 300 ppB H/sub 2/S the lifespan was shortened 32% and 51%, respectively, over unexposed bees; bees exposed > 15 days to a combination of 300 ppB H/sub 2/S + 50 ppM CO/sub 2/ the lifespan was shortened 4.4% more that 300 ppB H/sub 2/S alone. The mean temperature and/or relative humidity did not exert a direct effect on the hazard to bees. A continuous exposure to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ was detrimental to caged worker honey bees; and, a mean temperature of 27.2/sup 0/C was 75.7% more toxic than the same dosage at 16.7/sup 0/C. Worker bee lifespans exposed to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ at 16.7/sup 0/C were shortened 13.5% and 79%, respectively, compared to unexposed bees. Therefore, both dosage and temperature exert direct effects on the hazards to bees. PART II: The status of the apicultural industry in Imperial County, California, was outlined giving a short characterization of the area in relation to the apicultural industry. Agriculture utilizes 500,000 intensely farmed acres which generated a 11-year average income of $370 million. Over 40 agricultural commodities are produced. The apicultural industry is intimately involved in 25% of the total gross agricultural income. In addition, most of the flora growing in the desert community which comprises the remainder of the county are very important to honey bees by providing sustaining nectar and/or pollen for brood rearing. The bee foraged flora provides substantial bee forage when colonies are located outside of the agriculutral area. It is concluded that geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley is contemplated to have minimal effects on the apicultural industry.

  16. Petrology and chemistry of the Green Acres gabbro complex near Winchester, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Miller, Fred K.

    2014-01-01

    The Cretaceous Green Acres layered igneous complex, northeast of Winchester, California, is composed of a suite of olivine- and hornblende-bearing gabbros in the Peninsular Ranges batholith within the Perris tectonic block. A consistent mineral assemblage is observed throughout the complex, but there is considerable textural and modal heterogeneity. Both preclude a consistent set of principles based on appearance and mineralogy on which to delineate map units. Distinct changes in the chemistry of olivine, pyroxene, and hornblende, however, serve to define discrete mappable units, and the complex has been divided into five geochemical map units on this basis.Limited whole-rock data show the Green Acres complex is chemically comparable to other Peninsular Ranges batholith gabbroic rocks, and rare earth element (REE) concentrations and patterns are typical of magmas generated in convergent margin settings. For the complex as a whole, olivine is Fo80–35, plagioclase is An100–64, clinopyroxene is Wo49–41En48–38Fs18–6 and Wo36–26En65–42Fs30–8, and orthopyroxene is Wo5–0En78–42Fs50–21, where Fo is forsterite, An is anorthite, Wo is wollastonite, En is enstatite, and Fs is ferrosilite. The Mg/(Mg + ΣFe) atomic ratio in hornblende ranges from 0.84 to 0.50.Magmatic lineations and modal and textural layering are prevalent throughout the complex. Mineral chemistry does not change in any systematic way within and between layers in any map unit. Although the strike of layering varies, in any map unit at any given location it is the same in all units irrespective of intrusive order. Thin dikes, typically late-stage hornblende gabbro, commonly intrude parallel to layering. The strikes of magmatic lineations and modal layers are consistent with the populations of strikes of fabrics in the metamorphic basement as well as tectonic features in surrounding, postgabbro granitic rocks. These relations imply that the regional state of stress at the time of gabbro

  17. Evaluation of strength degradation in seismic loading of Holocene bay mud from Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gretchen Anne

    Cyclic simple shear tests performed on Holocene bay mud at the University of California at Berkeley following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, suggested that the response of silty clay to cyclic loading might be more severe than earlier research had indicated. A program of laboratory testing was therefore carried out to investigate the potential strength degradation of Holocene bay mud subjected to a range of conditions representative of those expected in a major earthquake. The results show that the volumetric cyclic threshold shear strain is between 0.02% and 0.04%. The reduction of shear modulus with increasing strain amplitude is generally consistent with data presented in an earlier study on Holocene bay mud from another location. The damping ratios for the first cycle of loading are consistent with the limits suggested for cohesive soils from earlier studies. The shear stress in the first cycle of loading exhibits approximately a 13--16% increase per order of magnitude increase in strain rate, which is on the higher end of the range of values presented in studies on other cohesive soils. The post-cyclic monotonic strengths are within +/-10% of the monotonic strengths of specimens that had not undergone cyclic loading. There were no clear effects of varying the strain amplitude, frequency of loading, or strain rate, but dissipation of pore pressures between the' end of cyclic loading and the beginning of monotonic shear increases the strength by an average of 8%. One-dimensional site response analysis was performed to estimate the amplitude and number of cycles of shear strain in moderate to large earthquakes, and it showed that up to five cycles or more of shear strain amplitudes exceeding I% could be expected. Therefore, the strength degradation that was observed in the cyclic testing is within the range of interest for geotechnical earthquake engineering. A comparison between the cyclic response of the specimens from Hamilton Air Force Base and specimens

  18. Childhood asthma along the United States/ Mexico border: hospitalizations and air quality in two California counties El asma infantil en la frontera mexicana-estadounidense: hospitalizaciones y calidad del aire ambiental en dos condados de California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B English

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1993, there has been an increasing need to monitor environmental health trends that may be related to the rapid industrialization of the United States/Mexico border. We studied two counties on the California/Baja California border to obtain baseline data on trends in childhood asthma hospitalizations and two pollutants that aggravate asthma, ozone and particulate matter (less than 10 microns in diameter, from 1983 to 1994. Hospital discharge records of children 14 years and younger were analyzed, and rates by county, race, and sex were age-adjusted to the 1990 California population. Data on five ozone and particulate matter indices obtained from the California Environmental Protection Agency were used. Imperial County had the highest childhood asthma hospitalization rates in California for non-Hispanic whites and African-Americans, and the second highest for Hispanics. San Diego County had rates below the state average. Over the time period examined, rates in Imperial County increased 59%, while those in San Diego County decreased 9%. Maximum ozone levels increased 64% in Imperial County but decreased 46% in San Diego County. Particulate matter levels were four times higher in Imperial than in San Diego County. High rates of childhood asthma hospitalizations in Imperial County may be partially related to high levels of poverty and worsening air quality conditions produced by increased burdens on the local airshed. Asthma prevalence surveys and binational time-series analyses examining asthma-pollutant relationships are needed.Desde que se firmó el Tratado de Libre Comercio en 1993, ha aumentado la necesidad de monitorear problemas de salud que podrían relacionarse con la rápida industrialización de la frontera mexicana-estadounidense. Estudiamos dos condados de la fontera entre California y Baja California con objeto de obtener datos de base sobre las tendencias observadas de

  19. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  20. 78 FR 24309 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced... passenger rail line between Merced and Fresno, California (the Project). Concurrently, the Authority filed a... planned California High-Speed Train System (HST). Also referred to as the Merced to Fresno HST Section,\\1...

  1. Water-quality data from storm runoff after the 2007 fires, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected water-quality samples during the first two storms after the Witch and Harris Fires (October 2007) in southern California. The sampling locations represent an urban area (two residential sites in Rancho Bernardo that were affected by the Witch Fire; a drainage ditch and a storm drain) and a rural area (Cotton-wood Creek, which was downstream of a mobile home park destroyed by the Harris Fire). Fires produce ash and solid residues that contain soluble chemicals that can contaminant runoff. The contaminants, whether sorbed to soil and ash or dissolved, can seriously affect the quality of water supplies and sensitive ecosystems. Stormflow water samples were analyzed for field parameters, optical properties, and for a variety of constituents, including nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended sediment, and metals. pH values for storm runoff from the urban areas (7.6 to 8.5) were less than pH values for ash and burned soil from previous studies (12.5 to 13). pH values for storm runoff from the rural area (about 7.7) also were less than pH values for ash and burned soil collected from the rural area (8.6 to 11.8), but were similar to pH values for wildland burned soil from previous studies. Turbidity values were much lower for the urban area than for the rural area. Nitrate concentrations in stormflow samples from all sites were less than a quarter of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (2006) maximum allowable contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (as nitrogen). Phosphorus concentrations were half as much in filtered samples and two orders of magnitude smaller in unfiltered samples at the urban sites than at the rural site. DOC concentrations in stormflow samples were one order of magnitude lower at the urban sites than at the rural site. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nanometers (UV254) in samples ranged from 0.145 to 0.782 per centimeter (cm-1). UV-absorbance data at the urban sites indicate that

  2. Preliminary geologic map of the San Guillermo Mountain Quadrangle, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Cuyama 30' x 60' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, and tectonic evolution of the complex junction area between the NW-striking Coast Ranges and EW-striking western Transverse Ranges. The 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the San Guillermo Mountain quadrangle is one of six contiguous 7 1/2' quadrangle geologic maps in the eastern part of the Cuyama map area being compiled for a more detailed portrayal and reevaluation of geologic structures and rock units shown on previous geologic maps of the area (e.g., Dibblee, 1979). The following observations and interpretations are based on the new San Guillermo Mountain geologic compilation: (1) The new geologic mapping in the northern part of the San Guillermo Mountain quadrangle allows for reinterpretation of fault architecture that bears on potential seismic hazards of the region. Previous mapping had depicted the eastern Big Pine fault (BPF) as a northeast-striking, sinistral strike-slip fault that extends for 30 km northeast of the Cuyama River to its intersection with the San Andreas fault (SAF). In contrast the new mapping indicates that the eastern BPF is a thrust fault that curves from a northeast strike to an east strike, where it is continuous with the San Guillermo thrust fault, and dies out further east about 15 km south of the SAF. This redefined segment of the BPF is a south-dipping, north-directed thrust, with dominantly dip slip components (rakes > 60 deg.), that places Middle Eocene marine rocks (Juncal and Matilija Formations) over Miocene through Pliocene(?) nonmarine rocks (Caliente, Quatal, and Morales Formations). Although a broad northeast-striking fault zone, exhibiting predominantly sinistral components of slip (rakes structures. These revised fault interpretations bring into question earlier estimates of net sinistral strike

  3. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Hyampom 15' quadrangle, Trinity County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The Hyampom 15' quadrangle lies west of the Hayfork 15' quadrangle in the southern part of the Klamath Mountains geologic province of northern California. It spans parts of four generally northwest-trending tectono- stratigraphic terranes of the Klamath Mountains, the Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, Rattlesnake Creek, and Western Jurassic terranes, as well as, in the southwest corner of the quadrangle, a small part of the Pickett Peak terrane of the Coast Range province. Remnants of the Cretaceous Great Valley overlap sequence that once covered much of the pre-Cretaceous bedrock of the quadrangle are now found only as a few small patches in the northeast corner of the quadrangle. Fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the mid-Tertiary Weaverville Formation crop out in the vicinity of the village of Hyampom. The Eastern Hayfork terrane is a broken formation and m-lange of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that include blocks of chert and limestone. The chert has not been sampled; however, chert from the same terrane in the Hayfork quadrangle contains radiolarians of Permian and Triassic ages, but none clearly of Jurassic age. Limestone at two localities contains late Paleozoic foraminifers. Some of the limestone from the Eastern Klamath terrane in the Hayfork quadrangle contains faunas of Tethyan affinity. The Western Hayfork terrane is part of an andesitic volcanic arc that was accreted to the western edge of the Eastern Hayfork terrane. It consists mainly of metavolcaniclastic andesitic agglomerate and tuff, as well as argillite and chert, and it includes the dioritic Ironside Mountain batholith that intruded during Middle Jurassic time (about 170 Ma). This intrusive body provides the principal constraint on the age of the terrane. The Rattlesnake Creek terrane is a melange consisting mostly of highly dismembered ophiolite. It includes slabs of serpentinized ultramafic rock, basaltic volcanic rocks, radiolarian chert of Triassic and Jurassic ages, limestone containing

  4. Reconnaissance Geologic Map of the Hayfork 15' Quadrangle, Trinity County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The Hayfork 15' quadrangle is located just west of the Weaverville 15' quadrangle in the southern part of the Klamath Mountains geologic province of northern California. It spans parts of six generally north-northwest-trending tectonostratigraphic terranes that are, from east to west, the Eastern Klamath, Central Metamorphic, North Fork, Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, and Rattlesnake Creek terranes. Remnants of a once-widespread postaccretionary overlap assemblage, the Cretaceous Great Valley sequence, crop out at three localities in the southern part of the Hayfork quadrangle. The Tertiary fluvial and lacustrine Weaverville Formation occupies a large, shallow, east-northeast-trending graben in the south half of the quadrangle. The small area of Eastern Klamath terrane is part of the Oregon Mountain outlier, which is more widely exposed to the east in the Weaverville 15' quadrangle. It was originally mapped as a thrust plate of Bragdon(?) Formation, but it is now thought by some to be part of an outlier of Yreka terrane that has been dislocated 60 km southward by the La Grange Fault. The Central Metamorphic terrane, which forms the footwall of the La Grange Fault, was formed by the eastward subduction of oceanic crustal basalt (the Salmon Hornblende Schist) and its overlying siliceous sediments with interbedded limestone (the Abrams Mica Schist) beneath the Eastern Klamath terrane. Rb-Sr analysis of the Abrams Mica Schist indicates a Middle Devonian metamorphic age of approximately 380 Ma, which probably represents the age of subduction. The North Fork terrane, which is faulted against the western boundary of the Central Metamorphic terrane, consists of the Permian(?) North Fork ophiolite and overlying broken formation and melange of Permian to Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) marine metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The ophiolite, which crops out along the western border of the terrane, is thrust westward over the Eastern Hayfork terrane. The Eastern

  5. Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George I.

    2009-01-01

    Searles Valley is an arid, closed basin lying 70 km east of the south end of the Sierra Nevada, California. It is bounded on the east and northeast by the Slate Range, on the west by the Argus Range and Spangler Hills, and on the south by the Lava Mountains; Searles (dry) Lake occupies the north-central part of the valley. During those parts of late Pliocene and Pleistocene time when precipitation and runoff from the east side of the Sierra Nevada into the Owens River were much greater than at present, a chain of as many as five large lakes was created, of which Searles Lake was third. The stratigraphic record left in Searles Valley when that lake expanded, contracted, or desiccated, is fully revealed by cores from beneath the surface of Searles (dry) Lake and partly recorded by sediments cropping out around the edge of the valley. The subsurface record is described elsewhere. This volume includes six geologic maps (scales: 1:50,000 and 1:10,000) and a text that describes the outcrop record, most of which represents sedimentation since 150 ka. Although this outcrop record is discontinuous, it provides evidence indicating the lake's water depths during each expansion, which the subsurface record does not. Maximum-depth lakes rose to the 2,280-ft (695 m) contour, the level of the spillway that led overflowing waters to Panamint Valley; that spillway is about 660 ft (200 m) above the present dry-lake surface. Several rock units of Tertiary and early Quaternary ages crop out in Searles Valley. Siltstone and sandstone of Tertiary age, mostly lacustrine in nature and locally deformed to near-vertical dips, are exposed in the southern part of the valley, as is the younger(?) upper Miocene Bedrock Spring Formation. Unnamed, mostly mafic volcanic rocks of probable Miocene or Pliocene age are exposed along the north and south edges of the basin. Slightly deformed lacustrine sandstones are mapped in the central-southwestern and southern parts of the study area. The Christmas

  6. Incorporating genetic sampling in long-term monitoring and adaptive management in the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.

