WorldWideScience

Sample records for aneurysms similarities differences

  1. Gender differences in cerebral aneurysm location

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jourabchi Ghods; Demetrius eLopes; Michael eChen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A limited number of studies consisting predominantly of ruptured aneurysms have looked at differences in anatomical distribution of aneurysms between male and females. Unlike all other causes of stroke, subarachnoid-hemorrhages (SAH) occur more often in women and are thought to be a result of both hormonal influences and variation in wall shear stress (WSS). This paper retrospectively looks at a cohort of largely unruptured intracranial aneurysms to determine if there ...

  2. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  3. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  4. Advances in endovascular aneurysm treatment: are we making a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advancements in endovascular aneurysm repair, including bioactive and expansile coils and intracranial stents, hold promise for improved aneurysm occlusion rates. We report the immediate and midterm clinical and angiographic outcomes of a consecutive series of patients treated since the advent of these technologies. Clinical and radiological records of 134 patients with 142 aneurysms treated between 2001 and 2004 were retrospectively evaluated by an independent neurologist. Endovascular procedures were analyzed by an independent neuroradiologist blinded to all clinical information. Seventy-two ruptured and 60 un-ruptured saccular aneurysms, nine fusiform and one post-traumatic aneurysm were treated. Matrix coils were used in 53% of saccular aneurysms and HydroCoils in 13% of all aneurysms. Neuroform stents were deployed in 19% of aneurysms. Angiographic total or subtotal occlusion was achieved in 76% of cases and in 96% at last follow-up. Aneurysm recanalization was observed in 14% over a mean follow-up of 12 months, and 18% of aneurysms were retreated. Clinically relevant complications occurred in 6.0%, resulting in procedure-related morbidity of 0.6% and 0.6% mortality at 6 months. No aneurysm bled over a cumulative 1,347 months of observation. Newer embolization technologies can be exploited successfully even in more complex aneurysms with very low morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  5. Measurement with microscopic MRI and simulation of flow in different aneurysm models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelhoff, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.edelhoff@tu-dortmund.de; Frank, Frauke; Heil, Marvin; Suter, Dieter [Experimental Physics III, TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn-Street 4, Dortmund 44227 (Germany); Walczak, Lars; Weichert, Frank [Computer Science VII, TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn-Street 16, Dortmund 44227 (Germany); Schmitz, Inge [Institute for Pathology, Ruhr Universität Bochum, Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, Bochum 44789 (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The impact and the development of aneurysms depend to a significant degree on the exchange of liquid between the regular vessel and the pathological extension. A better understanding of this process will lead to improved prediction capabilities. The aim of the current study was to investigate fluid-exchange in aneurysm models of different complexities by combining microscopic magnetic resonance measurements with numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of these methods, the fluid-exchange process between the unaltered vessel lumen and the aneurysm phantoms was analyzed quantitatively using high spatial resolution. Methods: Magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to visualize fluid-exchange in two different models produced with a 3D printer. One model of an aneurysm was based on histological findings. The flow distribution in the different models was measured on a microscopic scale using time of flight magnetic resonance imaging. The whole experiment was simulated using fast graphics processing unit-based numerical simulations. The obtained simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the magnetic resonance imaging measurements, taking into account flow and spin–lattice relaxation. Results: The results of both presented methods compared well for the used aneurysm models and the chosen flow distributions. The results from the fluid-exchange analysis showed comparable characteristics concerning measurement and simulation. Similar symmetry behavior was observed. Based on these results, the amount of fluid-exchange was calculated. Depending on the geometry of the models, 7% to 45% of the liquid was exchanged per second. Conclusions: The result of the numerical simulations coincides well with the experimentally determined velocity field. The rate of fluid-exchange between vessel and aneurysm was well-predicted. Hence, the results obtained by simulation could be validated by the experiment. The

  6. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  7. Aneurysm miRNA Signature Differs, Depending on Disease Localization and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Busch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited comprehension of aneurysm pathology has led to inconclusive results from clinical trials. miRNAs are key regulators of post-translational gene modification and are useful tools in elucidating key features of aneurysm pathogenesis in distinct entities of abdominal and popliteal aneurysms. Here, surgically harvested specimens from 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA and 8 popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA patients were analyzed for miRNA expression and histologically classified regarding extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and inflammation. DIANA-based computational target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis verified our results, as well as previous ones. miRNA-362, -19b-1, -194, -769, -21 and -550 were significantly down-regulated in AAA samples depending on degree of inflammation. Similar or inverse regulation was found for miR-769, 19b-1 and miR-550, -21, whereas miR-194 and -362 were unaltered in PAA. In situ hybridization verified higher expression of miR-550 and -21 in PAA compared to AAA and computational analysis for target genes and pathway enrichment affirmed signal transduction, cell-cell-interaction and cell degradation pathways, in line with previous results. Despite the vague role of miRNAs for potential diagnostic and treatment purposes, the number of candidates from tissue signature studies is increasing. Tissue morphology influences subsequent research, yet comparison of distinct entities of aneurysm disease can unravel core pathways.

  8. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  9. Aneurysmal bone cyst: revision of different techniques in imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study simple radiology, conventional tomography, computed tomography and angiography in 8 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst for the purpose of assessing the utility of these diagnostic techniques. Our results, in agreement with those in the literature, indicate that the presence of a generally well-defined lytic, insufflated lesion containing septi should suggest this disorder. (Author)

  10. Similar or Different? The Importance of Similarities and Differences for Support Between Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der; Pearl A. Dykstra; Flap, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for exchange. For helping with housework, helping with odd jobs, giving advice, and showing interest, logistic regression models are estimated and similarities and differences in gender, age, educatio...

  11. Similar or different?: the importance of similarities and differences for support between siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, M.; van der Lippe, T.; Dykstra, P.A.; Flap, H.

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  12. Similar or Different? The Importance of Similarities and Differences for Support Between Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Flap, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  13. Aneurysm Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  14. Exploring the similarities of different risks

    OpenAIRE

    Macgill, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Multifactorial data on risk originally collected by Fischoff et al and analysed using the method of factor analysis are reanalysed in this paper using Atkin's Q -analysis algorithm and Johnson's method of Q -discrimination analysis. These algorithms are presented as distinctive methods for interpreting data by revealing their internal structure. Unlike more familiar methods of factor analysis that can be used for a broadly similar purpose, the data are not distorted in any way, for example vi...

  15. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...

  16. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting ...

  17. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL POPOVICI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is the process of setting and achieving organizational goals through its functions: forecasting, organization, coordination, training and monitoring-evaluation.Leadership is: the ability to influence, to make others follow you, the ability to guide, the human side of business for "teacher". Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill levels.Other considerations emphasize aspects that separate management of leadership, calling them twocompletely different processes.The words manager and lider are very often used to designate the same person who leads, however, they represent different realities and the main difference arises form the way in which people around are motivated.The difference between being a manager and being a leader is simple. Management is a career. Leadership is a calling. A leader is someone who people naturally follow through their own choice, whereas a manager must be obeyed. A manager may only have obtained his position of authority through time and loyalty given to the company, not as a result of his leadership qualities. A leader may have no organisational skills, but his vision unites people behind him.Leadership and management are two notions that are often used interchangeably. However, these words actually describe two different concepts.Leadership is the main component of change, providing vision, and dedication necessary for its realization. Leadership is a skill that is formed by education, experiences, interaction with people and inspiring, of course, practice. Effective leadership depends largely on how their leaders define, follow and share the vision to followers.Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader, he also needs

  18. Revenue - similarities and differences of normative texts

    OpenAIRE

    Miloslav Janhuba

    2004-01-01

    This exposition focused to some basic problems by definition of the microeconomic (and accounting) category "revenue", of its congruence and differences in canonic texts (law act, instruction, directive etc.), which regulate a complex of accounting performances, in the first place, income statements. As canonic texts was make use of directives EU, International Accounting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards in USA and Czech law. Theoretically compared are the functions of revenue (and i...

  19. Sport and Art: Differences and Theatrical Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A certain tradition of philosophical considerations on the interrelation between sport and art has already been established. According to Tim L. Elcombe (Elcombe, 2012, p. 201, such considerations on the subject first appeared in English-language literature in the 1970s and 1980s, and were fruitful. Usually, they appear together with questions on the aesthetic properties of sport - in this case, a special issue of the Journal of the Philosophy of Sport dedicated to ―Sport and Aesthetics‖ (2012, vol. 39, no. 2, and an excellent postdoctoral dissertation by Jakub Mosz entitled ―Estetyczne aspekty uczestnictwa w sporcie‖ (English: Aesthetic aspects of participation in sports may serve as good examples. In his article (Elcombe, 2012, Tim L. Elcombe describes the contention and briefly characterizes the main differences between the two opposing viewpoints (Elcombe, 2012, pp. 202-204. It should be noted that he sympathizes with the view of David Best, who some years ago argued that sport is not art (1988, pp. 527-539. He believes that ―although art could use sport as a subject, art could not be the subject of sport‖ (Elcombe, 2012, p. 202. I would like to make that statement more specific by adding that its second part suggests that the display of artistic values cannot be the fundamental purpose of sport. I shall expand on that later. Best's viewpoint was criticized by Jan Boxil (1988, Spencer Wertz (1988, and Terry Roberts (1995, who believed that sport could be treated as art. Christopher Cordner (1995a; 1995b and Joseph Kupfer (1988 also challenged Best, although they did not entirely disagree with him (see: Elcombe, 2012, pp. 202-204. Because literature on the subject published in English presents diversified statements on the interrelation between sport and art, and the circle of people engaged in the matters of physical culture in Poland is still in favor of equating sport with art, I have decided to present my own stance on that

  20. Paediatric intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Wani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial aneurysms in childhood account for 1-2% of intracranial aneurysms.[1],[2] These aneurysms have unique characteristics that make them different from those in adults. These differences are evident in their epidemiology, location, clinical spectrum, association with trauma and infection, complications and outcome.

  1. Simulation of Intra-Aneurysmal Blood Flow by Different Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Weichert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occlusional performance of sole endoluminal stenting of intracranial aneurysms is controversially discussed in the literature. Simulation of blood flow has been studied to shed light on possible causal attributions. The outcome, however, largely depends on the numerical method and various free parameters. The present study is therefore conducted to find ways to define parameters and efficiently explore the huge parameter space with finite element methods (FEMs and lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs. The goal is to identify both the impact of different parameters on the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD and their advantages and disadvantages. CFD is applied to assess flow and aneurysmal vorticity in 2D and 3D models. To assess and compare initial simulation results, simplified 2D and 3D models based on key features of real geometries and medical expert knowledge were used. A result obtained from this analysis indicates that a combined use of the different numerical methods, LBM for fast exploration and FEM for a more in-depth look, may result in a better understanding of blood flow and may also lead to more accurate information about factors that influence conditions for stenting of intracranial aneurysms.

  2. The preparation of aneurysm model in rabbits by vessel ligation and elastase-induced technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish an aneurysm model, which is quite similar to the human intracranial aneurysm in morphology, in rabbits by means of vessel ligation together with elastase-induced technique. Methods: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Distal carotid ligation and intraluminal elastase incubation was employed in ten rabbits (study group) to create aneurysm on the right common carotid artery. And surgical suture of a segment of the left carotid common artery was carried out in six rabbits (used as control group) to establish the aneurysm model. DSA exam of the created aneurysms by using catheterization via femoral artery was performed at one week and at one month after surgery. The patency, morphology and pathology of the aneurysms were observed. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The aneurysms in both groups remained patent after they were created. Angiography one week after the surgery showed that all the aneurysms in study group were patent, while in control group only two aneurysms showed opacification with contrast medium and the remaining four aneurysms were all occluded. DSA at one month after the procedure demonstrated that all the aneurysms in study group remained patent, and the previous two patent aneurysms in control group became occluded. The mean width and length of the aneurysmal cavity in study group immediately after the procedure were (3.70 ± 0.16) mm and (6.53 ± 0.65) mm respectively, which enlarged to (5.06 ± 0.31) mm and (9.0 ± 0.52) mm respectively one month after the surgery. The difference in size changes was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pathologically, almost complete absence of the internal elastic lamina and medial wall elastin of the aneurysms was observed. Conclusion: The aneurysm model prepared with vessel ligation together with elastase-induced technique carries high patent rate and possesses the feature of spontaneous growing, moreover, its morphology is quite similar to the

  3. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. PMID:25446264

  4. Single-plant Similarity-difference Selection in Wheat Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ruilin Guo; Qiufang Wu; Yafei Liu

    2013-01-01

    A new method of single-plant selection was proposed using the principle of similarity-difference analysis to overcome the limitation of traditional breeding by means of experiences. The method is considered as the method of single-plant similarity-difference selection. Its principle and steps were introduced. By means of the breeding data of Yumai 35, Anmai No.1 and Anmai No.7, the analysis of single-plant similarity-difference selection was made in the process of single-plant selection. The ...

  5. Similarity of ideal gas flow at different scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沫然; 李志信

    2003-01-01

    The similarity of ideal gas flow at different scales is investigated analytically and numerically. With the compressible and rarefied effects considered, two dimensionless parameters, Mach number and Knudsen number, are proposed as the similarity criterions, because the Reynolds number can be expressed by the Mach number and the Knudsen number of ideal gases. A DSMC method is used to simulate flows at different scales with the same Ma and Kn, including subsonic channel flows and the supersonic flows over a hot plate. Comparisons between the results of different scales show that the normalized fields of macroscopic quantities are the same. This confirms the similarity. Especially, the results indicate that the micro flow are similar to the rarefied flow of ideal gas, which suggests that many transformations are available from the existing rarefied flow results to the micro flow.

  6. Airway disease: similarities and differences between asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Athanazio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Airway diseases are highly prevalent worldwide; however, the prevalence of these diseases is underestimated. Although these diseases present several common characteristics, they have different clinical outcomes. The differentiation between asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in the early stage of disease is extremely important for the adoption of appropriate therapeutic measures. However, because of the high prevalence of these diseases and the common pathophysiological pathways, some patients with different diseases may present with similar symptoms. The objective of this review is to highlight the similarities and differences between these diseases in terms of the risk factors, pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Single-plant Similarity-difference Selection in Wheat Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilin Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method of single-plant selection was proposed using the principle of similarity-difference analysis to overcome the limitation of traditional breeding by means of experiences. The method is considered as the method of single-plant similarity-difference selection. Its principle and steps were introduced. By means of the breeding data of Yumai 35, Anmai No.1 and Anmai No.7, the analysis of single-plant similarity-difference selection was made in the process of single-plant selection. The results show that the method is feasible and efficient in the practice of breeding. Based on this, the superiorities of the method were discussed. It is pointed that combining the method with the technique of molecule marker assisted selection will is a very meaning study direction.

  8. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  9. Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

  10. Metal Clusters and Nuclei: some Similarities and Differences

    CERN Document Server

    Haberland, H

    1999-01-01

    Atomic nuclei and simple metal clusters exhibit several surprising similarities. Some of the cluster properties are discussed, which have an analogue in nuclear physics, such as magic numbers, single and collective excitations, higher excitations of the Giant Dipole Resonance, etc. As an example of a difference the solid to liquid phase transitions of clusters is described.

  11. Metal Clusters and Nuclei: some Similarities and Differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic nuclei and simple metal clusters exhibit several surprising similarities. Some of the cluster properties are discussed, which have an analogue in nuclear physics, such as magic numbers, single and collective excitations, higher excitations of the Giant Dipole Resonance, etc. As an example of a difference the solid to liquid phase transitions of clusters is described

  12. Similarities and differences in values between Vietnamese parents and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Truong Thi Khanh Ha; Nguyen Van Luot; Joanna Różycka-Tran

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyse similarities and differences in the motivational value system of Vietnamese parents and adolescents, in the context of Schwartz’s value theory. Also, the transmission of values between two generations was studied. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three different cities of Vietnam – Hanoi, Hue and Ho Chi Minh City – on adolescents, their fathers and mothers (N = 2226). The hierarchy of values was measured w...

  13. Retinoid-binding proteins: similar protein architectures bind similar ligands via completely different ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids are a class of compounds that are chemically related to vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in vision, cell growth and differentiation. In vivo, retinoids must bind with specific proteins to perform their necessary functions. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (ERABP carry retinoids in bodily fluids, while cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs carry retinoids within cells. Interestingly, although all of these transport proteins possess similar structures, the modes of binding for the different retinoid ligands with their carrier proteins are different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we analyzed the various retinoid transport mechanisms using structure and sequence comparisons, binding site analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that in the same family of proteins and subcellular location, the orientation of a retinoid molecule within a binding protein is same, whereas when different families of proteins are considered, the orientation of the bound retinoid is completely different. In addition, none of the amino acid residues involved in ligand binding is conserved between the transport proteins. However, for each specific binding protein, the amino acids involved in the ligand binding are conserved. The results of this study allow us to propose a possible transport model for retinoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the differences in the binding modes between the different retinoid-binding proteins.

  14. Unruptured Brain Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  15. Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  16. Research Reactors that Look Similar But are Quite Different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1997, the 22 MW ETRR-2 was started up and in November 2001, the 20 MW design, offered by INVAP, was selected by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) to be the new replacement research reactor. Overall, both reactors generate practically the same power and the primary cooling system presents similarities that can be considered as the use of a proven technique. However, the required core configuration introduces some important challenges in the design. The paper is intended to show the experience of INVAP in the thermal-hydraulic design of two 'similar' research reactors specified with different requirements and fulfilling the same safety standards. (author)

  17. Verminous aneurysm caused by filaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F V; de Araújo, A P; da Cunha, A M; Sidow, J R; Pavão, S G; de Araújo, E D

    1983-06-01

    Aneurysms caused by atherosclerosis are relatively frequent, as a consequence of the high incidence of this degenerative disease of the arteries. Other types of aneurysm, for example, those of infectious etiology, are more uncommon. Bacterias and fungi are able to cause aneurysms in several parts of the arterial tree. Stengel et al (1943), in a review of world literature described 217 cases of mycotic aneurysms. The Stedman's Medical Dictionary refers to a special type of aneurysm observed in horses, caused by intra-vascular migration of a worm, the Strongylus vulgaris. It has been named verminous aneurysm and generally involves the mesenteric arteries. We haven't found in medical literature any similar observations refering to human cases. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of aneurysm the etiology of which we have imputed to the filaria (Wuchereria bancrofti). This case was observed in Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:6346961

  18. Hanny's Voorwerp and the Antikythera Mechanism - similarities, differences and insights

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    I present some insights into Hanny's Voorwerp and the Antikythera mechanism - contrasting their similarities and differences. They are both excellent examples of serendipitous discoveries in which human curiosity and perseverance have played an important role. Both objects have captured the imagination of the general public, and their discovery was only made possible via the introduction of new technologies. One major difference is that there is only one Antikythera device but there are now many Voorwerpen or "voorwerpjes", as they are more commonly known. The study of a collection of objects, as is common in astronomy, greatly aids our understanding of cosmic phenomena. In the case of the voorwepjes, we now know that such systems are to be identified with obscured galaxies or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that appear to have recently and indeed rapidly turned off. Clearly, the discovery of more examples of devices similar to the Antikythera mechanism would have a significant affect in advancing our understand...

  19. Intermittent control models of human standing: similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Two architectures of intermittent control are compared and contrasted in the context of the single inverted pendulum model often used for describing standing in humans. The architectures are similar insofar as they use periods of open-loop control punctuated by switching events when crossing a switching surface to keep the system state trajectories close to trajectories leading to equilibrium. The architectures differ in two significant ways. Firstly, in one case, the open-loop control trajec...

  20. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CL

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11–13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial simila...

  1. The Similarities and Differences between Chinese and Indonesia Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the similarities and differences between Chinese and Indonesia Culture. In order to achieve this goal, five culture aspect were analyzed. They are (1) greeting and farewell; (2) thanks and apologies; (3) honorifics and Qianci; (4) praise and politely refuse; (5) dinner and gifts. The research used comparative study method. By analyzing the five aspects of the Indonesia and Chinese culture, research concludes that the Chinese and Indonesian culture hav...

  2. Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Screening A- A A+ Early Detection and Screening Brain aneurysms can be similar to heart attacks. ... aneurysm is about to rupture. Fortunately, through imaging screening techniques, individuals at high risk of harboring a ...

  3. Continuous Improvement and Collaborative Improvement: Similarities and Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middel, Rick; Boer, Harry; Fisscher, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of theoretical and practical knowledge has been developed on continuous improvement. However, there is still a considerable lack of impirically grounded contributions and theories on collaborative improvement, that is, continuous improvement in an interorganizational setting. The...... CO-IMPROVE project investigated whether and how the concept of continuous improvement can be extended and transferred to such settings. The objective of this article is ti evaluate the CO-IMPROVE research findings in view of existing theories on continuous innovation. The article investigates the...... similarities and differences between key components of continuous and collaborative improvement by assessing what is specific for continuous improvement, what for collaborative improvement, and where the two areas of application meet and overlap. The main conclusions are that there are many more similarities...

  4. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  5. Intermittent control models of human standing: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Two architectures of intermittent control are compared and contrasted in the context of the single inverted pendulum model often used for describing standing in humans. The architectures are similar insofar as they use periods of open-loop control punctuated by switching events when crossing a switching surface to keep the system state trajectories close to trajectories leading to equilibrium. The architectures differ in two significant ways. Firstly, in one case, the open-loop control trajectory is generated by a system-matched hold, and in the other case, the open-loop control signal is zero. Secondly, prediction is used in one case but not the other. The former difference is examined in this paper. The zero control alternative leads to periodic oscillations associated with limit cycles; whereas the system-matched control alternative gives trajectories (including homoclinic orbits) which contain the equilibrium point and do not have oscillatory behaviour. Despite this difference in behaviour, it is further shown that behaviour can appear similar when either the system is perturbed by additive noise or the system-matched trajectory generation is perturbed. The purpose of the research is to come to a common approach for understanding the theoretical properties of the two alternatives with the twin aims of choosing which provides the best explanation of current experimental data (which may not, by itself, distinguish between the two alternatives) and suggesting future experiments to distinguish between the two alternatives. PMID:24500616

  6. Symptom Similarities and Differences in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sirvanli Ozen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.

  7. Age differences and similarities in the correlates of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Ahrens, Cheryl

    2002-03-01

    The authors investigated whether several life events or concerns were differentially related to depressive symptoms across 3 adult age groups (young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults). They examined the relationships of 2 measures of depressive symptoms to work status and satisfaction, relationship status and satisfaction, loneliness, recent losses, parenting strain, and caregiving. Some differences between age groups in these relationships were found. Yet, most results suggested that, although the frequency with which people experience specific life events or concerns varies across the adult life span, the relationships between these events or concerns and depressive symptoms are similar across age groups. PMID:11931280

  8. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  9. Nocturnal enuresis and nocturia, differences and similarities - lessons to learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, A-S; Everaert, K; Hoebeke, P; Kapila, A; Walle, J Vande

    2015-04-01

    This review highlights the current views on and differences and similarities between nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children and nocturia in adults, which might be a guidance to elucidate the missing links in our knowledge. In both conditions, a genetic factor is suspected. Reduced bladder capacity and nocturnal polyuria are the main underlying lower urinary tract-related conditions. There is a link with sleep disorders, although it is not clear whether this is a cause or consequence. Physical and mental health are comprised in both conditions, however, in different ways. In NE, constipation and attention deficit disorder are the most important comorbidities and the effect on mental health and quality of life is mainly through the negative impact on self-esteem. In nocturia, cardiovascular disease and fall injuries are important comorbidities, mainly affecting the older nocturia population; personal distress and depression are consequences of the related poor sleep quality. For both conditions, treatment is often inadequate and a more individualized approach seems to be necessary. The main difference between NE and nocturia seems to be the difference in arousal to bladder stimuli, suggesting that sleep characteristics might be a key factor in these conditions. PMID:25379877

  10. Sensitivity and specifity of different imaging methods for the detection of cerebral aneurysms; Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet bildgebender Verfahren fuer den Nachweis intrakranieller Aneurysmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringelstein, Adrian; Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence or cerebral aneurysms is estimated at 2 %. Out of these aciniform aneurysm, 0,1 % rupture each year. The 30-day-mortality after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is estimated at 45 %. Additionally, about 50 % of the patients suffer from severe persistent neurologic deficits. The most reliable way to prevent rupture is early detection and prophylactic therapy of an unruptured aneurysm. For this, knowledge of the different imaging methods currently available and their diagnostic potential is highly desirable. This review describes the potential of CT, MRI and catheter angiography in diagnosing cerebral aneurysms, as well as therapy planning and follow-up care of patients. Based on this, some recommendations are made for management of patients with SAH.

  11. Are Defect Profile Similarity Criteria Different Than Velocity Profile Similarity Criteria for the Turbulent Boundary Layer?

    OpenAIRE

    Weyburne, David

    2015-01-01

    The use of the defect profile instead of the experimentally observed velocity profile for the search for similarity parameters has become firmly imbedded in the turbulent boundary layer literature. However, a search of the literature reveals that there are no theoretical reasons for this defect profile preference over the more traditional velocity profile. In the report herein, we use the flow governing equation approach to develop similarity criteria for the two profiles. Results show that t...

  12. Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comaniciu Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

  13. Wood versus Plant Fibers: Similarities and Differences in Composite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Madsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fiber composites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed.

  14. Similarities and differences in values between Vietnamese parents and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Thi Khanh Ha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to analyse similarities and differences in the motivational value system of Vietnamese parents and adolescents, in the context of Schwartz’s value theory. Also, the transmission of values between two generations was studied. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three different cities of Vietnam – Hanoi, Hue and Ho Chi Minh City – on adolescents, their fathers and mothers (N = 2226. The hierarchy of values was measured with a Vietnamese version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-40. Additionally, expectations of parents toward children and preferences of children were measured with a list of 28 features and attitudes prepared for the study. Results The results show that both parents and their adolescent children highly respect universalism, conformity, and benevolence in contrast to power and stimulation, which is still typical for a collectivistic culture. The differences arise in higher-order values: while parents value conservatism (security, conformity and tradition, their children prefer more openness to change (self-direction and hedonism values, which is typical for a more individualistic culture. The results also reveal that parents in Vietnam expect and transfer to children some attitudes and features such as studiousness, filial piety and diligence, but not riskiness, desire or humour. Although adolescents are aware of their parents’ expectations, they do not fully accept them. Conclusions The results provide hints for parents to plan their strategy on appropriate education of their children, in the current context of global integration and cultural changes.

  15. Different CT perfusion algorithms in the detection of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Charlotte H.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Room G03.232, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Bennink, Edwin; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Schaaf, Irene C. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Room G03.232, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vos, Pieter C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Tracer delay-sensitive perfusion algorithms in CT perfusion (CTP) result in an overestimation of the extent of ischemia in thromboembolic stroke. In diagnosing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed arrival of contrast due to vasospasm may also overestimate the extent of ischemia. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for detecting DCI. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients admitted between 2007-2011, we included patients with any clinical deterioration other than rebleeding within 21 days after SAH who underwent NCCT/CTP/CTA imaging. Causes of clinical deterioration were categorized into DCI and no DCI. CTP maps were calculated with tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms and were visually assessed for the presence of perfusion deficits by two independent observers with different levels of experience. The diagnostic value of both algorithms was calculated for both observers. Seventy-one patients were included. For the experienced observer, the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 0.67 for the delay-sensitive and 0.66 for the delay-insensitive algorithm, and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 0.73 and 0.74. For the less experienced observer, PPVs were 0.60 for both algorithms, and NPVs were 0.66 for the delay-sensitive and 0.63 for the delay-insensitive algorithm. Test characteristics are comparable for tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for the visual assessment of CTP in diagnosing DCI. This indicates that both algorithms can be used for this purpose. (orig.)

  16. Different CT perfusion algorithms in the detection of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer delay-sensitive perfusion algorithms in CT perfusion (CTP) result in an overestimation of the extent of ischemia in thromboembolic stroke. In diagnosing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed arrival of contrast due to vasospasm may also overestimate the extent of ischemia. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for detecting DCI. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients admitted between 2007-2011, we included patients with any clinical deterioration other than rebleeding within 21 days after SAH who underwent NCCT/CTP/CTA imaging. Causes of clinical deterioration were categorized into DCI and no DCI. CTP maps were calculated with tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms and were visually assessed for the presence of perfusion deficits by two independent observers with different levels of experience. The diagnostic value of both algorithms was calculated for both observers. Seventy-one patients were included. For the experienced observer, the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 0.67 for the delay-sensitive and 0.66 for the delay-insensitive algorithm, and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 0.73 and 0.74. For the less experienced observer, PPVs were 0.60 for both algorithms, and NPVs were 0.66 for the delay-sensitive and 0.63 for the delay-insensitive algorithm. Test characteristics are comparable for tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for the visual assessment of CTP in diagnosing DCI. This indicates that both algorithms can be used for this purpose. (orig.)