    2017-06-02

    Habitat and species conservation plans usually rely on monitoring to assess progress towards conservation goals. Southern California, USA, is a hotspot of biodiversity and home to many federally endangered and threatened species. Here, several regional multi-species conservation plans have been implemented to balance development and conservation goals, including in San Diego County. In the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA), a monitoring framework for the preserve system has been developed with a focus on species monitoring, vegetation monitoring, threats monitoring and abiotic monitoring. Genetic sampling over time (genetic monitoring) has proven useful in gathering species presence and abundance data and detecting population trends, particularly related to species and threats monitoring objectives. This report reviews genetic concepts and techniques of genetics that relate to monitoring goals and outlines components of a genetic monitoring scheme that could be applied in San Diego or in other monitoring frameworks throughout the Nation.

  7. Cyber-angel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel; Serafin, Stefania

    2004-01-01

    ?It is one of the commonest of mistakes to consider that the limit of our power of perception is also the limit of all there is to perceive? Most of spiritual traditions trough the world are referring to some kind of souls acting as guardian and protector or divine messenger for humans (angels...

  8. Individual and county-level factors associated with use of multiple prescribers and multiple pharmacies to obtain opioid prescriptions in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Han

    Full Text Available Use of multiple prescribers and pharmacies is a means by which some individuals misuse opioids. Community characteristics may be important determinants of the likelihood of this phenomenon independent of individual-level factors. This was a retrospective cohort study with individual-level data derived from California's statewide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP and county-level socioeconomic status (SES data derived from the United States Census. Zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB regression was used to model the association of individual factors (age, gender, drug schedule and drug dose type and county SES factors (ethnicity, adult educational attainment, median household income, and physician availability with the number of prescribers and the number of pharmacies that an individual used during a single year (2006. The incidence rates of new prescriber use and new pharmacy use for opioid prescriptions declined across increasing age groups. Males had a lower incidence rate of new prescriber use and new pharmacy use than females. The total number of licensed physicians and surgeons in a county was positively, linearly, and independently associated with the number of prescribers and pharmacies that individuals used for prescription opioids. In summary, younger age, female gender, and living in counties with more licensed physicians and surgeons were associated with use of more prescribers and/or more pharmacies for obtaining prescription opioids.

  9. Demographic and Travel Characteristics of Travel-Associated Zika Virus Infection Case-Patients in San Diego County, California (January 1, 2016-March 31, 2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escutia, Gabriela; McDonald, Eric; Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Healy, Jessica

    2018-06-01

    Most Zika disease cases diagnosed in the continental US have been associated with travel to areas with risk of Zika transmission, mainly the Caribbean and Latin America. Limited information has been published about the demographic and travel characteristics of Zika case-patients in the United States, besides their age and gender. During 2016-2017 the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, California, expanded the scope and completeness of demographic and travel information collected from Zika case-patients for public health surveillance purposes. The majority (53.8%) of travel-related Zika virus infection case-patients (n = 78) in the county were Hispanic, significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the 33.0% of Hispanics in the county. Foreign-born residents, mainly from Mexico, were also overrepresented among cases compared to their share in the county population (33.3 vs. 23.0%; p ≤ 0.05). Seventeen (21.8%) patients reported a primary language other than English (14 Spanish). Most case-patients traveled for tourism (54%) or to visit friends and relatives (36%). This surveillance information helps identify higher-risk populations and implement culturally targeted interventions for Zika prevention and control.

  10. Apocryphal Angels in Nun Convents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ávila Vivar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The preponderance of studies about viceregal angelic series, and the widespread belief that the representation of apocryphal angels is a specific peculiarity of viceregal angelology, have created such a close relation between it and the apocryphal angels, that they are even considered as synonymous. However, both the texts and the presence of this angels in the spanish convents of the XVII century, evidence that the apocryphal angels appeared and they were represented in Spain long before that in its american viceregal. Therefore, it is here where their origins and their meaning should be sought.

  11. Chikungunya fever in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Katherine R; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T; Mallon, William K

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases.

  12. A Larger Volcanic Field About Yucca Mountain: New Geochemical Data From the Death Valley Volcanic Field, Inyo County California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, A. K.; Smith, E. I.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanism is an important issue for the characterization of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Due to recent legal decisions that now require DOE to evaluate hazards over both 10,000 year and 1,000,000 year compliance periods, the definition of the area of interest for calculation of disruption probability and a knowledge of the volcanic process have become more important. New geochemical data for the Death Valley volcanic field in the Greenwater Range in Inyo County, California indicate that the Death Valley field and the volcanoes about Yucca Mountain are parts of the same volcanic field. The Death Valley field is just 35 km south of Yucca Mountain and only 20 km south of buried volcanoes in the Amargosa Valley. Trace elements for both areas show a negative Nb anomaly, but differ in that Death Valley basalt has lower La (70 vs. 130 ppm). Isotopic ratios are remarkably similar and strongly support a link between the Death Valley and Yucca Mountain areas. The isotope ranges for Death Valley are -11.88 to -3.26, 0.706322 to 0.707600, 17.725 to 18.509, 15.512 to 15.587, and 38.237 to 38.854 for epsilon Nd, 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb respectively. Crater Flat isotope ranges are -13.17 to -5.48, 0.706221 to 0.707851, 18.066 to 18.706, 15.488 to 15.564, and 38.143 to 38.709 for epsilon Nd, 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb respectively. Depth of melting calculated using the Fe-Na geobarometer indicates that basalt magma was generated at depths of 135-138 km beneath Death Valley and 115-133 km for Crater Flat indicating asthenospheric melting for both areas. Combining the Death Valley and Yucca Mountain areas into a single volcanic field increases the area of interest for probability calculations by over 1/3 and increases the number of volcanic events by 23. The increased size of the volcanic field and number of volcanoes may result in an increase in the probability of disruption of the

  13. Assessing potential effects of changes in water use with a numerical groundwater-flow model of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Mayers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth and development within Carson Valley in Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California, has caused concern over the continued availability of groundwater, and whether the increased municipal demand could either impact the availability of water or result in decreased flow in the Carson River. Annual pumpage of groundwater has increased from less than 10,000 acre feet per year (acre-ft/yr) in the 1970s to about 31,000 acre-ft/yr in 2004, with most of the water used in agriculture. Municipal use of groundwater totaled about 10,000 acre-feet in 2000. In comparison, average streamflow entering the valley from 1940 to 2006 was 344,100 acre-ft/yr, while average flow exiting the valley was 297,400 acre-ft/yr. Carson Valley is underlain by semi-consolidated Tertiary sediments that are exposed on the eastern side and dip westward. Quaternary fluvial and alluvial deposits overlie the Tertiary sediments in the center and western side of the valley. The hydrology of Carson Valley is dominated by the Carson River, which supplies irrigation water for about 39,000 acres of farmland and maintains the water table less than 5 feet (ft) beneath much of the valley floor. Perennial and ephemeral watersheds drain the Carson Range and the Pine Nut Mountains, and mountain-front recharge to the groundwater system from these watersheds is estimated to average 36,000 acre-ft/yr. Groundwater in Carson Valley flows toward the Carson River and north toward the outlet of the Carson Valley. An upward hydraulic gradient exists over much of the valley, and artesian wells flow at land surface in some areas. Water levels declined as much as 15 ft since 1980 in some areas on the eastern side of the valley. Median estimated transmissivities of Quaternary alluvial-fan and fluvial sediments, and Tertiary sediments are 316; 3,120; and 110 feet squared per day (ft2/d), respectively, with larger transmissivity values in the central part of the valley and smaller values near the valley

  14. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Contra Costa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, Russell W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $27 million in damages were assessed in Contra Costa County.

  15. Education and counseling of pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B: perspectives from obstetricians and perinatal nurses in Santa Clara County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Elizabeth J; Cheung, Chrissy M; So, Samuel K S; Chang, Ellen T; Chao, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the barriers to perinatal hepatitis B prevention and to identify the reasons for poor hepatitis B knowledge and delivery of education to hepatitis B surface-antigen- positive pregnant women among healthcare providers in Santa Clara County, California. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 obstetricians and 17 perinatal nurses in Santa Clara County, California, which has one of the largest populations in the United States at high risk for perinatal hepatitis B transmission. Most providers displayed a lack of self-efficacy attributed to insufficient hepatitis B training and education. They felt discouraged from counseling and educating their patients because of a lack of resources and discouraging patient attitudes such as stigma and apathy. Providers called for institutional changes from the government, hospitals, and nonprofit organizations to improve care for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Early and continuing provider training, increased public awareness, and development of comprehensive resources and new programs may contribute to reducing the barriers for health care professionals to provide counseling and education to pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

  16. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LAS format files, raw LiDAR data in its native format, classified bare-earth LiDAR DEM and photogrammetrically derived breaklines generated from LiDAR Intensity...

  18. An overview of plague in the United States and a report of investigations of two human cases in Kern county, California, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, M B; Hitchcock, J C; Davis, R M; Myers, C M; Smith, C R; Fritz, C L; Emery, K W; O'Rullian, W

    1997-06-01

    Plague was confirmed in the United States from nine western states during 1995. Evidence of Yersinia pestis infection was identified in 28 species of wild or domestic mammals. Thirteen of the plague positive species were wild rodents; 15 were predators/carnivores. Yersinia pestis was isolated from eight species of fleas. Seven confirmed cases of human plague were reported in 1995 (New Mexico 3; California 2; Arizona and Oregon 1 each). Five of the seven cases were bubonic; one was septicemic and one a fatal pneumonic case. Months of onset ranged from March through August. In California, during 1995, plague was recorded from 15 of the 58 counties. Over 1,500 animals were tested, of which 208 were plague positive. These included 144 rodents and 64 predators/carnivores. Two confirmed human cases (one bubonic and one fatal pneumonic) occurred, both in Kern County. Case No. 1 was reported from the town of Tehachapi. The patient, a 23 year-old male resident, died following a diagnosis of plague pneumonia. The patient's source of plague infection could not be determined precisely. Field investigations revealed an extensive plague epizootic surrounding Tehachapi, an area of approximately 500-600 square miles (800-970 square kilometers). Case No. 2 was a 57 year-old female diagnosed with bubonic plague; she was placed on an antibiotic regimen and subsequently recovered. The patient lives approximately 20 miles (32 km) north of Tehachapi. Field investigations revealed evidence of a plague epizootic in the vicinity of the victim's residence and adjacent areas. Overall results of the joint field investigations throughout the entire Kern county area revealed a high rate of plague positive animals. Of the numerous samples submitted, 48 non-human samples were plague positive.

  19. Use of mussel casts from archaeological sites as paleoecological indicators: An example from CA-MRN-254, Marin County, Alta California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary; Starratt, Scott W.; Powell, Charles L.; Bieling, David G

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations at prehistoric site CA-MRN-254 at the Dominican University of California in Marin County, California, revealed evidence of Native American occupation spanning the past 1,800 years. A dominant source of food for the inhabitants in the San Francisco Bay area was the intertidal, quiet-water dwelling blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus), although rare occurrences of the open coast-dwelling California mussel (Mytilus californianus) suggest that this species was also utilized sporadically. On rare occasions, cultural horizons at this site contain abundant sediment-filled casts of the smaller mussel Modiolus sp. These casts were formed soon after death when the shells filled with sediment and were roasted along with living bivalve shellfish for consumption. Thin sections of these mussel casts display sedimentological and microbiological constituents that shed light on the paleoenvironmental conditions when they were alive. Fine-grained sediment and pelletal muds comprising these casts suggest that the mussels were collected in a low energy, inner bay environment. The rare presence of the diatoms Triceratium dubium and Thalassionema nitzschioides indicate more normal marine (35 psu) and possibly warmer conditions than presently exist in San Francisco Bay. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal associated with the mussel casts containing these diatoms correlates with a 600-year period of warming from ca. A.D. 700–1300, known as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Results of this mussel cast study demonstrate that they have great potential for providing paleoenvironmental information at this and other archaeological sites.

  20. Use of USGS earth-science products by county planning agencies in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelman, William J.

    1976-01-01

    An inventory of the use of USGS products in selected planning studies, plans, ordinances, and other planning activities was made for eight counties in the San Francisco Bay region--a region of almost five million people. This inventory was designed to determine and document the use of the 87 earth-science information products prepared as a part of the San Francisco Bay Region Environment and Resources Planning Study (SFBRS). The inventory showed that: (1) all eight counties had planning staffs who were very familiar with SFBRS products and had made frequent use of such products; (2) all eight counties had prepared planning documents which cite SFBRS products; (3) the types of planning applications most often indicated were: geologic hazards studies, seismic safety and public safety plan elements, general reference, and the preparation and review of environmental impact reports and statements; (4) over 90 percent of the 87 SFBRS products were used at least once, and nine of the products were used over 30 times each for various county planning activities; and (5) at least 85 other USGS products were also used for various county planning activities. After the inventory, selected county officials, employees, and consultants were interviewed and asked--among other things--to indicate any problems in the use of the SFBRS products, to suggest improvements, and to identify any needed or desired earth-science information. The responses showed that: (1) the scales commonly used for working maps were 1:62,500 or larger and for plan implementation were 1:24,000 or larger; (2) only one county had a geologist on its planning staff, although six others had the benefit of geotechnical services from private consulting firms, county engineering staffs, or the State Division of Mines and Geology; (3) seven of the eight counties expressed some problems in using the products, primarily because of their small scale or lack of detail; (4) all eight counties expected to continue to use

  1. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel

  2. 75 FR 69057 - Foreign-Trade Zone 226-Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Tulare Counties, California; Site Renumbering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... intersection of E. Anderson and E. Clinton Avenues, Fresno, and the adjacent City of Clovis Industrial Park located at the intersection of West Dakota Avenue & West Pontiac Way, Clovis (Fresno County); Site 11 (35...

  3. 78 FR 22031 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: In accordance with Surface Transportation Board (Board) procedures for... Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) issued by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and California... to Fresno Section, Final Project Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement.'' The...

  4. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a

  5. Not an 'iron pipeline', but many capillaries: regulating passive transactions in Los Angeles' secondary, illegal gun market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Kelsie Y; Barragan, Melissa; Gravel, Jason; Pifer, Natalie A; Reiter, Keramet; Sherman, Nicole; Tita, George E

    2017-08-01

    California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns. Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities). Random sampling from a screened pool of eligible participants was used to conduct qualitative semistructured interviews with 140 incarcerated gun offenders in one of four (LACJ) facilities. Researchers collected data on firearm acquisition, experiences related to gun violence, and other topics, using a validated survey instrument. Grounded theory guided the collection and analysis of data. Respondents reported possession of 77 specific guns (79.2% handguns) collectively. Social networks facilitate access to illegal guns; the majority of interviewees acquired their illegal guns through a social connection (85.7%) versus an outside broker/unregulated retailer (8.5%). Most guns were obtained through illegal purchase (n=51) or gift (n=15). A quarter of gun purchasers report engaging in a passive transaction, or one initiated by another party. Passive gun buyers were motivated by concerns for personal safety and/or economic opportunity. In LA's illegal gun market, where existing social relationships facilitate access to guns across a diffuse network, individuals, influenced by both fear and economic opportunity, have frequent opportunities to illegally possess firearms through passive transactions. Gun policies should better target and minimise these transactions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Map showing recent (1997-98 El Nino) and historical landslides, Crow Creek and vicinity, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Godt, Jonathan; Tachker, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the spatial distribution of 3,800 landslides caused by 1997-98 El Ni?o winter rainfall in the vicinity of Crow Creek in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. The report also documents 558 historical (pre-1997-98) landslides. Landslides were mapped from 1:12,000-scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides. Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the 1997-98 winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the 148.6 km2 study area. Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology. Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units. Digital map files accompany the report.

  7. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  8. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  9. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field

  10. Summary geochemical maps for samples of rock, stream sediment, and nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrate, Pyramid Roadless Area, El Dorado County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results of a geochemical survey of the Pyramid Roadless Area (5203) in the Eldorado National Forest and Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, El Dorado County, California. This roadless area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  11. Earthquake education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  12. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  13. Geologic map of the west half of the Blythe 30' by 60' quadrangle, Riverside County, California and La Paz County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Blythe 30' by 60' quadrangle is located along the Colorado River between southeastern California and western Arizona. This map depicts the geology of the west half of the Blythe quadrangle, which is mostly in California. The map area is a desert terrain consisting of mountain ranges surrounded by extensive alluvial fans and plains, including the flood plain of the Colorado River which covers the easternmost part of the area. Mountainous parts of the area, including the Big Maria, Little Maria, Riverside, McCoy, and Mule Mountains, consist of structurally complex rocks that range in age from Proterozoic to Miocene. Proterozoic gneiss and granite are overlain by Paleozoic to Early Jurassic metasedimentary rocks (mostly marble, quartzite, and schist) that are lithostratigraphically similar to coeval formations of the Colorado Plateau region to the east. The Paleozoic to Jurassic strata were deposited on the tectonically stable North American craton. These rocks are overlain by metamorphosed Jurassic volcanic rocks and are intruded by Jurassic plutonic rocks that represent part of a regionally extensive, northwest-trending magmatic arc. The overlying McCoy Mountains Formation, a very thick sequence of weakly metamorphosed sandstone and conglomerate of Jurassic(?) and Cretaceous age, accumulated in a rapidly subsiding depositional basin south of an east-trending belt of deformation and east of the north-trending Cretaceous Cordilleran magmatic arc. The McCoy Mountains Formation and older rocks were deformed, metamorphosed, and locally intruded by plutonic rocks in the Late Cretaceous. In Oligocene(?) to Miocene time, sedimentary and minor volcanic deposits accumulated locally, and the area was deformed by faulting. Tertiary rocks and their Proterozoic basement in the Riverside and northeastern Big Maria Mountains are in the upper plate of a low-angle normal (detachment) fault that lies within a region of major Early to Middle Miocene crustal extension. Surficial

  14. Deformation of marine terraces in coastal Humboldt County, California: an evaluation using GIS-based analysis of LiDAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, J. S.; Kelsey, H. M.; Lamphear, D.

    2012-12-01

    Forming at sea level, uplifted wave-cut platforms serve as long-term geodetic markers. The spatial distribution and elevation of marine terrace sequences offer insight to regional active tectonics. Using LiDAR imagery embedded within a geospatial information system (GIS), we employ a surface classification model (SCM) developed by Bowels and Cowgill (2012) that identifies uplifted marine terraces on the basis of their micro topographical characteristics, low slope and low roughness. The LiDAR data sets were compiled utilizing several public and private sources to cover a large portion of the Humboldt County (northern California) coastline extending from Big Lagoon south to Table Bluff. We supplement LiDAR-derived elevations with elevations derived from kinematic GPS. We test the applicability of the SCM approach to identifying deformed marine terraces, and we also use other geomorphic analyses, including longitudinal profiles and distribution of knickpoints, to assess tectonic evolution and rates of landscape change along the central Humboldt County coastal region. Uplifted marine terraces record the regional patterns of uplift; these patterns both record the development of several north-northwest trending thrust faults, anticlines and synclines and chronicle Quaternary tectonic deformation and erosional histories.

  15. Serologic survey for disease in endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, inhabiting the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, P.M.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1986-07-01

    Serum from endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and sympatric wildlife inhabiting the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, and Elkhorn Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California, was collected in 1981 to 1982 and 1984, and tested for antibodies against 10 infectious disease pathogens. Proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against diseases were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981 to 1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis, 6% in 1981 to 1982 and 21% in 1984; canine distemper, 0 in 1981 to 1982 and 14% in 1984; tularemia, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 31% in 1984; Brucella abortus, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 3% in 1984; Brucella canis, 14% in 1981 to 1982 and 0 in 1984; toxoplasmosis, 6% in 1981 to 1982; coccidioidomycosis, 3% in 1981 to 1982; and plague and leptospirosis, 0 in 1981 to 1982. High population density, overlapping home ranges, ability to disperse great distances, and infestation by ectoparasites were cited as possible factors in the transmission and maintenance of these diseases in kit fox populations.

  16. Biostratigraphy of the San Joaquin Formation in borrow-source area B-17, Kettleman Hills landfill, North Dome, Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.

  17. Multiple Imputation of Groundwater Data to Evaluate Spatial and Temporal Anthropogenic Influences on Subsurface Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Hering, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the City of Los Angeles, groundwater accounts for 11% of the total water supply on average, and 30% during drought years. Due to ongoing drought in California, increased reliance on local water supply highlights the need for better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics and estimating sustainable groundwater supply. However, in an urban setting, such as Los Angeles, understanding or modeling groundwater levels is extremely complicated due to various anthropogenic influences such as groundwater pumping, artificial recharge, landscape irrigation, leaking infrastructure, seawater intrusion, and extensive impervious surfaces. This study analyzes anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels using groundwater monitoring well data from the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works. The groundwater data is irregularly sampled with large gaps between samples, resulting in a sparsely populated dataset. A multiple imputation method is used to fill the missing data, allowing for multiple ensembles and improved error estimates. The filled data is interpolated to create spatial groundwater maps utilizing information from all wells. The groundwater data is evaluated at a monthly time step over the last several decades to analyze the effect of land cover and identify other influencing factors on groundwater levels spatially and temporally. Preliminary results show irrigated parks have the largest influence on groundwater fluctuations, resulting in large seasonal changes, exceeding changes in spreading grounds. It is assumed that these fluctuations are caused by watering practices required to sustain non-native vegetation. Conversely, high intensity urbanized areas resulted in muted groundwater fluctuations and behavior decoupling from climate patterns. Results provides improved understanding of anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels in addition to providing high quality datasets for validation of regional groundwater models.

  18. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values

  19. Hydrogeologic setting and hydrologic data of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, Washoe County, Nevada, and Lassen County, California, water years 1988-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Smoke Creek Desert is a potential source of water for urban development in Washoe County, Nevada. Hydrogeologic data were collected from 1988 to 1990 to learn more about surface- and ground-water flow in the basin. Impermeable rocks form a boundary to ground-water flow on the east side of the basin and at unknown depths at the base of the flow system. Permeable volcanic rocks on the west and north sides of the basin represent a previously unrecognized aquifer and provide potential avenues for interbasin flow. Geophysical data indicate that basin-fill sediments are about 2,000 feet thick near the center of the basin. The geometry of the aquifers, however, remains largely unknown. Measurements of water levels, pressure head, flow rate, water temperature, and specific conductance at 19 wells show little change from 1988 to 1990. Chemically, ground water begins as a dilute sodium and calcium bicarbonate water in the mountain blocks, changes to a slightly saline sodium bicarbonate solution beneath the alluvial fans, and becomes a briny sodium chloride water near the playa. Concentrations of several inorganic constituents in the briny water near the playa commonly exceed Nevada drinking-water standards. Ground water in the Honey Lake basin and Smoke Creek Desert basin has similar stable-isotope composition, except near Sand Pass. If interbasin flow takes place, it likely occurs at depths greater than 400-600 feet beneath Sand Pass or through volcanic rocks to the north of Sand Pass. Measure- ments of streamflow indicate that about 2,800 acre-feet/year discharged from volcanic rocks to streamflow and a minimum of 7.300 acre-feet/year infiltrated and recharged unconsolidated sediments near Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks during the period of study. Also about 1,500 acre-feet per year was lost to evapotranspiration along the channel of Smoke Creek, and about 1,680 acre-feet per year of runoff from Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks was probably lost to evaporation from the

  20. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; and Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-08-07

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to

  1. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Futo, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.; Marshall, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values

  2. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  3. Aquifer geometry, lithology, and water levels in the Anza–Terwilliger area—2013, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Morita, Andrew Y.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Christensen, Allen H.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-11-24

    The population of the Anza–Terwilliger area relies solely on groundwater pumped from the alluvial deposits and surrounding bedrock formations for water supply. The size, characteristics, and current conditions of the aquifer system in the Anza–Terwilliger area are poorly understood, however. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the High Country Conservancy and Rancho California Water District, undertook a study to (1) improve mapping of groundwater basin geometry and lithology and (2) to resume groundwater-level monitoring last done during 2004–07 in the Anza–Terwilliger area. 

  4. High-resolution seismic reflection/refraction imaging from Interstate 10 to Cherry Valley Boulevard, Cherry Valley, Riverside County, California: implications for water resources and earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhok, G.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Horta, E.; Rymer, M.J.; Martin, P.; Christensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the second of two reports on seismic imaging investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the summers of 1997 and 1998 in the Cherry Valley area in California (Figure 1a). In the first report (Catchings et al., 1999), data and interpretations were presented for four seismic imaging profiles (CV-1, CV-2, CV-3, and CV-4) acquired during the summer of 1997 . In this report, we present data and interpretations for three additional profiles (CV-5, CV-6, and CV-7) acquired during the summer of 1998 and the combined seismic images for all seven profiles. This report addresses both groundwater resources and earthquake hazards in the San Gorgonio Pass area because the shallow (upper few hundred meters) subsurface stratigraphy and structure affect both issues. The cities of Cherry Valley and Beaumont are located approximately 130 km (~80 miles) east of Los Angeles, California along the southern alluvial fan of the San Bernardino Mountains (see Figure 1b). These cities are two of several small cities that are located within San Gorgonio Pass, a lower-lying area between the San Bernardino and the San Jacinto Mountains. Cherry Valley and Beaumont are desert cities with summer daytime temperatures often well above 100 o F. High water usage in the arid climate taxes the available groundwater supply in the region, increasing the need for efficient management of the groundwater resources. The USGS and the San Gorgonio Water District (SGWD) work cooperatively to evaluate the quantity and quality of groundwater supply in the San Gorgonio Pass region. To better manage the water supplies within the District during wet and dry periods, the SGWD sought to develop a groundwater recharge program, whereby, excess water would be stored in underground aquifers during wet periods (principally winter months) and retrieved during dry periods (principally summer months). The SGWD preferred a surface recharge approach because it could be less expensive than a

  5. Digital Geologic Map of the Redding 1° x 2° Quadrangle, Shasta, Tehama, Humboldt, and Trinity Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraticelli, Luis A.; Albers, John P.; Irwin, William P.; Blake, Milton C.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2012-01-01

    The Redding 1° x 2 quadrangle in northwestern California transects the Franciscan Complex and southern Klamath Mountains province as well as parts of the Great Valley Complex, northern Great Valley, and southernmost Cascades volcanic province. The tectonostratigraphic terranes of the Klamath province represent slices of oceanic crust, island arcs, and overlying sediment that range largely from Paleozoic to Jurassic in age. The Eastern Klamath terrane forms the nucleus to which the other terranes were added westward, primarily during Jurassic time, and that package was probably accreted to North America during earliest Cretaceous time. The younger Franciscan Complex consists of a sequence of westward younging tectonostratigraphic terranes of late Jurassic to Miocene age that were accreted to North America from mid-Cretaceous through Miocene time, with the easternmost being the most strongly metamorphosed. The marine Great Valley sequence, of late Jurassic and Cretaceous age, was deposited unconformably across the southernmost Klamath rocks, but in turn was underthrust at its western margin by Eastern belt Franciscan rocks. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks and sediment of the Cascades province extend into the southeastern part of the quadrangle, abutting the northernmost part of the great central valley of California. This map and database represent a digital rendition of Open-File Report 87-257, 1987, by L.A. Fraticelli, J.P. Albers, W.P. Irwin, and M.C. Blake, Jr., with various improvements and additions.

  6. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  7. Liquefaction and other ground failures in Imperial County, California, from the April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Timothy P.; Pridmore, Cynthia L.; Tinsley, John C.; Sickler, Robert R.; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado River Delta region of southern Imperial Valley, California, and Mexicali Valley, Baja California, is a tectonically dynamic area characterized by numerous active faults and frequent large seismic events. Significant earthquakes that have been accompanied by surface fault rupture and/or soil liquefaction occurred in this region in 1892 (M7.1), 1915 (M6.3; M7.1), 1930 (M5.7), 1940 (M6.9), 1950 (M5.4), 1957 (M5.2), 1968 (6.5), 1979 (6.4), 1980 (M6.1), 1981 (M5.8), and 1987 (M6.2; M6.8). Following this trend, the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010, ruptured approximately 120 kilometers along several known faults in Baja California. Liquefaction caused by the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake was widespread throughout the southern Imperial Valley but concentrated in the southwest corner of the valley, southwest of the city centers of Calexico and El Centro where ground motions were highest. Although there are few strong motion recordings in the very western part of the area, the recordings that do exist indicate that ground motions were on the order of 0.3 to 0.6g where the majority of liquefaction occurrences were found. More distant liquefaction occurrences, at Fites Road southwest of Brawley and along Rosita Canal northwest of Holtville were triggered where ground motions were about 0.2 g. Damage to roads was associated mainly with liquefaction of sandy river deposits beneath bridge approach fills, and in some cases liquefaction within the fills. Liquefaction damage to canal and drain levees was not always accompanied by vented sand, but the nature of the damage leads the authors to infer that liquefaction was involved in the majority of observed cases. Liquefaction-related damage to several public facilities - Calexico Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fig Lagoon levee system, and Sunbeam Lake Dam in particular - appears to be extensive. The cost to repair these facilities to prevent future liquefaction damage will likely be prohibitive. As

  8. Summary of water resources for the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, W.R.; Downing, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1945, precipitation and runoff in California on the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and surrounding areas generally have been below normal, and ground-water levels are declining. Most of the water is of excellent quality. The analysis of water from one well on the Campo Reservation indicates a concentration of nitrate that exceeds the recommended limit established in 1972 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Most wells and springs in the study area yield water for domestic purposes. The yields range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 210 gallons per minute. Most of the water is produced from shallow aluvial-filled channels or from consolidated rocks that are deeply weathered locally or highly fractured. The well data show that insufficient water is available on the four reservations for large-scale irrigation. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Final supplemental environmental impact statement/program environmental impact report for the sale of NPR-1. Sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (Elk Hills) Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The Proposed Action is the sale of all right, title and interest of the US in Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (Public Law 104-106). The Proposed Action is also DOE's Preferred Alternative. DOE has determined that the sale of NPR-1 as required by Public Law 104-106 constitutes a major Federal action which may have a significant impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Kern County has determined that the sale could have a significant effect on the environment under the California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA). Significant impacts may occur because private-sector operation of the NPR-1 oil field could result in accelerated levels of development and different types of activities than under continued government ownership. This SEIS/PEIR assesses the potential environmental impacts from the Proposed Action, a No Action Alternative under which NPR-1 would continue to be operated by DOE, and an Alternative to the Proposed Action under which some form of government control would be maintained. This document assesses the environmental impacts on: geology and soils; hazardous materials and waste management; air; water; biology; cultural and historical resources; land use; noise socioeconomics; risk assessment; energy conservation; and environmental justice

  10. Distribution and demography of San Francisco gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) at Mindego Ranch, Russian Ridge Open Space Preserve, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard; Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2018-04-26

    San Francisco gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) are a subspecies of common gartersnakes endemic to the San Francisco Peninsula of northern California. Because of habitat loss and collection for the pet trade, San Francisco gartersnakes were listed as endangered under the precursor to the Federal Endangered Species Act. A population of San Francisco gartersnakes resides at Mindego Ranch, San Mateo County, which is part of the Russian Ridge Open Space Preserve owned and managed by the Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District (MROSD). Because the site contained non-native fishes and American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), MROSD implemented management to eliminate or reduce the abundance of these non-native species in 2014. We monitored the population using capture-mark-recapture techniques to document changes in the population during and following management actions. Although drought confounded some aspects of inference about the effects of management, prey and San Francisco gartersnake populations generally increased following draining of Aquatic Feature 3. Continued management of the site to keep invasive aquatic predators from recolonizing or increasing in abundance, as well as vegetation management that promotes heterogeneous grassland/shrubland near wetlands, likely would benefit this population of San Francisco gartersnakes.