  17. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They carry oxygen and blood to various organs. These arteries have muscular walls, and when they get ... continue to expand, and they can rupture. And these aneurysms can occur in a lot of different ...

  18. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  19. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages

  20. Lenalidomide and thalidomide: mechanisms of action--similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth C

    2005-10-01

    Multiple myeloma is a B-cell malignancy characterized by an excess of monotypic plasma cells in the bone marrow. The molecular mechanisms that are involved in disease progression depend on the interaction between the multiple myeloma cells and the bone microenvironment. Because these mechanisms have been well characterized, it is possible to develop regimens that are more specific to pathways involved in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma than is typical for conventional chemotherapy in disease management. Thalidomide and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) have now been shown to block several pathways important for disease progression in multiple myeloma. First established as agents with antiangiogenic properties, thalidomide and IMiDs inhibit the production of interleukin (IL)-6, which is a growth factor for the proliferation of myeloma cells. In addition, they activate apoptotic pathways through caspase 8-mediated cell death. At the mitochondrial level, they are responsible for c-jun terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent release of cytochrome-c and Smac into the cytosol of cells, where they regulate the activity of molecules that affect apoptosis. By activating T cells to produce IL-2, thalidomide and IMiDs alter natural killer (NK) cell numbers and function, thus augmenting the activity of NK-dependent cytotoxicity. Data delineating these events have been derived from experiments done in resistant and sensitive multiple myeloma cell lines. Although thalidomide and IMiDs demonstrate similar biologic activities, IMiDs are more potent than thalidomide and achieve responses at lower doses. Lenalidomide, a thalidomide derivative, has also been shown to have a different toxicity profile. Our understanding of the mechanism of action of these agents has provided a platform for exciting clinical trials evaluating combinations of thalidomide and lenalidomide with both conventional chemotherapy and newer targeted agents. PMID:16344099

  1. Similar resilience attributes in lakes with different management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baho, Didier L.; Drakare, Stina; Johnson, Richard K.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Liming has been used extensively in Scandinavia and elsewhere since the 1970s to counteract the negative effects of acidification. Communities in limed lakes usually return to acidified conditions once liming is discontinued, suggesting that liming is unlikely to shift acidified lakes to a state equivalent to pre-acidification conditions that requires no further management intervention. While this suggests a low resilience of limed lakes, attributes that confer resilience have not been assessed, limiting our understanding of the efficiency of costly management programs. In this study, we assessed community metrics (diversity, richness, evenness, biovolume), multivariate community structure and the relative resilience of phytoplankton in limed, acidified and circum-neutral lakes from 1997 to 2009, using multivariate time series modeling. We identified dominant temporal frequencies in the data, allowing us to track community change at distinct temporal scales. We assessed two attributes of relative resilience (cross-scale and within-scale structure) of the phytoplankton communities, based on the fluctuation frequency patterns identified. We also assessed species with stochastic temporal dynamics. Liming increased phytoplankton diversity and richness; however, multivariate community structure differed in limed relative to acidified and circum-neutral lakes. Cross-scale and within-scale attributes of resilience were similar across all lakes studied but the contribution of those species exhibiting stochastic dynamics was higher in the acidified and limed compared to circum-neutral lakes. From a resilience perspective, our results suggest that limed lakes comprise a particular condition of an acidified lake state. This explains why liming does not move acidified lakes out of a “degraded” basin of attraction. In addition, our study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess the efficiency of restoration and management outcomes through quantification

  2. Similar resilience attributes in lakes with different management practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier L Baho

    Full Text Available Liming has been used extensively in Scandinavia and elsewhere since the 1970s to counteract the negative effects of acidification. Communities in limed lakes usually return to acidified conditions once liming is discontinued, suggesting that liming is unlikely to shift acidified lakes to a state equivalent to pre-acidification conditions that requires no further management intervention. While this suggests a low resilience of limed lakes, attributes that confer resilience have not been assessed, limiting our understanding of the efficiency of costly management programs. In this study, we assessed community metrics (diversity, richness, evenness, biovolume, multivariate community structure and the relative resilience of phytoplankton in limed, acidified and circum-neutral lakes from 1997 to 2009, using multivariate time series modeling. We identified dominant temporal frequencies in the data, allowing us to track community change at distinct temporal scales. We assessed two attributes of relative resilience (cross-scale and within-scale structure of the phytoplankton communities, based on the fluctuation frequency patterns identified. We also assessed species with stochastic temporal dynamics. Liming increased phytoplankton diversity and richness; however, multivariate community structure differed in limed relative to acidified and circum-neutral lakes. Cross-scale and within-scale attributes of resilience were similar across all lakes studied but the contribution of those species exhibiting stochastic dynamics was higher in the acidified and limed compared to circum-neutral lakes. From a resilience perspective, our results suggest that limed lakes comprise a particular condition of an acidified lake state. This explains why liming does not move acidified lakes out of a "degraded" basin of attraction. In addition, our study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess the efficiency of restoration and management outcomes through

  3. Comparison of different statistical models of turbulence by similarity methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of implosion by inertial confinement is perturbed by hydrodynamic instabilities such as Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. They may generate turbulent flow, causing the mixing of constituents and the degradation of the symmetry of the implosion. The authors extend Barenblatt's study (1983) of a one-equation turbulence model to a variety of two-equation models. They consider the problem of the propagation of incompressible turbulence generated by an instantaneous plane source, for which the evolution of the turbulence is determined completely by diffusive and dissipative processes. It is then possible to find for each model a self-similar solution asymptotic to the exact flow. The authors then compare the self-similar temporal and spatial behavior of several two-equation models, including the dependence on model coefficients. They also observe the predicted self-similar behavior and evaluate similarity exponents by numerical solution of the model equations. The combined analytic and numerical approach not only elucidates the analysis but also assists in the validation of the turbulence modeling codes. Some of this analysis has previously been carried out by one of the authors on two turbulence models (Cherfils, 1993), and related work has been reported by Neuvazhaev et al. (1991)

  4. Cross-cultural similarities and differences in music mood perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JH; Hu, X

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that listeners from different cultural backgrounds appreciate music differently. Although music mood/emotion is an important part of music seeking and appreciation, few cross-cultural music information retrieval (MIR) studies focus on music mood. Moreover, existing studies on cross-cultural music perception often only compare listeners from two cultures, in most cases, Western vs. Non-western cultures. In order to fill these gaps, this study compares music mood percept...

  5. Mixed Methods and Action Research: similar or different?

    OpenAIRE

    WIŚNIEWSKA, DANUTA

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to analyse and compare ELT studies grounded solely in mixed methods and ELT action research studies based on a mixed methods approach in order to identify to what degree action research studies combining different methods in a single study comply with the principles of rigorous mixed methods study.

  6. Immersion and CLIL in English: More Differences than Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In ELT literature, the reader often finds the terms Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and immersion used interchangeably, even though there are important differences between them. These two labels usually appear as generic terms covering any kind of teaching in which an L2 is used to teach content. In this article, we attempt to…

  7. Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

    2013-01-01

    The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in paral...

  8. Sexual coercion in men and women: similar behaviors, different predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzel-Murphy, Elizabeth A; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A; Milburn, Michael A

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the contention that both women and men employ various seductive, manipulative, intoxication, and even forceful tactics of sexual coercion to obtain sexual contact from unwilling partners. Although the self-reported coercive behavior of men and women may appear similar in many respects, predictors of such behavior seem to vary in important ways across gender. In addition to examining the prevalence of coercive behaviors reported across gender, the present study examined the extent to which four variables found in models of male sexual coercion predicted self-reported use of sexual coercion in a sample (n = 186) of college men and women: prior sexual abuse, sexual dominance, sociosexuality, and sexual compulsivity. Although prior sexual abuse seemed to be part of a cycle of sexual coercion among both men and women, key predictors of sexual coercion among men were sexual dominance and sociosexuality, whereas the key predictor of sexual coercion among women was sexual compulsivity. These findings support the notion that whereas men may behave coercively to obtain or maintain an impersonal sense of power and control, women may behave coercively to achieve some level of interpersonal connection when feeling out of control. PMID:19330440

  9. Timing of Surgery for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Abbas Nejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many studies about timing for surgery in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, the optimum time is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the results of early and late surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the results of 70 consecutive surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in in Firuzgar hospital from 2005 to 2008. Surgery was performed in 50 cases (71.4% in early period after SAH (first 4 days and in 20 cases (28.6% in at least 7 days after SAH. Statitical analysis was done by SPSS software, using Chi-square and t-test. Mean age of patients was 48.54±13.4 years. 41.4% of patients were male and 58.6% were female. Most (77.2% of patients had clinical grade I or II. 92.9% of aneurysms were single. Hypertension was the most common associated disease (34.3%. The most common site of aneurysms was anterior communicating artery (41.4%, followed by middle cerebral artery (35.7%. The outcome of surgery was favorable in 70% and unfavorable in 30%. Mortality rate was 24.3%. Outcome was favorable in 66% of early surgeries and 80% of late surgeries. There was no statistically significant difference between early and late surgery in terms of complications and outcome. Mean hospital stay of patients in the early surgery group was significantly lower than late group (16.46±9.36 vs. 22.5±7.97 days; P=0.01. The results of early and late surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is similar and decision making for timing of surgery should be based on each patient individual clinical conditions, age, size and site of aneurysm.

  10. GENDER, PSYCHOSIS AND PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Groleger, Urban; Novak-Grubič, Virginija

    2010-01-01

    Acute psychosis is diagnosed by clearly defined operational criteria embedded into international classification systems. Many studies have tried to determine the role of gender in psychosis but mainly in terms of epidemiology and course of illness, most often schizophrenia. There are however also important gender-specific differences in clinical symptoms of acute psychosis. No guidelines or treatment recommendations suggest gender as an important factor in the choice of antipsychotic treat...

  11. Administrative Reforms in Post-Communist Countries: Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Goran, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Administrative reforms in post-communist countries are often researched as one-country case studies and with a legal focus. In this article, the author uses a comparative approach to identify the main features of administrative reform policy in post-communist countries, as opposed to such reforms in Western democracies, as well as to point out the elements and actors in these processes that may lead to differences among the post-communist administrations. The article focuses...

  12. Male and female leadership – similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela CIOLAC

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This study aims to identify characteristics and behaviours typical for male and female managers from the managers` perspective as well as from the subordinates`. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 232 employed persons, 111 managers and 121 subordinates working in different branches. The independent variables of the research were: the position in the organization (manager or subordinate) and the managers` gender (male or female). The dependent variables were m...

  13. Protestants and Catholics: Similar Work Ethic, Different Social Ethic

    OpenAIRE

    Arru??ada, Benito

    2015-01-01

    This article develops two hypotheses about economically-relevant values of Christian believers, according to which Protestants should work more and more effectively, as in the ??work ethic?? argument of Max Weber, or display a stronger ??social ethic?? that would lead them to monitor each other??s conduct, support political and legal institutions and hold more homogeneous values. Tests using current survey data confirm substantial partial correlations and possible different ??e...

  14. E-commerce vs. e-banking - similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Davcev, Ljupco; Fotov, Risto; Sofijanova, Elenica; Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    E-commerce consists of buying and selling of information, products and services over computer networks such as the Internet and electronic data interchange(EDI).E-Banking is one form of e – commerce with certain differences and peculiarities that are characteristic only in e-banking. For companies e-commerce brings: variety and low barriers to entry,significant opportunities for cost cutting, capacity for rapid creation of business processes, and great opportunities to sell across the border....

  15. Tradeable green certificates and the flexible mechanisms - Differences and similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although TGCs and the Flexible Mechanisms have several common features there are also significant differences. First of all, TGCs and the Flexible Mechanisms are established to fulfil different goals, namely increasing the share of RE and reducing GHG emissions, respectively, However, the fulfilment of one goal influences the achievement of the other. Consequently, a system of TGCs could be viewed, as instrumental in relation to GHG mitigation as well as GHG mitigation could be instrumental to a TGC system. Second, while a TGC scheme transfers capital from electricity consumers to RE generators, the Flexible Mechanisms do not necessarily have the same effect. On the contrary, the use of Flexible Mechanisms will often be motivated by the use of instruments that put a financial burden on conventional electricity generators/consumers. The markets for TGCs and the Flexible Mechanisms may interact counter-intuitively. For example, raising a CO2 tax does not increase RE generation in a TGC system. Also the feasibility of the instruments is different. While monitoring and enforcement of a TGC system seems straight-forward, characteristics of the Flexible Mechanisms such as measuring and verifying baselines poses a challenge to the feasibility of the Mechanisms. (LN)

  16. Structure of the clinical and geriatric depression: Similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrating the uniqueness of depression in old age are numerous, but conclusions on the fact if the problems of the elderly people cause depression or if they are a part of depression are not unique. The aim of this paper is to compare the structure of depression of old people without the history of mental illness and middle-aged people treated for depression. The sample consists of 82 healthy inmates of different Homes for the Aged and 78 patients diagnosed with some sort of affective disorder. A depression has been assessed with the shorten version of the MMPI D-scale. The structure of the geriatric and clinical depression has been compared with the method of maximum likelihood, over the matrix of co-variances of answers on the items on the depression scale. The results point out to the statistically significant difference in the structure of depression of the old and clinically depressed individuals. However, half of the items of the D-scale have significant loadings on the factor of depression in both groups. The essence of the depression in both samples is made of cognitive subject matters, depressive affect, decline of motivation and a negative estimate of one's basic abilities. Symptoms concerning low self-esteem, experiencing cognitive deficit, energy and impaired physical health have been significant in describing the clinical depression, while a feeling of reduced positive stimulation and the affective liability is typical for the depression of geriatric sample. The conclusion is that, despite the differences, there is a common core of symptoms that makes the essence of depression, apart from the samples.

  17. FROM SOCIAL ECONOMY TO SOLIDARY ECONOMY. SPECIFIC SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netedu Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specialized literature from the field of social economy has been facing in the last years a new concept, namely solidary economy. Although the terms are very much alike, many analysts consider that there are enough specific differences in order to successfully impose this new concept. Unavoidably, solidary economy may come from social economy but bringing some corrections and examples. In this article we try to mark the limits of the two concepts mainly from the theoretical perspective as they appear in the French specialized literature.

  18. Structure of the clinical and geriatric depression: Similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Novović Zdenka; Čolović Petar; Babić Maja; Mišić-Pavkov Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Studies demonstrating the uniqueness of depression in old age are numerous, but conclusions on the fact if the problems of the elderly people cause depression or if they are a part of depression are not unique. The aim of this paper is to compare the structure of depression of old people without the history of mental illness and middle-aged people treated for depression. The sample consists of 82 healthy inmates of different Homes for the Aged and 78 patients diagnosed with some sort of affec...

  19. Strategy Perception : A Qualitative Study of Perception Differences and Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Barazeghi, Roya; Hagring, Alexander; Klint, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Strategy is an important part of any business. To become successful, a company must put a lot of effort into creating a strong and feasible strategy. To eliminate problems to follow the strategy it should be clear and jointly formulated. However, a problem could still be that the strategy is perceived and understood differently by managers and em-ployees within the company. This could implicate issues because these persons are ex-pected to follow the strategy and adopt their plans according t...

  20. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  1. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  2. On di-positronium and molecular hydrogen: similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The di-positronium is a system of two electrons and two positrons while the positronium is a system of an electron and a positron. The stability and other properties of the di-positronium molecule are discussed. It is pointed out that the di-positronium binding energy may be explained on the basis of a simplified model which satisfies the important requirement of providing a consistent description of the 'atoms' and 'molecule' of positronium. The importance of correlations in positronium and di-positronium is analyzed. In comparing positronium and di-positronium with atomic and molecular hydrogen, a remarkable parallelism is identified but also significant differences. (authors)

  3. Collaborative Public Management and Collaborative Governance: Conceptual Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Kapucu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest among Public Administration scholars in collaborative public management and governance. However, there is a need for conceptual analysis of the two terms which share common aspects and differ essentially in scope and substance. We found that collaborative public management has a more local approach and focuses on the substance of collaboration practiced to solve societal problems and reach community goals at the organizational level. On the other hand, widely researched in management, political science, and public administration disciplines, collaborative governance has a global scope and focuses on both substance and process of collaboration in effectively solving societal problems with improved structures of nonhierarchical and decentralized institutions and mechanisms of citizen participation both through partnership projects and e-governance tools. The paper contributes to the better understanding of collaborative public management and collaborative governance with implications for both future research and practice.

  4. Zooplankton structure in two interconnected ponds: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špoljar Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of zooplankton diversity, abundance and trophic structure was conducted during the summer period in pelagial zone on the longitudinal profile of the Sutla River Backwater. Investigated site consists of two interconnected basins: transparent Upper Basin with submerged macrophytes and turbid Lower Basin without macrophytes in the littoral zone. In the Upper Basin, abundance and diversity of zooplankton in the pelagial was higher in comparison to the Lower Basin, with prevailing species of genus Keratella as microfilter-feeder, and genera of Polyartha and Trihocerca as macrofilter-feeder rotifers. On the contrary, in the Lower Basin, crustaceans dominated in abundance. Microfilter-feeder cladoceran (Bosmina longirostris and larval and adult stages of macrofilter-feeder copepod (Macrocyclops albidus prevailed in the Lower Basin. Fish predation pressure was more pronounced in the pelagial of the Upper Basin, indicated by low cladoceran abundance in the surface layer. Although the studied basins were interconnected, results indicate significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05 differences in the zooplankton structure as a potential result of the macrophyte impact on environmental conditions and fish predation pressure.

  5. Differences and similarities of postprandial lipemia in rodents and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Lívia R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rat has been a mainstay of physiological and metabolic research, and more recently mice. This study aimed at characterizing the postprandial triglyceride profile of two members of the Muridae family: the Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus and C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus plus comparing them to the profile obtained in humans. Methods Thirty-one male and twelve female Wistar rats, ten C57BL/6 male and nine female mice received a liquid meal containing fat (17%, protein (4% and carbohydrates (4%, providing 2 g fat/Kg. Thirty-one men and twenty-nine women received a standardized liquid meal containing fat (25%, dextromaltose (55%, protein (14%, and vitamins and minerals (6%, and providing 40 g of fat per square meter of body surface. Serial blood samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h after the ingestion in rats, at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h in mice and in humans at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results/Discussion The triglyceride responses were evaluated after the oral fat loads. Fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia were determined sequentially in blood sample. AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks were determined. Conclusions Rats are prone to respond in a pro-atherogenic manner. The responses in mice were closer to the ones in healthy men. This study presents striking differences in postprandial triglycerides patterns between rats and mice not correlated to baseline triglycerides, the animal baseline body weight or fat load in all animal groups.

  6. Sex differences in 30-day and 5-year outcomes after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the EUROSTAR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grootenboer, Nathalie; Hunink, M G Myriam; Hendriks, Johanna M; van Sambeek, Marc R H M; Buth, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sex on 30-day and long-term outcomes after elective endovascular aneurysm repair.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sex on 30-day and long-term outcomes after elective endovascular aneurysm repair....

  7. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  8. Aneurysms: thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) have many possible etiologies, including congenital heart defects (eg, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of the aorta), inherited connective tissue disorders (eg, Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and degenerative conditions (eg, medial necrosis, atherosclerosis of the aortic wall). Symptoms of rupture include a severe tearing pain in the chest, back, or neck, sometimes associated with cardiovascular collapse. Before rupture, TAAs may exert pressure on other thoracic structures, leading to a variety of symptoms. However, most TAAs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during imaging for other conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed with computed tomography scan or echocardiography. Asymptomatic TAAs should be monitored with imaging at specified intervals and patients referred for repair if the TAAs are enlarging rapidly (greater than 0.5 cm in diameter over 6 months for heritable etiologies; greater than 0.5 cm over 1 year for degenerative etiologies) or reach a critical aortic diameter threshold for elective surgery (5.5 cm for TAAs due to degenerative etiologies, 5.0 cm when associated with inherited syndromes). Open surgery is used most often to treat asymptomatic TAAs in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Asymptomatic TAAs in the descending aorta often are treated medically with aggressive blood pressure control, though recent data suggest that endovascular procedures may result in better long-term survival rates. PMID:25860136

  9. Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm. In search of an optimal differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm each account for a minor fraction of the total incidence of aortic aneurysm and are associated with periaortic inflammation. Despite the similarity, infected aortic aneurysm generally shows a more rapid change in clinical condition, leading to a fatal outcome; in addition, delayed diagnosis and misuse of corticosteroid or immunosuppressing drugs may lead to uncontrolled growth of microorganisms. Therefore, it is mandatory that detection of aortic aneurysm is followed by accurate differential diagnosis. In general, infected aortic aneurysm appears usually as a saccular form aneurysm with nodularity, irregular configuration; however, the differential diagnosis may not be easy sometimes for the following reasons: symptoms, such as abdominal and/or back pain and fever, and blood test abnormalities, such as elevated C-reactive protein and enhanced erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are common in infected aortic aneurysm, but they are not found infrequently in inflammatory aortic aneurysm; some inflammatory aortic aneurysms are immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related, but not all of them; the prevalence of IgG4 positivity in infected aortic aneurysm has not been well investigated; enhanced uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography may not distinguish between inflammation mediated by autoimmunity and that mediated by microorganism infection. Here we discuss the characteristics of these two forms of aortic aneurysm and the points of which we have to be aware before reaching a final diagnosis. (author)

  10. Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of Intracranial Aneurysm Hemodynamics: Effects of Different Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Oghaz, Hamidreza; Damiano, Robert; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are pathological outpouchings of cerebral vessels, the progression of which are mediated by complex interactions between the blood flow and vasculature. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used for decades to investigate IA hemodynamics. However, the commonly adopted simplifying assumptions in CFD (e.g. rigid wall) compromise the simulation accuracy and mask the complex physics involved in IA progression and eventual rupture. Several groups have considered the wall compliance by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling. However, FSI simulation is highly sensitive to numerical assumptions (e.g. linear-elastic wall material, Newtonian fluid, initial vessel configuration, and constant pressure outlet), the effects of which are poorly understood. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the sensitivity of FSI simulations in patient-specific IAs is investigated using a multi-stage approach with a varying level of complexity. We start with simulations incorporating several common simplifications: rigid wall, Newtonian fluid, and constant pressure at the outlets, and then we stepwise remove these simplifications until the most comprehensive FSI simulations. Hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are assessed and compared at each stage to better understand the sensitivity of in FSI simulations for IA to model assumptions. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (1R01 NS 091075-01).

  11. Empirical Study of the Effects of Different Similarity Measures on Test Case Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Rongcun Wang; Shujuan Jiang; Deng Chen; Yanmei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Similarity-based test case prioritization algorithms have been applied to regression testing. The common characteristic of these algorithms is to reschedule the execution order of test cases according to the distances between pair-wise test cases. The distance information can be calculated by different similarity measures. Since the topologies vary with similarity measures, the distances between pair-wise test cases calculated by different similarity measures are different. Similarity measure...

  12. Image-based investigation of hemodynamics and rupture of cerebral aneurysms of a single morphological type: terminal aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo; Putman, Christopher; Radaelli, Alessandro; Frangi, Alejandro; Cebral, Juan

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the relationship between hemodynamics patterns and aneurysmal rupture was investigated in cerebral aneurysms of a single morphological type (terminal aneurysms) regardless of their location. Hemodynamics information (intra-aneurysmal velocity and pressure fields and wall shear stress distributions) was derived from image-based computational fluid dynamics models with realistic patient specific anatomies. A total of 41 patient-specific models constructed from 3D rotational angiography images were analyzed. The results suggest that high wall shear stress may be associated with aneurysm rupture and that in turn different flow splitting patterns from the parent artery to the daughter branches and the aneurysm produce different levels of wall shear stress.

  13. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter ... Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists are vascular ...

  14. A calculation method of plant similarity giving consideration to different plant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-long; Wu, Shui-sheng; Max, Nelson; Wu, Fu-li; Xu, Li-feng

    2015-12-21

    A method to compute the similarity between different plants is proposed, using features of a plant׳s topological structure and peripheral contour, as well as its geometry. The topological structures are described using tree graphs, and their similarity can be calculated based on the edit distance of these graphs. The peripheral contour of a plant is abstracted by its three-dimensional convex hull, which is projected in several directions. The similarity of the different projections is calculated by an algorithm to compute the similarity of two-dimensional shapes. The similarity of the geometrical detail is computed by considering the geometrical properties of different level branches. Finally the overall similarity between different plants is calculated by combining these different similarity measures. The validity of proposed method is evaluated by detailed experiments. PMID:26408336

  15. Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Judith Z; Halperin, Jonathan L; Marin, Michael L; Stewart, Allan S; Eagle, Kim A; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-10-21

    Aortic dissection is the most devastating complication of thoracic aortic disease. In the more than 250 years since thoracic aortic dissection was first described, much has been learned about diseases of the thoracic aorta. In this review, we describe normal thoracic aortic size; risk factors for dissection, including genetic and inflammatory conditions; the underpinnings of genetic diseases associated with aneurysm and dissection, including Marfan syndrome and the role of transforming growth factor beta signaling; data on the role for medical therapies in aneurysmal disease, including beta-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; prophylactic surgery for aneurysm; surgical techniques for the aortic root; and surgical and endovascular management of aneurysm and dissection for different aortic segments. PMID:25323262

  16. A Synchronic Lexical Study of Gbe Language Varieties: The Effects of Different Similarity Judgment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kluge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a synchronic lexical study of the Gbe varieties of West Africa, this paper explores the question whether the use of different criteria sets to judge the similarity of lexical features in different language varieties yields the same or different conclusions regarding the relative relationships and clustering of the investigated varieties and the prioritization of further sociolinguistic research. Word lists elicited in 49 Gbe varieties were analyzed by means of the inspection method. To assess the effects of different similarity judgment criteria, two different similarity judgment criteria sets were applied to the elicited data to identify similar lexical items. The quantification of these similarity decisions resulted in the computation of two similarity matrices which were subsequently analyzed by means of correlation analysis and multidimensional scaling. The findings of the correlation analysis indicate a significant linear and positive relationship between both word-list computations, thus supporting the conclusion that application of either set of similarity judgment criteria would lead to similar clustering results for the Gbe data set. These findings are corroborated by the findings of multidimensional scaling which suggest that different sets of similarity judgment criteria lead to similar clustering results and similar conclusions as to the scope and priorities for further research

  17. How similarity to peers and supervisor influences organizational advancement in different cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Schaubroeck, J; Lam, SSK

    2002-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses concerning how similarity of personality traits between promotion candidates and their peers and supervisors influences promotion decisions in different work unit cultures. Personality similarity to peers was positively associated with promotion in units with high individualism. In units with high collectivism, supervisor-subordinate personality similarity was instead a significant predictor of advancement. Behavioral integration between candidates and their peers...