  11. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W A

    1998-03-01

    Over the past 3 years, the level of political debate has grown over the nature and extent of the recent large-scale immigration to the US in general, and to California in particular. California's Proposition 187 to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants brought national attention to the immigration debate, and no doubt influenced recent decisions to significantly change the US's welfare program. The author studied the vote on Proposition 187 in the November 1994 California election to better understand the nature of reaction to large-scale immigration and recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and nativism. The only counties which voted against the proposition were Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Yolo, Alameda, and Santa Clara, as well as the population of San Francisco. The vote generated political responses from across the border as well as within California. Statements from Mexican and other Central American governments reflected their concern over the possibility of returning populations, for whom there are neither jobs nor public services in their countries of origin. Findings are presented from a spatial analysis of the vote by census tracts in Los Angeles County.

  12. Angels or demons? You decide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The new film Angels & Demons starring Tom Hanks and directed by Ron Howard is being premiered worldwide on 15 May, but you could see it 10 days earlier at a special preview screening as the CERN Press Office has a limited number of tickets to give away. Preview of the new CERN website to be published on 5 May. Opinion is split among CERNois when talking about Dan Brown’s book Angels & Demons. Should he be praised for bringing particle physics into the spotlight or should he be demonised for the ‘creative liberties’ he took - for example, although it would be useful for the international collaborations, CERN doesn’t actually have its own private airport and supersonic jet. But love it or hate it, with the upcoming release of the multi-million dollar Hollywood film adaptation, Angels & Demons will introduce a huge new audience to CERN. "Guess what? – CERN really exists!" said...

  13. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and

  14. Modeling smog along the Los Angeles-Palm Springs trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of smog concentrations and wind patterns during the summer of 1973 in Los Angeles, Pomona, Riverside, Banning, and Palm Springs, California are presented which show that high oxidant concentrations at Banning and Palm Springs are often due to advection of smog from source regions in the more densely populated western part of the Los Angeles basin. At Pomona and Riverside, advection from upwind source regions combines with the effects of local emissions to cause long durations of high oxidant concentrations with peak times in the mid afternoon. An empirical model for the diurnal oxidant variation is suggested which satisfactorily simulates observed concentrations. More complex models which include chemical kinetics systems do not perform very satisfactorily at the rural stations of Banning and Palm Springs, especially at night when observed oxidant concentrations remain high

  15. Geology and ground-water in western Santa Cruz County, California, with particular emphasis on the Santa Margarita Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, J.P.; Jackson, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    The water-bearing potential of the geologic formations in the western part of Santa Cruz County, Calif., is evaluated. Most of the sedimentary formations in this area are fine-grained rocks of Tertiary age that have been folded and faulted. These rocks, in general, yield supplies of water sufficient only for individual domestic supplies. The Lompico and Santa Margarita Sandstones, however, are coarser grained and have the potential to yield moderate quantities of water (50-100 gallons per minute). Areas where the Lompico Sandstone might warrant explorations are (1) near and on the west side of the Ben Lomond fault, (2) near and south of the outcrop of the Lompico Sandstone between Ben Lomond and Felton, and (3) in the area near Bald Mountain School. The Santa Margarita Sandstone should be explored by test drilling in the area between Davenport and Bonnie Doon. The quality of ground water is generally good, although saline water occurs in the San Lorenzo Formation near Redwood Grove and Riverside Grove. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Limnological study of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California, with emphasis on the effects of the 1977 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, S.A.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.

    1983-01-01

    An intensive limnological study of Shasta Lake was made in conjunction with the California Department of Water Resources during the 1977 drought. Water-quality data were collected from March 1977 through September 1978 at six lake stations and four lake tributary stations. Data collected during and after the drought were compared. Lake water quality is described as a function of lake morphometry, climate, hydrology, and reservoir hydraulics. Results indicate Shasta Lake is a warm monomictic lake. Tributary inflow to the lake and outflow through the dam generate density currents which promote mixing at depth and the development of an extensive metalimnion. During the drought, record low lake levels resulted in the exposure of an extensive nearshore sediment zone. Resuspended sediments caused a deterioration of water quality. The most notable effects, in comparison with post-drought conditions, were decreased light penetration, increased dissolved-solids concentration and specific conductance, decreased dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and elevated nutrient levels. A hypolimnetic anoxic condition was observed at the upstream stations of the lake. (USGS)

  17. Analytical results, geology, and sample locality map of mercury-sulfur-gypsum mineralization at Crater, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.S.; Marsh, S.P.; Roemer, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Crater mercury-su l fur-gypsum ~ineral ized area is located in east-central California along the crest of the Last Chance Range, west of the north end of Death Valley (fig. 1). The area is in the northwest quarter of the Last Chance Range 15-minute quadrangle and occupies the area between 117 39 and 117 45 longitude and 37 10 and 37 15 latitudP.. The area studied lies between 5000 ( 1525 m) and 6000 ( 1830 m) feet above sea level. Relief isgenerally moderate but can be extreme in some places, as at Hanging Rock Canyon (plate 1). The climate is arid, and there are no active streams in the area. The range fronts east and west of the area are precipitous and incised by many steep canyons, whereas the range crest has relatively low relief. The old abandoned town and mine site of Crater 1 ie in this area of low relief. Access to the Crater area is by paved and dirt roads from Big Pine to the west or from the north end of the Death Valley National Monument to the southeast.

  18. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  19. 76 FR 14103 - The Jewelry Stream; Los Angeles, CA, Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,145] The Jewelry Stream; Los... workers and former workers of The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, California. On November 23, 2010, the... Jewelry Stream are engaged in employment related to the production of jewelry. Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c...

  20. 75 FR 71455 - The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmation Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,145] The Jewelry Stream, Los... Manufacturing, Inc. and The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, California. The termination notice was signed on August... identified in the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) petition--M&L Manufacturing, Inc. and The Jewelry Stream...

  1. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  2. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  3. Conference report from the 2012 AHA scientific sessions in Los Angeles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Edwards, Andrew G.; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    The 2012 Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association was held on November 3 - 7 in Los Angels, California. It covered up-to-date research on both basic- and clinical-cardiovascular science. We describe the highlights of the meeting focusing on basic science and clinical cardiology. More

  4. Cone Penetration Test and Soil Boring at the Bayside Groundwater Project Site in San Lorenzo, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Sneed, Michelle; Noce, Thomas E.; Tinsley, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Aquifer-system deformation associated with ground-water-level changes is being investigated cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) at the Bayside Groundwater Project (BGP) near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of this project, EBMUD has proposed an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) program to store and recover as much as 3.78x104 m3/d of water. Water will be stored in a 30-m sequence of coarse-grained sediment (the 'Deep Aquifer') underlying the east bay alluvium and the adjacent ground-water basin. Storing and recovering water could cause subsidence and uplift at the ASR site and adjacent areas because the land surface will deform as aquifers and confining units elastically expand and contract with ASR cycles. The Deep Aquifer is overlain by more than 150 m of clayey fine-grained sediments and underlain by comparable units. These sediments are similar to the clayey sediments found in the nearby Santa Clara Valley, where inelastic compaction resulted in about 4.3 m of subsidence near San Jose from 1910 to 1995 due to overdraft of the aquifer. The Deep Aquifer is an important regional resource, and EBMUD is required to demonstrate that ASR activities will not affect nearby ground-water management, salinity levels, or cause permanent land subsidence. Subsidence in the east bay area could induce coastal flooding and create difficulty conveying winter storm runoff from urbanized areas. The objective of the cooperative investigation is to monitor and analyze aquifer-system compaction and expansion, as well as consequent land subsidence and uplift resulting from natural causes and any anthropogenic causes related to ground-water development and ASR activities at the BGP. Therefore, soil properties related to compressibility (and the potential for deformation associated with ground-water-level changes) are of the most concern. To achieve this objective, 3 boreholes

  5. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two

  6. App-Based Sexual Partner Seeking and Sexually Transmitted Infection Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study of HIV-negative MSM Attending an STI Clinic in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVost, Michelle A; Beymer, Matthew R; Weiss, Robert E; Shover, Chelsea L; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-11-29

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) face higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than the general population. The association between venues where sexual partners are met and STI transmission is dynamic and poorly understood, especially among those who use geosocial networking (GSN) apps. This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference in STI incidence between MSM who met their last sexual partner through a GSN app and MSM who met their last partner via other venues. Data were analyzed from HIV-negative MSM attending the Los Angeles LBGT Center between August 2015 and July 2016 (n = 9,499). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between STI incidence and whether or not an individual met their last partner through a GSN app. No relationship was detected between STI incidence and whether one's last sexual partner was met via GSN app. However, an association was detected between STI incidence and having used GSN apps to meet sexual partners in the past three months. A dose-response relationship was observed between the number of venues used to meet partners and testing positive for any STI (aOR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20). The relationship between how people meet sexual partners and STI acquisition is much more nuanced than previously thought. GSN apps do not inherently expose users to high-risk reservoirs of STIs, but further understanding of the complexity of sexual networks and networking methods is warranted, given increasing rates of STIs.

  7. Geochemistry of mercury and other constituents in subsurface sediment—Analyses from 2011 and 2012 coring campaigns, Cache Creek Settling Basin, Yolo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Michelle R.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Sneed, Michelle; Morita, Andrew Y.; Salas, Antonia

    2017-10-31

    Cache Creek Settling Basin was constructed in 1937 to trap sediment from Cache Creek before delivery to the Yolo Bypass, a flood conveyance for the Sacramento River system that is tributary to the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. Sediment management options being considered by stakeholders in the Cache Creek Settling Basin include sediment excavation; however, that could expose sediments containing elevated mercury concentrations from historical mercury mining in the watershed. In cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook sediment coring campaigns in 2011–12 (1) to describe lateral and vertical distributions of mercury concentrations in deposits of sediment in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and (2) to improve constraint of estimates of the rate of sediment deposition in the basin.Sediment cores were collected in the Cache Creek Settling Basin, Yolo County, California, during October 2011 at 10 locations and during August 2012 at 5 other locations. Total core depths ranged from approximately 4.6 to 13.7 meters (15 to 45 feet), with penetration to about 9.1 meters (30 feet) at most locations. Unsplit cores were logged for two geophysical parameters (gamma bulk density and magnetic susceptibility); then, selected cores were split lengthwise. One half of each core was then photographed and archived, and the other half was subsampled. Initial subsamples from the cores (20-centimeter composite samples from five predetermined depths in each profile) were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, total reduced sulfur, iron speciation, organic content (as the percentage of weight loss on ignition), and grain-size distribution. Detailed follow-up subsampling (3-centimeter intervals) was done at six locations along an east-west transect in the southern part of the Cache Creek Settling Basin and at one location in the northern part of the basin for analyses of total mercury; organic content; and cesium-137, which was

  8. Hangar con alas, Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Formando parte de su programa, la TWA ha construido recientemente un hangar para servicio y reparaciones de su flota aérea de naves ordinarias y de aviones de reacción en el aeropuerto internacional de Los Angeles (Estados Unidos. El proyecto de esta obra se encargó a la empresa constructora Holmes & Narver, Inc.

  9. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    to utter strings of syllables that some claim to be the ‘language of angels.’ Recent neuroimaging studies have highlighted differences in the brains of subjects performing glossolalia in comparison to those same subjects singing a Church hymn. An investigation of the neural correlates of glossolalia...

  10. Palace Revolt in Los Angeles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Antonio Villaraigosa, the mayor of Los Angeles, comes alive when recalling his start in local politics--as a labor organizer agitating for reform inside decrepit and overcrowded schools. In his quest to turn around the schools, the mayor has united working-class Latino parents, civil rights leaders, and big-money Democrats to challenge union…

  11. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  12. Geologic map of the Hayward fault zone, Contra Costa, Alameda, and Santa Clara counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.; Jones, D.L.; Brabb, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Hayward is one of three major fault zones of the San Andreas system that have produced large historic earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area (the others being the San Andreas and Calaveras). Severe earthquakes were generated by this fault zone in 1836 and in 1868, and several large earthquakes have been recorded since 1868. The Hayward fault zone is considered to be the most probable source of a major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, as much as 28% chance for a magnitude 7 earthquake before the year 2021 (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1990). The Hayward fault zone, as described in this work, is a zone of highly deformed rocks, trending north 30 degrees west and ranging in width from about 2 to 10 kilometers. The historic earthquake generating activity has been concentrated in the western portion of the zone, but the zone as a whole reflects deformation derived from oblique right-lateral and compressive tectonic stress along a significant upper crustal discontinuity for the past 10 million or more years. The Hayward fault zone is bounded on the east by a series of faults that demarcate the beginning of one or more structural blocks containing rocks and structures unrelated to the Hayward fault zone. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller Creek, and Moraga faults. These faults are not considered to be part of the Hayward fault zone, although they are shown on the map to demarcate its boundary. The western boundary of the zone is less clearly defined, because the alluvium of the San Francisco Bay and Santa Clara Valley basins obscures bedrock and structural relationships. Although several of the westernmost faults in the zone clearly project under or through the alluvium, the western boundary of the fault is generally considered to be the westernmost mapped fault, which corresponds more or less with the margin of thick unconsolidated surficial deposits. The Hayward fault

  13. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  14. Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  15. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  16. Geologic map of the Providence Mountains in parts of the Fountain Peak and adjacent 7.5' quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Miller, David M.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Rosario, Jose J.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wan, Elmira; Priest, Susan S.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2017-03-22

    IntroductionThe Providence Mountains are in the eastern Mojave Desert about 60 km southeast of Baker, San Bernardino County, California. This range, which is noted for its prominent cliffs of Paleozoic limestone, is part of a northeast-trending belt of mountainous terrain more than 100 km long that also includes the Granite Mountains, Mid Hills, and New York Mountains. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area encompasses part of the range, the remainder of which is within Mojave National Preserve, a large parcel of land administered by the National Park Service. Access to the Providence Mountains is by secondary roads leading south and north from Interstate Highways 15 and 40, respectively, which bound the main part of Mojave National Preserve.The geologic map presented here includes most of Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and land that surrounds it on the north, west, and south. This area covers most of the Fountain Peak 7.5′ quadrangle and small adjacent parts of the Hayden quadrangle to the north, the Columbia Mountain quadrangle to the northeast, and the Colton Well quadrangle to the east. The map area includes representative outcrops of most of the major geologic elements of the Providence Mountains, including gneissic Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, a thick overlying sequence of Neoproterozoic to Triassic sedimentary rocks, Jurassic rhyolite that intrudes and overlies the sedimentary rocks, Jurassic plutons and associated dikes, Miocene volcanic rocks, and a variety of Quaternary surficial deposits derived from local bedrock units. The purpose of the project was to map the area in detail, with primary emphasis on the pre-Quaternary units, to provide an improved stratigraphic, structural, and geochronologic framework for use in land management applications and scientific research.