  18. The intracranial aneurysm: cost-effective of the aneurysm intra-artery GDC embolization and the aneurysm incarcerated operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the aneurysm intra-artery GDC embolization and the aneurysm clapping of intracranial aneurysm, and to give the instruction for the clinical practice. Methods: A case control study (1 vs. 1) was developed to evaluate the cost in hospital, the cost for return visit and the Quality-adusted Life-Year (QALY) and lifetime costs of the intra-artery GDC embolization and the aneurysm clapping of intraeranial aneurysm, under the matching of the age, sex, living place, the size and place of the aneurysm, and the Hunt and Hess score. Clinically effectiveness dates were derived from the medical records. Cost dates were derived from follow-up by telephones or letters. The correlation analysis was done with the SPSS 13.0. Results: The cost in hospital in AC group was (54 945±16 946)RMBs, which was higher than the ones in AE group (63 768±12 665) RMBs, (t=1.71, P0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that the two therapies have no difference in cost effective rate. Considering the physical and mental loss, the aneurysm intra-arteu GDC embolization was better than the aneurysm clapping for the patients with aneurysm that diameter less than 25 mm. (authors)

  19. Similarities and Differences between Underachievers and Students Labeled Learning Disabled: Identical Twins with Different Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    School identified learning disabled (LD) fourth graders (N=50) were compared with 49 fourth graders who were underachieving in school (non-LD) but were not identified as LD. Both groups were administered a battery of psychoeducational tests and their performances were compared on all measures. Results indicated considerable similarities between…

  20. Predictive risk factors for multiple intracranial aneurysms rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the risk factors inducing the rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between July 2007 and July 2011, a total of 134 patients with 294 aneurysms were admitted to the hospital. Of the 294 aneurysms, 50 were ruptured and 244 were unruptured. Every patient had two or more aneurysms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis methods were used to analyze the risk factors, including age, gender, site and size, for multiple intracranial aneurysms. Results: The 134 patients were divided into three groups according to patient's age, including <4.5 group, (45-6.5) group and > 65 group. The rupture incidence of aneurysm in the (4.5-65) group was highest in the three groups. The difference was significant (P=0.001). Of 35 patients with anterior communicating arterial aneurysms, 13 (37.1%) were ruptured, accounting for 26% of all ruptured aneurysms, and the rupture rate of anterior communicating arterial aneurysms was significantly higher than that of the aneurysms located at other sites (P= 0.001). Of all 294 aneurysms, 88.1% were <5 mm, 58.2% were <3 mm. Of the ruptured aneurysms, 680-/o were <5 mm. Conclusion: This study indicates that the rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysm is closely related to the patient's age, the size and location of aneurysm. Therefore, patient's age, the size and location of aneurysm should be taken into consideration when to make the therapeutic plan. In multiple intracranial aneurysms, the anterior communicating arterial aneurysm is most prone to bleeding. (authors)

  1. Endovascular reconstruction of aneurysms with a complex geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Jha, Ajaya Nand

    2016-01-01

    Conventional endovascular coiling remains the mainstay of treatment for most aneurysms; however, it may not be suitable for aneurysms with a complex geometry and there remains the risk of recanalization. Aneurysms with an unfavorable morphology are difficult to treat through both endovascular and surgical means. Progress in endovascular technology has allowed for the emergence of newer strategies to treat aneurysms with a complex geometry. Better packing density in wide-necked and large aneurysms can be achieved through the balloon remodeling technique. Similarly, a self-expanding stent cannot only act as a scaffold that helps to retain coils but also aids in diverting the blood flow away from the aneurysm sac. Lately, focus has shifted from endosaccular occlusion to endoluminal reconstruction; flow diverters are being increasingly used to treat aneurysms with an unfavorable geometry. However, there is no clear consensus on the best endovascular management strategy in certain subset of aneurysms - large and giant internal carotid aneurysms, blister aneurysms, and fusiform/dissecting aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar artery. We present a review of literature and discuss the current evidence for the various endovascular strategies to treat complex aneurysms. PMID:26954964

  2. Commentary: Similarities and Differences among Educational Psychology Textbooks--An Author's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the similarities and differences among educational psychology textbooks. Similarities among textbooks are: (1) general topics covered; (2) organizational scheme; and (3) visual appeal. Differences among textbooks are: (1) specific content; (2) writing style; (3) pedagogy; (4) design; and (5) ancillary package.…

  3. Explorations of the Similarities and Differences between the Mother Tongue and the Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝权

    2001-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the similarities and differences between the mother tongue and the second language learning. That is, major characteristics of the mother tongue acquisition, the second language with own peculiarities and big difference from the mother tongue, some significant similarities between the mother tongue and the second languages and the implication for classroom teaching.

  4. Echocardiographic evidence of innate aortopathy in the human intracranial aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Won Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysm (IA is significantly more prevalent in patients with coarctation of the aorta or bicuspid aortic valve than in the general population, suggesting a common pathophysiology connecting IA and aortopathy. Here, we analyzed echocardiographic aortic root dimension (ARD in patients with IA to confirm this possibility. METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2010, 260 consecutive patients with IA who were admitted to our institution for coil embolization or for acute stroke management and who also underwent echocardiography were enrolled. We hypothesized that patients with large, ruptured, or multiple IAs are more likely to harbor co-prevalent aortopathy as measured by ARD compared to patients with small, isolated, unruptured IAs. Eccentric group was defined as patients aged <55 years with at least one ruptured aneurysm, an aneurysm ≥7 mm in size, or multiple aneurysms; the remainder was classified into a non-eccentric group. Clinical, angiographic, and echocardiographic findings of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: ARD was significantly larger in the eccentric group than in the non-eccentric group (P = 0.049, and the difference was confirmed by multivariable analysis (P = 0.02. Subgroup analysis of patients aged <55 years showed similar result for ARD (P = 0.03, whereas hypertension was more associated with the non-eccentric group (P = 0.01. In addition, height was inversely related to aneurysm size after adjustment for age, sex, weight, ARD, smoking status, and number of aneurysms (P = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: A certain group of IA patients share a common intrinsic wall defect with aortopathy. Shared neural crest cell origin may give rise to this phenomenon.

  5. Similarity-based restoration of metrical information: different listening experiences result in different perceptual inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2012-09-01

    How do perceivers apply knowledge to instances they have never experienced before? On one hand, listeners might use idealized representations that do not contain specific details. On the other, they might recognize and process information based on more detailed memory representations. The current study examined the latter possibility with respect to musical meter perception, previously thought to be computed based on highly-idealized (isochronous) internal representations. In six experiments, listeners heard sets of metrically-ambiguous melodies. Each melody was played in a simultaneous musical context with unambiguous metrical cues (3/4 or 6/8). Cross-melody similarity was manipulated by pairing certain cues-timbre (musical instrument) and motif content (2-6-note patterns)-with each meter, or distributing cues across meters. After multiple exposures, listeners heard each melody without context, and judged metrical continuations (all Experiments) or familiarity (Experiments 5-6). Responses were assessed for "metrical restoration"-the tendency to make metrical judgments that fit the melody's previously-heard metrical context. Cross-melody similarity affected the presence and degree of metrical restoration, and timbre affected familiarity. Results suggest that metrical processing may be calculated based on fairly detailed representations rather than idealized isochronous pulses, and is dissociated somewhat from familiarity judgments. Implications for theories of meter perception are discussed. PMID:22659582

  6. Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  7. Brain Aneurysm Warning Signs/Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  8. A Comparative Study Between Developmental Leadership and Lean Leadership – Similarities and Differencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungblom, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare Developmental leadership with Lean leadership; document the differences and similarities and examine if you can combine these theories to achieve better results in the organization. A literature review is used. The result indicates more similarities than differences between Developmental leadership and Lean leadership behavior. The major difference is that Developmental leadership focuses on making the leader conscious of their own behavior and develop (...

  9. The Numerical Study of the Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms before and after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Choi, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    The patient-specific pre- and postsurgery cerebral arterial geometries in the study were reconstructed from computed tomography angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were used to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena in the cerebral arteries before and after surgery of the aneurysm under realistic conditions. CFD simulations for laminar flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid were conducted by using commercial software, ANSYS v15, with the rigid vascular wall assumption. The study found that the flow patterns with the complex vortical structures inside the aneurysm were similar. We also found that the inflow jet streams were coming strongly in aneurysm sac in the presurgery models, while the flow patterns in postsurgery models were quite different from those in presurgery models. The average wall shear stress after surgery for model 1 was approximately three times greater than that before surgery, while it was about twenty times greater for model 2. The area of low WSS in the daughter saccular aneurysm region in model 2 is associated with aneurysm rupture. Thus the distribution of WSS in aneurysm region provides useful prediction for the risk of aneurysm rupture. PMID:27274764

  10. Study of Chinese Text Similarity Based on Difference Factor in Word-Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Niu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Text similarity calculation is the basic work in the application of Chinese information processing. A high-quality text similarity calculation method must be accurate and efficient, that is, it can be able to compare texts from the level of text natural language meaning, and arrive at the similarity distinction similar to artificial reading based on a full understanding of the author or text source semantic. At the same time, it should also be an efficient algorithm to save the processing time in facing large amount of text information to be processed. Through the research of many domestic and foreign literature, analysis and further research on current situation of similarity calculation, this paper intended to present a new method to improve the performance of similarity calculation, namely a Chinese text similarity algorithm based on word-number difference, which combined the traditional based on statistics and the narrow semantic method that meant the combination of the statistical efficiency and semantic accuracy. Combining the advantages of statistics and semantic category also means the necessity to face and overcome disadvantages of the two kinds of methods. This paper attempted to take the difference in word-number as the breakthrough point, took advantage of the diversity of Chinese word-number, combining with the word frequency, number and meaning, in order to successfully extend the word similarity calculation to the text similarity calculation. Finally, introduced the self built small text set as test object, compared similarity calculation of different methods in the laboratory environment. It shows that the similarity calculation method based on difference in word-number performances better than the traditional methods based on statistical and semantic. Through artificial comparison of the test results of research on this topic in accuracy and speed of segmentation, provide a new approach for Chinese text similarity calculation

  11. Wall shear stress in intracranial aneurysms and adjacent arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyu Wang; Bainan Xu; Zhenghui Sun; Chen Wu; Xiaojun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic parameters play an important role in aneurysm formation and growth. However, it is difficult to directly observe a rapidly growing de novo aneurysm in a patient. To investigate possible associations between hemodynamic parameters and the formation and growth of intracranial aneurysms, the present study constructed a computational model of a case with an internal carotid artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, based on the CT angiography findings of a patient. To simulate the formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm and the growth of the internal carotid artery aneurysm, we then constructed a model that virtually removed the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, and a further two models that also progressively decreased the size of the internal carotid artery aneurysm. Computational simulations of the fluid dynamics of the four models were performed under pulsatile flow conditions, and wall shear stress was compared among the different models. In the three aneurysm growth models, increasing size of the aneurysm was associated with an increased area of low wall shear stress, a significant decrease in wall shear stress at the dome of the aneurysm, and a significant change in the wall shear stress of the parent artery. The wall shear stress of the anterior communicating artery remained low, and was significantly lower than the wall shear stress at the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery or the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. After formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, the wall shear stress at the dome of the internal carotid artery aneurysm increased significantly, and the wall shear stress in the upstream arteries also changed significantly. These findings indicate that low wall shear stress may be associated with the initiation and growth of aneurysms, and that aneurysm formation and growth may influence hemodynamic parameters in the local and adjacent arteries.

  12. Clarkson-Kruskal Direct Similarity Approach for Differential-Difference Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shou-Feng

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, the Clarkson-Kruskal direct method is extended to similarity reduce some differentialdifference equations. As examples, the differential-difference KZ equation and KP equation are considered.

  13. Time evolution and hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Cebral, Juan

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a leading cause of hemorrhagic strokes. Because they are being more frequently diagnosed before rupture and the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is poor, clinicians are often required to judge which aneurysms are prone to progression and rupture. Unfortunately, the processes of aneurysm initiation, growth and rupture are not well understood. Multiple factors associated to these processes have been identified. Our goal is to investigate two of them, arterial hemodynamics (using computational fluid dynamics) and the peri-aneurysmal environment, by studying a group of growing cerebral aneurysms that are followed longitudinally in time. Six patients with unruptured untreated brain aneurysms which exhibited growth during the observation period were selected for the study. Vascular models of each aneurysm at each observation time were constructed from the corresponding computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Subsequently, models were aligned, and geometrical differences quantified. Blood flow was modeled with the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid, and wall shear stress distribution and flow patterns were calculated and visualized. Analysis of the simulations and changes in geometry revealed asymmetric growth patterns and suggests that areas subject to vigorous flows, i.e. relative high wall shear stress and concentrated streamlines patterns; correspond to regions of aneurysm growth. Furthermore, in some cases the geometrical evolution of aneurysms is clearly affected by contacts with bone structures and calcifications in the wall, and as a consequence the hemodynamics is greatly modified. Thus, in these cases the peri-aneurysmal environment must be considered when analyzing aneurysm evolution.

  14. Too good to be true? Similarities and differences between engagement and workaholism among finnish judges

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Alma María; Hakanen, Jari; Perhoniemi, Riku

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that in addition to positive relationships between work engagement and organizational outcomes, work engagement may also have a dark side, i.e., it may also lead to negative consequences for the employee. This study of a representative sample of Finnish judges (N=550) investigated the similarities and differences between work engagement and workaholism. Despite differences between work engagement and workaholism. Despite some similarities, our results generally...

  15. On the Differences and Similarities of Animal Words in Chinese and English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶雨夏

    2011-01-01

    In both Chinese and English, there are many idioms which have something to do with animals. Some animal words in the idioms of both languages have the similar meanings, cultural connotations and the range of usage because animals in the world have the same attributes and features. However, owing to the different history, social backgrounds, customs and religions, differences are bound to appear in the idioms with animals words in both languages. This paper mainly discusses the similarities and differences of animal words in Chinese and English idioms. It also focuses on the ana/ysis of the causes of the differences from the following aspects: history, religion, and geography environment.

  16. Similarities and differences in physiological responses to 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infection among different potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, C M; Rashed, A; Wallingford, A K; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

    2014-02-01

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by the fastidious bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', is a threat to potato growers worldwide. However, little is known about biochemical shifts in different potato genotypes in response to 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection. To address this, 'Red La Soda', 'Russet Norkotah', and 'FL 1867' potato were infected with 'Ca. L. solanacearum' 4, 3, 2, and 1 weeks before harvest to observe variability in cultivar responses to 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection. ZC symptoms, 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titers, and tuber biochemistry were assessed. Red La Soda tubers exhibited greater symptoms when infected for 4 weeks than Russet Norkotah or FL 1867 tubers. 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titers did not vary among cultivars. Tuber levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics varied among cultivars but no consistent trends were observed. Individual amino acids and phenolics were greater in FL 1867 than Red La Soda, whereas others were greater in Red La Soda or Russet Norkotah than FL 1867. Most amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics were positively associated with infection duration and symptoms regardless of cultivar. Associations between most of the evaluated compounds and 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer were positive in Red La Soda. However, no associations between 'Ca. L. solanacearum' quantity and compounds were observed in FL 1867 and Russet Norkotah. PMID:23941779

  17. Cultural similarities and differences in perceiving and recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Young, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The ability to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is often considered a universal human ability. However, recent studies have suggested that this commonality has been overestimated and that people from different cultures use different facial signals to represent expressions (Jack, Blais, Scheepers, Schyns, & Caldara, 2009; Jack, Caldara, & Schyns, 2012). We investigated this possibility by examining similarities and differences in the perception and categorization of facial expressions between Chinese and white British participants using whole-face and partial-face images. Our results showed no cultural difference in the patterns of perceptual similarity of expressions from whole-face images. When categorizing the same expressions, however, both British and Chinese participants were slightly more accurate with whole-face images of their own ethnic group. To further investigate potential strategy differences, we repeated the perceptual similarity and categorization tasks with presentation of only the upper or lower half of each face. Again, the perceptual similarity of facial expressions was similar between Chinese and British participants for both the upper and lower face regions. However, participants were slightly better at categorizing facial expressions of their own ethnic group for the lower face regions, indicating that the way in which culture shapes the categorization of facial expressions is largely driven by differences in information decoding from this part of the face. PMID:26480247

  18. Cultural Similarities and Differences in the Affective Meanings of Emotions and Sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Gordon C.

    This study examined similarities and differences in the affective meaning of emotions and sentiments, using Osgood's data for American, German, Iranian, Japanese, and Mexican language communities. Analyses indicated that the cultures differed significantly in 30% of their judgments; the fewest divergences were for the most important dimension…

  19. Similarity and Difference in Multicultural Counseling: Considering the Attraction and Repulsion Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Suzette L.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes issues relevant to empirical investigations of client and counselor preferences. Explores the effects of similarity and difference on relationship development and focuses on the attraction and repulsion hypotheses' applicability to multicultural counseling research and theory. It is hoped that differences between counseling and social…

  20. Fenestrations accompanied by intracranial aneurysms assessed with magnetic resonance angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Kui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and investigate the prevalence in intracranial aneurysm with fenestrations using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Materials and Methods: Between June 2008 and October 2010, 4652 patients (aged 23-73 years with suspected intracranial aneurysm or other cerebrovascular diseases underwent MRA examination. MRA was performed using a three-dimensional time-of-flight technique (3D-TOF with volume rendering (VR and maximum intensity projection reconstruction methods. The presence and location of fenestrations and aneurysms was reviewed. When fenestrations were present in combination with aneurysms, we noted the relationship of the locations. The classification of fenestration accompanied by intracranial aneurysm was divided into three types according to the anatomical relationship as follows: Type I, aneurysm adjacent to but not on a fenestration; Type II, aneurysm located on the fenestration; type III, aneurysm located at a position remote from a fenestration. Results: Among the 4652 patients examined, 409 patients were defined with 412 intracranial aneurysms, and the prevalence of aneurysms was 8.8%. One hundred and forty-one patients were identified with fenestrations; 24 of these patients were confirmed with intracranial aneurysms. Seven cases were classified as type I, three as type II and 14 as type III. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm with fenestrations was 17.0%, with significant statistical difference compared with aneurysms unaccompanied with fenestrations (P=0.0064. Conclusion: The anatomical relationship between fenestrations and intracranial aneurysms was visualized by MRA with VR, which displayed pathologies with sufficient clarity to enable diagnosis. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that physicians should be alerted to the occurrence of intracranial aneurysm following the detection of fenestrations by MRA.

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease in the dog: Differences and similarities with humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cerquetella, Matteo; Spaterna, Andrea; Laus, Fulvio; Tesei, Beniamino; Rossi, Giacomo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent important chronic conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract in man. However, similar disorders are found in several animal species and the IBD affecting dogs are particularly important. These are encompassed by an umbrella of probably several different entities with common symptoms, some of which seem to share striking similarities with human conditions. This review will focus on the actual knowledge of IBD in dogs, and attempt to identify dif...

  2. Enhancing Solution Similarity in Multi-Objective Vehicle Routing Problems with Different Demand Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Tadahiko; Itai, Ryota

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we proposed a local search that can be used in a two-fold EMO algorithm for multiple-objective VRPs with different demands. The simulation results show that the proposed method have the fine effectiveness to enhance the similarity of obtained routes for vehicles. Although the local search slightly deteriorates the maximum duration, it improves the similarity of the routes that may decrease the possibility of getting lost the way of drivers. If drivers get lost their ways duri...

  3. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to become you to our live webcast. Today we’re going to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm ... and together as a team of multidisciplinary physicians, we’re going to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm ...

  4. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the past three years, and his aneurysm has now grown to 5.4 centimeters. And this ... that in this particular patient that the aneurysm has reached the size where risk of rupture when ...

  5. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cerebral aneurysm from forming. People with a diagnosed brain aneurysm should carefully control high blood pressure, stop smoking, and avoid cocaine use or other stimulant drugs. They should also ...

  6. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is actually an important factor. Most aneurysms we treat conservatively and we’ll just watch them. But ... has to be, and we generally don’t treat aneurysms until they get to be 5 to ...

  7. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, smokers, or a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Today’s patient is a ... screened. In fact, patients who have a family history of aneurysm, men who are smoking over the ...

  8. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, smokers, or a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Today’s patient is ... be screened. In fact, patients who have a family history of aneurysm, men who are smoking over ...

  9. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, get thoracic aortic aneurysms. Signs and symptoms of thoracic aortic aneurysm can include Sharp, sudden pain in the chest or upper back. Shortness of ...

  10. Investigating the Similarities and Differences between Practitioners of Second and Third Wave Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lily A.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2011-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the literature recently regarding the conceptual and techniual differences between so-called second (e.g., Beckian cognitive therapy) and third “wave” (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy) behavior therapies. Previous research has not addressed the potential similarities and differences among the practitioners of these types of approaches. The current study examined possible differences in the characteristics of second wave (n=55) and third wave cognitive...

  11. Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Yokoi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation.

  12. Insights on a Giant Aneurysm Treated Endovascularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Ulm, Arthur John

    2016-07-01

    Background Endovascular treatment with stent-assisted Guglielmi detachable coils is an accepted method for treating intracranial giant aneurysms that otherwise would require more invasive or destructive treatment or could not be treated at all. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information concerning inner postcoiling aneurysmal changes in human subjects over the long term. We report a postmortem analysis of a patient with a giant aneurysm at the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) who was treated endovascularly and studied pathologically 24 months after treatment. Materials and Method The head was removed at autopsy and prefixed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The brain was gently removed from the skull base after cutting the intracranial nerves and vascular structures. The giant VBJ aneurysm and its relationship with the brainstem, cranial nerves, and vessels were captured photographically and analyzed. Afterward, under operating microscope guidance, the vertebrobasilar system with the aneurysm was gently and carefully detached from the brainstem and carefully analyzed. Results No complete fibrous obliteration of the aneurysm lumen could be detected in our case, and no endothelialization had taken place 24 months after treatment. Conclusions Our findings agree with those of previous similar reports. Coiling, in particular in large or giant aneurysms, may be burdened by the risk of coil compaction and recanalization, but it has the advantage of not affecting the flow in the perforating arteries. PMID:26296255

  13. A Case of Giant Right Atrial Aneurysm in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Ravindra S; Tiwari, Ashish; Suresh, P V; Raj, Vimal; Kaushik, Pradeepkumar

    2016-07-01

    Giant right atrial aneurysm is a rare entity in infants and children. It needs to be distinguished from an atrial diverticulum, which can have similar presentation. Generally, an incidental finding in children, it can present with varied symptoms. We report a case of a giant right atrial aneurysm in an asymptomatic child with a large clot in the dilated right atrium, who underwent successful resection of the atrial aneurysm. PMID:26884450

  14. A Quantitative Calculation Method of Composite Spatial Direction Similarity Concerning Scale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhanlong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new model for direction relations between multiple spatial objects at multiple scales and a corresponding similarity assessment method. The model is an improvement of direction relation matrix, which quantitatively models direction relations on object scale, and by the idea of decomposition and means of the optimum solution of the transportation problem to solve the minimum conversion cost between multiple direction matrices, namely distance between a pair of matrices, thus quantified the difference between a pair of directions, finally obtain the similarity values between arbitrary pairs of multiple spatial objects and compare the results. Experiments on calculating similarity between objects at different scales show that the presented method is efficient, accurate, and capable of obtaining results consistent with human cognition.

  15. Complications of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrù, Emanuele, E-mail: surgeon.ema@gmail.com [Neuroradiology Department, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua 35128 (Italy); Roccatagliata, Luca, E-mail: lroccatagliata@neurologia.unige.it [Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital and IST, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, Genoa 16132 (Italy); Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa (Italy); Cester, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.cester@sanita.padova.it [Neuroradiology Department, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua 35128 (Italy); Causin, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.causin@sanita.padova.it [Neuroradiology Department, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua 35128 (Italy); Castellan, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.castellan@hsanmartino.it [Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital and IST, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, Genoa 16132 (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    The number of neuroendovascular treatments of both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms has increased substantially in the last two decades. Complications of endovascular treatments of cerebral aneurysms are rare but can potentially lead to acute worsening of the neurological status, to new neurological deficits or death. Some of the possible complications, such as vascular access site complications or systemic side effects associated with contrast medium (e.g. contrast medium allergy, contrast induced nephropathy) can also be encountered in diagnostic angiography. The most common complications of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms are related to acute thromboembolic events and perforation of the aneurysm. Overall, the reported rate of thromboembolic complications ranges between 4.7% and 12.5% while the rate of intraprocedural rupture of cerebral aneurysms is about 0.7% in patients with unruptured aneurysms and about 4.1% in patients with previously ruptured aneurysms. Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications may occur during different phases of endovascular procedures and are related to different technical, clinical and anatomic reasons. A thorough knowledge of the different aspects of these complications can reduce the risk of their occurrence and minimize their clinical sequelae. A deep understanding of complications and of their management is thus part of the best standard of care.

  16. Religions Constructed as Similar or Different by Teachers of Religious Education from a Citizenship Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljestrand, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore and theoretically discuss Swedish religious studies (RE) teachers' understanding of religions as similar and different. In Sweden, RE is a mandatory subject and presents all the world's major religions to students. Teachers of RE therefore need to relate to the various relations between the…

  17. A General Introduction of the Main Similarities and Differences between the Three Translation Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the three translation models,the Jerome model,the Horace model,the Schleiermacher model.The study intends to compare the three models,there are some similarities and differences between the three models.By analyzing two kinds of the

  18. Differences and similarities in breast cancer risk assessment models in clinical practice : which model to choose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, Catharina E.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Siegerink, Bob; van Asperen, Christi J.

    2009-01-01

    To show differences and similarities between risk estimation models for breast cancer in healthy women from BRCA1/2-negative or untested families. After a systematic literature search seven models were selected: Gail-2, Claus Model, Claus Tables, BOADICEA, Jonker Model, Claus-Extended Formula, and T

  19. In vivo versus in vitro produced bovine ova: similarities and differences relevant for practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    - Abstract This present review describes some differences and similarities between bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro. The first part outlines the respective environments during maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development of the two types of embryos and compares their mor-...

  20. Comparison of CMT1A and CMT2: similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.E. Bienfait; C. Verhamme; I.N. van Schaik; J.H.T.M. Koelman; B.W.O. de Visser; R.J. de Haan; F. Baas; B.G.M. van Engelen; M. de Visser

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological similarities and differences between two large groups of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, i.e. CMT1A and CMT2, we performed a post hoc comparison of clinical and electrophysiological data. Most CMT1A and CMT2 patients had the classical CMT

  1. Comparison of CMT1A and CMT2: similarities and differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienfait, H.M.; Verhamme, C.; Schaik, I.N. van; Koelman, J.H.; Visser, B.W. de; Haan, R.J. de; Baas, F.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Visser, M. de

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological similarities and differences between two large groups of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, i.e. CMT1A and CMT2, we performed a post hoc comparison of clinical and electrophysiological data.Most CMT1A and CMT2 patients had the classical CMT p

  2. Linking Scores from Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  3. Sex similarities and differences in pain-related periaqueductal gray connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas; Beucke, Jan-Carl; Jensen, Karin B.; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated sex similarities and differences in pain-related functional connectivity in 60 healthy subjects. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction analysis to investigate how exposure to low vs high experimental pain modulates the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). We found no sex differences in pain thresholds, and in both men and women, the PAG was more functionally connected with the somatosensory cortex, the su...

  4. Hematopoietic cytokines: similarities and differences in the structures, with implications for receptor binding.

    OpenAIRE

    Wlodawer, A; A. Pavlovsky; Gustchina, A.

    1993-01-01

    Crystal and NMR structures of helical cytokines--interleukin-4 (IL-4), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-2 (IL-2)--have been compared. Root mean square deviations in the C alpha coordinates for the conserved regions of the helices were 1-2 A between different cytokines, about twice the differences observed for independently determined crystal and solution structures of IL-4. Considerable similarity in amino acid sequence in the areas expected to intera...

  5. Study on the Similarities and Differences of Body Measurement Terminology between ASTM and China GB Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方方; 张渭源; 张文斌

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and differences of ASTM and China GB standard are studied in three aspects:measure instrument,terminology and applicable field.They are similar on the measuring apparatus and GB has less measurements,such as girth,length and width measurements than ASTM and it lack across chest width,back width,total crotch length and shoulder slope which are important measurements in pattern making.ASTM classifies its standards according to the customers' size,gender and age.So we think GB standard could make some modifications from these fields to satisfy the users.

  6. Temporal features of adult neurogenesis: differences and similarities across mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLevy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of new neurons continues throughout life in most invertebrates and vertebrates like crustaceans, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans. Most studies have been carried out on rodent models and demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is located mainly in two structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ. If adult neurogenesis is well preserved throughout evolution, yet there are however some features which differ between species. The present review proposes to target similarities and differences in the mechanism of mammalian adult neurogenesis by comparing selected species including humans. We will highlight the cellular composition and morphological organization of the SVZ in primates which differs from that of rodents and may be of functional relevance. We will particularly focus on the dynamic of neuronal maturation in rodents, primates and humans but also in sheep which appears to be an interesting model due to its similarities with the primate brain.

  7. The Similarities and Differences of Ghazali’s and Tomas’s Viewpoints on Sight God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadmahdi Meshkati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available   There are always input and output of Thoughts and beliefs among scientists that they include similarities and differences. The argument under consideration on the Islamic theology and in the Christianity is the sight of God that the commentators of the two books Quran and gospel expressed their opinions on it. Mohammad Gazeli ’ s and Tomas ’ s viewpoint investigated in this study. It is criticized the similarities and dissimilarities between them.   The results of this study strengthen the discussion of the religions in the Epistemology domain. The similarities of Ghazali and Tomas ’ s viewpoints are:1. They both believe in narration and wisdom in thrie discussion   2. both of them believe in the role of Gnosticism in Epistemology comprehension of religion. The mentioned examples and clarification on each subject in the text are to the readers familiar more fluently with the viewpoints.

  8. The Similarities and Differences of Ghazali’s and Tomas’s Viewpoints on Sight God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkati, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are always input and output of Thoughts and beliefs among scientists that they include similarities and differences. The argument under consideration on the Islamic theology and in the Christianity is the sight of God that the commentators of the two books Quran and gospel expressed their opinions on it. Mohammad Gazeli’s and Tomas’s viewpoint investigated in this study. It is criticized the similarities and dissimilarities between them.The results of this study strengthen the discussion of the religions in the Epistemology domain. The similarities of Ghazali and Tomas’s viewpoints are:1. They both believe in narration and wisdom in thrie discussion2. both of them believe in the role of Gnosticism in Epistemology comprehension of religion. The mentioned examples and clarification on each subject in the text are to the readers familiar more fluently with the viewpoints.