  17. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  18. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Los Angeles and Its Influence on Professional and Popular Astronomy - A Hollywood Love Story, by Lewis Chilton, Past President, Optical Shop Director and Historian, Los Angeles Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Lew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show through visualizations how the Los Angeles, California milieu of the early 20th century benefited the advancement of astronomy and captured the public consciousness through popular press accounts of these advancements and of the scientists who made them. The thesis of this presentation purports that a symbiosis developed between astronomers of Los Angeles-area scientific and educational institutions and a local community of interested laypersons, and was the catalyst that sparked future generations to enter the fields of astronomy, the allied sciences, education and technology. This presentation attempts to highlight the importance of continued public outreach by the professional astronomical community, for the ultimate benefit to itself, in Los Angeles and beyond.

  20. Strange little flies in the big city: exotic flower-breeding drosophilidae (Diptera in urban Los Angeles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are commonly considered too mundane and corrupted to be biotically interesting. Recent insect surveys employing 29 Malaise traps throughout Los Angeles, California, however, have uncovered breeding populations of two unexpected species of one of the most studied and familiar groups of organisms, Drosophila "fruit" flies. Unlike most introduced species of drosophilids, which breed in fresh or decaying fruits, these are specialized flower-breeders. A common species in the survey was Drosophila (Drosophila gentica Wheeler and Takada, previously collected only once, in El Salvador. It belongs to the flavopilosa species group, all species of which have been known until now from central Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, to Veracruz, Mexico and the Caribbean, breeding in flowers of Cestrum ("jessamine" and Sessea (Solanaceae. The Los Angeles populations are probably breeding in a native and/or introduced Cestrum; in addition, populations in San Luis Obispo County were visiting ornamental Cestrum. Drosophila gentica occurs as far north as San Francisco, where it was found breeding in Cestrum aurantiacum. D. gentica is redescribed and figured in detail for diagnostic and identification purposes. Specimens from Jamaica previously identified as D. gentica are a distinct species but are not formally described in lieu of complete male specimens. Rare in the Malaise traps was Drosophila (Sophophora flavohirta Malloch, a common species in Australia on the blossoms of native Myrtaceae, found on introduced Eucalyptus in South Africa and both Eucalyptus and Syzygium in Madagascar; adults feed on myrtaceous pollen and nectar, larvae breed in the flowers. It is also redescribed in detail, including its unusual egg. This is the first New World report of this species; DNA sequences confirm it is a morphologically highly aberrant member of the D. melanogaster species group. This study reveals how intensive field sampling can uncover remarkable

  1. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  2. Application of a New Integrated Decision Support Tool (i-DST) for Urban Water Infrastructure: Analyzing Water Quality Compliance Pathways for Three Los Angeles Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Bell, C. D.; Spahr, K.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The water quality of receiving streams and waterbodies in urban watersheds are increasingly polluted from stormwater runoff. The implementation of Green Infrastructure (GI), which includes Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and Best Management Practices (BMPs), within a watershed aim to mitigate the effects of urbanization by reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume, and storm peak flow. Stormwater modeling is generally used to assess the impact of GIs implemented within a watershed. These modeling tools are useful for determining the optimal suite of GIs to maximize pollutant load reduction and minimize cost. However, stormwater management for most resource managers and communities also includes the implementation of grey and hybrid stormwater infrastructure. An integrated decision support tool, called i-DST, that allows for the optimization and comprehensive life-cycle cost assessment of grey, green, and hybrid stormwater infrastructure, is currently being developed. The i-DST tool will evaluate optimal stormwater runoff management by taking into account the diverse economic, environmental, and societal needs associated with watersheds across the United States. Three watersheds from southern California will act as a test site and assist in the development and initial application of the i-DST tool. The Ballona Creek, Dominguez Channel, and Los Angeles River Watersheds are located in highly urbanized Los Angeles County. The water quality of the river channels flowing through each are impaired by heavy metals, including copper, lead, and zinc. However, despite being adjacent to one another within the same county, modeling results, using EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN), found that the optimal path to compliance in each watershed differs significantly. The differences include varied costs, suites of BMPs, and ancillary benefits. This research analyzes how the economic, physical, and hydrological differences between the three

  3. Italian cross-cultural adaptation and validation of three different scales for the evaluation of shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, C; Cristalli, G; Pichi, B; Manciocco, V; Mercante, G; Pellini, R; Marchesi, P; Sperduti, I; Ruscito, P; Spriano, G

    2012-02-01

    Shoulder syndrome after neck dissection is a well known entity, but its incidence and prognostic factors influencing recovery have not been clearly assessed due to the heterogeneity of possible evaluations. The University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) are three English-language questionnaires commonly used to test shoulder impairment. An Italian version of these scales is not available. The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SPADI, the UCLA shoulder scale and the SST was performed according to the international guidelines. Sixty-six patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer were called to draw up these scales. Forty patients completed the same questionnaires a second time one week after the first to test the reproducibility of the Italian versions. All the English-speaking Italian patients (n = 11) were asked to complete both the English and the Italian versions of the three questionnaires to validate the scales. No major problems regarding the content or the language were found during the translation of the 3 questionnaires. For all three scales, Cronbach's α was > 0.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r > 0.91. With respect to validity, there was a significant correlation between the Italian and the English versions of all three scales. This study shows that the Italian versions of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST are valid instruments for the evaluation of shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection in Italian patients.

  4. Possible Connections Between the Coronado Bank Fault Zone and the Newport-Inglewood, Rose Canyon, and Palos Verdes Fault Zones Offshore San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow Huntec data collected by the USGS were interpreted to map the Coronado Bank fault zone (CBFZ) offshore San Diego County, California. The CBFZ is comprised of several major strands (eastern, central, western) that change in both orientation and degree of deformation along strike. Between Coronado Bank and San Diego, the CBFZ trends N25W and occupies a narrow 7 km zone. Immediately north of La Jolla submarine canyon (LJSC), the easternmost strand changes orientation to almost due north and appears to be offset in a right-lateral sense across the canyon axis. The strand merges with a prominent fault that follows the base of the continental slope in about 600 m water depth. The central portion of the CBFZ is mapped as a negative flower structure and deforms seafloor sediment as far north as 15 km north of LJSC. Farther north, this structure is buried by more than 400 m of basin sediment. Along the eastern edge of the Coronado Bank, the western portion of the CBFZ is characterized by high angle normal faults that dip to the east. North of the Coronado Bank, the western segment follows the western edge of a basement high; it cuts through horizontal basin reflectors and in places deforms the seafloor. We mapped an additional splay of the CBFZ that trends N40W; it is only observed north and west of LJSC. Although the predominant trend of the CBFZ is about N40W, along strike deviations from this orientation of some of the strands indicate that these strands connect with other offshore fault zones in the area. Based on the limited data available, the trend of the CBFZ south of Coronado Bank suggests that it might connect with the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) that has been mapped in San Diego Bay. North of Coronado Bank, the CBFZ is a much broader fault zone (about 25 km wide) composed of diverging fault strands. The westernmost strand may merge with the western strand of the Palos Verdes fault zone (PVFZ) south of

  5. Electrical resistivity investigation of fluvial geomorphology to evaluate potential seepage conduits to agricultural lands along the San Joaquin River, Merced County, California, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, Krishangi D.; Burgess, Matthew K.; Howle, James F.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2017-02-08

    Increased flows in the San Joaquin River, part of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, are designed to help restore fish populations. However, increased seepage losses could result from these higher restoration flows, which could exacerbate existing drainage problems in neighboring agricultural lands and potentially damage crops. Channel deposits of abandoned river meanders that are hydraulically connected to the river could act as seepage conduits, allowing rapid and widespread water-table rise during restoration flows. There is a need to identify the geometry and properties of these channel deposits to assess their role in potential increased seepage effects and to evaluate management alternatives for reducing seepage. Electrical and electromagnetic surface geophysical methods have provided a reliable proxy for lithology in studies of fluvial and hyporheic systems where a sufficient electrical contrast exists between deposits of differing grain size. In this study, direct-current (DC) resistivity was used to measure subsurface resistivity to identify channel deposits and to map their subsurface geometry. The efficacy of this method was assessed by using DC resistivity surveys collected along a reach of the San Joaquin River in Merced County, California, during the summers of 2012 and 2013, in conjunction with borings and associated measurements from a hydraulic profiling tool. Modeled DC resistivity data corresponded with data from cores, hand-auger samples, a hydraulic profiling tool, and aerial photographs, confirming that DC resistivity is effective for differentiating between silt and sand deposits in this setting. Modeled DC resistivity data provided detailed two-dimensional cross-sectional resistivity profiles to a depth of about 20 meters. The distribution of high-resistivity units in these profiles was used as a proxy for identifying areas of high hydraulic conductivity. These data were used subsequently to guide the location and depth of wells

  6. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  7. County Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...

  8. Estimated HIV Incidence in California, 2006-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Scheer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial for prioritizing, targeting, and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. Using the methodology the CDC used to estimate national HIV incidence, we estimated HIV incidence in Los Angeles County (LAC, San Francisco (SF, and California's remaining counties. METHODS: We estimated new HIV infections in 2006-2009 among adults and adolescents in LAC, SF and the remaining California counties using the Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent Seroconversion (STARHS. STARHS methodology uses the BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay to determine recent HIV infections by testing remnant serum from persons newly diagnosed with HIV. A population-based incidence estimate is calculated using HIV testing data from newly diagnosed cases and imputing for persons unaware of their HIV infection. RESULTS: For years 2007-2009, respectively, we estimated new infections in LAC to be 2426 (95% CI 1871-2982, 1669 (CI 1309-2029 and 1898 (CI 1452-2344 (p<0.01; in SF for 2006-2009, 492 (CI 327-657, 490 (CI 335-646, 458 (CI 342-574 and 367 (CI 261-473 (p = 0.14; and in the remaining California counties in 2008-2009, 2526 (CI 1688-3364 and 2993 (CI 2141-3846 respectively. HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men (MSM in LAC were 100 times higher than other risk populations; the SF MSM rate was 3 to 18 times higher than other demographic groups. In LAC, incidence rates among African-Americans were twice those of whites and Latinos; persons 40 years or older had lower rates of infection than younger persons. DISCUSSION: We report the first HIV incidence estimates for California, highlighting geographic disparities in HIV incidence and confirming national findings that MSM and African-Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV. HIV incidence estimates can and should be used to target prevention efforts towards populations at highest risk of acquiring new HIV infections, focusing on geographic, racial and risk

  9. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the

  10. Do Bites of Kissing Bugs Cause Unexplained Allergies? Results from a Survey in Triatomine-Exposed and Unexposed Areas in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jan; Fletcher, Erin; Moussaoui, Roba; Gandhi, Kumar; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Background The bite of Triatominae can cause cutaneous allergic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Since the early 1980s, no population-based surveys have been done in Southern California, and none was ever carried out in inland Los Angeles or Riverside Counties. Objectives To measure the frequency of insect sightings, bites and allergic reactions in a suburban area of eastern Los Angeles County and along with rural and urban sites in Riverside County. Methods A door-to-door survey was done in triatomine exposed and unexposed areas. Logistic regression modeling was used for the analysis, and study participants were asked to collect insects. Results Out of the 221 study participants in the exposed areas, 46 (20%) knew about the presence of Triatominae in their neighborhood. Fifteen (7%) persons reported triatomine sightings in their house during the month preceding the interview. Also, 15 (7%) participants reported ever being bitten by a triatomine. Ten (5%) participants collected either a Triatoma protracta Uhler and/or Paratriatoma hirsuta Barber in and around their house. Twenty-nine (13%) persons in the rural Riverside County reported symptoms compatible with allergy to triatomine bites. This was 4 times higher than in the urban control area where only 4 (3%) of 115 persons reported these symptoms. The association between living in a triatomine-exposed area and self-reported symptoms suggestive of allergies increased slightly when adjusted for the participant’s sex and the age of their house (adjusted odds ratio: 5.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 22.0). Reporting these symptoms was associated with seeing Triatominae in the neighborhood and having been bitten. Conclusion Allergies to triatomine bites could be a significant problem in inland Southern California. Further investigations, a diagnostic test and better information of persons living in triatomine-exposed areas are needed. PMID:22937146

  11. DCS Terrain Submission for Los Angeles County, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los... to advise the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed... prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure...

  13. DOMINGUEZ CHANNEL AND COMPTON CREEK PAL, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  15. Toxic School Sites in Los Angeles: Weaknesses in the Site Acquisition Process. Special Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    A special report of the California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee addresses the school site acquisition process to attempt to discern how the system has allowed a minimum of nine Los Angeles public schools to be built on toxic lands. The report examines two such sites, the Jefferson Middle School (JMS) and the combined elementary…

  16. Detection and Establishment of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in California, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marco E; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Padgett, Kerry A; Hu, Renjie; Kramer, Vicki L

    2017-05-01

    In 2011, a thriving population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, was discovered within three cities in Los Angeles County over an estimated 52-km2 urban area. Two years later in 2013, Aedes aegypti (L.), the yellow fever mosquito, was detected within several urban areas of Madera, Fresno, and San Mateo counties. State and local vector control agencies responded with an aggressive effort to eradicate or interrupt the spread of these two invasive mosquitoes; however, known populations continued to expand outward and new infestations were identified at an accelerated pace in central and southern California. By the end of 2015, one or both species had been detected within the jurisdictional boundaries of 85 cities and census-designated places in 12 counties. Herein we report on the discovery and widespread establishment of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in urban areas of coastal, central, and southern California between 2011 and 2015 and discuss the subsequent rapid changes to the activities and priorities of vector control agencies in response to this unprecedented invasion. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  18. 75 FR 62758 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... meeting in Prather, California, November 17, 2010 and in Clovis, California, December 15, 2010. The...., Clovis, CA. Send written comments to Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator...