  9. Similarities and differences of MR findings between Japanese encephalitis and Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Manash; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Rakesh K. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Das, Ashish [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)

    2002-04-01

    Although Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Wilson's disease (WD) are different entities, MR findings in both these conditions are quite similar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to find out the similarities and differences between JE and WD on MR imaging. The study group comprised 25 proven cases of JE and 10 cases of WD. Spin echo (SE) TI- and T2-weighted imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MR system. Fourteen of these 35 cases (10 JE, 4 WD) were also examined using T1-weighted magnetization transfer (MT) SE sequence before and after contrast administration. Although both JE and WD showed similar topographical distribution of lesions, predominant involvement of the basal ganglia and thalami, there were some differences. Brain stem lesion was more frequent for WD than for JE, and posteromedial part of the thalami was spared in WD. The lesion characteristics were also different between both; in WD mixed intensity in the basal ganglia and hyperintense linear rim at the peripheral putamen was observed frequently, whereas hyperintense basal ganglia on T2-weighted images, subacute hemorrhage in the thalami and meningeal enhancement were seen only in the patients with JE. These characteristic lesion criteria may help in differentiation of JE from WD on MR imaging. (orig.)

  10. Different roles for homologous interneurons in species exhibiting similar rhythmic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Newcomb, James M; Lillvis, Joshua L; Katz, Paul S

    2011-06-21

    It is often assumed that similar behaviors in related species are produced by similar neural mechanisms. To test this, we examined the neuronal basis of a simple swimming behavior in two nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia), Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris. The side-to-side swimming movements of Dendronotus [1] strongly resemble those of Melibe [2, 3]. In Melibe, it was previously shown that the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming is composed of two bilaterally symmetric pairs of identified interneurons, swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2), which are electrically coupled ipsilaterally and mutually inhibit both contralateral counterparts [2, 4]. We identified homologs of Si1 and Si2 in Dendronotus. (Henceforth, homologous neurons in each species will be distinguished by the subscripts (Den) and (Mel).) We found that Si2(Den) and Si2(Mel) play similar roles in generating the swim motor pattern. However, unlike Si1(Mel), Si1(Den) was not part of the swim CPG, was not strongly coupled to the ipsilateral Si2(Den), and did not inhibit the contralateral neurons. Thus, species differences exist in the neuronal organization of the swim CPGs despite the similarity of the behaviors. Therefore, similarity in species-typical behavior is not necessarily predictive of common neural mechanisms, even for homologous neurons in closely related species. PMID:21620707

  11. Different sizes, similar challenges: Out of home care for youth in Germany and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek T. Harder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large difference in the number of young inhabitants in the Netherlands and Germany, their child protection frameworks are quite similar. In both countries, child protection services are mainlyfocused on youth aged 0 to 18 and regulations are aimed at clients' responsibility and their active involvement during care. Youth care services consist of community-based services, day treatment and outof-home care services, which include foster care and residential care. The history of out-of-home care services in both countries is characterized by similar developments. Over the last four decades, similar trends in residential care, towards more small-scale forms of residential care, smaller residential group sizes, and increasing professionalization of staff have emerged. Over the last two decades, a comparable trend towards increasing professionalization can be seen in the context of foster care in both countries. In addition, the number of youths in out-of-home care increased in both countries over the last decade, specifically in foster care. Over the last decade, more studies have been conducted in residential care than in foster care in both countries. Despite similar trends and developments in out-of-home care practice, research mainly shows differences in applied topics and methods between Germany and the Netherlands.

  12. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar. PMID:25321855

  13. Similarities and differences between pulsed and steady γ total dose effect in 54HC CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulative dose of the existing pulsed radiation facility is smaller than the actual environment dose. Then the studies of similarities and differences between pulsed and 60Co γ total dose damage in 54HC CMOS were carried out. Devices effect damage factor was acquired in order to predict pulsed total dose damage threshold through steady-state total dose damage threshold. Study results indicate that total dose damage due to steady-state irradiation is more serious than that due to pulsed irradiation no matter which sensitive parameters are selected as key factors for damage similarities and differences studies. The threshold voltage shift and static power current due to steady-state total dose is always bigger than that due to pulsed total dose. (authors)

  14. FINANCIAL DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF ISLAMIC BANKS: A STUDY ON QISMUT COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Six countries, namely Qatar, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, UAE and Turkey (abbreviated as QISMUT) are considered to play an important role in the future international development of the Islamic finance. QISMUT countries have a majority Muslim population who prefers Islamic finance for their banking needs. QISMUT countries account for 38 million customers which is 67% of the global Islamic bank customer base. The focus of this study is to define similar (or different) international banks ...

  15. Social Phenotypes of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuke eAsada; Shoji eItakura

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) both are neurodevelopmental disorders, each with a unique social phenotypic pattern. This review article aims to define the similarities and differences between the social phenotypes of ASD and WS. We review studies that have examined individuals with WS using diagnostic assessments such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), cross-syndrome direct comparison studies, and studies that have individually examined either di...

  16. A Look at Contrastive Linguistics-Differences and Similarities between English Attributes and Chinese Attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维

    2013-01-01

    Contrastive linguistics is a branch of linguistics which mainly involves contrast or comparison, and it can leave us some useful insights into our problems, especially for translation work. This paper discusses similarities and differences between English attributes and Chinese attributes from the perspective of the location, the composition, and the function, for the purpose of pre-senting a sound version for the original text.

  17. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen JW Liesker; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Mieke Zeinstra-Smith; Rutgers, Steven R; Dirkje S Postma; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objectiv...

  18. A comparision of the revising processes of spanish speakers and english native writers: similarities and differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejas Peñuelas, Ana Belén

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to portray a composite picture of the native and non-native expert and novice writers composing and revising processes as they wrote an argumentative essay in English. Analyses of the experienced and novice writers revision processes served to answer four main questions posed at the beginning of the experimental study: 1. When did revisions occur during the composing process? 2. Were there any similarities and differences in the categories of rev...

  19. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; two different genes responsible for similar clinical manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Hunmin Kim; Hee Hwang; Hae Il Cheog; Hye Won Park

    2011-01-01

    Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder manifesting as recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis and concomitant hypokalemia. HOKPP is divided into type 1 and type 2 based on the causative gene. Although 2 different ion channels have been identified as the molecular genetic cause of HOKPP, the clinical manifestations between the 2 groups are similar. We report the cases of 2 patients with HOKPP who both presented with typical clinical manifestations, but wi...

  20. Research on Kalman Filtering Algorithm for Deformation Information Series of Similar Single-Difference Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Wei-cai; XU Shao-quan

    2004-01-01

    Using similar single-difference methodology(SSDM) to solve the deformation values of the monitoring points, there is unstability of the deformation information series, at sometimes.In order to overcome this shortcoming, Kalman filtering algorithm for this series is established,and its correctness and validity are verified with the test data obtained on the movable platform in plane. The results show that Kalman filtering can improve the correctness, reliability and stability of the deformation information series.

  1. Similar Faults Different Endings——A Comparison between the Origins of Tess's and Hester's Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Bin

    2009-01-01

    Hester Pryrme and Tess Durbeyfield were two eminent female figures in the world by Thomas Hardy and Nathaniel Hawthone. Although the two female leading characters were in different time and place, their tragic experiences were almost the same. However, they were separated in the end. From the comparison of their personalities and the social situation they involved in, we would try to explore the origins of their similarity and ending by this article with the aim of alerting the world.

  2. The learnability and psychological processing of reading in Chinese and English: Differences and similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Akamatsu, N; Lin, Amy

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this paperisto briefly review some empiricalfindings on the processingmechanisms ofskilled readers and beginning readersin Chinese andEnglish and to compare the learnability of reading in the two languages. In the learning processes, a similar global-to-analytic developmental path existsin both languages, although there are differencesin the kinds of predictors of early reading acquisition. It is argued that while Chinese-English orthography differences h...

  3. Flood Risk Management in Europe: Similarities and Differences between the STAR-FLOOD consortium countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Green, C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Dieperink, C.; Crabbe, A.; Deketelaere, K.; Delvaux, B.; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Fournier, M.; Larrue, C.; Manson, C.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2013-01-01

    This report has been compiled as part of the STAR-FLOOD project, a European FP7 project focused on flood risk governance. The project investigates strategies for dealing with flood risks in 18 vulnerable urban regions in six European countries: Belgium, The UK (more precisely: England and Scotland), France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. The report highlights the main similarities and differences between the six STAR-FLOOD consortium countries, complemented with some interesting examples...

  4. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing. PMID:26135387

  5. Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; de León, J.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Kelley, M. S. P.; Hanuš, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. B-type asteroids constitute a peculiar spectral class within the C-complex. Previous work has pointed out the difference between the visible geometric albedos of B-types and those of the Pallas collisional family (PCF), whose few members with observed spectra are B-types (one exception out of eight objects). This has been interpreted as being due to compositional differences. However, the PCF members are typically smaller than the spectroscopically classified B-types, and the following possibilities have not been ruled out: the albedo differences might be related to a size-albedo dependence and/or to the generally larger errors of the WISE data and best-fitting values of the derived parameters expected for smaller objects. Aims: We compare albedos and beaming parameters of PCF members and B-types of similar sizes and re-examine our conclusion on the different composition of the PCF. Methods: By modelling their WISE/NEOWISE data, we derived sizes and albedos of all objects whose Sloan Digital Sky Survey reflectances are similar to the typical B-type reflectance spectra. In particular, we derived the so-called infrared beaming parameters (η), effective diameters (D), and corresponding visible geometric albedos (pV), and studied their value distributions. Results: We obtained the effective diameter and geometric visible albedo for ~600 B-type asteroids whose sizes range between 2 and 100 km, approximately half of which have fitted η-values that are inversely correlated to size. We found that the albedo distributions of the PCF is significantly different from that of other B-types in the same size range (2-20 km), and we rule out any size-albedo dependency or biases related to the lower quality of the pV-values of smaller objects. In addition, we also found differences between the η-value distribution of the PCF and the other similarly-sized B-types. Conclusions: The differences in the visible albedos of PCF members and the other B-types of similar sizes is

  6. Interventional therapy of huge aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the methods and the efficacy of interventional therapy for huge aneurysm. Methods: Seven patients with huge aneurysm including 2 with pulmonary aneurysm, 2 with renal aneurysm, 1 with humeral artery aneurysm, 1 with right common iliac artery aneurysm, 1 with right internal iliac artery aneurysm. Among these, 5 were true aneurysm, and 2 were pseudoaneurysms caused by congenital, trauma, arteriosclerosis. Three patients were treated with endovascular covered stent graft and 2 patients with embolization containing metallic coils. Two patients were treated with partial aneurysm and feeding artery trunk embolization with metallic coils. Results: All 7 patients were successful carried out the interventional therapy with successful rate of 100%. Six aneurysms were completely obstructed with disappearance of symptoms and signs. One died of aneurysm rupture. No other complication occurred. Conclusion: Interventional therapy for huge aneurysm is an effective method. (authors)

  7. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  8. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Given the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and wellness, an improved understanding of physical activity patterns across different clinical populations is required. This study examines the facilitators for, and barriers to, participation in physical activity across multiple contexts for three clinical groups with chronic lower limb spasticity (individuals with stroke, multiple sclerosis and incomplete spinal cord injury). Method This cross-sectional study employed quantitative measures for spasticity, ankle range of motion, pain, falls, cognition, mobility, and physical activity as well as qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results There were similar impairments in body functions and structures and limitations in activities across the clinical groups. These impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical activity, which was low. Environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life. Conclusions In this population, participation in physical activity includes activities such as housework which are different than what is typically considered as physical activity. Further, the presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the groups suggests that support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. Implications for rehabilitation Physical activity is of utmost importance in maintaining health and wellness in clinical populations. This research highlights the desired and actual physical activity for these populations can look different than what may traditionally be considered as physical activity (e.g. housework is not typically considered participation physical activity). Therefore, rehabilitation interventions need to be directly designed to enhance clients

  9. Periplasmic nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase: similar molecular architectures with very different enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Gonzalez, Pablo J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Moura, José J G; Ramos, Maria João

    2015-11-17

    It is remarkable how nature has been able to construct enzymes that, despite sharing many similarities, have simple but key differences that tune them for completely different functions in living cells. Periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) from the DMSOr family are representative examples of this. Both enzymes share almost identical three-dimensional protein foldings and active sites, in terms of coordination number, geometry and nature of the ligands. The substrates of both enzymes (nitrate and formate) are polyatomic anions that also share similar charge and stereochemistry. In terms of the catalytic mechanism, both enzymes have a common activation mechanism (the sulfur-shift mechanism) that ensures a constant coordination number around the metal ion during the catalytic cycle. In spite of these similarities, they catalyze very different reactions: Nap abstracts an oxygen atom from nitrate releasing nitrite, whereas FdH catalyzes a hydrogen atom transfer from formate and releases carbon dioxide. In this Account, a critical analysis of structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of the molybdenum enzymes periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) is presented. We conclude that the main structural driving force that dictates the type of reaction, catalyzed by each enzyme, is a key difference on one active site residue that is located in the top region of the active sites of both enzymes. In both enzymes, the active site is centered on the metal ion of the cofactor (Mo in Nap and Mo or W in Fdh) that is coordinated by four sulfur atoms from two pyranopterin guanosine dinucleotide (PGD) molecules and by a sulfido. However, while in Nap there is a Cys directly coordinated to the Mo ion, in FdH there is a SeCys instead. In Fdh there is also an important His that interacts very closely with the SeCys, whereas in Nap the same position is occupied by a Met. The role of Cys in Nap and SeCys in FdH is similar in both

  10. Similar folds with different stabilization mechanisms: the cases of prion and doppel proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein misfolding is the main cause of a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. In particular, in Prion-related diseases the normal cellular form of the Prion Protein PrP (PrPC is converted into the infectious PrPSc through a conformational process during which it acquires a high β-sheet content. Doppel is a protein that shares a similar native fold, but lacks the scrapie isoform. Understanding the molecular determinants of these different behaviours is important both for biomedical and biophysical research. Results In this paper, the dynamical and energetic properties of the two proteins in solution is comparatively analyzed by means of long time scale explicit solvent, all-atom molecular dynamics in different temperature conditions. The trajectories are analyzed by means of a recently introduced energy decomposition approach (Tiana et al, Prot. Sci. 2004 aimed at identifying the key residues for the stabilization and folding of the protein. Our analysis shows that Prion and Doppel have two different cores stabilizing the native state and that the relative contribution of the nucleus to the global stability of the protein for Doppel is sensitively higher than for PrP. Moreover, under misfolding conditions the Doppel core is conserved, while the energy stabilization network of PrP is disrupted. Conclusion These observations suggest that different sequences can share similar native topology with different stabilizing interactions and that the sequences of the Prion and Doppel proteins may have diverged under different evolutionary constraints resulting in different folding and stabilization mechanisms.

  11. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  12. Effects and outcomes in civilian and military traumatic brain injury: similarities, differences, and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberty, Greg J; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Yamada, Torrii

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prominent public health problem in both civilian and military settings. This article discusses similarities and differences in the assessment and treatment of TBI and the attendant forensic implications. Acute care and management of moderate/severe TBI tend to be similar across environments, as is the recognition of disability status in affected individuals. By contrast, an increased focus on mild TBI in recent years has resulted in a reliance on self-report and screening measures to validate the occurrence of events leading to injury. This has complicated assessment, treatment and subsequent medicolegal proceedings. The neuropsychological literature has provided significant guidance on these difficult issues, although the complexity of disability adjudication for active duty members of the military and veterans continues to pose challenges for clinicians in evaluative and treatment contexts. PMID:24105940

  13. Similarities and differences in affective and cognitive origins of food likings and dislikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, A; Dubé, L; Troche, V

    1997-04-01

    In a field study, 355 French-Canadian adults (Caucasians; 119 men, 236 women; average age of 40) freely stated the food item they liked and disliked the most, the reasons for their attitude and the context of their last consumption of these two food items. Content analysis revealed that the origins of food likes and dislikes are at the same time very similar and very different. They are similar in terms of the overwhelming influence of affective factors, in particular sensory experience, in the formation of both positive and negative attitudes toward food. Similarity between origins of food likes and dislikes in the same subjects is higher when they are from affective sources than when they are from cognitive sources. Food likes and dislikes are also similar in terms of the high salience of the social dimension in subjects' memories of consumption contexts. Results also show that food likes and dislikes also differ in many ways. Subjects can more easily elicit attitude bases and consumption contexts for food likes than they do for food dislikes. Beside taste as their common and most frequent base, results show that dislikes originate from more specific (e.g. texture, smell, appearance) and more intense sensory experiences than likes. Further, physiological consequences that contribute to food likes and dislikes are not the same: likes originate from positive nutritional value whereas dislikes follow from negative physiological responses, in particular nausea. Also, specific factors contribute uniquely to likes and dislikes. Functional aspects (e.g. flexibility, preparation) were the second most important reasons for food likes while having almost no influence on dislikes. In contrast, food symbolism was the third most important reason for food dislikes with almost no effect on food likes. PMID:9158847

  14. Similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides applied in organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Zhaoyue [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Deng, Zhenbo [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Hou, Ying [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xu, Haisheng, E-mail: hsxu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kunshan Hisense Electronics, Co., Ltd., Kunshan, Jiangsu 215300 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides (sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), rubidium chloride (RbCl) and cesium chloride (CsCl)) applied in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated. The behavior is similar for the OLEDs with these four chlorides as electron injection layer (EIL). Their maximum luminance and efficiency at 100 mA/cm{sup 2} are within the ranges of 18 550 {+-} 600 (cd/m{sup 2}) with an error of 3.23% and 4.09 {+-} 0.15 (cd/A) within an error of 3.67%, respectively. The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier for NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl as EIL. Interestingly, the properties are different for devices with chlorides inserted inside tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum at the position of 20 nm away from aluminum cathode, labeled as NaCl-, KCl-, RbCl- and CsCl- devices. The relation of luminance is CsCl- > RbCl- = KCl- > NaCl-, where '>' and '=' mean 'better than' and 'the same as', respectively. And the device efficiencies are decreased from CsCl to NaCl. That is, the sort order of the efficiencies is CsCl- > RbCl- > KCl- > NaCl-. The mechanism is explained by tunneling model in terms of various energy gaps estimated by optical electronegativity of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl in organic light-emitting diodes are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The different behavior of chlorides inside Alq{sub 3} is explained by tunneling model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The different behavior is attributed to various energy gaps of different chlorides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficiency of device with chlorides inside Alq{sub 3} is decreased from CsCl to NaCl.

  15. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  16. Structural similarity causes different category-effects depending on task characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2001-01-01

    whether category effects could be found on object decision tasks (deciding whether pictures represented real objects or not), when the stimulus material was matched across categories. In experiment 1, a disadvantage for natural objects was found on difficult object decision tasks whereas no category...... difference was found on easy object decision tasks. In experiment 2 an advantage for natural objects was found during object decisions performed under degraded viewing conditions (lateralized stimulus presentation). It is argued that these findings can be accounted for by assuming that natural objects are...... more globally visually similar than artefacts, but that this difference between categories affects performance in different ways depending on task characteristics. Thus, the greater overlap between natural objects may be a disadvantage when the demand on perceptual differentiation is high (as it is in...

  17. Key differences and similarities in ways of managing and supporting radical pharmaceutical front end innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2015-01-01

    facilitation of innovation management and FEI in theory and in practice across international borders. I aim to show how different aspects of Pharma and nationality affect the way innovation management and radical FEI are supported within organisations. This is examined through an in-depth case study of the......The purpose of this paper is to explore how Front End Innovation (FEI) is supported and managed among companies of different nationality within the context of pharmaceutical R&D. The present study is carried out in order to contribute to the development of a clearer understanding of active...... Danish and US based pharmaceutical company, H. Lundbeck A/S, and a comparative study including five European and American pharmaceutical companies. The findings from the study reveal a number of similarities and differences in innovation management and FEI support of radical projects and among the...

  18. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; two different genes responsible for similar clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunmin Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP is an autosomal dominant disorder manifesting as recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis and concomitant hypokalemia. HOKPP is divided into type 1 and type 2 based on the causative gene. Although 2 different ion channels have been identified as the molecular genetic cause of HOKPP, the clinical manifestations between the 2 groups are similar. We report the cases of 2 patients with HOKPP who both presented with typical clinical manifestations, but with mutations in 2 different genes (CACNA1S p.Arg528His and SCN4A p.Arg672His. Despite the similar clinical manifestations, there were differences in the response to acetazolamide treatment between certain genotypes of SCN4A mutations and CACNA1S mutations. We identified p.Arg672His in the SCN4A gene of patient 2 immediately after the first attack through a molecular genetic testing strategy. Molecular genetic diagnosis is important for genetic counseling and selecting preventive treatment.

  19. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; two different genes responsible for similar clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunmin; Hwang, Hee; Cheong, Hae Il; Park, Hye Won

    2011-11-01

    Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder manifesting as recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis and concomitant hypokalemia. HOKPP is divided into type 1 and type 2 based on the causative gene. Although 2 different ion channels have been identified as the molecular genetic cause of HOKPP, the clinical manifestations between the 2 groups are similar. We report the cases of 2 patients with HOKPP who both presented with typical clinical manifestations, but with mutations in 2 different genes (CACNA1Sp.Arg528His and SCN4A p.Arg672His). Despite the similar clinical manifestations, there were differences in the response to acetazolamide treatment between certain genotypes of SCN4A mutations and CACNA1S mutations. We identified p.Arg672His in the SCN4A gene of patient 2 immediately after the first attack through a molecular genetic testing strategy. Molecular genetic diagnosis is important for genetic counseling and selecting preventive treatment. PMID:22253645

  20. Endovascular therapeutic strategies in ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.machi@gmail.com [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lobotesis, Kyriakos, E-mail: kyriakos@lobotesis.co.uk [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Vendrell, Jean Francoise, E-mail: jfvendrell@yahoo.fr [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Riquelme, Carlos, E-mail: riquelme.carlos@neuf.fr [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Eker, Omer, E-mail: eker_omer@yahoo.fr [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Costalat, Vincent, E-mail: vincentcost@hotmail.com [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Bonafe, Alain, E-mail: bonafeh@aol.com [CHRU Montpellier, Service de Neurorradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate endovascular techniques used currently which were not available at the time of ISAT inclusion period, such as balloon remodelling and flow-divertion, in order to assess whether these new technologies have improved the endovascular approach outcomes. We present a review of articles, published in major journals, with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of coiling with balloon remodelling for the treatment of ruptured aneurysms in comparison to coiling performed without such coadjutant techniques. Furthermore, we reviewed publications reporting on the treatment of ruptured aneurysms in the acute phase with the one of the most recent technologies available nowadays: the flow diverting stent. Looking at the recent literature the results regarding ruptured aneurysms treated with balloon assisted coiling (BAC) have shown an improvement in terms of anatomical results and morbi-mortality rates. Case series of ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms treated by EVT report results similar to those obtained by surgical clipping. Several articles recently report encouraging results in treating ruptured dissecting and blister aneurysms with flow diverters. Questions regarding the best treatment available for ruptured aneurysms are yet to be answered. Hence there is a need for a subsequent trial aiming to answer these unresolved issues.

  1. When similar beginnings lead to different ends: Constraints and diversity i cirripede larval development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Møller, Ole Sten

    2006-01-01

    the larvae hatch as cyprids. The cypris larvae are very similar among the ingroups of the Cirripedia, but interesting variations occur in structures used for substrate location and attachment. The cyprid is specialized to both swim through the water and actively explore the substratum by walking on...... the antennules and using an array of sensory organs in search for a suitable site to attach. This unique morphology and behavior of the cyprid have enabled the Cirripedia to colonize widely different habitats ranging from hard rock to soft animal tissue. Yet, the cyprid can metamorphose into juveniles...

  2. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques using RDX and C-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Miller; T.S. Yoder

    2010-06-01

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, temperature, humidity, rain, etc. This laboratory study focused on looking at similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used when performance testing explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards, and fingerprinting of actual explosives. Explosives were deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each surface type using each contamination technique. The surface types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination techniques.

  3. Very Similar Spacing-Effect Patterns in Very Different Learning/Practice Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmeier, Jürgen; Spitzer, Manfred; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka

    2014-01-01

    Temporally distributed (“spaced”) learning can be twice as efficient as massed learning. This “spacing effect” occurs with a broad spectrum of learning materials, with humans of different ages, with non-human vertebrates and also invertebrates. This indicates, that very basic learning mechanisms are at work (“generality”). Although most studies so far focused on very narrow spacing interval ranges, there is some evidence for a non-monotonic behavior of this “spacing effect” (“nonlinearity”) with optimal spacing intervals at different time scales. In the current study we focused both the nonlinearity aspect by using a broad range of spacing intervals and the generality aspect by using very different learning/practice domains: Participants learned German-Japanese word pairs and performed visual acuity tests. For each of six groups we used a different spacing interval between learning/practice units from 7 min to 24 h in logarithmic steps. Memory retention was studied in three consecutive final tests, one, seven and 28 days after the final learning unit. For both the vocabulary learning and visual acuity performance we found a highly significant effect of the factor spacing interval on the final test performance. In the 12 h-spacing-group about 85% of the learned words stayed in memory and nearly all of the visual acuity gain was preserved. In the 24 h-spacing-group, in contrast, only about 33% of the learned words were retained and the visual acuity gain dropped to zero. The very similar patterns of results from the two very different learning/practice domains point to similar underlying mechanisms. Further, our results indicate spacing in the range of 12 hours as optimal. A second peak may be around a spacing interval of 20 min but here the data are less clear. We discuss relations between our results and basic learning at the neuronal level. PMID:24609081

  4. Intracranial Non-traumatic Aneurysms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sorteberg, Angelika; Dahlberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An intracranial aneurysm in a child or adolescent is a rare, but potentially devastating condition. As little as approximately 1200 cases are reported between 1939 and 2011, with many of the reports presenting diverting results. There is consensus, though, in that pediatric aneurysms represent a pathophysiological entity different from their adult counterparts. In children, there is a male predominance. About two-thirds of pediatric intracranial aneurysms become symptomatic with hemorrhage an...

  5. Pediatric cerebral artery aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Koroknay-Pál, PÀivi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Intracranial aneurysms in children are rare and population-based long-term follow-up studies are limited. In this study, a large clinical and angiographic long-term follow-up was carried out. The special characteristics of the patients and their aneurysms were assessed together with factors affecting early and long-term morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods. All pediatric (≀18 years) aneurysm patients treated at the Department of Neurosurgery in Helsinki during 193...

  6. I owe you: age-related similarities and differences in associative memory for gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Flores, Cynthia C; Murayama, Kou; Kerr, Tyson; Drolet, Aimee

    2016-09-01

    Older adults often experience associative memory impairments but can sometimes remember important information. The current experiments investigate potential age-related similarities and differences associate memory for gains and losses. Younger and older participants were presented with faces and associated dollar amounts, which indicated how much money the person "owed" the participant, and were later given a cued recall test for the dollar amount. Experiment 1 examined face-dollar amount pairs while Experiment 2 included negative dollar amounts to examine both gains and losses. While younger adults recalled more information relative to older adults, both groups were more accurate in recalling the correct value associated with high-value faces compared to lower-value faces and remembered gist-information about the values. However, negative values (losses) did not have a strong impact on recall among older adults versus younger adults, illustrating important associative memory differences between younger and older adults. PMID:26847137

  7. Phytoplankton distribution in three thermally different but edaphically similar reactor cooling reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E W

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton community structure and the physicochemical characteristics of three reactor cooling reservoirs in close proximity and of similar age and bottom type were studied during 1978. The three reservoirs differed in thermal alteration resulting from reactor cooling water as follows: (1) considerable heating with lake-wide temperatures >30/sup 0/C, even in winter; (2) a maximal 5/sup 0/C increase occurring in only one of three major arms of the reservoir; and (3) no thermal effluent received during the study period. Considerable spatial and temporal differences in water quality and phytoplankton community structure were observed; however, water temperature independent of other environmental factors (e.g., light and nutrients) was found to be a relatively unimportant variable for explaining phytoplankton periodicity.

  8. Phytoplankton distribution in three thermally different but edaphically similar reactor cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoplankton community structure and the physicochemical characteristics of three reactor cooling reservoirs in close proximity and of similar age and bottom type were studied during 1978. The three reservoirs differed in thermal alteration resulting from reactor cooling water as follows: (1) considerable heating with lake-wide temperatures >300C, even in winter; (2) a maximal 50C increase occurring in only one of three major arms of the reservoir; and (3) no thermal effluent received during the study period. Considerable spatial and temporal differences in water quality and phytoplankton community structure were observed; however, water temperature independent of other environmental factors (e.g., light and nutrients) was found to be a relatively unimportant variable for explaining phytoplankton periodicity

  9. Cholera and shigellosis: different epidemiology but similar responses to climate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Cash

    Full Text Available Comparative studies of the associations between different infectious diseases and climate variability, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, are lacking. Diarrheal illnesses, particularly cholera and shigellosis, provide an important opportunity to apply a comparative approach. Cholera and shigellosis have significant global mortality and morbidity burden, pronounced differences in transmission pathways and pathogen ecologies, and there is an established climate link with cholera. In particular, the specific ecology of Vibrio cholerae is often invoked to explain the sensitivity of that disease to climate.The extensive surveillance data of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh are used here to revisit the known associations between cholera and climate, and to address their similarity to previously unexplored patterns for shigellosis. Monthly case data for both the city of Dhaka and a rural area known as Matlab are analyzed with respect to their association with El Niño and flooding. Linear correlations are examined between flooding and cumulative cases, as well as for flooding and El Niño. Rank-correlation maps are also computed between disease cases in the post-monsoon epidemic season and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific. Similar climate associations are found for both diseases and both locations. Increased cases follow increased monsoon flooding and increased sea surface temperatures in the preceding winter corresponding to an El Niño event.The similarity in association patterns suggests a systemic breakdown in population health with changing environmental conditions, in which climate variability acts primarily through increasing the exposure risk of the human population. We discuss these results in the context of the on-going debate on the relative importance of the environmental reservoir vs. secondary transmission, as well as the implications for the use of El Niño as an early indicator of

  10. Radiation protection programmes in Australia and the USA - similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aims of a comprehensive radiation protection programme in many working environments, including the Australian states and territories and the United States of America, are similar. However, the means by which the final programme objectives are achieved, may differ. In many cases, this is dictated by specific statutory requirements of the country in question. An opportunity to work in the USA has provided insights into the similarities and differences that exist between the two countries, as they relate to organisational planning and deployment of radiation protection programmes. Examples of variances include: statutory requirements, an organisation's relationship with regulatory authorities, licensing requirements, surveys and monitoring, procedures for receiving and opening packages, waste management, record keeping, role of radiation safety/protection officer, radiation protection training. The importance of the exchange of information, general approach to safety and specific methods in addressing radiation protection can be of significant benefit to both the Australian and the US working environments. Fostering this kind of international collaboration and communication has enormous potential by sharing information and facilitating workplaces in both countries to utilise the most appropriate risk management processes

  11. Similarities and differences in coatings for magnesium-based stents and orthopaedic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based biodegradable materials are promising candidates for the new generation of implantable medical devices, particularly cardiovascular stents and orthopaedic implants. Mg-based cardiovascular stents represent the most innovative stent technology to date. However, these products still do not fully meet clinical requirements with regards to fast degradation rates, late restenosis, and thrombosis. Thus various surface coatings have been introduced to protect Mg-based stents from rapid corrosion and to improve biocompatibility. Similarly, different coatings have been used for orthopaedic implants, e.g., plates and pins for bone fracture fixation or as an interference screw for tendon-bone or ligament-bone insertion, to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Metal coatings, nanoporous inorganic coatings and permanent polymers have been proved to enhance corrosion resistance; however, inflammation and foreign body reactions have also been reported. By contrast, biodegradable polymers are more biocompatible in general and are favoured over permanent materials. Drugs are also loaded with biodegradable polymers to improve their performance. The key similarities and differences in coatings for Mg-based stents and orthopaedic implants are summarized.

  12. Analysis of the Similarities and Differences between MPLS Label Distribution Protocols RSVP and CR-LDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MPLS is a new technology that offers to open up the Internet by providing many additional services to applications using IP. MPLS forwards data using labels that are attached to each data packet. These labels must be distributed between the nodes that comprise the network. Many of the new services that ISPs want to offer rely on Traffic Engineering functions. There are currently two label distribution protocols that provide support for Traffic Engineering: Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP and Constraint-based Routed Label Distribution Protocol (CR-LDP. Although the two protocols provide a similar level of service, the way they operate is different, and the detailed function they offer is also not consistent. Hardware vendors and network providers need clear information to help them decide which protocol to implement in a Traffic Engineered MPLS network. Each protocol has its champions and detractors, and the specifications are still under development. Recognizing that the choice of label distribution protocol is crucial for the success of device manufacturers and network providers; this White Paper explains the similarities and important differences between the two protocols, to help identify which protocol is the right one to use in a particular environment. Data Connection€™s DC-MPLS family of portable MPLS products offers solutions for both the RSVP and CR-LDP label distribution protocols.

  13. Similarities and differences in altitudinal versus latitudinal variation for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsatel, Peter; Gáliková, Martina; Huber, Christian D; Flatt, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how natural environments shape phenotypic variation is a major aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we have examined clinal, likely genetically based variation in morphology among 19 populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) from Africa and Europe, spanning a range from sea level to 3000 m altitude and including locations approximating the southern and northern range limit. We were interested in testing whether latitude and altitude have similar phenotypic effects, as has often been postulated. Both latitude and altitude were positively correlated with wing area, ovariole number, and cell number. In contrast, latitude and altitude had opposite effects on the ratio between ovariole number and body size, which was negatively correlated with egg production rate per ovariole. We also used transgenic manipulation to examine how increased cell number affects morphology and found that larger transgenic flies, due to a higher number of cells, had more ovarioles, larger wings, and, unlike flies from natural populations, increased wing loading. Clinal patterns in morphology are thus not a simple function of changes in body size; instead, each trait might be subject to different selection pressures. Together, our results provide compelling evidence for profound similarities as well as differences between phenotypic effects of latitude and altitude. PMID:24410363

  14. Gaseous swelling of B4C and UO2 fuel: similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major factor limiting the resource of control rods (CRs) for WWER-1000 reactors is their radiation damage. Radiation induced embrittlement of the CRs cladding, core swelling and gaseous internal pressure in CRs result in mechanical core-cladding interaction. This work is devoted to the physical analysis of processes that control the structural changes in neutron absorber elements with B4C under irradiation in water reactors. Particularly, the analysis of mechanisms of the helium porosity formation in B4C is undertaken. In view of the deficiency of experimental data on the subject, a fruitful approach to the problem is a comparative analysis of the swelling mechanisms in B4C absorber and UO2 fuel. Using this similarity a phenomenological model of fission gas behavior in boron carbide is proposed. The model predictions for radial profile of 10B burnup under influence of thermal and epithermal neutrons are compared with experimental results. The main results show that despite the external similarity of the process of fission gas accumulation in UO2 and in B4C, phenomenology of gaseous swelling is much different for the fuel and the CR core. The reason for that difference is the distinction of physical conditions in irradiated fuel and CR core

  15. Mapping dominant runoff processes: an evaluation of different approaches using similarity measures and synthetic runoff simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, M.; Buss, R.; Scherrer, S.; Margreth, M.; Zappa, M.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of landscapes with similar hydrological behaviour is useful for runoff predictions in small ungauged catchments. An established method for landscape classification is based on the concept of dominant runoff process (DRP). The various DRP mapping approaches differ with respect to the time and data required for mapping. Manual approaches based on expert knowledge are reliable but time-consuming, whereas automatic GIS-based approaches are easier to implement but rely on simplifications which restrict their application range. To what extent these simplifications are applicable in other catchments is unclear. More information is also needed on how the different complexity of automatic DRP mapping approaches affects hydrological simulations. In this paper, three automatic approaches were used to map two catchments on the Swiss Plateau. The resulting maps were compared to reference maps obtained with manual mapping. Measures of agreement and association, a class comparison and a deviation map were derived. The automatically derived DRP-maps were used in synthetic runoff simulations with an adapted version of the hydrological model PREVAH, and simulation results compared with those from simulations using the reference maps. The DRP-maps derived with the automatic approach with highest complexity and data requirement were the most similar to the reference maps, while those derived with simplified approaches without original soil information differed significantly in terms of both extent and distribution of the DRPs. The runoff simulations derived from the simpler DRP-maps were more uncertain due to inaccuracies in the input data and their coarse resolution, but problems were also linked with the use of topography as a proxy for the storage capacity of soils. The perception of the intensity of the DRP classes also seems to vary among the different authors, and a standardised definition of DRPs is still lacking. We therefore recommend not only using expert

  16. Mapping dominant runoff processes: an evaluation of different approaches using similarity measures and synthetic runoff simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Manuel; Buss, Rahel; Scherrer, Simon; Margreth, Michael; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2016-07-01

    The identification of landscapes with similar hydrological behaviour is useful for runoff and flood predictions in small ungauged catchments. An established method for landscape classification is based on the concept of dominant runoff process (DRP). The various DRP-mapping approaches differ with respect to the time and data required for mapping. Manual approaches based on expert knowledge are reliable but time-consuming, whereas automatic GIS-based approaches are easier to implement but rely on simplifications which restrict their application range. To what extent these simplifications are applicable in other catchments is unclear. More information is also needed on how the different complexities of automatic DRP-mapping approaches affect hydrological simulations. In this paper, three automatic approaches were used to map two catchments on the Swiss Plateau. The resulting maps were compared to reference maps obtained with manual mapping. Measures of agreement and association, a class comparison, and a deviation map were derived. The automatically derived DRP maps were used in synthetic runoff simulations with an adapted version of the PREVAH hydrological model, and simulation results compared with those from simulations using the reference maps. The DRP maps derived with the automatic approach with highest complexity and data requirement were the most similar to the reference maps, while those derived with simplified approaches without original soil information differed significantly in terms of both extent and distribution of the DRPs. The runoff simulations derived from the simpler DRP maps were more uncertain due to inaccuracies in the input data and their coarse resolution, but problems were also linked with the use of topography as a proxy for the storage capacity of soils. The perception of the intensity of the DRP classes also seems to vary among the different authors, and a standardised definition of DRPs is still lacking. Furthermore, we argue not to use

  17. Does the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship vary among geometrically similar birds of different mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, Matthew W; Hansen, Kacia S; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-03-01

    Based on aerodynamic considerations, the energy use-flight speed relationship of all airborne animals and aircraft should be U-shaped. However, measures of the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship in birds have been available since Tucker's pioneering experiments with budgerigars nearly forty years ago, but this classic work remains the only study to have found a clearly U-shaped metabolic power curve. The available data suggests that the energetic requirements for flight within this species are unique, yet the metabolic power curve of the budgerigar is widely considered representative of birds in general. Given these conflicting results and the observation that the budgerigar's mass is less than 50% of the next smallest species to have been studied, we asked whether large and small birds have metabolic power curves of different shapes. To address this question we measured the rates of oxygen uptake and wingbeat kinematics in budgerigars and cockatiels flying within a variable-speed wind tunnel. These species are close phylogenetic relatives, have similar flight styles, wingbeat kinematics, and are geometrically similar but have body masses that differ by a factor of two. In contrast to our expectations, we found the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of both species to be acutely U-shaped. We also found that neither budgerigars nor cockatiels used their normal intermittent flight style while wearing a respirometric mask. We conclude that species size differences alone do not explain the previously unique metabolic power curve of the budgerigar; however, due to the absence of comparable data we cannot evaluate whether the mask-related kinematic response we document influences the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of these parrots, or whether the energetics of flight differ between this and other avian clades. PMID:17337719

  18. Why different gas flux velocity parameterizations result in so similar flux results in the North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Wróbel, Iwona

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is a crucial region for both ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. Most of ocean deep waters are produced in the basin making it a large CO2 sink. The region, close to the major oceanographic centres has been well covered with cruises. This is why we have performed a study of net CO2 flux dependence upon the choice of gas transfer velocity k parameterization for this very region: the North Atlantic including European Arctic Seas. The study has been a part of a ESA funded OceanFlux GHG Evolution project and, at the same time, a PhD thesis (of I.W) funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science). Early results have been presented last year at EGU 2015 as a PICO presentation EGU2015-11206-1. We have used FluxEngine, a tool created within an earlier ESA funded project (OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases) to calculate the North Atlantic and global fluxes with different gas transfer velocity formulas. During the processing of the data, we have noticed that the North Atlantic results for different k formulas are more similar (in the sense of relative error) that global ones. This was true both for parameterizations using the same power of wind speed and when comparing wind squared and wind cubed parameterizations. This result was interesting because North Atlantic winds are stronger than the global average ones. Was the flux result similarity caused by the fact that the parameterizations were tuned to the North Atlantic area where many of the early cruises measuring CO2 fugacities were performed? A closer look at the parameterizations and their history showed that not all of them were based on North Atlantic data. Some of them were tuned to the South Ocean with even stronger winds while some were based on global budgets of 14C. However we have found two reasons, not reported before in the literature, for North Atlantic fluxes being more similar than global ones for different gas transfer velocity parametrizations

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were administered to the groups. Results: There was significant difference between unipolar and control groups in “Abandonment/instability”. In “mistrust/ abuse” significant difference was between unipolar and bipolar and between unipolar and control groups. ln “entitlement/self-centeredness” difference was between unipolar and control groups. In all other schemas, difference was between unipolar and control and bipolar and control groups. In these schemas, control group had significantly lower scores than others. Unipolar and bipolar groups were similar. Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/ abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment.

  20. Proteomic differences in recombinant CHO cells producing two similar antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommeregger, Wolfgang; Mayrhofer, Patrick; Steinfellner, Willibald; Reinhart, David; Henry, Michael; Clynes, Martin; Meleady, Paula; Kunert, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used mammalian hosts for the production of biopharmaceuticals. To overcome unfavorable features of CHO cells, a lot of effort is put into cell engineering to improve phenotype. "Omics" studies investigating elevated growth rate and specific productivities as well as extracellular stimulus have already revealed many interesting engineering targets. However, it remains largely unknown how physicochemical properties of the recombinant product itself influence the host cell. In this study, we used quantitative label-free LC-MS proteomic analyses to investigate product-specific proteome differences in CHO cells producing two similar antibody fragments. We established recombinant CHO cells producing the two antibodies, 3D6 and 2F5, both as single-chain Fv-Fc homodimeric antibody fragments (scFv-Fc). We applied three different vector strategies for transgene delivery (i.e., plasmid, bacterial artificial chromosome, recombinase-mediated cassette exchange), selected two best performing clones from transgene variants and transgene delivery methods and investigated three consecutively passaged cell samples by label-free proteomic analysis. LC-MS-MS profiles were compared in several sample combinations to gain insights into different aspects of proteomic changes caused by overexpression of two different heterologous proteins. This study suggests that not only the levels of specific product secretion but the product itself has a large impact on the proteome of the cell. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1902-1912. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26913574

  1. Out of home care in Norway and Sweden - similar and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Backe-Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current situation in the out-of-home care in Norway and Sweden is presented in this article; also the development in later years is described and discussed. Socially, politically and culturallythere are few differences between Norway and Sweden. Child protection and out-of-home placement of children and young people are integrated parts in the welfare state that are shared by the Nordic countries. It is a model that builds on principles of universalism and decommodification of social rights. The welfare model presupposes high public legitimacy for a high level of social expenditure. However the idea of marketization and privatization has also affected the welfare model in Sweden and Norway. Although there are more similarities than differences between the two countries' child protection systems, the article discusses some differences, for example the after care services, new groups of children and young people in the out-of-home care, like young unaccompanied asylum seekers. There are also some differences when it comes to privatization, the introduction of evidence-based methods in the child protection system and the tension between general and residual services for children and young people in the child protection system.

  2. Intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm associated with basilar tip saccular aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehdashti, A.R.; Tribolet, N. de [Department of Neurosurgery, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland); Safran, A.B. [Department of Ophthalmology, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland); Martin, J.B.; Ruefenacht, D.A. [Division of Neuroradiology, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    We present a rare case of intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm found incidentally, together with a ruptured aneurysm of the tip of the basilar artery. The intraorbital aneurysm was asymptomatic, and no treatment was offered. Angiographic control was recommended to detect any progression. Treatment may be indicated for documented enlargement or significant mass effect of the aneurysm. (orig.)

  3. Intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm associated with basilar tip saccular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a rare case of intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm found incidentally, together with a ruptured aneurysm of the tip of the basilar artery. The intraorbital aneurysm was asymptomatic, and no treatment was offered. Angiographic control was recommended to detect any progression. Treatment may be indicated for documented enlargement or significant mass effect of the aneurysm. (orig.)

  4. Chloroplast FBPase and SBPase are thioredoxin-linked enzymes with similar architecture but different evolutionary histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütle, Desirée D; Roret, Thomas; Müller, Stefanie J; Couturier, Jérémy; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Hecker, Arnaud; Dhalleine, Tiphaine; Buchanan, Bob B; Reski, Ralf; Einsle, Oliver; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-14

    The Calvin-Benson cycle of carbon dioxide fixation in chloroplasts is controlled by light-dependent redox reactions that target specific enzymes. Of the regulatory members of the cycle, our knowledge of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is particularly scanty, despite growing evidence for its importance and link to plant productivity. To help fill this gap, we have purified, crystallized, and characterized the recombinant form of the enzyme together with the better studied fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), in both cases from the moss Physcomitrella patens (Pp). Overall, the moss enzymes resembled their counterparts from seed plants, including oligomeric organization-PpSBPase is a dimer, and PpFBPase is a tetramer. The two phosphatases showed striking structural homology to each other, differing primarily in their solvent-exposed surface areas in a manner accounting for their specificity for seven-carbon (sedoheptulose) and six-carbon (fructose) sugar bisphosphate substrates. The two enzymes had a similar redox potential for their regulatory redox-active disulfides (-310 mV for PpSBPase vs. -290 mV for PpFBPase), requirement for Mg(2+) and thioredoxin (TRX) specificity (TRX f > TRX m). Previously known to differ in the position and sequence of their regulatory cysteines, the enzymes unexpectedly showed unique evolutionary histories. The FBPase gene originated in bacteria in conjunction with the endosymbiotic event giving rise to mitochondria, whereas SBPase arose from an archaeal gene resident in the eukaryotic host. These findings raise the question of how enzymes with such different evolutionary origins achieved structural similarity and adapted to control by the same light-dependent photosynthetic mechanism-namely ferredoxin, ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin. PMID:27226308

  5. Social phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders and Williams syndrome: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eAsada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Williams syndrome (WS both are neurodevelopmental disorders, each with a unique social phenotypic pattern. This review article aims to define the similarities and differences between the social phenotypes of ASD and WS. We review studies that have examined individuals with WS using diagnostic assessments such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS, cross-syndrome direct comparison studies, and studies that have individually examined either disorder. We conclude that (1 Individuals with these disorders show quite contrasting phenotypes for face processing (i.e., preference to faces and eyes and sociability (i.e., interest in and motivation to interact with others, and (2 Although the ADOS and a direct comparison study on pragmatic language ability suggest more deficits in ASD, individuals with WS are similarly impaired on social cognition and communicative skills. In light of these results, we discuss how cross-syndrome comparisons between ASD and WS can contribute to developmental theory, cognitive neuroscience, and the development and choice of clinical treatments.

  6. Different Resistance-Training Regimens Evoked a Similar Increase in Myostatin Inhibitors Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A R; Lamas, L; Ugrinowitsch, C; Tricoli, V; Miyabara, E H; Soares, A G; Aoki, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different resistance-training regimens (S or P) on the expression of genes related to the MSTN signaling pathway in physically-active men. 29 male subjects with at least 2 years of experience in strength training were assigned to either a strength-training group (S; n=11) or a power-training group (P; n=11). The control group (C; n=7) was composed of healthy physically-active males. The S and the P groups performed high- and low-intensity squats, respectively, 3 times per week, for 8 weeks. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were collected before and after the training period. No change was observed in MSTN, ACTIIB, GASP-1 and FOXO-3 A gene expression after the training period. A similar increase in the gene expression of the inhibitory proteins of the MSTN signaling pathway, FLST (S: 4.2 fold induction and P: 3.7 fold induction, pinhibitors of the MSTN signaling pathway in a similar manner. PMID:25822941

  7. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that

  8. Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2011-01-01

    The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.

  9. Similarities and differences in the p53-mdm2 and NF-kB feedback loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Sandeep

    2008-03-01

    Ultradian oscillations in the p53 and NF-kB signalling systems are produced using similar mechanisms: a negative feedback loop combined with an effective time delay. However, seemingly small differences in the molecular implementation of this mechanism mean that the NF-kB system is in equilibrium in the resting state, while the p53 system is far from equilibrium. I will discuss how this affects the dynamical response of the systems. In particular, I will argue that the nonequilibrium driving makes the p53 system respond much faster to external stimuli than the NF-kB system. The interesting question then is whether this makes sense physiologically, and is consistent with the fact that p53 triggers cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, while NF-kB triggers the immune response.

  10. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations. PMID:27272331

  11. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  12. Similar Personality Patterns Are Associated with Empathy in Four Different Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Martin C; Li, Mei; Haas, Brian W; Reuter, Martin; Bischoff, Lena; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is an important human ability associated with successful social interaction. It is currently unclear how to optimally measure individual differences in empathic processing. Although the Big Five model of personality is an effective model to explain individual differences in human experience and behavior, its relation to measures of empathy is currently not well understood. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the Big Five personality concept and two commonly used measures for empathy [Empathy Quotient (EQ), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] in four samples from China, Germany, Spain, and the United States of America. This approach was designed to advance the way the Big Five personality model can be used to measure empathy. We found evidence of medium effect sizes for associations between personality and empathy, with agreeableness and conscientiousness as the most important predictors of affective and cognitive empathy (measured by the respective IRI subscales) as well as for a one-dimensional empathy score (measured by the EQ). Empathy in a fictional context was most closely related to openness to experience while personal distress was first of all related to neuroticism. In terms of culture, we did not observe any distinct pattern concerning cultural differences. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of the EQ and the IRI and indicate structurally similar associations between personality and empathy across cultures. PMID:27014115

  13. An analysis of similarity of digital river networks with different resolutions in various river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magome, J.; Masutani, K.; Ishidaira, H.

    2011-12-01

    In order to apply hydrological models and establish computer aided hydrological discharge nowcast eventually forecast system for large regions like Asian continent or whole world, accuracy of digital river network is one of the key issue to produce useful information. In this study, we propose and apply a method which analyses the similarity of digital river networks with different spatial resolutions. We use the coordinates and upstream catchment areas at major confluent points in order to represent the features of river networks. Turning counter- clockwise around the river network from the estuary, we arrange confluent points into one string. The sets of the one-dimensional data obtained from river networks are compared by using DP matching. A set of river networks with different scales ranging from 90 m to 20 km grids were developed based on this scaling algorithm (Masutani et al., 2006) using 90m HydroSHEDS. We evaluated the developed dataset using the proposed method to small to large rivers in Asian Regions (including Mekong River, Yellow River. etc.). A possibility of utilizing the proposed method was successfully shown. The proposed method and the river network dataset developed can provide better hydrological simulation with different grid scales with little effect.

  14. Sex similarities and differences in pain-related periaqueductal gray connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Beucke, Jan-Carl; Jensen, Karin B; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated sex similarities and differences in pain-related functional connectivity in 60 healthy subjects. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction analysis to investigate how exposure to low vs high experimental pain modulates the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). We found no sex differences in pain thresholds, and in both men and women, the PAG was more functionally connected with the somatosensory cortex, the supplemental motor area, cerebellum, and thalamus during high pain, consistent with anatomic predictions. Twenty-six men displayed a pain-induced increase in PAG functional connectivity with the amygdala caudate and putamen that was not observed in women. In an extensive literature search, we found that female animals have been largely overlooked when the connections between the PAG and the amygdala have been described, and that women are systematically understudied with regard to endogenous pain inhibition. Our results emphasize the importance of including both male and female subjects when studying basic mechanisms of pain processing, and point toward a possible sex difference in endogenous pain inhibition. PMID:22154332

  15. Accuracy of ejection fraction by nuclear stethoscope in left ventricular aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, D.M.; Makler, P.T. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Stethoscope has been shown to reliably determine left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). However, the instrument differs from standard Anger camera techniques in that (1) it uses a single region-of-interest for assessing changes in radioactive counts, and (2) it is positioned ''blindly'' over the LV. For these reasons its accuracy in patients (pts) with LV aneurysm might be less than in pts with normal or less abnormal wall motion. The authors studied 30 consecutive pts by both standard dated blood pool (GBP) scanning and Nuclear Stethoscope (probe). Twenty pts had normal or mildly abnormal wall motion and 10 had focal dyskinesis (aneurysm). The probe studies were performed by one of two experienced operators who were unaware of GBP results, and in 19 pts there were two separate probe acquisitions. Studies were performed in alternating sequence (i.e., GBP or probe first). GBP scans were acquired for 6 million counts spanning 24 frames, and probe studies for 60 or 120 sec (depending on the observed counting rate) in the ventricular function mode. Overall, the EF's ranged from 0.11 to 0.82, and the values from GBP and probe studies were highly correlated (r=O.93). In the 19 pts with two probe studies there was good interobserver reproducibility (r=0.96, SEE=0.05). The correlation between GBP and probe EF was similar in the 10 aneurysm pts (r=0.92, SEE=0.07) and the 20 pts with normal or mildly abnormal wall motion (r=0.92, SEE=0.08). The slope in the aneurysm pts (0.92) was not significantly different from that in the pts without aneurysm (0.97). These data confirm the accuracy of the Nuclear Stethoscope for determining EF and demonstrate its specific reliability in pts with LV aneurysm.

  16. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  17. Treatment of a pediatric recurrent fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with a flow diverter

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Anthony M.; Zipfel, Gregory; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric patients with aneurysm often have different localizations and morphologies from adults and recurrences are not uncommon after successful clip reconstruction/obliteration. Treatment of a recurrent pediatric aneurysm after clip ligation is a technical challenge. We present the case of an adolescent with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysm which recurred following clip reconstruction and bypass. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular flow diversion.

  18. Different tonotopic regions of the lateral superior olive receive a similar combination of afferent inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Álvarez, Marcelo; Saldaña, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian lateral superior olive (LSO) codes disparities in the intensity of the sound that reaches the two ears by integrating ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition, but it remains unclear what particular neuron types convey acoustic information to the nucleus. It is also uncertain whether the known conspicuous morphofunctional differences and gradients along the tonotopic axis of the LSO relate to qualitative and/or quantitative regional differences in its afferents. To clarify these issues, we made small, single injections of the neuroanatomical tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into different tonotopic regions of the LSO of albino rats and analyzed the neurons labeled retrogradely in brainstem auditory nuclei. We demonstrate that the LSO is innervated tonotopically by four brainstem neuron types: spherical bushy cells and planar multipolar neurons of the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus, principal neurons of the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and small multipolar neurons of the contralateral ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. Unexpectedly, the proportion of labeled neurons of each type was virtually identical in all cases, thus indicating that all tonotopic regions of the LSO receive a similar combination of inputs. Even more surprisingly, our data also suggest that the representation of frequencies in the LSO differs from that of the nuclei that innervate it: compared to the latter nuclei, the LSO seems to possess a relatively larger portion of its volume devoted to processing frequencies in the lower-middle part of the spectrum, and a relative smaller portion devoted to higher frequencies. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2230-2250, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26659473

  19. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screened. In fact, patients who have a family history of aneurysm, men who are smoking over the age of 55 should be screened for aneurysms. And the way to screen is with a simple ultrasound. But sometimes a ...

  20. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Aortic Aneurysm Repair May 7, 2009 Good afternoon. Welcome to the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute here in Miami. My name ... our live webcast. Today we’re going to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm using a technology called ...

  1. Differences and similarities in the regulation of medical practice between early modern Vienna and Osijek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    This paper evaluates the regulation of medical practice from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in two Habsburg cities, Vienna and Osijek, in the light of the spread of medical knowledge and practice from the centre to the periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy. Although both cities were part of the Habsburg Monarchy for much of the early modern period, there were more differences than similarities between them. This may be explained by appealing to a variety of factors, including geographical position, population structure, religion, government type, and professional organisations, all of which contributed to making medical practice very different in the two cities. The divergence occurred in spite of a central agenda for ensuring uniformity of medical practice throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. Although the legislation governing medical practice was the same in both cities, it was more strictly implemented in Vienna than in Osijek. In consequence, Osijek was the setting for some unique patterns of medical practice not to be found in the Habsburg capital. PMID:22580020

  2. Obstetrics and gynecology clerkship for males and females: similar curriculum, different outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaTasha B. Craig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine if performance differences exist between male and female students on a 6-week obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn clerkship and to evaluate potential variables that might underlie any observed variations. Study Design : Final clerkship grades and component scores (clinical evaluations, objective structured clinical examination [OSCE], oral examination, and National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] subject examination from July 2007 to June 2010 were matched by student and analyzed by gender. Basic science grade point average (GPA and initial United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE Step 1 scores were used to establish students’ baseline medical knowledge. On a post-clerkship questionnaire, a subset of students reported the numbers of procedures they performed during the clerkship; students also completed online pre- and post-clerkship questionnaires reflecting their self-assessed confidence in women's health clinical skills. Results : Scores were analyzed for 136 women and 220 men. Final clerkship grades were significantly higher for females than for males (89.05 vs. 87.34, p=0.0004, η 2=0.08. Specifically, females outscored males on the OSCE, oral, and NBME subject examination portions of the clerkship but not clinical evaluations. Males reported completing fewer breast examinations (p=0.001, η 2=0.14. Pre-clerkship, males were significantly less confident than females in women's health clinical skills (p<0.01 but reached similar levels upon completion of the clerkship. No gender differences were detected for basic science GPA and USMLE Step 1 scores. Conclusion : Student gender is associated with final grades on an Ob/Gyn clerkship. Further research regarding these differences should be explored.