  19. 78 FR 18849 - Disapproval of Implementation Plan Revisions; State of California; South Coast VMT Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin Area (``South Coast'') \\2\\ as ``extreme'' nonattainment for the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Disapproval of Implementation Plan Revisions; State of California; South Coast VMT... the Clean Air Act for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin 1-hour and 8-hour ozone nonattainment...

  20. Polling in the Governor's Race in California

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassare, Mark; DiCamillo, Mark; Pinkus, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The November 2002 election in California had the lowest voter turnout and the largest number of third-party gubernatorial candidate votes in the state's history. In the governor's election on November 5th, Democratic incumbent Gray Davis defeated Republican challenger Bill Simon by a 5-point margin. This paper summarizes the pre-election surveys that were conducted by our three polling organizations prior to the 2002 general election in California-the Field Poll, the Los Angeles Times Poll, ...

  1. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    response technologies by Los Angeles Unified School District and a top to bottom examination of Los Angeles County Fire Department's earthquake response strategies.

  2. Hippotherapy: Remuneration issues impair the offering of this therapeutic strategy at Southern California rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Christine; Bitonte, Robert

    2016-04-06

    Hippotherapy is the use of equine movement in physical, occupational, or speech therapy in order to obtain functional improvements in patients. Studies show improvement in motor function and sensory processing for patients with a variety of neuromuscular disabilities, developmental disorders, or skeletal impairments as a result of using hippotherapy. The primary objective of this study is to identify the pervasiveness of hippotherapy in Southern California, and any factors that impair its utilization. One hundred and fifty-two rehabilitation centers in the Southern California counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern County were identified, and surveyed to ascertain if hippotherapy is utilized, and if not, why not. Through a review of forty facilities that responded to our inquiry, our study indicates that the majority of rehabilitation centers are familiar with hippotherapy, however, only seven have reported that hippotherapy is indeed available as an option in therapy at their centers. It is concluded that hippotherapy, used in a broad based array of physical and sensory disorders, is limited in its ability to be utilized, primarily due to remuneration issues.

  3. Preliminary photointerpretation map of landslide and other surficial deposits of the Mount Hamilton quadrangle and parts of the Mount Boardman and San Jose quadrangles, Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tor H.

    1972-01-01

    The nine San Francisco Bay region counties lie within a geologically active, young, and dynamic part of the central and northern Coast Ranges of California. Significant movements of the earth's crust are occurring here at the present time, posing numerous problems to urbanization, including some of special concern. Geological processes such as fault movements, earthquakes, land subsidence, landsliding, slow downslope movement of bedrock and surficial materials, coastal and stream erosion, flooding, and sedimentation are all potentially hazardous. Because of these factors, an understanding of the operation of physical processes in the bay region is desirable for harmonious, efficient, and safe land-use planning, particularly now, with greatly expanded pressures for urban growth. 

  4. The Dense GPS Array in Southern California: A New Tool for Seismic Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Hurst, K.; Scheid, J.; Watkins, M.; Webb, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and other institutions under the umbrella of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are implementing a continuously operating dense GPS array in greater Los Angeles to measure movement along fault lines.

  5. The availability of local aerial photography in southern California. [for solution of urban planning problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W., III; Sledge, B.; Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the major photography and photogrammetric suppliers and users located in Southern California are listed. Recent trends in aerial photographic coverage of the Los Angeles basin area are also noted, as well as the uses of that imagery.

  6. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  7. Unintended births among adult immigrant and U.S.-born Mexican women in the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Karen M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C; Strobino, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Unintended births are especially frequent among minority women. Predictors of unintended births among adult Mexican women living in the United States are poorly characterized. Data are from vital statistics and the 2005 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey, a population-based study of women delivering a live birth in Los Angeles County, California (n = 1,214). Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relation of unintended birth with acculturation variables adjusting for background and psychosocial characteristics. Multinomial models assessed these relations for women with an unintended birth who did and did not use contraception. Forty-one percent of women reported an unintended birth. Being a long-term immigrant and U.S.-born were positively associated with unintended birth compared with shorter term immigrants, but the adjusted relation was significant only for U.S.-born women (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.19-3.39). Women reporting an unintended birth were younger, unmarried, and higher parity. If using contraception, the odds of unintended birth were increased for cohabiting women, those with high education, and those with greater stress during pregnancy. When not using contraception and reporting an unintended birth, women also have no usual place for health care, have depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and are dissatisfied with partner support. Women's background and psychosocial characteristics were central to explaining unintended birth among immigrant women but less so for U.S.-born Mexican mothers. Interventions to improve birth intentions should not only target effective contraception, but also important social determinants. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal Chemical Data for Sediment, Water, and Biological Samples from the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada County, California-2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Tufano, Kate; White, Richard III

    2010-01-01

    The Lava Cap Mine is located about 6 km east of the city of Grass Valley, Nevada County, California, at an elevation of about 900 m. Gold was hosted in quartz-carbonate veins typical of the Sierran Gold Belt, but the gold grain size was smaller and the abundance of sulfide minerals higher than in typical deposits. The vein system was discovered in 1860, but production was sporadic until the 1930s when two smaller operations on the site were consolidated, a flotation mill was built, and a 100-foot deep adit was driven to facilitate drainage and removal of water from the mine workings, which extended to 366 m. Peak production at the Lava Cap occurred between 1934 and 1943, when about 90,000 tons of ore per year were processed. To facilitate removal of the gold and accessory sulfide minerals, the ore was crushed to a very fine sand or silt grain size for processing. Mining operations at Lava Cap ceased in June 1943 due to War Production Board Order L-208 and did not resume after the end of World War II. Two tailings retention structures were built at the Lava Cap Mine. The first was a log dam located about 0.4 km below the flotation mill on Little Clipper Creek, and the second, built in 1938, was a larger earth fill and rip-rap structure constructed about 2 km downstream, which formed the water body now called Lost Lake. The log dam failed during a storm that began on December 31, 1996, and continued into January 1997; an estimated 8,000-10,000 m3 of tailings were released into Little Clipper Creek during this event. Most of the fine tailings were deposited in Lost Lake, dramatically increasing its turbidity and resulting in a temporary 1-1.5 m rise in lake level due to debris blocking the dam spillway. When the blockage was cleared, the lake level quickly lowered, leaving a ?bathtub ring? of very fine tailings deposited substantially above the water line. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated emergency action in late 1997 at the mine site to reduce

  9. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of acid mine drainage in ground water in the vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California; first-year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Alpers, Charles N.

    1995-01-01

    Acid drainage from the Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, has caused contamination of ground water between Mine Run Dam and Camanche Reservoir. The Penn Mine was first developed in the 1860's primarily for copper and later produced lesser amounts of zinc, lead, silver, and gold from steeply dipping massive sulfide lenses in metamorphic rocks. Surface disposal of sulfidic waste rock and tailings from mine operations has produced acidic drainage with pH values between 2.3 and 2.7 and elevated concentrations of sulfate and metals, including copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, and aluminum. During the mine's operation and after its subsequent abandonment in the late 1950's, acid mine drainage flowed down Mine Run into the Mokelumne River. Construction of Camanche Dam in 1963 flooded part of the Mokelumne River adjacent to Penn Mine. Surface-water diversions and unlined impoundments were constructed at Penn Mine in 1979 to reduce runoff from the mine, collect contaminated surface water, and enhance evaporation. Some of the contaminated surface water infiltrates the ground water and flows toward Camanche Reservoir. Ground- water flow in the study area is controlled by the local hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic characteristics of two principal rock types, a Jurassic metavolcanic unit and the underlying Salt Spring slate. The hydraulic gradient is west from Mine Run impoundment toward Camanche Reservoir. The median hydraulic conductivity was about 10 to 50 times higher in the metavolcanic rock (0.1 foot per day) than in the slate (0.002 to 0.01 foot per day); most flow occurs in the metavolcanic rock where hydraulic conductivity is as high as 50 feet per day in two locations. The contact between the two rock units is a fault plane that strikes N20?W, dips 20?NE, and is a likely conduit for ground-water flow, based on down-hole measurements with a heatpulse flowmeter. Analyses of water samples collected during April 1992 provide a comprehensive characterization of

  10. Spatial patterns of epilepsy-related emergency department visits in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim E. Banta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socio-demographic factors are associated with increased emergency department (ED use among patients with epilepsy. However, there has been limited spatial analysis of such visits.Design and methods. California ED visit at the patient ZIP Code level were examined using Kulldorf’s spatial scan statistic to identify clusters of increased risk for epilepsy-related visits. Logistic regression was used to examine the relative importance of patient socio-demographics, Census-based and hospital measures. Results. During 2009-2011 there were 29,715,009 ED visits at 330 hospitals, of which 139,235 (0.5% had epilepsy (International Classification of Disease-9 345.xx as the primary diagnosis. Three large urban clusters of high epilepsy-related ED visits were centred in the cities of Los Angeles, Oakland and Stockton and a large rural clus- ter centred in Kern County. No consistent pattern by age, race/ethnicity, household structure, and income was observed among all clusters. Regression found only the Los Angeles cluster significant after adjusting for other measures. Conclusions. Geospatial analysis within a large and geographically diverse region identified a cluster within its most populous city having an increased risk of ED visits for epilepsy independent of selected socio-demographic and hospital measures. Additional research is necessary to determine whether elevated rates of ED visits represent increased prevalence of epilepsy or an inequitable system of epilepsy care.

  11. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  12. Age structure and growth of California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett A. Garrison; Christopher D. otahal; Matthew L. Triggs

    2002-01-01

    Age structure and growth of California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) was determined from tagged trees at four 26.1-acre study stands in Placer County, California. Stands were dominated by large diameter (>20 inch dbh) California black oak and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Randomly selected trees were tagged in June-August...

  13. Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 1. Final EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) and Response to Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    and Wolf , "Water Quality Criteria." c All values developed by the University of California Cooperative Extension Committee of Consultants, except pH...which was taken from McKee and Wolf , "Water Quality Criteria." d For nontidal waters, mean of  MPN/100 ml. For ground water, median of ɚ.2...skyline diving Rydroporus lecchi Federal Candicate / I beetle Category 2 San Mateo woolly-sunflower Eriophyllum latIlobum Federal Candidate/ Category 1

  14. An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI≤10 and 34 with 10vineyards, i.e., one field and small planted areas. Furthermore, they had very low pesticide use intensity, used only 1-2 types of pesticides (mainly fungicides), applied few pesticides (1-3 only), and emphasized the use of low toxicity compounds. Meanwhile, 19 growers with PUI>60, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful

  15. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  16. Pro-social and problematic social network influences on HIV/AIDS risk behaviours among newly homeless youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E.; Milburn, N. G.; Rotheram-Borus, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the social network composition among newly homeless youth over time and assessed how pro-social and problematic peers affected sexual and drug-using HIV/AIDS risk-behaviours among 183 youth in Los Angeles County, California. The percentage of newly homeless youth who reported that ‘most’ or ‘all’ of their friends were attending school, had jobs, and got along with their families was 73%, 24%, and 50% respectively. Logistic regression models indicated that presence of these pro-social peers reduced HIV risk behaviours at two years; odds of HIV-risk were lower with a greater number of peers who attend school, have a job, or have positive family relationships or if networks change over time to include more of these peers. Presence of problematic peers increased the likelihood of HIV risk-taking; odds of HIV risk behaviours increased with a greater number of peers at baseline who steal, have overdosed, have been arrested, or are in a gang, or if networks change to include more of these peers. Interventions should target newly homeless youth in networks that contain problematic peers, but should strive to harness the naturally occurring pro-social peer influences present in these networks. PMID:17505933

  17. Preventing the repetition: Or, what Los Angeles' experience in water management can teach Atlanta about urban water disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David L.

    2009-04-01

    Southern California's water history is an epic story with larger-than-life characters and ambitions and abundant hubris. Students of water policy might reasonably ask: Does this story, while unique to greater Los Angeles, hold lessons for other metropolises experiencing water conflict caused by explosive growth? We examine this question by considering similarities between the challenges facing Atlanta, Georgia, one of the nation's fastest growing cities in the 21st century, with those of Los Angeles. We focus on junctures where important decisions regarding water were made and how these decisions continue to challenge both cities' futures. Atlanta's financial, cultural, and environmental imprint on its surrounding region share remarkable similarities with Los Angeles' influence trajectory: it is the largest city in the southeast, a principal transportation and business hub, and it is embroiled in water conflict with nearby communities and adjoining states.

  18. Ensuring Resiliency of the Milk and Dairy Industry in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Fresno County at creamery1. The overall shortage with five attacks is 1,800,000,000 lbs and the shortage specifically felt in California is 92,000,000...County at the dairy farm . The overall shortage with ten counties is 2,772,000,000 lbs and the shortage felts in California is 992,000,000 lbs. The...hauling capacity node for level two milk, Del Norte County at the dairy farm , Fresno County at creamery1, Glenn County at the dairy farm , Humboldt

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of Ixodes pacificus and Dermacentor occidentalis (Acari: Ixodidae) and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Contra Costa County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, V L; Beesley, C

    1993-05-01

    The seasonal activity and spatial distribution of adult and immature Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx were determined along trails and on hillsides in two parks in Contra Costa County, CA. I. pacificus and D. occidentalis adults were most numerous in January and May, respectively. Adult ticks were significantly more abundant along heavily vegetated trails than on open grassy hillsides, and on the uphill versus the downhill side of trails. Five species of rodents were captured, and numbers of I. pacificus and D. occidentalis larvae per rodent were highest in May-June and July, respectively. Few nymphs were recovered either by flagging or from captured rodents. An average of 2.2 and 2.8% of the I. pacificus adults collected from the two parks were infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. The greatest risk of contracting Lyme disease from adult I. pacificus in these two Contra Costa County parks is during the winter months, especially while hiking near the uphill side of trails.

  20. Ensemble Flow Forecasts for Risk Based Reservoir Operations of Lake Mendocino in Mendocino County, California: A Framework for Objectively Leveraging Weather and Climate Forecasts in a Decision Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C.; Hartman, R. K.; Mendoza, J.; Whitin, B.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) is a methodology that incorporates short to mid-range precipitation and flow forecasts to inform the flood operations of reservoirs. The Ensemble Forecast Operations (EFO) alternative is a probabilistic approach of FIRO that incorporates ensemble streamflow predictions (ESPs) made by NOAA's California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). With the EFO approach, release decisions are made to manage forecasted risk of reaching critical operational thresholds. A water management model was developed for Lake Mendocino, a 111,000 acre-foot reservoir located near Ukiah, California, to evaluate the viability of the EFO alternative to improve water supply reliability but not increase downstream flood risk. Lake Mendocino is a dual use reservoir, which is owned and operated for flood control by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and is operated for water supply by the Sonoma County Water Agency. Due to recent changes in the operations of an upstream hydroelectric facility, this reservoir has suffered from water supply reliability issues since 2007. The EFO alternative was simulated using a 26-year (1985-2010) ESP hindcast generated by the CNRFC. The ESP hindcast was developed using Global Ensemble Forecast System version 10 precipitation reforecasts processed with the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System to generate daily reforecasts of 61 flow ensemble members for a 15-day forecast horizon. Model simulation results demonstrate that the EFO alternative may improve water supply reliability for Lake Mendocino yet not increase flood risk for downstream areas. The developed operations framework can directly leverage improved skill in the second week of the forecast and is extendable into the S2S time domain given the demonstration of improved skill through a reliable reforecast of adequate historical duration and consistent with operationally available numerical weather predictions.