  3. Performance based vs. compliance based auditing: The similarities and the differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsbury, J.A.

    1996-09-26

    Princeton University`s Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a world leader in research associated with plasma science including the use of materials, the development of future fusion devices, and the application of plasma techniques in industry. At PPPL, one of Quality Assurance`s responsibilities includes the internal audit/appraisal program. In early FY95 a task force, including representation from internal customers, was created to improve the program and to assure that the program better supports the mission of the Laboratory. One of the most significant changes recommended by the task force was to move from a compliance based auditing program to a performance based program. A trial of this change was successfully performed in fiscal year 1995. Because of the success of the trial, this change was adopted as standard practice. Today, a scheduled audit may be performance based, compliance based, or a combination of the two as determined jointly by the Quality Assurance Manager and the management of the program to be audited. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between these two types of audits. Both audits are performed to effect improvements in the program being audited. However, compliance based audits focus on compliance issues with the risk of missing performance or efficiency issues. Performance based audits identify system level problems and inefficiencies but may miss compliance issues.

  4. From epidemics to information propagation: Striking differences in structurally similar adaptive network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovski, Stojan; Guo, Dongchao; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2015-09-01

    The continuous-time adaptive susceptible-infected-susceptible (ASIS) epidemic model and the adaptive information diffusion (AID) model are two adaptive spreading processes on networks, in which a link in the network changes depending on the infectious state of its end nodes, but in opposite ways: (i) In the ASIS model a link is removed between two nodes if exactly one of the nodes is infected to suppress the epidemic, while a link is created in the AID model to speed up the information diffusion; (ii) a link is created between two susceptible nodes in the ASIS model to strengthen the healthy part of the network, while a link is broken in the AID model due to the lack of interest in informationless nodes. The ASIS and AID models may be considered as first-order models for cascades in real-world networks. While the ASIS model has been exploited in the literature, we show that the AID model is realistic by obtaining a good fit with Facebook data. Contrary to the common belief and intuition for such similar models, we show that the ASIS and AID models exhibit different but not opposite properties. Most remarkably, a unique metastable state always exists in the ASIS model, while there an hourglass-shaped region of instability in the AID model. Moreover, the epidemic threshold is a linear function in the effective link-breaking rate in the AID model, while it is almost constant but noisy in the AID model.

  5. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah (Dina Martinez Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n=30, Cuban (n=30, Columbian (n=30, and island-born Puerto Ricans (n=30, who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities.

  6. Different Habitats Show Similar Genetic Structure of Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceaein Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta PATAMSYTĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied genetic diversity within and among populations of warty cabbage (Bunias orientalis L., which is an alien species in Lithuania and other Baltic countries. In Lithuania, this weed colonises two main types of habitats: railway/roadsides and meadows on riversides. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of invasive populations of B. orientalis in Lithuania and consider the impact of diverse habitats on the partitioning of genetic diversity using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA carried out on the basis of ISSR showed that there is high genetic differentiation (46% among populations of B. orientalis, which is probably caused by the founder effect and limited gene flow. However, we observed no impact of habitat on the genetic difference among populations. Similar levels of ISSR polymorphic loci were observed in riverside (P = 31.67% and railway/roadsides (P = 30.51% populations. UPGMA cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA also did not show grouping of studied populations according to habitat type. High genetic differentiation among populations, as indicated by ISSR markers, confirm multiple independent introductions of this species in Lithuania.

  7. Indoor radon in three similar two-story houses with different ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels were monitored in three similar two-story apartment houses which were located side by side on a gravel esker in eastern Finland. The houses differed only in regard to their ventilation systems which included the following: natural ventilation, mechanical exhaust, and complete mechanical ventilation. The study started immediately when the houses were finished and was continued for two years. Radon concentrations were highest (60-430 Bq/m3) in the beginning of the study period before the tenants moved in. During the following spring and fall, average radon levels of the houses decreased below 100 Bq/m3. Radon concentrations varied within a wide range, from 20 to 230 Bq/m3, in the apartments. Among the houses, the highest concentrations were found in the house equipped with mechanical exhaust ventilation and the lowest in the house with both a mechanical supply and exhaust system. One reason for the decreasing levels of radon after a one-year occupancy was that the tenants increased the ventilation of their apartments. In the house with complete mechanical ventilation, the stability of ventilation also contributed to the decrease of the indoor radon level

  8. Human embryonic stem cells derived from embryos at different stages of development share similar transcription profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanaratnam Giritharan

    Full Text Available We have derived hESC from biopsied blastomeres of cleavage stage embryos under virtually the same conditions we used for the derivation of hESC lines from inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos. Blastomere-derived hESC lines exhibited all the standard characteristics of hESC including undifferentiated proliferation, genomic stability, expression of pluripotency markers and the ability to differentiate into the cells of all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. To examine whether hESC lines derived from two developmental stages of the embryo differ in gene expression, we have subjected three blastomere-derived hESC lines and two ICM-derived hESC lines grown under identical culture conditions to transcriptome analysis using gene expression arrays. Unlike previously reported comparisons of hESC lines which demonstrated, apart from core hESC-associated pluripotency signature, significant variations in gene expression profiles of different lines, our data show that hESC lines derived and grown under well-controlled defined culture conditions adopt nearly identical gene expression profiles. Moreover, blastomere-derived and ICM-derived hESC exhibited very similar transcriptional profiles independent of the developmental stage of the embryo from which they originated. Furthermore, this profile was evident in very early passages of the cells and did not appear to be affected by extensive passaging. These results suggest that during derivation process cells which give rise to hESC acquire virtually identical stable phenotype and are not affected by the developmental stage of the starting cell population.

  9. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in the Nordic Context--Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bladh, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their common history, similarities in language and culture, long traditions in political collaboration and the shared Nordic societal model, an assumption is often made that the operational and regulatory context of universities is similar in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In this article, we…

  10. Multiple soft tissue aneurysmal cysts: An occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkuzhali P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple extraosseous aneurysmal cysts occurring in the muscle and subcutaneous plane of postero-lateral aspects of the upper right leg. They appeared about 15 months after resection of aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper end of the fibula. They varied in size from 2 cm to 5 cm. Radiologically they were well-defined lesions with central septate areas surrounded by a rim of calcification. Histologically they showed central cystic spaces separated by septa consisting of fibroblasts, osteoclast type of giant cells and reactive woven bone. Thus they showed histological similarity with aneurysmal bone cysts, but did not show any connection with the bone. Only very few examples of aneurysmal cysts of soft tissue had been described in the past one decade and they were reported in various locations including rare sites such as arterial wall and larynx. Recent cytogenetic analyses have shown abnormalities involving 17p11-13 and/or 16q22 in both osseous and extraosseous aneurysmal cysts indicating its probable neoplastic nature. Our case had unique features like multiplicity and occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of the underlying bone.

  11. Variability in contrast agent uptake by different but similar stem cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketkar-Atre A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ashwini Ketkar-Atre,1 Tom Struys,1,2 Stefaan J Soenen,3 Ivo Lambrichts,2 Catherine M Verfaillie,4 Marcel De Cuyper,5 Uwe Himmelreich1 1Biomedical MRI/MoSAIC, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Biomedical Sciences Group, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Lab of Histology, Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, Campus Diepenbeek, Agoralaan, Diepenbeek, Belgium; 3Lab for General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; 4Interdepartmental Stem Cell Institute, O&N IV, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 5Laboratory of BioNanoColloids, Interdisciplinary Research Centre, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kortrijk, Belgium Abstract: The need to track and evaluate the fate of transplanted cells is an important issue in regenerative medicine. In order to accomplish this, pre-labelling cells with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents is a well-established method. Uptake of MRI contrast agents by non-phagocytic stem cells, and factors such as cell homeostasis or the adverse effects of contrast agents on cell biology have been extensively studied, but in the context of nanoparticle (NP-specific parameters. Here, we have studied three different types of NPs (Endorem®, magnetoliposomes [MLs], and citrate coated C-200 to label relatively larger, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and, much smaller yet faster proliferating, multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs. Both cell types are similar, as they are isolated from bone marrow and have substantial regenerative potential, which make them interesting candidates for comparative experiments. Using NPs with different surface coatings and sizes, we found that differences in the proliferative and morphological characteristics of the cells used in the study are mainly responsible for the fate of endocytosed iron, intracellular iron concentration, and cytotoxic responses. The quantitative analysis, using high

  12. Neural mechanisms of mother-infant bonding and pair bonding: Similarities, differences, and broader implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Michael; Young, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Mother-infant bonding is a characteristic of virtually all mammals. The maternal neural system may have provided the scaffold upon which other types of social bonds in mammals have been built. For example, most mammals exhibit a polygamous mating system, but monogamy and pair bonding between mating partners occur in ~5% of mammalian species. In mammals, it is plausible that the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding have been modified by natural selection to establish the capacity to develop a selective bond with a mate during the evolution of monogamous mating strategies. Here we compare the details of the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding in rats and other mammals with those that underpin pair bond formation in the monogamous prairie vole. Although details remain to be resolved, remarkable similarities and a few differences between the mechanisms underlying these two types of bond formation are revealed. For example, amygdala and nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum (NA-VP) circuits are involved in both types of bond formation, and dopamine and oxytocin actions within NA appear to promote the synaptic plasticity that allows either infant or mating partner stimuli to persistently activate NA-VP attraction circuits, leading to an enduring social attraction and bonding. Further, although the medial preoptic area is essential for maternal behavior, its role in pair bonding remains to be determined. Our review concludes by examining the broader implications of this comparative analysis, and evidence is provided that the maternal care system may have also provided the basic neural foundation for other types of strong social relationships, beyond pair bonding, in mammals, including humans. PMID:26062432

  13. Early identification and delay to treatment in myocardial infarction and stroke: differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlitz Johan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two major complications of atherosclerosis are acute myocardial infarction (AMI and acute ischemic stroke. Both are life-threatening conditions characterised by the abrupt cessation of blood flow to respective organs, resulting in an infarction. Depending on the extent of the infarction, loss of organ function varies considerably. In both conditions, it is possible to limit the extent of infarction with early intervention. In both conditions, minutes count. This article aims to describe differences and similarities with regard to the way patients, bystanders and health care providers act in the acute phase of the two diseases with the emphasis on the pre-hospital phase. Method A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Embase (Ovid SP and Cochrane Library databases. Results In both conditions, symptoms vary considerably. Patients appear to suspect AMI more frequently than stroke and, in the former, there is a gender gap (men suspect AMI more frequently than women. With regard to detection of AMI and stroke at dispatch centre and in Emergency Medical Service (EMS there is room for improvement in both conditions. The use of EMS appears to be higher in stroke but the overall delay to hospital admission is shorter in AMI. In both conditions, the fast track concept has been shown to influence the delay to treatment considerably. In terms of diagnostic evaluation by the EMS, more supported instruments are available in AMI than in stroke. Knowledge of the importance of early treatment has been reported to influence delays in both AMI and stroke. Conclusion Both in AMI and stroke minutes count and therefore the fast track concept has been introduced. Time to treatment still appears to be longer in stroke than in AMI. In the future improvement in the early detection as well as further shortening to start of treatment will be in focus in both conditions. A collaboration between cardiologists and neurologists and also between

  14. Endovascular treatment of posterior cerebral artery aneurysms using detachable coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hong Gee [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea); Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Heon [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea); Kang, Hyun-Seung [Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Won-Jin [Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Byun, Hong Sik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare, and most of the studies reported in the literature in which the endovascular approach was applied were carried out on a limited number of patients with PCA aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed our cases of PCA aneurysms - at various locations and of differing shapes - that received endovascular treatment and evaluated the treatment outcome. From January 1996 to December 2006, 13 patients (eight females and five males) with 17 PCA aneurysms (nine fusiform and eight saccular) were treated using the endovascular approach. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 67 years, with a mean age of 44 years. Of the 13 patients, ten presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and one patient, with a large P2 aneurysm, presented with trigeminal neuralgia; the aneurysms were asymptomatic in the remaining two patients. All 13 patients were successfully treated, with only one procedure-related symptomatic complication. Seven patients were treated by occlusion of the aneurysm and parent artery together; five patients, by selective embolization of the aneurysm; one patient, by partial coiling. Although infarctions were found in two patients treated with selective embolization and in three patients treated with parent artery occlusion, only one patient with a ruptured P2 aneurysm treated with parent artery occlusion developed transient amnesia as an ischemic symptom. Posterior cerebral artery aneurysms can be treated safely with either occlusion of the aneurysm together with the PCA or with a selective coil embolization. Infarctions may occur after endovascular treatment, but they are rarely the cause of a disabling symptom. (orig.)

  15. Endovascular treatment of posterior cerebral artery aneurysms using detachable coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare, and most of the studies reported in the literature in which the endovascular approach was applied were carried out on a limited number of patients with PCA aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed our cases of PCA aneurysms - at various locations and of differing shapes - that received endovascular treatment and evaluated the treatment outcome. From January 1996 to December 2006, 13 patients (eight females and five males) with 17 PCA aneurysms (nine fusiform and eight saccular) were treated using the endovascular approach. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 67 years, with a mean age of 44 years. Of the 13 patients, ten presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and one patient, with a large P2 aneurysm, presented with trigeminal neuralgia; the aneurysms were asymptomatic in the remaining two patients. All 13 patients were successfully treated, with only one procedure-related symptomatic complication. Seven patients were treated by occlusion of the aneurysm and parent artery together; five patients, by selective embolization of the aneurysm; one patient, by partial coiling. Although infarctions were found in two patients treated with selective embolization and in three patients treated with parent artery occlusion, only one patient with a ruptured P2 aneurysm treated with parent artery occlusion developed transient amnesia as an ischemic symptom. Posterior cerebral artery aneurysms can be treated safely with either occlusion of the aneurysm together with the PCA or with a selective coil embolization. Infarctions may occur after endovascular treatment, but they are rarely the cause of a disabling symptom. (orig.)

  16. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? A Test of the Similarities within and the Differences between Five Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytowski, Donald G.; Hay, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed samples of women (N=80) from five different occupations for degree of interest homogeneity. Results indicated that there may be important differences within occupations and that the similarities may be trivial and overused in occupational interest inventories. (LLL)

  17. Individualized management for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the individualized management strategy for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. Methods Eighteen patients with intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms were treated with different surgical methods. Results Eighteen patients underwent different surgical treatment. Five patients underwent complete occlusion of the aneurysm and parent artery by coiling, 5 were treated by stent -assisted coiling (3 densely packed coiling and 2 non-densely packed coiling, 4 underwent stent-only therapy and 3 of them presented hemodynamic improvement after surgery, 3 were treated by direct surgical clipping, and 1 underwent occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass. Two aneurysms ruptured immaturely, in which one patient died on the third day after operation and one patient occurred moderate disablity. Only 1 patient who underwent complete occlusion of aneurysm and parent artery presented temporarily ischemic symptoms. No adverse effects were seen in other patients. Seventeen patients were followed up for 1 month to 3 years, and all the aneurysms were stable. Conclusion There are many kinds of therapeutic methods for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. The patients should be treated according to several factors such as the clinical manifestations, aneurysm configuration, and relationship with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The treatment should be individualized.

  18. Response of paleofloods to climate variability in alpine catchments of different size reconstructed from floodplain sediments. Similarities or differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Lothar; Carvalho, Filipe; Llorca, Jaime; Monterrubio, Glòria; Peña, Juan Carlos; Cabrera-Medina, Paula; Gómez-Bolea, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    , but also with regional paleoflood and paleoclimate records. The aggradation of flood deposits with contribution from the highest catchment area (up to 2200 m) occurred predominantly during periods with cooler summer temperature, reduced solar irradiance and phases of drier spring-summer. This hydro-sedimentological pattern matches mostly to the variability of the flood proxies of the much larger and higher Aare catchment (4274 m) despite of the differences in catchment lithology; altitudinal vegetation belts; topography; snow and glacier cover; periglacial and slope processes; and intermediate sediment storage. Spectral analysis of the geochemical time series from different size catchments and climate proxies (TSI, 18O, tree-rings, NAO, SNAO) evidence similar periodicities during the last Millennia. Comparing the sedimentary flood proxies from the basins analysed and the Summer NAO index from 1670 to 2000, severe floods occurred mostly during positive SNAO modes. This result is supported by our findings regarding the influence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation pattern on summer floods in Switzerland (1800-2008). Thus, the mechanisms of flood processes from the different catchments are strongly influenced by North Atlantic dynamics and solar forcing. From the data obtained we suggest that the geochemical record of the small Eistlenbach catchment provides accurate paleoclimate information at least at a decadal time resolution.

  19. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And one of the things that I’m learning from this movie as we looking at these ... screened. In fact, patients who have a family history of aneurysm, men who are smoking over the ...

  20. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with such holes in the groin, this really offers the patient a tremendous advantage over having his ... a thousand aneurysms with this. So we can offer patients a very, very good integrated care with ...

  1. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... moving inside in the aneurysm sack with the spine projected in the background. So how long have ... have a much more rapid recovery than open surgery. What do you think about that, Ignacio, compared ...

  2. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... years, and his aneurysm has now grown to 5.4 centimeters. And this is actually an important ... balloon is trying to iron out the attachment. 5 So right now we have the first half ...

  3. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... been following in the institute for the past three years, and his aneurysm has now grown to ... may get for other reasons, but we use three-dimensional reconstruction and we can reconstruct all the ...

  4. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the age of 65. It’s most common in males. There is an increasing number, due to the ... The risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms are males over 60, hardening of the arteries, which is ...

  5. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wall will actually thin out. And the big risk here is that if this gets too big ... to the aging baby boomers. Next slide. The risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms are males over ...

  6. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this procedure. So let’s go back now and learn a little bit about abdominal aortic aneurysms. Great. ... And one of the things that I’m learning from this movie as we looking at these ...

  7. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dye and also to do measurements using our computer techniques that are going on here. So what ... screened. In fact, patients who have a family history of aneurysm, men who are smoking over the ...

  8. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to do now is begin to do the process of putting an endograft in, and I’m ... that we saw, actually thrombosis. So in the process of thrombosing or clotting off the aneurysm sack, ...

  9. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the aging baby boomers. Next slide. The risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms are males over 60, ... doing a good examination and also accessing for risk factors. So we have a very integrated team here, ...

  10. Popliteal vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented. PMID:16796307

  11. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information is critical for us in terms of planning and guiding the procedure we’re going to ... be screened. In fact, patients who have a family history of aneurysm, men who are smoking over ...

  12. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this is to prevent rupture and to prevent death from rupture. This area just underneath the renal ... Okay. Abdominal aortic aneurysms cause approximately 15,000 deaths in the United States each year. It affects ...

  13. Successful international cooperation : The influence of cultural similarity, strategic differences, and international experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP; van der Zee, KI

    2002-01-01

    Cooperation between companies increasingly exceeds national borders. In the present study 78 international cooperation cases were examined. It was shown that similarity in national and corporate culture is associated with successful cooperation. On the other hand, with respect to corporate strategy,

  14. Similarity of the behaviour of different type superconductors concerning some basic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A similarity has been shown among type I-, type II- and high-Tc superconductors with the help of certain experimental examples. According to this the electronic specific heat coefficient, GL-parameter and vortex creation energy are very flexible and sensitive to external impacts, the gap parameter, however, is rather rigid and insensitive against them. (orig.)

  15. Mesenteric ischaemia after endovascular coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, M H

    2012-02-03

    Three patients were referred to a national neurosurgical centre following CT evidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The three patients, who were referred from different institutions within a seven week period, were Fisher grade 3 and WFNS Grade I at all times. Angiography showed a PCOM aneurysm in one case, a ruptured Basilar tip aneurysm and an unruptured ACOM aneurysm in another case, and an ACOM aneurysm in the third case. It was decided that the aneurysms were suitable for endovascular coiling. These patients had unremarkable intraoperative catheterizations and coiling but subsequently deteriorated post-operatively due to mesenteric ischaemia. Two patients required colectomy for mesenteric ischaemia, and the third arrested secondary to sepsis from bowel perforation. We discuss the various causes that may explain this association, and we alert the neurosurgical community for this complication which has not been reported before.

  16. Aneurysmal bone cyst: revision of different techniques in imaging diagnostic. Quiste oseo aneurismatico: revision de diferentes tecnicas de diagnostico por la imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Blanco, J.A.; Fernandez Echevarria, M.A.; Pagola Serrano, M.A.; Vara Vara, A.; Gonzalez Tutor, A. (Hospital Universitario ' ' Marques de Valdecilla' ' . Servicio de Radiodiagnostico. Santander (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    We study simple radiology, conventional tomography, computed tomography and angiography in 8 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst for the purpose of assessing the utility of these diagnostic techniques. Our results, in agreement with those in the literature, indicate that the presence of a generally well-defined lytic, insufflated lesion containing septi should suggest this disorder. (Author)

  17. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates how listeners of Finnish and Japanese, languages with very similar contrasts in plosive quantity (short vs.long), use language-specific phonetic knowledge of acoustic attributes which covary with closure duration. A fully-crossed perceptual experiment on consonant...... the language of the listeners or talkers, suggesting a strong influence of cues besides closure duration that are shared by the two languages. However, Japanese listeners were more heavily affected by the acoustic cues concomitant to the quantity contrast in their native language, likely due to robust...... preceding the target word, and when the listener is confronted with stimuli from the other language. Thus, some aspects of the quantity contrast are remarkably similar between the two languages, and listeners from one language group are attuned to attributes found in the other language. However, other...

  18. Some early similarities and later differences between Bertrand Russell and B. F. Skinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Roy A

    2003-01-01

    B. F. Skinner credited Bertrand Russell with converting him to behaviorism and with writing one of the books that most influenced him. Particularly in Skinner's early work, there are similarities between Skinner and Russell that extend across mathematics, determinism, positivism, verbal behavior, future communities, evolution, and pragmatism. Later, Skinner's views changed, and he parted company with Russell in most of these areas. Perhaps the most dramatic and fundamental departure came when Skinner embraced pragmatism, which Russell said he "hated." However, there was a time during which Russell wrote favorably of pragmatism as a view for science. Although the similarities between Skinner and Russell may have resulted from common cultural influences, Russell appears to deserve credit for leading Skinner into the stimulus-response behaviorism of two-term necessities; he may also deserve some credit for helping to lead him out of it and into the selectionist behaviorism of three-term contingencies. PMID:22478397

  19. Some early similarities and later differences between Bertrand Russell and B. F. Skinner

    OpenAIRE

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2003-01-01

    B. F. Skinner credited Bertrand Russell with converting him to behaviorism and with writing one of the books that most influenced him. Particularly in Skinner's early work, there are similarities between Skinner and Russell that extend across mathematics, determinism, positivism, verbal behavior, future communities, evolution, and pragmatism. Later, Skinner's views changed, and he parted company with Russell in most of these areas. Perhaps the most dramatic and fundamental departure came when...

  20. Similarity Solutions for Free Convection Between Two Parallel Porous Walls at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Omowaye; O. K. Koriko

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A two dimensional steady laminar free convective flow of viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel porous walls is considered. Approach: Using the similarity variable, the partial differential equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations. The coupled ordinary differential equations were solved numerically using shooting method. The effect of various physical parameters, such as the Prandtl number, Grashof number, permeability parameter and ratio of the ...

  1. Hemodynamic Alterations after Stent Implantation in 15 Cases of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Tian, Zhongbin; Liu, Jian; Jing, Linkai; Paliwal, Nikhil; Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Background Stent-assisted coiling technology has been widely used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In current study, we investigated the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic alterations after stent implantation and its association with aneurysm location. Methods We first retrospectively studied 15 aneurysm cases (8 internal carotid artery-ophthalmic artery (ICA-OphA) aneurysms and 7 posterior communicating artery (PcoA) aneurysms) treated with Enterprise stents and coils. Then based on patient-specific geometries before and after stenting, we built virtual stenting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation models. Results Before and after stent deployment, the average Wall Shear Stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal sac at systolic peak changed from 7.04 Pa (4.14 Pa, 15.77 Pa) to 6.04 Pa (3.86 Pa, 11.13 Pa), P = 0.001; and the spatially averaged value of flow velocity in the perpendicular plane of aneurysm dropped from 0.5 m/s (0.28 m/s, 0.7 m/s) to 0.33 m/s (0.25 m/s, 0.49 m/s), P = 0.001, respectively. Post-stent implantation, WSS in ICA-OphA aneurysms and PcoA aneurysms decreased by 14.4% (P = 0.012) and 16.6% (P = 0.018) respectively, and flow velocity also reduced by 10.3% (P = 0.029) and 10.5% (P = 0.013), respectively. Changes in WSS, flow velocity, and pressure were not significantly different between ICA-OphA aneurysms and PcoA aneurysms (P > 0.05). Stent implantation did not significantly change the peak systolic pressure in both aneurysm types. Conclusion After stent implantation, intra-aneurysmal flow velocity and WSS decreased independent of aneurysm type (ICA-OphA and PcoA). Little change was observed on peak systolic pressure. PMID:26746828

  2. Website Interface Design: Similarity and Differences between Saudi Arabian and United States University Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, Dalia Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of the Internet and online learning around the globe makes it more important to understand the differences in website design among cultures. Furthermore, the members of educational institutions around the world rely on the Internet more than ever before in a variety of aspects. Also, web design differs from culture to culture. Saudi…

  3. Highly Confident but Wrong: Gender Differences and Similarities in Confidence Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Gender differences in item-specific confidence judgments were studied for 70 male and 181 female college students. Gender differences in confidence were dependent on context and the domain being tested. Both men and women were overconfident, but men were especially overconfident when incorrect. (SLD)

  4. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  5. "The same thing in a different box": similarity and difference in pharmaceutical sex hormone consumption and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    The contraceptive pill has given way to a multitude of products, kinds of packaging, and modes of administration. This article draws on work on the pharmaceutical copy, extending the analysis to differentiating between forms of administration for contraceptive medicines as well as between brand-name drugs, generics, and similares, as they are known in Brazil. It explores how Brazilian prescribers and users-within the divergent structural constraints afforded by private and public health-apprehend and negotiate distinctions between the drugs available to them. This ethnographic account of hormone use reveals new fault lines through which the pharmakon exerts its influence. The attention that industry places on pharmacodynamics as it produces new products from similar compounds suggests that pharmaceutical effects are at once symbolic and real. The article concludes with a reflection on the future of the generic form in a field increasingly crowded by branded copies. PMID:25046155

  6. Patterns of similarity and difference between the vocabularies of psychology and other subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2014-02-01

    The vocabulary of Anglophone psychology is shared with many other subjects. Previous research using the Oxford English Dictionary has shown that the subjects having the most words in common with psychology are biology, chemistry, computing, electricity, law, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, music, pathology, philosophy, and physics. The present study presents a database of the vocabularies of these 12 subjects that is similar to one previously constructed for psychology, enabling the histories of the vocabularies of these subjects to be compared with each other as well as with psychology. All subjects have a majority of word senses that are metaphorical. However, psychology is not among the most metaphorical of subjects, a distinction belonging to computing, linguistics, and mathematics. Indeed, the history of other subjects shows an increasing tendency to recycle old words and give them new, metaphorical meanings. The history of psychology shows an increasing tendency to invent new words rather than metaphorical senses of existing words. These results were discussed in terms of the degree to which psychology's vocabulary remains unsettled in comparison with other subjects. The possibility was raised that the vocabulary of psychology is in a state similar to that of chemistry prior to Lavoisier. PMID:24548069

  7. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  8. "The Same Thing in a Different Box": Similarity and Difference in Pharmaceutical Sex Hormone Consumption and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    International audience The contraceptive pill has given way to a multitude of products, packaging, and modes of administration. This article draws on work on the pharmaceutical copy, extending the analysis to differentiating between forms of administration for contraceptive medicines as well as between brand-name drugs, generics, and similares, as they are known in Brazil. It explores how Brazilian prescribers and users--within the divergent structural constraints afforded by private and p...

  9. Sex differences and similarities in married couples: patterns across and within cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfeld, Carol C; Dillon, Lisa M; Nowak, Nicole T; Mims, Koyonne R; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Imamoğlu, E Olcay; Butovskaya, Marina; Shen, Jiliang

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the patterns of sex differences in men and women married to each other in five cultures (China, Russia, Turkey, UK, and the U.S.) to look for universal patterns in behavioral dimorphisms and for cultural variability in those patterns. Over 400 couples in each cultural group completed the 235-item Marriage and Relationship Questionnaire on various aspects of marriage, appropriately translated for each culture. Sex differences were anticipated in responses related to female choosiness, labor performed, emotional expressiveness, interest in sex, physical attractiveness, and jealousy. To measure male-female differences in each culture, t-tests were utilized, and effect sizes were calculated. Significant sex differences (p < .05, two-tailed) emerged in all six areas examined, although cultural differences were also seen in the patterns. For example, on items relevant to female choosiness, women in most, but not all, cultures were more likely than their husbands to endorse these statements: "I have thought of divorcing my spouse" and "My parents played a role in choosing my spouse." In China, where scores on emotional expressiveness were low, sex differences disappeared in the category related to emotions. Results suggest that long-term marriage exhibits a balance between homogamy and dimorphism serving reproductive interests. Moreover, culture may moderate this balance for particular sex differences. PMID:21887587

  10. Evolution of Management of Intracranial Aneurysms in Children: A Systematic Review of the Modern Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beez, Thomas; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare. Management of their more common adult counterparts was profoundly influenced by recent high-quality clinical studies. The aim of this review was to aggregate the modern pediatric data published in the wake of these studies and to analyze their impact on management of aneurysms in children. A systematic PubMed search identified 135 publications published between 2000 and 2015, accounting for 573 children and 656 aneurysms. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed differences between children and adults concerning demographics and aneurysm characteristics. A significant proportion of patients were treated endovascularly, suggesting endovascular treatment has been established in the therapeutic armamentarium for pediatric aneurysms. However, these data highlight the unique nature of pediatric aneurysms, and neither this review nor generalization from adult data can replace high-quality clinical research. Multicenter registries and controlled trials are required to establish the natural history and evidence-based treatment of pediatric aneurysms. PMID:26516106

  11. Gene expression analysis uncovers similarity and differences among Burkitt lymphoma subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; De Falco, Giulia; Kustagi, Manjunath;

    2011-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is classified into 3 clinical subsets: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated BL. So far, possible differences in their gene expression profiles (GEPs) have not been investigated. We studied GEPs of BL subtypes, other B-cell lymphomas, and B lymphocytes; first, we...... found that BL is a unique molecular entity, distinct from other B-cell malignancies. Indeed, by unsupervised analysis all BLs clearly clustered apart of other lymphomas. Second, we found that BL subtypes presented slight differences in GEPs. Particularly, they differed for genes involved in cell cycle...

  12. Similarities and Differences between Relativistic Electron-Photon Cascades Developed in Matter, Photon Gas and Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonian, F. A.; Plyasheshnikov, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate properties of astrophysical electromagnetic cascades developed in matter, photon gas and magnetic fields, and discuss similarities and differences between characteristics of electron-photon showers developed in these 3 substances.

  13. Gender Segregated Labour Markets in the Baltics: What are Prevailing – Similarities or Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vöörmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on men and women and the gender segregation of jobs in the Baltic countries. Based on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian labour force survey data, a look is taken at the employment structure of men and women by industries and occupations, as well as at the question whether or not gender segregation in the labour market has been increased after the collapse of the communist systems in the region under consideration. Empirical data demonstrate that in respect to industrial gender segregation there is some increase in Estonia and Latvia, but not in Lithuania. Occupational gender segregation demonstrates more stability in all three Baltic States. Compared to the Western European countries, the main trend is towards bigger similarities.

  14. [Similarities and differences between the euthanasia laws in Belgium and the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, L; van der Wal, G

    2003-01-25

    Recently, a law on euthanasia has been adopted in both the Netherlands and Belgium. In both countries euthanasia has been legalized under strict conditions and after confirmation with a notification procedure. Although both laws are similar, the Belgian law is more extensive on the requirements of prudent practice. On the other hand, in Dutch society the norm-setting on euthanasia has been more widely developed through jurisprudence. Nevertheless, we expect that the implementation of the new law and the notification procedure in Belgium will be more difficult than in the Netherlands. In order to promote, safeguard and guarantee the quality of the euthanasia practice, the present euthanasia notification procedure in the Netherlands is supplemented with feedback to the physicians. The strict anonymous procedure in the Belgian notification procedure prevents this possibility. Therefore, Belgian physicians will not be supported by the notification procedure to improve their knowledge and skills in euthanasia. PMID:12635551

  15. Different angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have similar clinical efficacy after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten L; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    efficacy. Risk of all-cause mortality: trandolapril (reference) 1.00, ramipril 0.97 (0.89, 1.05), enalapril 1.04 (0.95, 1.150), captopril 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), perindopril 0.98 (0.84, 1.15) and other ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) 1.06 (0.94, 1.19). Reinfarction: trandolapril...... (reference) 1.00, ramipril 0.98 (0.89, 1.08), enalapril 1.04 (0.92, 1.17), captopril 1.05 (0.89, 1.25), perindopril 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) and other ACE inhibitors or ARB 0.99 (0.86, 1.14). Furthermore, the association between ARBs and clinical events was similar to ACE inhibitors (trandolapril reference): all...

  16. Risk of Familial Intracranial Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Millichap, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators at University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, studied the yield of long-term (up to 20 years) screening for intracranial aneurysms in individuals with a positive family history (2 or more first-degree relatives) of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) or unruptured intracranial aneurysm (1993-2013).

  17. Catecholamine metabolism in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: similar tumors in different sites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Grouzmann

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma (PHEO and paraganglioma (PGL are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors that arise respectively inside or outside the adrenal medulla. Several reports have shown that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC play an important regulatory role on the genes encoding the main enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT synthesis i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT. To assess the influence of tumor location on CAT metabolism, 66 tissue samples (53 PHEO, 13 PGL and 73 plasma samples (50 PHEO, 23 PGL were studied. Western blot and qPCR were performed for TH, DBH and PNMT expression. We found a significantly lower intra-tumoral concentration of CAT and metanephrines (MNs in PGL along with a downregulation of TH and PNMT at both mRNA and protein level compared with PHEO. However, when PHEO were partitioned into noradrenergic (NorAd and mixed tumors based on an intra-tumoral CAT ratio (NE/E >90%, PGL and NorAd PHEO sustained similar TH, DBH and PNMT gene and protein expression. CAT concentration and composition were also similar between NorAd PHEO and PGL, excluding the use of CAT or MNs to discriminate between PGL and PHEO on the basis of biochemical tests. We observed an increase of TH mRNA concentration without correlation with TH protein expression in primary cell culture of PHEO and PGL incubated with dexamethasone during 24 hours; no changes were monitored for PNMT and DBH at both mRNA and protein level in PHEO and PGL. Altogether, these results indicate that long term CAT synthesis is not driven by the close environment where the tumor develops and suggest that GC alone is not sufficient to regulate CAT synthesis pathway in PHEO/PGL.

  18. Catecholamine metabolism in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: similar tumors in different sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouzmann, Eric; Tschopp, Oliver; Triponez, Frédéric; Matter, Maurice; Bilz, Stefan; Brändle, Michael; Drechser, Tilman; Sigrist, Sarah; Zulewski, Henryk; Henzen, Christoph; Fischli, Stefan; Abid, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors that arise respectively inside or outside the adrenal medulla. Several reports have shown that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) play an important regulatory role on the genes encoding the main enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) synthesis i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). To assess the influence of tumor location on CAT metabolism, 66 tissue samples (53 PHEO, 13 PGL) and 73 plasma samples (50 PHEO, 23 PGL) were studied. Western blot and qPCR were performed for TH, DBH and PNMT expression. We found a significantly lower intra-tumoral concentration of CAT and metanephrines (MNs) in PGL along with a downregulation of TH and PNMT at both mRNA and protein level compared with PHEO. However, when PHEO were partitioned into noradrenergic (NorAd) and mixed tumors based on an intra-tumoral CAT ratio (NE/E >90%), PGL and NorAd PHEO sustained similar TH, DBH and PNMT gene and protein expression. CAT concentration and composition were also similar between NorAd PHEO and PGL, excluding the use of CAT or MNs to discriminate between PGL and PHEO on the basis of biochemical tests. We observed an increase of TH mRNA concentration without correlation with TH protein expression in primary cell culture of PHEO and PGL incubated with dexamethasone during 24 hours; no changes were monitored for PNMT and DBH at both mRNA and protein level in PHEO and PGL. Altogether, these results indicate that long term CAT synthesis is not driven by the close environment where the tumor develops and suggest that GC alone is not sufficient to regulate CAT synthesis pathway in PHEO/PGL. PMID:25946206

  19. Similarity Solutions for Free Convection Between Two Parallel Porous Walls at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Omowaye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A two dimensional steady laminar free convective flow of viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel porous walls is considered. Approach: Using the similarity variable, the partial differential equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations. The coupled ordinary differential equations were solved numerically using shooting method. The effect of various physical parameters, such as the Prandtl number, Grashof number, permeability parameter and ratio of the free stream velocity to parallel wall parameter on the boundary layer velocity and skin-friction coefficient were investigated. Results: Some of the several important findings of the results were (i the fluid velocity increased as either of the Grashof number, permeability parameter, ratio of free stream velocity parameter to parallel wall parameter was increased. (ii The fluid temperature decreased as either of the Grashof number, ratio of free stream velocity parameter to parallel wall parameter increased and increased as permeability parameter was increased. (iii Skin friction increase owing to an increase in Grashof number, ratio of free stream velocity parameter to parallel wall parameter and decrease with increasing permeability parameter. In this study, a similarity solution for free convective flow between two parameter porous walls situated a distance L apart was considered. Numerical results were presented to illustrate the details of the flow, skin-friction characteristics and their dependence on the flow conditions and fluid properties. Conclusion: In particular, we found that, the fluid velocity increased as either of the Grashof number, permeability parameter, ratio of free stream velocity parameter to parallel wall parameter was increased.

  20. Sex differences and similarities in job attribute preferences: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A M; Ritchie, J E; Lieb, P; Corrigall, E

    2000-07-01

    Many researchers have studied sex differences in job attribute preferences. The authors meta-analyzed 242 samples collected from 321,672 men and boys and 316,842 women and girls in the United States between 1970 and 1998. Findings indicated significant (p job attribute preferences examined. The effect sizes were small. Of the 33 significant differences, 26 had average effect sizes of magnitude .20 or less. The directions of the differences were generally consistent with gender roles and stereotypes. Many job attributes became relatively more important to women and girls in the 1980s and 1990s compared with the 1970s, indicating that women's aspirations to obtain job attributes rose as gender barriers to opportunity declined. PMID:10900998

  1. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  2. Quantitative comparison of hemodynamics in simulated and 3D angiography models of cerebral aneurysms by use of computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saho, Tatsunori; Onishi, Hideo

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated hemodynamics using simulated models and determined how cerebral aneurysms develop in simulated and patient-specific models based on medical images. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was analyzed by use of OpenFOAM software. Flow velocity, stream line, and wall shear stress (WSS) were evaluated in a simulated model aneurysm with known geometry and in a three-dimensional angiographic model. The ratio of WSS at the aneurysm compared with that at the basilar artery was 1:10 in simulated model aneurysms with a diameter of 10 mm and 1:18 in the angiographic model, indicating similar tendencies. Vortex flow occurred in both model aneurysms, and the WSS decreased in larger model aneurysms. The angiographic model provided accurate CFD information, and the tendencies of simulated and angiographic models were similar. These findings indicate that hemodynamic effects are involved in the development of aneurysms. PMID:25911446

  3. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  4. LEXICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN THE MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakaran Mukundan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Science and Math in English in Malaysia is an area of great concern to educators and students alike. This study looks, in particular, at the common word classes among keywords identified in the Science, Math and English language Form One textbooks used in Malaysia and the differences in language use identified in the Science and Math textbooks.

  5. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfat...

  7. The Perception of Similarities and Differences among Adolescent Siblings: Identification and Deidentification of Twins and Nontwins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawik, Meike

    2009-01-01

    During adolescence, identity development reaches its crucial point. Siblings foster the search for their own uniqueness through social comparisons. These comparisons can lead to identification ("I am like you." or "We are special.") as well as deidentification ("I am different from you!"). In this study, 204 siblings were interviewed to determine…

  8. Mathematical Thinking of Kindergarten Boys and Girls: Similar Achievement, Different Contributing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pnina S.; Adi-Japha, Esther; Hakak-Benizri, Simcha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the relations between verbal, spatial, mathematics, and teacher-child mathematics interaction variables. Kindergarten children (N = 80) were videotaped playing games that require mathematical reasoning in the presence of their teachers. The children's mathematics, spatial, and verbal…

  9. Similar serotonin-2A receptor binding in rats with different coping styles or levels of aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek Kd; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders Bue;

    2015-01-01

    important molecular marker for coping style. Since neither an antagonist nor an agonist tracer showed any binding differences, it is unlikely that the affinity state of the 5-HT2A R is co-varying with levels of aggression or active avoidance in WTG, RHA and RLA. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  10. Zen Meditation and Behavioral Self-Control: Some Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deane H., Jr.

    An attempt is made to understand the behaviors involved in two different self-control strategies: Zen meditation and behavioral self-management. The first technique is derived from the Eastern "religious-Philosophical" tradition of Zen Buddhism; the other technique is derived from laboratory and field studies in Western settings. Using tools of…

  11. International Students' First Encounters with Exams in the UK: Superficially Similar but Deeply Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Nick; Smith, Karen; Riley, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Although end of course exams remain a key mode of assessment in higher education, little research has focused on international students' experiences of exams. There seems to be a tacit assumption in most literature that exam preparation and strategies are universal, although differences in other areas of learning exist. As an exemplar,…

  12. Soil Science in tropical and temperate regions - some differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Little has been written about geographical differences in the progress and development of soil science, whereas such information is of interest for determining research priorities and for an improved understanding of the impact of soil science in various parts of the globe. This paper reviews some o

  13. Finland and Singapore in PISA 2009: Similarities and Differences in Achievements and School Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    In PISA 2009, Finland and Singapore were both ranked high among the participating nations and have caught much attention internationally. However, a secondary analysis of the means for Reading achievement show that the differences are rather small and are attributable to spurious precision. Hence, the two nations should be considered as being on…

  14. Thoracic aortic aneurysm in infancy in aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome due to a novel SMAD3 mutation: further delineation of the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wischmeijer, A.; Laer, L. van; Tortora, G.; Bolar, N.A.; Camp, G. van; Fransen, E.; Peeters, N.; Bartolomeo, R. di; Pacini, D.; Gargiulo, G.; Turci, S.; Bonvicini, M.; Mariucci, E.; Lovato, L.; Brusori, S.; Ritelli, M.; Colombi, M.; Garavelli, L.; Seri, M.; Loeys, B.L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the SMAD3 gene were found to cause a new autosomal dominant aneurysm condition similar to Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), mostly with osteoarthritis, called aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS). Our 3-year-old propositus underwent correction of an inguinal hernia at 3 months an

  15. CO2 perturbation experiments: similarities and differences between dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 through human activities and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 into the surface ocean alters the seawater carbonate chemistry, increasing CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3 at the expense of carbonate ion (CO32− concentrations. This redistribution in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC pool decreases pH and carbonate saturation state (Ω. Several of these components are considered potential key variables influencing calcium carbonate precipitation in marine calcifiers such as coccolithophores, foraminifera, corals, mollusks and echinoderms. In need for improved understanding of the sensitivities of marine organisms and ecosystems to CO2 induced ocean acidification (OA, experimental CO2 perturbation studies will continue to be a backbone in future OA research. This requires accurate carbonate system manipulations and well-controlled experimental setups. Here we describe and analyse the chemical changes involved in the two basic approaches for carbonate chemistry manipulation, i.e. changing DIC at constant total alkalinity (TA and changing TA at constant DIC. Furthermore, we briefly introduce several methods to experimentally manipulate DIC and TA. Finally, we examine responses obtained with both approaches using published results for the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. We conclude that under most experimental conditions DIC or TA manipulations yield similar changes in all parameters of the carbonate system, which implies direct comparability of data obtained with the two basic approaches for CO2 perturbation.

  16. TDDFT Study on Different Sensing Mechanisms of Similar Cyanide Sensors Based on Michael Addition Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-yue Li; Ping Song; Guo-zhong He

    2011-01-01

    The solvents and substituents of two similar fluorescent sensors for cyanide, 7-diethylamino-3-formylcoumarin (sensor a) and 7-diethylamino-3-(2-nitrovinyl)coumarin (sensor b), are proposed to account for their distinct sensing mechanisms and experimental phenomena.The time-dependent density functional theory has been applied to investigate the ground states and the first singlet excited electronic states of the sensor as well as their possible Michael reaction products with cyanide, with a view to monitoring their geometries and photophysical properties. The theoretical study indicates that the protic water solvent could lead to final Michael addition product of sensor a in the ground state, while the aprotic acetonitrile solvent could lead to carbanion as the final product of sensor b. Furthermore,the Michael reaction product of sensor a has been proved to have a torsion structure in its first singlet excited state. Correspondingly, sensor b also has a torsion structure around the nitrovinyl moiety in its first singlet excited state, while not in its carbanion structure. This could explain the observed strong fluorescence for sensor a and the quenching fluorescencefor the sensor b upon the addition of the cyanide anions in the relevant sensing mechanisms.

  17. CO2 perturbation experiments: similarities and differences between dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 through human activities and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 into the surface ocean alters the seawater carbonate chemistry, increasing CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3− at the expense of carbonate ion (CO32− concentrations. This redistribution in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC pool decreases pH and carbonate saturation state (Ω. Several components of the carbonate system are considered potential key variables influencing for instance calcium carbonate precipitation in marine calcifiers such as coccolithophores, foraminifera, corals, mollusks and echinoderms. Unravelling the sensitivities of marine organisms and ecosystems to CO2 induced ocean acidification (OA requires well-controlled experimental setups and accurate carbonate system manipulations. Here we describe and analyse the chemical changes involved in the two basic approaches for carbonate chemistry manipulation, i.e. changing DIC at constant total alkalinity (TA and changing TA at constant DIC. Furthermore, we briefly introduce several methods to experimentally manipulate DIC and TA. Finally, we examine responses obtained with both approaches using published results for the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. We conclude that under most experimental conditions in the context of ocean acidification DIC and TA manipulations yield similar changes in all parameters of the carbonate system, which implies direct comparability of data obtained with the two basic approaches for CO2 perturbation.

  18. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline V. Bacurau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers, is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF.

  19. [Differences and similarities of Primary Care in the German and Spanish Health Care Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Comino, María Rosa; Krane, Sibylla; Schelling, Jörg; Regife García, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    An efficient primary care is of particular importance for any countries' health care system. Many differences exist on how distinctive countries try to obtain the goal of an efficient, cost-effective primary care for its population. In this article we conducted a selective literature review, which includes both scientific and socio-political publications. The findings are complemented with the experience of a Spanish physician from Seville in her last year of training in family medicine, who completed a four months long rotation in the German health care system. We highlighted different features by comparing both countries, including their health care expenditure, the relation between primary and secondary care, the organization in the academic field and the training of future primary care physicians. It is clear that primary care in both countries plays a central role, have to deal with shortcomings, and in some points one system can learn from the other. PMID:26363955

  20. International students’ first encounters with exams in the UK: superficially similar but deeply different

    OpenAIRE

    Pilcher, Nick; Smith, Karen; Riley, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Although end of course exams remain a key mode of assessment in higher education, little research has focused on international students’ experiences of exams. There seems to be a tacit assumption in most literature that exam preparation and strategies are universal, although differences in other areas of learning exist. As an exemplar, this article focuses on international students’ first encounters with UK exams and shows that while exams may appear universal, students perceive real differen...

  1. Functional similarities and differences between online and offline social support on psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ting-yan; 何庭欣

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether online social support could function in the same way as the offline social support to protect our well-being from stress, and to examine how different Internet activities affected Hong Kong adolescents’ online and offline social support, and their subsequent well-being.305 Hong Kong students from grade 10 and 11 participated in the present study. Descriptive statistics found that female adolescents had a higher level of perceived offline social su...

  2. Cultural similarities and differences in couples' adjustment to competing family and work demands

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiyun; Perrez, Meinrad

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting work and family demands can lead to individual and interpersonal stress in close relationships. The literature suggests that individuals from various cultural contexts differ in how they organize domestic work in the family and in the support they receive from other persons. At the same time, past findings suggest effects of culture on individuals’ emotional behaviors and expression, and on the regulation of negative emotions. Although these topics are likely strongly interconnect...

  3. An Investigation of Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Characteristics from Different Harvest Sites: More Similar Than Not

    OpenAIRE

    Lombana, Karla G.; Goodrich, Laurie R.; Phillips, Jennifer Nikki; Kisiday, John David; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; McIlwraith, C. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are a major cause of loss of use and retirement in sport horses. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) for healing of traumatized tissue has gained substantial favor in clinical settings and can assist healing and tissue regeneration in orthopedic injuries. There are two common sites of harvest of BMDMSCs, the sternum and the ilium. Our objective was to determine if any differences exist in BMDMSCs acquired from the sternum and ...

  4. Differences and similarities of nurse cells in cysts of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmars, T; Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Nakada, T; Takahashi, Y

    2004-03-01

    The nurse cell in the cyst of Trichinella spiralis comprises at least two kinds of cytoplasm, derived from muscle or satellite cells, as indicated by the pattern of staining using regular dye (haematoxylin and eosin, or toluidine blue), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, acid phosphatase (ACP) expression and immunostaining with an anti-intermediate filament protein (desmin or keratin). Muscle cells undergo basophilic changes following a T. spiralis infection and transform to the nurse cells, accompanied by an increase in ACP activity and the disappearance of desmin. Satellite cells are activated, transformed and joined to the nurse cells but remain eosinophilic. The eosinophilic cytoplasm is accompanied by an increase in desmin and ALP expression but not an increase in ACP activity. Differences in the staining results for ALP or ACP suggest that the two kinds of cytoplasm have different functions. Trichinella pseudospiralis infection results in an increase of ACP activity at a later stage than T. spiralis. There is also a difference in the location pattern of ACP in the cyst of T. spiralis compared with T. pseudospiralis. In T. spiralis, ACP is diffused within the cell, but in T. pseudospiralis, ACP distribution is spotty corresponding to the location of the nucleus. Trichinella pseudospiralis infection is accompanied by a slight increase in ALP activity. Activated satellite cells following a T. pseudospiralis infection exhibit an increase in desmin expression. The present study therefore reveals that nurse cell cytoplasm differs between the two Trichinella species and between the two origins of cytoplasm in the cyst of T. spiralis. PMID:14972031

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ; Mehmet AK

    2012-01-01

    Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Ma...

  6. What are the differences and similarities of boutique and lifestyle hotels for professionals, consumers and students

    OpenAIRE

    Götz, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle hotels are a current topic of interest in the lodging industry. As they continue grow-ing rapidly, this phenomenon raises the question: if there is a difference between boutique and lifestyle hotels. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate if consumers’ and students’ interpretations of boutique and lifestyle hotel match professionals’ opinions. The scope of this paper involves three stakeholders, specifically industry professionals the creators of both concepts, gue...

  7. Cultural differences and similarities of environmental epistemology among Native American nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplantier, S. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A recent major effort of Xavier University`s Consortium for Environmental Risk Evaluation Project (CERE) has been to act as a facilitator for the convening of tribal forums on various environmental management decision making processes, especially the use of risk assessment. Two recent forums sponsored by the Shoshone-Bannock Nation of Ft. Hall, Idaho and the Nez Perce Nation of Lapwai, Idaho brought together tribal leaders, tribal professionals and tribal elders from around the nation to discuss tribal approaches to risk assessment. A statement in the brochure announcing the Nez Perce Forum said ``Our various cultural understandings of, and relationships to, the environment must play an essential role in determining how future risk assessment methods are determined and practiced.`` This paper will present and discuss the issue of differences in Native American epistemologies (ways of knowing) about the environment. Are these merely distinctions without differences? Do the differences in regional ecologies and cultures affect tribal views and tribal perceptions on risk assessment and risk communication? Must the tribes develop a single cultural risk model or can and must each one be unique? These and other topics will be discussed in this paper. This paper is an effort in understanding what Native Americans are saying about nature, the environment, and environmental risk and remediation.

  8. An Investigation of Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Characteristics from Different Harvest Sites: More Similar Than Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombana, Karla G; Goodrich, Laurie R; Phillips, Jennifer Nikki; Kisiday, John David; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are a major cause of loss of use and retirement in sport horses. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) for healing of traumatized tissue has gained substantial favor in clinical settings and can assist healing and tissue regeneration in orthopedic injuries. There are two common sites of harvest of BMDMSCs, the sternum and the ilium. Our objective was to determine if any differences exist in BMDMSCs acquired from the sternum and the ilium. We compared the two harvest sites in their propensity to undergo multilineage differentiation, differences in cell surface markers, or gene transduction efficiencies. BMDMSCs were isolated and culture-expanded from 5 ml aspirates of bone marrow from sternum and ilium. The cells were then plated and cultured with appropriate differentiation medium to result in multi-lineage differentiation and cell characteristics were compared between sternal and ilial samples. Cell surface antibody expression of CD11a/18, CD34, CD44, and CD90 were evaluated using flow cytometry, and gene transduction efficiencies were evaluated using GFP scAAV. There were no statistically significant differences in cell characteristics between MSCs cultured from the sternum and the ilium under any circumstances. PMID:26664993

  9. Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.; Kofman-Alfaro, S. [H.G.M. Ssa. Facultad de Medicina (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Muellerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. Both Mexican and non-South African 46,XX true hermaphrodites may be SRY positive. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis: Differences and Similarities to Evade the Innate Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Sarah de Athayde Couto; Jaramillo, Tatiana M G; Ferreira, Luciana G; Bernardes, Daniela M; Santana, Jaime M; Favali, Cecília B F

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form of the disease, caused by Leishmania infantum in the New World. Patients present an anergic immune response that favors parasite establishment and spreading through tissues like bone marrow and liver. On the other hand, Leishmania braziliensis causes localized cutaneous lesions, which can be self-healing in some individuals. Interactions between host and parasite are essential to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) act as essential bridges that connect innate and adaptive immune responses. In this way, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of these two Leishmania species, in some aspects of human DCs' biology for better understanding of the evasion mechanisms of Leishmania from host innate immune response. To do so, DCs were obtained from monocytes from whole peripheral blood of healthy volunteer donors and from those infected with L. infantum or L. braziliensis for 24 h. We observed similar rates of infection (around 40%) as well as parasite burden for both Leishmania species. Concerning surface molecules, we observed that both parasites induced CD86 expression when DCs were infected for 24 h. On the other hand, we detected a lower surface expression of CD209 in the presence of both L. braziliensis and L. infantum, but only the last one promoted the survival of DCs after 24 h. Therefore, DCs infected by both Leishmania species showed a higher expression of CD86 and a decrease of CD209 expression, suggesting that both enter DCs through CD209 molecule. However, only L. infantum had the ability to inhibit DC apoptotic death, as an evasion mechanism that enables its spreading to organs like bone marrow and liver. Lastly, L. braziliensis was more silent parasite, once it did not inhibit DC apoptosis in our in vitro model. PMID:27536300

  11. 不同造影方法显示弹性酶诱导的兔囊状动脉瘤%Comparison of Different Angiographic Imaging Techniques for Evaluation of Elastase-Induced Saccular Aneurysm in Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张面焕; 王奎重

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of conventional intra-arterial angiography, intra-venous angiography, transventricular angiography and angiography through the central artery of the left ear in assessment the of elatase-induced saccular aneurysm in rabbits. Methods Ten New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical operation to develop a model of elastase-induced saccular aneurysms at the origin of the right common carotid artery. Each rabbit underwent conventional intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, intra-venous digital substraction angiography,transventricular angiography and angiography through the central artery of the left ear at 3 weeks after the modeling procedure. Using an external sizing reference, the diameter of aneurysm, including the width, height and neck, measured.The data obtained by different angiographic imaging were compared by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results The aneurysm morphology in the tested animals was clearly displayed by conventional intra-arterial angiography, intra-venous digital substraction angiography, transventricular angiography and angiography through the central artery of the left ear in rabbits, respectively. There were no significant differences in the width, height and neck of aneurysms measured by different angiographic methods ( P = 0. 646, 0. 427 and 0. 625, respectively ). Conclusions The different angiographies can clearly show the size of elastase-induced saccular aneurysms in rabbits, and an appropriate angiographic method can be selected according to different experimental aims and conditons.%目的 评估经股动脉穿刺超选造影、静脉造影、心脏穿刺造影和左侧耳中央动脉穿刺造影方法显示弹性酶诱导的兔囊状动脉瘤的可行性.方法 取10只新西兰兔,采用弹性酶诱导方法制作兔右侧颈总动脉起始部囊状动脉瘤模型.术后3周对所有动物分别进行经股动脉穿刺超选造影、静脉造影、心脏穿刺造影和左侧耳中

  12. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography vs two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography for detection of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: A study of 86 aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawashima Masatou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : Three-dimensional reconstruction of intracranial vessels is of interest for evaluation of aneurysms. This study determined diagnostic difference of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA, volume-rendering image versus 2D-DSA for evaluating ruptured intracranial aneurysms, particularly focusing on the size of aneurysms as depicted in both images. Settings and Design : Sixty-nine patients underwent 3D-DSA and 2D-DSA. The relative size of an aneurysm, which is the ratio of the maximal diameter of an aneurysm to the diameter of a major vessel, was compared between imaging techniques. In addition, relative sizes of smaller aneurysms (10 mm. Statistical analysis used : For comparison of aneurysm size and location of aneurysm, statistical analysis was performed with the Yates chi square test; statistical significance was set with a P value of less than 0.05. Results: Sixty-three (73.3% of the 86 total aneurysms were bigger when measured with 3D-DSA versus 2D-DSA. When measured with 3D-DSA, 28 (84.8% of the 33 smaller aneurysms were bigger, and 50% of the larger aneurysms were bigger versus measurements of 2D-DSA images ( P P Conclusions : 3D-DSA, especially volume-rendering images, tends to depict ruptured intracranial aneurysms bigger than 2D-DSA. This is particularly true with cerebral aneurysms that are <5 mm in size and are located in the anterior circulation, especially ICA and ACA territories.