  1. Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

  2. Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    distribution in Los Angeles County. They include the only good stands of mesquite ( Prosopis glandulosa ) in Los Angeles County. The area contains fine...the dominant species in mesquite woodlands are mesquite (Prosopsis glandulosa ), with an understory comprising dominants found in the “host” plant...rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus spp.), and antelopebush (Purshia glandulosa ). C.2.2.3 Plants at Edwards AFB The five major plant communities at

  3. Transportation decision making in San Bernardino County. Transportation decision-making in Riverside County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-19

    The Institute of Applied Reearch (IAR) at California Sate University, San Bernadino (CSUSB) is pleased to present its report on the 2009 Pilot Study: Trasnportation Decision-Making in the Inland Empire (Riverside and San Bernandino Counties). This st...

  4. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  5. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  6. Simulated performance of CIEE's 'Alternatives to Compressive Cooling' prototype house under design conditions in various California climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu Joe

    1999-12-01

    To support the design development of a compressorless house that does not rely on mechanical air-conditioning, the author carried out detailed computer analysis of a prototypical house design to determine the indoor thermal conditions during peak cooling periods for over 170 California locations. The peak cooling periods are five-day sequences at 2{percent} frequency determined through statistical analysis of long-term historical weather data. The DOE-2 program was used to simulate the indoor temperatures of the house under four operating options: windows closed, with mechanical ventilation, evaporatively-cooled mechanical ventilation, or a conventional 1 1/2-ton air conditioner. The study found that with a 1500 CFM mechanical ventilation system, the house design would maintain comfort under peak conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area out to Walnut Creek, but not beyond. In southern California, the same system and house design would maintain adequate comfort only along the coast. With the evaporatively-cooled ventilation system, the applicability of the house design can be extended to Fairfield and Livermore in northern California, but in southern California a larger 3000 CFM system would be needed to maintain comfort conditions over half of the greater Los Angeles area, the southern half of the Inland Empire, and most of San Diego county. With the 1 1/2-ton air conditioner, the proposed house design would perform satisfactorily through most of the state, except in the upper areas of the Central Valley and the hot desert areas in southern California. In terms of energy savings, the simulations showed that the prototypical house design would save from 0.20 to 0.43 in northern California, 0.20 to 0.53 in southern California, and 0.16 to 0.35 in the Central Valley, the energy used by the same house design built to Title-24 requirements.

  7. Geologic map of the Duncan Peak and southern part of the Cisco Grove 7 1/2' quadrangles, Placer and Nevada Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, David S.; Fisher, G. Reid; Waugh, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    This map covers an area of 123 km2 on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, an uplifted and west-tilted range in eastern California (fig. 1). The area is located 20 km west of Donner Pass, which lies on the east escarpment of the range, and about 80 km east of the Great Valley Province. Interstate Highway 80 is the major route over the range at this latitude and secondary roads, which spur off from this highway, provide access to the northern part of the area. None of the secondary roads crosses the deep canyon cut by the North Fork of the American River, however, and access to the southern part of the area is provided by logging roads that spur off from the Foresthill Divide Road that extends east from Auburn to the Donner Pass area (fig. 1).

  8. Fate and transport modeling with American Petroleum Institute decision support system applied in a site assessment for residual crude oil in unconsolidated sediments: Case study in Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinchuch, L.A.; Waldron, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Historical crude oil leaks from a pipeline affected unconsolidated alluvial sediments near a sensitive groundwater recharge area in Kern County, California. The residual crude oil is confined to the vadose zone and occurs from ∼3 m below ground surface (BGS) to a maximum depth of 24 m BGS. The water table beneath the affected sediments is currently 46 m BGS. The site is irrigated regularly for agriculture. To date, the residual crude oil has not impacted groundwater quality. Future groundwater recharge plans may raise the water table to 15 m BGS in the area affected by the crude oil. Fate and transport modeling using site-specific data shows that the existing hydrocarbons in the subsurface do not pose a significant risk to groundwater quality. The computer models selected for this project are incorporated as modules in the American Petroleum Institute's Exposure and Risk Assessment Decision Support System. Transport of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) is modeled using Seasonal Soil (SESOIL) for the unsaturated zone coupled with AT123D for the saturated zone. The SESOIL model is calibrated using actual soil moisture measurements and groundwater recharge estimates based on applied irrigation. Peak BTEX concentrations in groundwater predicted for the site are well below maximum contaminant levels. A sensitivity analysis confirms that aerobic biodegradation significantly reduces BTEX compounds. Due to the high availability of dissolved oxygen in groundwater at this site, natural attenuation may be the most favorable mechanism to remediate BTEX in the subsurface

  9. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    central California through Oregon. Outcrops at Salmon Creek, northeast of Steinbeck Ranch and also in the central part of the outcrop area, contain Aulacofusus? recurva (Gabb) and Turcica brevis Stewart, which are both restricted to the Pliocene, as well as Lirabuccinum portolaensis (Arnold) known from the early Pliocene of central and northern California and into the late Pliocene in southern California. These data suggest an overall pattern of older rocks and deeper water to the south and west, and younger rocks and shallower water to the east and north. Outcrops to the southwest, south of the Bloomfield fault, are not well dated but presumably are older than the late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992). Fossils in this part of the section are rare and are not useful in determining a precise age or environment of deposition for the lower part of the Wilson Grove Formation. However, sedimentary sequences and structures in the rocks here are useful and suggest probable outer shelf and slope water depths. Lituyapecten turneri (Arnold) which occurs in this part of the section has previously been restricted to the Pliocene, but its occurrence below the Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) indicates a revised late Miocene age for this taxon. Three possibly new gastropods (Mollusca) are reported here: Calyptraea (Trochita) n. sp. and Nucella sp., aff. N. lamellosa (Gmelin), both from the Bloomfield Quarry area, and Acanthinucella? n. sp. from the River Road area. These species are not described here because this venue is deemed insufficient for the description of new taxa.

  10. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  11. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  12. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and Global Positioning System, San Bernardino County, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Stork, Sylvia V.; Amelung, Falk; Galloway, Devin L.

    2003-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in parts of the Mojave Desert, California. Ground water has been the primary source of domestic, agricultural, and municipal water supplies in the desert since the early 1900s. Pumping of ground water from the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins in the southwestern Mojave Desert resulted in water-level declines of more than 30 meters (100 feet) between the 1950s and the 1990s. A Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of a geodetic network was used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes in Lucerne Valley in the Morongo ground-water basin. The GPS survey was conducted in 1998 to estimate historical elevation changes by comparing GPS-derived elevations with historical elevations (which were available for some of the monuments in the network as early as 1944) and to establish baseline values that can be used for comparisons with future GPS surveys. The GPS measurements indicated that about 600 millimeters (2 feet) [plus or minus 1,500 millimeters (5 feet)] of subsidence occurred at three of the monuments between 1969 and 1998 but that very little to no vertical change in position occurred at seven other monuments in the network. Water levels in the area of subsidence in Lucerne Valley declined about 15 meters (50 feet) during 1970-98. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to characterize vertical land-surface changes in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins during various intervals of time between 1992 and 1999. Interferograms, InSAR-generated displacement maps, show that subsidence ranging from 45 to 90 mm (0.15 to 0.3 ft) occurred in four areas of these two ground-water basins--the El Mirage, Lockhart-Harper Lake (dry), Newberry Springs, and Lucerne Valley areas. Some of the InSAR measurements were affected by the earthquakes at Landers and Hector Mine, California, and by

  13. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  14. The Legal Needs of Transgender Women Living with HIV: Evaluating Access to Justice in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Ayako; Hasenbush, Amira; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS – for transgender women living with HIV in Los Angeles County. We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differen...

  15. Defining Moments in MMWR History: The AIDS Epidemic, Pneumocystis Pneumonia --- Los Angeles 1981

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-01

    On June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five previously healthy young gay men in Los Angeles, California. This report was later acknowledged as the first published account of what would become known as human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. It was the first of many MMWR reports that led to a better understanding of this new condition. In this podcast, Dr. Harold Jaffe recalls CDC’s investigation and response to the AIDS Epidemic.  Created: 12/1/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/1/2017.

  16. A review of current practices and the future for deep well injection in the upper Miocene Stevens sand, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, S.C.; Chenot, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Waste-water disposal is a major concern of the petroleum business, especially because of complications associated with many produced-water surface-impoundment percolation facilities. In the San Joaquin Valley, California, the current environmental regulations protecting the potentially usable groundwaters are stringent. the Stevens has significant potential as a disposal zone that may offer considerable capacity when the project is designed using proper geologic and engineering studies. The Stevens sands are well known for their oil-producing capabilities, however, not much has been published regarding its suitability as a zone for deep well injection. Conditions that make the Stevens potentially suitable include (1) adequate confinement providing geologic separation from the groundwater sources in the basin, (2) storage capacity, and (3) large areal extent. Because the search for acceptable disposal options is becoming critical, the current class II disposal options is becoming critical, the current class II disposal activities in the Stevens sands were reviewed and the areas offering the greatest future potential were identified. The authors then discuss class II disposal projects in Stevens sands in the West Bellevue and Midway Sunset oil fields and estimate the ultimate basin-wide disposal capacity of the Stevens

  17. Fault zone structure from topography: signatures of en echelon fault slip at Mustang Ridge on the San Andreas Fault, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Hilley, George E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol

    2010-01-01

    We used high-resolution topography to quantify the spatial distribution of scarps, linear valleys, topographic sinks, and oversteepened stream channels formed along an extensional step over on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Mustang Ridge, California. This location provides detail of both creeping fault landform development and complex fault zone kinematics. Here, the SAF creeps 10–14 mm/yr slower than at locations ∼20 km along the fault in either direction. This spatial change in creep rate is coincident with a series of en echelon oblique-normal faults that strike obliquely to the SAF and may accommodate the missing deformation. This study presents a suite of analyses that are helpful for proper mapping of faults in locations where high-resolution topographic data are available. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that two large subsidiary faults near the center of the step over zone appear to carry significant distributed deformation based on their large apparent vertical offsets, the presence of associated sag ponds and fluvial knickpoints, and the observation that they are rotating a segment of the main SAF. Several subsidiary faults in the southeastern portion of Mustang Ridge are likely less active; they have few associated sag ponds and have older scarp morphologic ages and subdued channel knickpoints. Several faults in the northwestern part of Mustang Ridge, though relatively small, are likely also actively accommodating active fault slip based on their young morphologic ages and the presence of associated sag ponds.

  18. Geologic Map of the Warm Spring Canyon Area, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California, With a Discussion of the Regional Significance of the Stratigraphy and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrucke, Chester T.; Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.

    2007-01-01

    Warm Spring Canyon is located in the southeastern part of the Panamint Range in east-central California, 54 km south of Death Valley National Park headquarters at Furnace Creek Ranch. For the relatively small size of the area mapped (57 km2), an unusual variety of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rocks is present. The outcrop distribution of these rocks largely resulted from movement on the east-west-striking, south-directed Butte Valley Thrust Fault of Jurassic age. The upper plate of the thrust fault comprises a basement of Paleoproterozoic schist and gneiss overlain by a thick sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks, the latter of which includes diamictite generally considered to be of glacial origin. The lower plate is composed of Devonian to Permian marine formations overlain by Jurassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the area, and one pluton intrudes the Butte Valley Thrust Fault. Low-angle detachment faults of presumed Tertiary age underlie large masses of Neoproterozoic dolomite in parts of the area. Movement on these faults predated emplacement of middle Miocene volcanic rocks in deep, east-striking paleovalleys. Excellent exposures of all the rocks and structural features in the area result from sparse vegetation in the dry desert climate and from deep erosion along Warm Spring Canyon and its tributaries.

  19. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Mesozoic intrusive and Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Central Mojave Desert, Kern and San Bernardino counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leedom, S.H.; Kiloh, K.D.

    1978-02-01

    Numerous, small, low-grade, supergene uranium deposits are found in Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks in the central Mojave Desert of southern California. Large thorium-to-uranium ratios in samples of Mesozoic intrusive rocks exposed in the area indicate that these rocks have been extensively weathered, eroded, and subsequently leached by ground waters, and that they may have been the primary source of uranium for the deposits. The uranium content of samples of volcanic intrusive and extrusive rocks is average for intermediate to silicic rocks, but samples of basalt flows in the area contain six times the average uranium content of mafic igneous rocks. Devitrified tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, interbedded with calcareous units, are additional sources of uranium for supergene uranium deposits found in calcareous units. Uranium is also found in accessory minerals in a few Mesozoic quartz-rich pegmatite dikes. Uranium deposits in the central Mojave Desert have been formed by enrichment during diagenetic replacement of Tertiary carbonate rocks; by supergene enrichment along fractures, joints, and bedding planes in Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks; during formation of Holocene caliche; and by deposition within hydrothermally altered shear zones. Within the area, the diagenetic replacement type of deposit has the greatest potential for large, low-grade uranium occurrences. The other type of uranium deposits are small, erratically distributed, and extensively covered by alluvium

  20. Community exposure to tsunami hazards in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of past events and modeling of potential events suggest that tsunamis are significant threats to low-lying communities on the California coast. To reduce potential impacts of future tsunamis, officials need to understand how communities are vulnerable to tsunamis and where targeted outreach, preparedness, and mitigation efforts may be warranted. Although a maximum tsunami-inundation zone based on multiple sources has been developed for the California coast, the populations and businesses in this zone have not been documented in a comprehensive way. To support tsunami preparedness and risk-reduction planning in California, this study documents the variations among coastal communities in the amounts, types, and percentages of developed land, human populations, and businesses in the maximum tsunami-inundation zone. The tsunami-inundation zone includes land in 94 incorporated cities, 83 unincorporated communities, and 20 counties on the California coast. According to 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data, this tsunami-inundation zone contains 267,347 residents (1 percent of the 20-county resident population), of which 13 percent identify themselves as Hispanic or Latino, 14 percent identify themselves as Asian, 16 percent are more than 65 years in age, 12 percent live in unincorporated areas, and 51 percent of the households are renter occupied. Demographic attributes related to age, race, ethnicity, and household status of residents in tsunami-prone areas demonstrate substantial range among communities that exceed these regional averages. The tsunami-inundation zone in several communities also has high numbers of residents in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized group quarters (for example, correctional facilities and military housing, respectively). Communities with relatively high values in the various demographic categories are identified throughout the report. The tsunami-inundation zone contains significant nonresidential populations based on 2011 economic

  1. Regional Analysis of Stormwater Runoff for the Placement of Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a USGS surface hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to analyze stormwater runoff in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, CA with the goal of supplying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. Under the combined threats of multiyear drought and excess drawdown, this region's aquifers face numerous sustainability challenges, including seawater intrusion, chronic overdraft, increased contamination, and subsidence. This study addresses the supply side of this resource issue by increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of runoff that could provide water for MAR. Ensuring the effectiveness of MAR using stormwater requires a thorough understanding of runoff distribution and site-specific surface and subsurface aquifer conditions. In this study we use a geographic information system (GIS) and a 3-m digital elevation model (DEM) to divide the region's four primary watersheds into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), or topographic sub-basins, that serve as discretized input cells for PRMS. We then assign vegetation, soil, land use, slope, aspect, and other characteristics to these HRUs, from a variety of data sources, and analyze runoff spatially using PRMS under varying precipitation conditions. We are exploring methods of linking spatially continuous and high-temporal-resolution precipitation datasets to generate input precipitation catalogs, facilitating analyses of a variety of regimes. To gain an understanding of how surface hydrology has responded to land development, we will also modify our input data to represent pre-development conditions. Coupled with a concurrent MAR suitability analysis, our model results will help screen for locations of future MAR projects and will improve our understanding of how changes in land use and climate impact hydrologic runoff and aquifer recharge.

  2. Regional Water Table (1998) and Ground-Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River, and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.; Pimentel, M. Isabel

    2000-01-01

    The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The rapid and continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The continuing collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems and, consequently, water availability. During 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,370 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 450 wells, providing coverage for most of both basins. Twenty-three hydrographs show long-term (as much as 70 years) water-level trends throughout the basins. To help show effects of late seasonal recharge along the Mojave River, 14 short-term (13 years) hydrographs were created. A water-level change map was compiled to enable comparison of 1996 and 1998 water levels. The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins had little change in water levels between 1996 and 1998 - with the exception of the areas of the Yucca Valley affected by artificial recharge. Other water-level changes were localized and reflected pumping or measurements made before seasonal recharge. Three areas of perched ground water were identified: El Mirage Lake (dry), Adelanto, and Lucerne Valley.

  3. Dissolved constituents including selenium in waters in the vicinity of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge and the west grassland, Fresno and Merced Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, T.S.; Barnes, Ivan

    1985-01-01

    Analyses were made for dissolved constituents including selenium (Se) in waters associated with subsurface agricultural drainage from the western San Joaquin Valley of California. In the vicinity of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge and the Grassland wetlands area Se was found to be mobilized in water. As a consequence of this mobility and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food chain, Se occurred in waterfowl at levels toxic enough to cause deformities and deaths. Se concentrations in sumps that collect subsurface agricultural drainage water and inflows to drains sampled, ultimately leading into Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge and the Grassland, ranged from 84 to 4200 microgram/L (ug/L) Se. Levels of Se were reduced in the San Luis Drain flowing into Kesterson National Wildlife Refute to approximately 300 ug/L Se and in three of the drains sampled flowing into the Grassland to approximately 50 ug/L Se. Serious effects on water fowl habitat were caused by both these levels. Se contents of algal mats and salt crusts from evaporation ponds of the San Luis Drain contained up to parts per million Se. Total ecosystem assessment of Se may be necessary for the evaluation of the toxicity of Se to the environment. No other trace element reported exceeded the various criteria for water at the level of magnitude of Se. Other dissolved constituents and the isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen were analyzed to elucidate water types, reaction states of the aqueous solution with respect to minerals, and the origin of mixed waters. These data will be used later to evaluate the geologic source of Se. Methods used for collection and analysis are described and documented. Hydrologic effects were found to be complex. Preliminary indications from wells are also given. A historical sequence is adhered to and other data from the study area which serve as a guide to the toxicity of Se are included. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Location and age of foraminifer samples examined by Chevron Petroleum Company paleontologists from more than 2,500 oil test wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabb, Earl E.

    2011-01-01

    Chevron Petroleum Company in 2001 donated an estimated 50,000 foraminifer slides, 5,000 well logs, geologic and surface locality maps, and paleontologic reports to the California Academy of Sciences and Stanford University for safekeeping, because they stopped or cut back exploration for petroleum deposits in California. The material was loaned to Earl Brabb temporarily so that information useful to the U.S. Geological Survey could be extracted. Among the estimated 5,000 well logs, more than 2,500 were printed on fragile Ozalid paper that had deteriorated by turning brown and hardening so that they could be easily damaged. These 2,516 well logs were scanned to provide a digital copy of the information. The 2,516 wells extend over an area from Eureka in Humboldt County south to the Imperial Valley and from the Pacific Ocean east to the eastern side of the Great Valley and the Los Angeles Basin. The wells are located in 410 7.5-minute quadrangle maps in 42 counties. The digital information herein preserves the data, makes the logs easily distributed to others interested in subsurface geology, and makes previously proprietary information widely available to the public for the first time.

  5. Southern California: The Detroit of Electric Cars?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Allen J.

    1993-01-01

    The California economy is in the doldrums, especially in the Los Angeles region, owing in large part to the decline of aerospace-defense industries. The region also suffers from the nation's worst pollution problem, owing largely to its dependence on automobiles. So, we're led to ask whether these linked perils might be converted into a combined opportunity. We ask whether we might blunt both the environmental and the employment problems by building a new electric-vehicle industry in Southern...

  6. NCTE Goes to LA: The Literature of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lenora

    1987-01-01

    Presents an overview of the language and literature of California, and particularly of Los Angeles. Describes the social context and work of the following writers: Bret Harte, Henry Dana Jr., Jack London, Ambrose Bierce, Gertrude Atherton, Helen Hunt Jackson, Frank Norris, John Steinbeck, Mary Austin, and others. Also discusses minority literature…

  7. Environmental Assessment to Construct a Perimeter Fence at Georgetown Military Family Housing Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    Ardea herodias), crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), ravens (Corvus corax), garter snakes (Thamnophis species), bullfrogs ( Rana catesbeiana ), California...California Tiger Salamander Habitat Assessment at Travis Air Force Base, Solano County, California Rana Resources 2005 Results of First Year Special...clover FE Potential Animals Rana aurora draytonii California red-legged frog FT Potential Ambystoma californiense California tiger salamander FT

  8. Dante o anjeloch (Dante on Angels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Žilinek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dante’s eternal Love was Bice Portinari who died in 1290. Dante saw her in Florence in 1274. She was his muse and her death was the reason to write Divine Comedy. We meet her in part of Divine Comedy calledParadise as a guide into Celestial Empire. I have ever been interested in structure of Celestial Empire and mesmerised by Dante. That was the reason to write this paper. I try to re-construct and complete Dante’s interpretation of the hierarchy of Celestial Empire with focusing on angels. Angels are also called Intellects or forms of the Heaven or substances between the Earth and Heaven or blissful Beings. I also try to find out the answer what happened to souls of people who died, especially to souls of innocent children. In memory of Michalka Režnáková (1984-1995.

  9. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.

    1993-01-01

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  10. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  11. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ..., California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...: Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project (Madera County, California) lies... vegetation. Currently, vegetation within the Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project has changed from...

  12. The effects of artificial recharge on groundwater levels and water quality in the west hydrogeologic unit of the Warren subbasin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Everett, Rhett; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Between the late 1940s and 1994, groundwater levels in the Warren subbasin, California, declined by as much as 300 feet because pumping exceeded sparse natural recharge. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, implemented an artificial-recharge program in early 1995 using imported water from the California State Water Project. Subsequently, the water table rose by as much as 250 feet; however, a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the rising water table entrained high-nitrate septic effluent, which caused nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations in some wells to increase to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.. A new artificial-recharge site (site 3) was constructed in 2006 and this study, which started in 2004, was done to address concerns about the possible migration of nitrates in the unsaturated zone. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the hydraulic, chemical, and microbiological properties of the unsaturated zone; (2) monitor changes in water levels and water quality in response to the artificial-recharge program at site 3; (3) determine if nitrates from septic effluent infiltrated through the unsaturated zone to the water table; (4) determine the potential for nitrates within the unsaturated zone to mobilize and contaminate the groundwater as the water table rises in response to artificial recharge; and (5) determine the presence and amount of dissolved organic carbon because of its potential to react with disinfection byproducts during the treatment of water for public use. Two monitoring sites were installed and instrumented with heat-dissipation probes, advanced tensiometers, suction-cup lysimeters, and wells so that the arrival and effects of recharging water from the State Water Project through the 250 to 425 foot-thick unsaturated zone and groundwater system could be closely observed. Monitoring site YVUZ-1 was located between two

  13. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and

  14. Environmental Assessment for a Taxiway M Bypass Road at Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Ardea herodias), crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), ravens (Corvus corax), garter snakes (Thamnophis species), bullfrogs ( Rana catesbeiana ), California...Tiger Salamander Habitat Assessment at Travis Air Force Base, Solano County, California Rana Resources 2005 Results of First Year Special-Status...Athene cunicularia Burrowing owl CSC Known Rana aurora draytonii California red-legged frog FT Potential Ambystoma californiense California tiger

  15. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    adjacent areas in Mexico are developing an area-wide pink bollworm eradication programme that will use sterile moths as its primary management tool. In 1993, CDFA found itself faced with a Medfly situation that required a change in the methodology used to eradicate such Medfly infestations were eradicated from California. Medfly infestations had been found each year since 1987 with the number of wild Medflies detected decreasing only after a large aerial malathion and bait spray programme in 1989-90 (Dowell et al. 1999). Four hundred wild Medfly adults were trapped in 39 cities in five southern California counties in 1993; these finds represented 35 discrete core infestations whose treatment boundaries were merging together as had been seen in 1989-90 (Dowell and Penrose 1995, Penrose 1996). In response, the USDA formed an international Medfly science advisory panel to help develop a proactive approach to dealing with Medfly invasions in southern California. Based on advice from this panel, the CDFA /USDA/County Agricultural Commissioners (CAC) began a Medfly sterile release programme on 1 March 1994 over a 3,791 km 2 area of the Los Angeles basin to eradicate extant Medfly infestations. This basin-wide programme used the continuous release of 96,500 sterile Medflies per km 2 per week for a two-year period. The release rate was the upper limit of that used successfully in Mexico in their Medfly eradication/exclusion programme (Schwarz et al. 1989). Prior to the start of the basin-wide programme, ground sprays of malathion and bait were applied to all hosts within a 200 m radius of all fly finds. The basin-wide programme was designed to eradicate all extant Medfly infestations, and to prevent new infestations from becoming established (Dowell and Penrose 1995). The capture of wild Medflies within the treatment boundaries dropped from 400 in 1993 to no wild Medflies in 1995. In 1996, a single, unusually desiccated, undyed male Medfly was trapped the day after the programme

  16. The Role and Place of Governing Angels in Bible

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed hesam aldin Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Angels have allocated a considerable part of Bible's discussions to themselves and since one of the dogmatic principles of the revealed religions is the belief in angels, depiction of the place and attributes of angels can be the indicator of the quality of attitude and worldview and the strength of dogmatic principles of Bible's followers and justify their thought and ideas; For this subject is related with the issues such as: transcendent unity of divine acts and essence and attribu...

  17. Business Angels - A Subspecies of the homo oeconomicus ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsler, Laurenz; Platzer, Erich M

    2014-12-01

    Business Angels invest in start-up companies in their early stage. This type of investor usually has a good knowledge of the start-up's industry sector, and in addition to the funds he invests, his management experience and his network can be useful for start-ups. Business Angel involvement has shown to improve the success rate and the profitability of start-ups. The article depicts the relationship between entrepreneurs and Business Angels in four case examples.

  18. Hydrogeologic controls and geochemical indicators of groundwater movement in the Niles Cone and southern East Bay Plain groundwater subbasins, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Nicholas F.; Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, Jim; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-02-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, Alameda County Water District began infiltrating imported water through ponds in repurposed gravel quarries at the Quarry Lakes Regional Park, in the Niles Cone groundwater subbasin, to recharge groundwater and to minimize intrusion of saline, San Francisco Bay water into freshwater aquifers. Hydraulic connection between distinct aquifers underlying Quarry Lakes allows water to recharge the upper aquifer system to depths of 400 feet below land surface, and the Deep aquifer to depths of more than 650 feet. Previous studies of the Niles Cone and southern East Bay Plain groundwater subbasins suggested that these two subbasins may be hydraulically connected. Characterization of storage capacities and hydraulic properties of the complex aquifers and the structural and stratigraphic controls on groundwater movement aids in optimal storage and recovery of recharged water and provides information on the ability of aquifers shared by different water management agencies to fulfill competing storage and extraction demands. The movement of recharge water through the Niles Cone groundwater subbasin from Quarry Lakes and the possible hydraulic connection between the Niles Cone and the southern East Bay Plain groundwater subbasins were investigated using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), water-chemistry, and isotopic data, including tritium/helium-3, helium-4, and carbon-14 age-dating techniques.InSAR data collected during refilling of the Quarry Lakes recharge ponds show corresponding ground-surface displacement. Maximum uplift was about 0.8 inches, reasonable for elastic expansion of sedimentary materials experiencing an increase in hydraulic head that resulted from pond refilling. Sodium concentrations increase while calcium and magnesium concentrations in groundwater decrease along groundwater flowpaths from the Niles Cone groundwater subbasin through the Deep aquifer to the northwest toward the southern East Bay Plain groundwater

  19. Mercury at the Oat Hill Extension Mine and James Creek, Napa County, California: Tailings, Sediment, Water, and Biota, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowey, Aaron J.; Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    appreciable source of sulfate and carbonate to James Creek, because the spring water was enriched in sulfate (130 mg/L) and carbonate (430 mg/L as CaCO3) compared to James Creek water (70 to 100 mg/L SO42- and 110 to 170 mg/L as CaCO3) at the time of sampling. Concentrations of mercury in active channel sediment from James Creek are variable and potentially high, on the basis of chemical analysis (2.5 to 17 _g/g-wet sediment) and easily visible cinnabar grains in panned concentrates. Average (geometric mean) organic mercury (presumably monomethyl mercury (MMHg); ?2.3.3) concentrations in several invertebrate taxa collected from the James Creek watershed locations were higher than invertebrates taken from a Northern California location lacking a known point source of mercury. The mean proportion of MMHg to total mercury in James Creek predatory insect samples was 40 percent (1 standard deviation = 30 percent); only 40 percent of all insect samples had a MMHg/HgT proportion greater than 0.5. The low proportions of MMHg measured in invertebrates in James Creek and the presence of cinnabar in the creek suggest that some invertebrates may have anomolously high Hg concentrations as a result of the injestion or adhesion of extremely fine-grained cinnabar particles. Interpretation of HgT in frogs and fish as an indicator of mercury reactivity, biouptake, or trophic transfer is limited, pending MMHg measuremens, by the possibility of these whole-body samples having contained cinnabar particles at the time of analysis. To minimize this limitation, the gastrointestinal tracts and external surfaces of all amphibians, where cinnabar most likely resides, were carefully flushed to remove any visible particles. However, extremely fine-grained, invisible, adhesive cinnabar particles likely exist in the amphibians' habitats. HgT in foothill yellow-legged frogs collected from the James Creek study area, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 ug/g Hg, was on average twice that of an extensive

  20. Mammal Track Counts - San Diego County [ds442

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The San Diego Tracking Team (SDTT) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the preservation of wildlife habitat in San Diego County through citizen-based...