  13. Solar flares with similar soft but different hard X-ray emissions: case and statistical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharykin, Ivan N.; Struminsky, Alexei B.; Zimovets, Ivan V.; Gan, Wei-Qun

    2016-01-01

    From the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) catalog we select events which have approximately the same GOES class (high C - low M or 500-1200 counts s-1 within the RHESSI 6-12 keV energy band), but with different maximal energies of detected hard X-rays. The selected events are subdivided into two groups: (1) flares with X-ray emissions observed by RHESSI up to only 50 keV and (2) flares with hard X-ray emission observed also above 50 keV. The main task is to understand observational peculiarities of these two flare groups. We use RHESSI X-ray data to obtain spectral and spatial information in order to find differences between selected groups. Spectra and images are analyzed in detail for six events (case study). For a larger number of samples (85 and 28 flares in the low-energy and high-energy groups respectively) we only make some generalizations. In spectral analysis we use the thick-target model for hard X-ray emission and one temperature assumption for thermal soft X-ray emission. RHESSI X-ray images are used for determination of flare region sizes. Although thermal and spatial properties of these two groups of flares are not easily distinguishable, power law indices of hard X-rays show significant differences. Events from the high-energy group generally have a harder spectrum. Therefore, the efficiency of chromospheric evaporation is not sensitive to the hardness of nonthermal electron spectra but rather depends on the total energy flux of nonthermal electrons.

  14. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-12-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed an upper basilar trunk saccular lesion suggesting ruptured aneurysm. However, immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) failed to show a vascular lesion. In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged without any neurologic deficit. In the other case, the patient showed sudden mental deterioration on the third hospital day and her brain CT showed rebleeding. The immediate follow up DSA showed contrast stagnation in the vicinity of the upper basilar artery, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Double stents deployment at the disease segment was performed. Due to the frequent use of CTA, contrast extravasation is an increasingly common observation. Physicians should be aware that basilar artery extravasation can mimic the appearance of an aneurysm. PMID:27066442

  15. Meniscal pathology in children: differences and similarities with the adult meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal meniscus undergoes typical developmental changes during childhood, reaching a mature adult appearance by approximately 10 years of age. In addition to recognizing normal meniscal appearances in children, identifying abnormalities - such as tears and the different types of discoid meniscus and meniscal cysts, as well as the surgical implications of these abnormalities - is vital in pediatric imaging. The reported incidence of meniscal tears in adolescents and young adults has increased because of increased sports participation and more widespread use of MRI. This review discusses the normal appearance of the pediatric meniscus, meniscal abnormalities, associated injuries, and prognostic indicators for repair. (orig.)

  16. Natural entropy fluctuations discriminate similar looking electric signals emitted from systems of different dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Varotsos, P A; Skordas, E S; Lazaridou, M S

    2005-01-01

    Complexity measures are introduced, that quantify the change of the natural entropy fluctuations at different length scales in time-series emitted from systems operating far from equilibrium. They identify impending sudden cardiac death (SD) by analyzing fifteen minutes electrocardiograms, and comparing to those of truly healthy humans (H). These measures seem to be complementary to the ones suggested recently [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 70}, 011106 (2004)] and altogether enable the classification of individuals into three categories: H, heart disease patients and SD. All the SD individuals, who exhibit critical dynamics, result in a common behavior.

  17. Differences and similarities between impulse buying and variety seeking: A personality-based perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Ana Alina; Honkanen, Pirjo;

    2016-01-01

    seeking tendency (VST), and the Big Five personality traits within one integrated framework. Based on data from a nationally representative sample of 1,644 Norwegian adults, the results show that while IBT and VST might be correlated, they differ significantly with respect to two major personality aspects......Although personality is a key determinant of consumer purchasing decision making, the role of personality traits on impulse buying and variety seeking is not conclusive. This research uses a personality perspective to determine the unique associations between impulse buying tendency (IBT), variety...

  18. Meniscal pathology in children: differences and similarities with the adult meniscus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francavilla, Michael L.; Restrepo, Ricardo; Zamora, Kathryn W.; Sarode, Vijaya [Department of Radiology, Miami Children' s Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Swirsky, Stephen M. [Department of Orthopedics, Miami Children' s Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mintz, Douglas [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The normal meniscus undergoes typical developmental changes during childhood, reaching a mature adult appearance by approximately 10 years of age. In addition to recognizing normal meniscal appearances in children, identifying abnormalities - such as tears and the different types of discoid meniscus and meniscal cysts, as well as the surgical implications of these abnormalities - is vital in pediatric imaging. The reported incidence of meniscal tears in adolescents and young adults has increased because of increased sports participation and more widespread use of MRI. This review discusses the normal appearance of the pediatric meniscus, meniscal abnormalities, associated injuries, and prognostic indicators for repair. (orig.)

  19. Mood, definiteness and specificity: a linguistic and a philosophical account of their similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Seibt, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    In this article we give a linguistic and a philosophical account of the relationship between some grammatical categories of the clause (realis) and the noun phrase (definiteness, specificity) that relate to the occurrence of an entity (thing, event) in the world of discourse. Our treatment differs...... in three important ways from previous work in this area. Firstly, we offer an explanation for both the symmetrical and the anti-symmetrical relations that appear to hold between (ir)realis mood and (in)definiteness. Secondly, we argue that any attempt to explain these relationships must make crucial...

  20. Assessing the differences and similarities between hospital chains and independents regarding revenues, profits, and community contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Dennis R

    2009-01-01

    Hospital systems or chains continue to grow their market share relative to independent hospitals. This trend generates concerns among health care industry observers as historical performance suggests chains charge more for health care services than the independents while providing reduced contributions to their community. This study empirically assesses key performance measures of 67 acute-care hospitals in Virginia by testing if there are differences between chains and independents regarding total patient revenues, revenues per admission, profitability and community support, including charity care, bad debt, taxes paid and Medicaid participation. Implications to industry policy-makers as well as to hospital executives and marketing managers are then presented. PMID:19197585

  1. Proximity sounding analysis for derechos and supercells: an assessment of similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Charles A.; Evans, Jeffry S.

    Proximity soundings (within 2 h and 167 km) of derechos (long-lived, widespread damaging convective windstorms) and supercells have been obtained. More than 65 derechos, accompanied by 115 proximity soundings, are identified during the years 1983 to 1993. The derechos have been divided into categories according to the synoptic situation: strong forcing (SF), weak forcing (WF), and "hybrid" cases (which are neither weakly nor strongly forced). Nearly 100 supercell proximity soundings have been found for the period 1998 to 2001, subdivided into nontornadic and tornadic supercells; tornadic supercells were further subdivided into those producing significant (>F1 rating) tornadoes and weak tornadoes (F0-F1 rating). WF derecho situations typically are characterized by warm, moist soundings with large convective available potential instability (CAPE) and relatively weak vertical wind shear. SF derechos usually have stronger wind shears, and cooler and less moist soundings with lower CAPE than the weakly forced cases. Most derechos exhibit strong storm-relative inflow at low levels. In WF derechos, this is usually the result of rapid convective system movement, whereas in SF derechos, storm-relative inflow at low levels is heavily influenced by relatively strong low-level windspeeds. "Hybrid" cases collectively are similar to an average of the SF and WF cases. Supercells occur in environments that are not all that dissimilar from those that produce SF derechos. It appears that some parameter combining instability and deep layer shear, such as the Energy-Helicity Index (EHI), can help discriminate between tornadic and nontornadic supercell situations. Soundings with significant tornadoes (F2 and greater) typically show high 0-1 km relative humidities, and strong 0-1 km shear. Results suggest it may not be easy to forecast the mode of severe thunderstorm activity (i.e., derecho versus supercell) on any particular day, given conditions that favor severe thunderstorm activity

  2. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizae in primary succession: differences and similarities across habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kikvidze

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary succession is an ecological process of fundamental importance referring to the development of vegetation on areas not previously occupied by a plant community. The bulk of knowledge on primary succession comes from areas affected by relatively recent volcanic eruptions, and highlights the importance of symbiosis between host plants and fungi for the initial stages of succession. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM are of particular interest as they are often present from the very beginning of primary succession and because they show different relationships with pioneer and late-successional species, which suggests they may be involved in important, yet unknown, ecological mechanisms of succession. We review existing knowledge based on case studies from the volcanic desert of Mount Fuji, Japan, where primary succession was examined intensively and which represents one of the best-known cases on the role of AM in primary succession. We also assess the potential of sand dunes and semi-arid, erosion-prone systems for addressing the role of mycorrhizas in primary succession. Analyzing primary succession under different ecological systems is critical to understand the role of AM in this basic process. While volcanoes and glaciers are restricted to particular mountainous areas, naturally eroded areas and sand dunes are more common and easily accessible, making them attractive models to study primary succession.

  3. Ion flow patterns near Mars, Venus and a small scale comet: similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Rojas-Castillo, Diana; Holmström, Mats; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Behar, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Using data from the ASPERA-3 (Mars) and ASPERA-4 (Venus) instruments we have investigated the ion flow patterns near Mars and Venus. For both planets heavy ions move more radially in the magnetosheath than does light ions. This is consistent with ion pick up in the magnetosheath, and heavy ions moving along the solar wind electric field. In the magnetotail the ion flow patterns of the two planets are fundamentally different. At Mars the heavy ions (at energies detectable with ASPERA-3) move more or less straight tailward on average. The light ions have an inward component, moving towards the center of the tail. At Venus the heavy ions move towards the center of the tail. The light ions at Venus have a component towards the center of the tail just like at Mars. The net effect is that at Mars the light ions move more towards the center of the tail than the heavy ions, whereas the situation is the opposite at Venus. We discuss these differences, and also compare with the ion dynamics observed at comet 67P using the RPC-ICA instrument on Rosetta, which is close to identical to the ion sensors of ASPERA 3 and 4. By comparison with the situation at a small scale comet we try to elucidate the role of the scale of the system in terms of ion gyro radius.

  4. Cross-cultural differences and similarities underlying other-race effects for facial identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W

    2016-07-01

    Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences. PMID:26878095

  5. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed an upper basilar trunk saccular lesion suggesting ruptured aneurysm. However, immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) failed to show a vascular lesion. In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient wa...

  6. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed a saccular lesion of the upper basilar trunk suggesting a ruptured aneurysm. However, no vascular lesion was observed on immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The ...

  7. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women: Similarities and Differences from Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM.

  8. Similarities and Differences in Risk Communication Strategies on Nuclear Waste Management across Countries. Deliverable D9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of the project dealt with in this report has, in the first year, focussed on eliciting the underlying assumptions and frameworks that are developed within different countries with respect to how risk communication strategies related to the management of nuclear wastes are understood and implemented in practice. The second year was devoted to discussions on such frameworks across groups within the various countries, and during the third year the discussion are extended in a cross-national discussion form. The activities in the second year of the project involved a series of Focus Group discussions designed to explore some of the issues raised in the face to face interviews that were held in the first year. It was intended to involve those who took part in the interviews in these subsequent discussions, together with any additional individuals whose participation might be considered valuable. This report documents Focus Groups held in the United Kingdom and the Slovak Republic

  9. Emotion recognition impairment in traumatic brain injury compared with schizophrenia spectrum: similar deficits with different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Mauro; Magnani, Nadia; Cantagallo, Anna; Rossi, Giulia; Capitani, Donatella; Galletti, Vania; Cardamone, Giuseppe; Robertson, Ian Hamilton

    2015-02-01

    The aim of our study was to identify the common and separate mechanisms that might underpin emotion recognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and schizophrenia (Sz) compared with healthy controls (HCs). We recruited 21 Sz outpatients, 24 severe TBI outpatients, and 38 HCs, and we used eye-tracking to compare facial emotion processing performance. Both Sz and TBI patients were significantly poorer at recognizing facial emotions compared with HC. Sz patients showed a different way of exploring the Pictures of Facial Affects stimuli and were significantly worse in recognition of neutral expressions. Selective or sustained attention deficits in TBI may reduce efficient emotion recognition, whereas in Sz, there is a more strategic deficit underlying the observed problem. There would seem to be scope for adjustment of effective rehabilitative training focused on emotion recognition. PMID:25602943

  10. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ARMED CONFRONTATIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel STEFANESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper highlights the possibilities of methodologically working with the concept of hybrid warfare within an international environment characterized by high marginal conflicts. In this context, the convergence of opponents, methods and means as well as the fusion of capabilities have appeared within hybrid wars. These wars defy and incorporate conventional, unconventional, military and non-military capabilities, as well as combined tactics and terrorism. Thus, the hybrid war aims at catching up with technical or doctrine asymmetry. Defining hybrid war cannot be a stand-alone operation. It requires a reconfiguration of the entire definition frame, primarily a reconfiguration of the sensitive boundaries between peace and war, as they were foreshadowed by the first representatives of political realism. The work brings to the fore not only the issue of reconsidering conflictuality, but also the challenge of a broader framework for defining the war itself, the coordinates being different from those that defined the classic war.

  11. Functional and structural comparison of visual lateralization in birds – similar but still different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eManns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate brains display physiological and anatomical left-right differences, which are related to hemispheric dominances for specific functions. Functional lateralizations likely rely on structural left-right differences in intra- and interhemispheric connectivity patterns that develop in tight gene-environment interactions. The visual systems of chickens and pigeons show that asymmetrical light stimulation during ontogeny induces a dominance of the left hemisphere for visuomotor control that is paralleled by projection asymmetries within the ascending visual pathways. But structural asymmetries vary essentially between both species concerning the affected pathway (thalamo- vs. tectofugal system, constancy of effects (transient vs. permanent, and the hemisphere receiving stronger bilateral input (right vs. left. These discrepancies suggest that at least two aspects of visual processes are influenced by asymmetric light stimulation: 1. Visuomotor dominance develops within the ontogenetically stronger stimulated hemisphere but not necessarily in the one receiving stronger bottom-up input. As a secondary consequence of asymmetrical light experience, lateralized top-down mechanisms play a critical role in the emergence of hemispheric dominance. 2. Ontogenetic light experiences may affect the dominant use of left- and right-hemispheric strategies. Evidences from social and spatial cognition tasks indicate that chickens rely more on a right-hemispheric global strategy whereas pigeons display a dominance of the left hemisphere. Thus, behavioural asymmetries are linked to a stronger bilateral input to the right hemisphere in chickens but to the left one in pigeons. The degree of bilateral visual input may determine the dominant visual processing strategy when redundant encoding is possible. This analysis supports that environmental stimulation affects the balance between hemispheric-specific processing by lateralized interactions of bottom-up and top

  12. An MMPI Analysis of Similarities and Differences in Three Clasifications of Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, and Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ronald L.; Baroffio, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Employed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to study similarities and differences of mean profiles of anorexic patients, bulimic patients, morbidly obese outpatients, and subjects in a matched control group. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the overall profiles of the three experimental groups, but…

  13. Bose-Einstein correlations in heavy-ions and e+e-. Similarities and differences and their interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence on transvers mass, mt, of charged boson correlations has been studied in detail in data from heavy-ions and e+e- interactions. At first glance similarities are striking but small differences show that quite different models seem to be needed to understand the data. (author)

  14. Similarities and Differences in the Processing of Written Text by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers with Prelingual Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on similarities and differences in the processing of written text by individuals with prelingual deafness from different reading levels that used Hebrew as their first spoken language and Israeli Sign Language as their primary manual communication mode. Data were gathered from three sources, including (a) a sentence…

  15. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dominique B; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Moll, Frans L

    2014-02-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which has become the standard of care in many hospitals for patients with suitable anatomy. Clinical evidence indicates that EVAR is associated with superior perioperative outcomes and similar long-term survival compared with open repair. Since the randomized, controlled trials that provided this evidence were conducted, however, the stent graft technology for infrarenal AAA has been further developed. Improvements include profile downsizing, optimization of sealing and fixation, and the use of low porosity fabrics. In addition, imaging techniques have improved, enabling better preoperative planning, stent graft placement, and postoperative surveillance. Also in the past few years, fenestrated and branched stent grafts have increasingly been used to manage anatomically challenging aneurysms, and experiments with off-label use of stent grafts have been performed to treat patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for other treatment strategies. Overall, the indications for endovascular management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR. PMID:24343568

  16. Analysis of factors inducing different type of landslide in apparently similar environmental contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnardo, Enrico; Secco, Michele; Salbego, Giorgio; Toaldo, Miriam; Lampo, Chiara; Artioli, Gilberto; Floris, Mario

    2014-05-01

    properties of the materials. In particular we investigated the variation of those properties as a function of water content. At large-scale, we identified which are the main factors (morphological, lithological and anthropic factors) that determine the different types of landslides. At small-scale, we found significant differences in geotechnical and mineralogical properties of materials involved in the two type of landslide.

  17. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  18. Fringing reefs exposed to different levels of eutrophication and sedimentation can support similar benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assess anthropogenic pressures on coral reef health. • We present a spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters as bio-indicators. • Poor water quality (e.g. high turbidity and high sediments) was not correlated with lower coral cover. • Phytoplankton community size-composition and habitat stability were important predictors of coral reef health. - Abstract: Benthic communities are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances which can result in changes in species assemblages. A spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters was conducted over an 18-month period on four different fringing reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, with unusual vs. frequent human pressures. This survey included assessment of biological, chemical, and physical parameters. First, the results showed a surprising lack of a seasonal trend, which was likely obscured by short-term variability in lagoons. More frequent sampling periods would likely improve the evaluation of a seasonal effect on biological and ecological processes. Second, the three reef habitats studied that were dominated by corals were highly stable, despite displaying antagonistic environmental conditions through eutrophication and sedimentation gradients, whereas the reef dominated by macroalgae was relatively unstable. Altogether, our data challenge the paradigm of labelling environmental parameters such as turbidity, sedimentation, and nutrient-richness as stress indicators

  19. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Hui eShi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae encompasses ant species commonly called fire ants because of their painful sting. The many physiological effects of the venom are caused by 2-methyl-6-alkyl and/or alkenylpiperidine alkaloids. The variation in piperidine alkaloid structures has useful taxonomic characters. The most well studied Solenopsis species is S. invicta, which was accidentally imported into the USA in the 1930s from South America. It quickly spread throughout the southern USA and is now a major invasive pest ant in the USA and in other parts of the world. Interestingly, the invasive S. invicta has largely displaced a native USA fire ant, S. geminata, from the southern USA. We explore the possibility that differences in venom chemistry could be correlated with this displacement. The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of S. geminata were separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecyl-piperidines, as well as other minor alkaloid components. Imported fire ant, S. invicta, alate queens produce the same alkaloids as S. geminata alate queens, but in contrast S. invicta workers produce piperidine alkaloids with longer side chains, which are purported to be physiologically more effective. These results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary progression of fire ant venom alkaloids and displacement of S. geminata by S. invicta in the USA.

  20. Child abuse and non-organic failure to thrive: similarities and differences in the parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K

    1984-08-01

    A group of 39 mothers who had a physically abused child at an average of 6 years previously and a group of 14 mothers who had a child with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) 13 years ago were reviewed. Each child was compared with a child matched for age and sex and for ethnic group, residential area and social class of the parents. The mothers from the NOFTT group knew less than their comparison mothers about their child's education and on a personality test were less able at intellectual and abstract concepts. The abuse group mothers were more mobile and more isolated than their comparison group. They were less likely to have been brought up by their own parents and had more negative feelings towards their fathers. They had lower self-esteem and higher expectations for their children than the comparison mothers. On a personality assessment they were more assertive, demanding and suspicious than the comparison mothers. Although child abuse and non-organic failure to thrive have been described as part of the same spectrum, the characteristics of the parents on follow-up are different. As some of the adverse characteristics of the parents persist long after the presenting incident, the need for a long term treatment programme aimed at supporting children who remain in these families is recommended. PMID:6508657

  1. Similarities and differences in alcohol trajectories: Testing the catch-up effect among biracial black subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Trenette Clark; Hidalgo, Sebastian J Teran; McGovern, Tricia

    2016-09-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) data, we examine the alcohol-use trajectories of monoracial Black youth and biracial Black-White, Black-Hispanic, and Black-American Indian youth to assess how their trajectories differ from the alcohol-use trajectories of White youth over time. The sample consists of 9421 adolescents and young adults who self-identified as White, Black, Black-American Indian, Black-Hispanic, or Black-White. Study hypotheses are tested using latent growth curve modeling. Results indicate that a catch-up effect exists, but only for Black-American Indians whose alcohol-use rates approach the higher rates of Whites at age 29. Black-American Indians face particularly high risk of problematic drinking over the life course. Additional research is needed to understand causal factors of alcohol-use among biracial individuals particularly Black-American Indians who may be at higher risk for alcohol misuse. PMID:27082263

  2. Similar and different grey matter deficits in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected biological relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eXiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have revealed significant reductions in the grey matter of several brain regions in patients with schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disorder with high hereditability. However, it is unclear whether unaffected relatives have grey matter abnormalities in common with their affected relatives, which may relate to susceptibility to developing schizophrenia. To address this issue, we conducted two separate meta-analyses of voxel-based morphometry to investigate grey matter abnormalities in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected relatives. One meta-analysis compared a patient group with healthy controls, whereas the other meta-analysis compared the unaffected relatives with healthy controls. Eight studies comprising 495 patients with schizophrenia, 584 unaffected relatives of patients and 596 healthy controls were systematically included in the present study. Compared to healthy controls, the patient group showed decreased grey matter in the right cuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the right insula and the left claustrum and increased grey matter in the bilateral putamen, the right parahippocampal gyrus, the left precentral gyrus, the left inferior temporal gyri and the right cerebellar tonsil. The comparison between unaffected relatives and healthy controls showed a grey matter reduction in the left claustrum, the bilateral parahippocampal gyri, the left fusiform gyrus, the right inferior temporal gyrus, and the bilateral medial prefrontal cortices, whereas increased grey matter was observed in the right hippocampus, the right fusiform gyrus, the right precentral gyrus and the right precuneus. Thus, our meta-analyses show that the grey matter changes in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected relatives are largely different, although there is subtle overlap in some regions.

  3. Organization and evolution of Drosophila terminin: similarities and differences between Drosophila and human telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Daniela Raffa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila lacks telomerase and fly telomeres are elongated by occasional transposition of three specialized retroelements. Drosophila telomeres do not terminate with GC-rich repeats and are assembled independently of the sequence of chromosome ends. Recent work has shown that Drosophila telomeres are capped by the terminin complex, which includes the fast-evolving proteins HOAP, HipHop, Moi and Ver. These proteins are not conserves outside Drosophilidae and localize and function exclusively at telomeres, protecting them from fusion events. Other proteins required to prevent end-to-end fusion in flies include HP1, Eff/UbcD1, ATM, the components of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN complex, and the Woc transcription factor. These proteins do not share the terminin properties; they are evolutionarily conserved non-fast-evolving proteins that do not accumulate only telomeres and do not serve telomere-specific functions. We propose that following telomerase loss, Drosophila rapidly evolved terminin to bind chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner. This hypothesis suggests that terminin is the functional analog of the shelterin complex that protects human telomeres. The non-terminin proteins are instead likely to correspond to ancestral telomere-associated proteins that did not evolve as rapidly as terminin because of the functional constraints imposed by their involvement in diverse cellular processes. Thus, it appears that the main difference between Drosophila and human telomeres is in the protective complexes that specifically associate with the DNA termini. We believe that Drosophila telomeres offer excellent opportunities for investigations on human telomere biology. The identification of additional Drosophila genes encoding non-terminin proteins involved in telomere protection might lead to the discovery of novel components of human telomeres.

  4. Pathways to the PhD in Nursing: An Analysis of Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Nadine; Barber, Gale; Rice, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    New educational pathways are needed to increase the number of doctor of philosophy (PhD)-prepared nurses. To address this need, an early-entry PhD option designed to engage students in PhD coursework and research during the undergraduate nursing major was developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. An evaluation comparing the early-entry option with two more conventional entry points was conducted. Three groups (N = 84) comprised the sample: (a) early-entry students admitted as undergraduates or immediately upon graduation (N = 29), (b) mid-entry students with baccalaureate degrees and at least 1 year of work experience (N = 27), and (c) delayed-entry students with master's degrees and 1 or more years of work experience (N = 28). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the 3 groups of students who were admitted from 2002 to 2011. The sources of data were transcriptions of individual interviews and reviews of existing data. Seventy-seven percent of the sample participated in the individual interviews. The database review included all students who matriculated into the PhD program. Common themes among the 3 groups included a need for educational funding, the importance of a faculty mentor, and concern about preparation for the teaching role and the academic work environment. The groups were also comparable in terms of research productivity during doctoral study and postgraduation employment. Differences were found on measures of diversity, program progression, and perceptions of clinical competence. The findings provide needed data for the development and expansion of educational pathways to the PhD in nursing. PMID:27216124

  5. Volume changes of extremely large and giant intracranial aneurysms after treatment with flow diverter stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Angelo; Byrne, James V. [ohn Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Neurovascular and Neuroradiology Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rane, Neil; Kueker, Wilhelm; Cellerini, Martino; Corkill, Rufus [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed volume changes of unruptured large and giant aneurysms (greatest diameter >20 mm) after treatment with flow diverter (FD) stents. Clinical audit of the cases treated in a single institution, over a 5-year period. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the hospital records. Aneurysm volumes were measured by manual outlining at sequential slices using computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography data. The audit included eight patients (seven females) with eight aneurysms. Four aneurysms involved the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), three the supraclinoid ICA and one the basilar artery. Seven patients presented with signs and symptoms of mass effect and one with seizures. All but one aneurysm was treated with a single FD stent; six aneurysms were also coiled (either before or simultaneously with FD placement). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean 20 months). At follow-up, three aneurysms decreased in size, three were unchanged and two increased. Both aneurysms that increased in size showed persistent endosaccular flow at follow-up MR; in one case, failure was attributed to suboptimal position of the stent; in the other case, it was attributed to persistence of a side branch originating from the aneurysm (similar to the endoleak phenomenon of aortic aneurysms). At follow-up, five aneurysms were completely occluded; none of these increased in volume. Complete occlusion of the aneurysms leads, in most cases, to its shrinkage. In cases of late aneurysm growth or regrowth, consideration should be given to possible endoleak as the cause. (orig.)

  6. Similarities and differences in polar mesosphere summer echoes observed in the Arctic and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Latteck

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been observed in the high latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere for several years using VHF radars located at Andenes/Norway (69° N, 16° E, Resolute Bay/Canada (75° N, 95° W, and Davis/Antarctica (69° S, 78° E. The VHF radars at the three sites were calibrated using the same methods (noise source and delayed transmitting signal and identical equipment. Volume reflectivity was derived from the calibrated echo power and the characteristics of the seasonal variation of PMSE were estimated at the sites for the years 2004 to 2007. The largest peak volume reflectivity of about 2×10−9 m−1 was observed at Andenes compared with their counterparts at Davis (~4×10−11 m−1 and Resolute Bay (~6×10−12 m−1. The peak of the PMSE height distribution is 85.6 km at Davis which is about 1 km higher than at Andenes. At Resolute Bay the height distribution peaks at about 85 km but only a few layers were found below 84 km. The mean PMSE occurrence rate is 83% at Andenes, 38% at Davis with larger variability and only 18% at Resolute Bay (in late summer. The duration of the PMSE season varies at Andenes from 104 to 113 days and at Davis from 88 to 93 days. In general the PMSE seasons starts about 5 days later at Davis and ends about 10 days earlier compared to Andenes. In all three seasons the PMSE occurrence suddenly drops to a much lower level at Davis about 32 days after solstice whereas the PMSE season decays smoothly at Andenes. The duration of the PMSE season at Andenes and Davis is highly correlated with the presence of equatorward directed winds, the observed differences in PMSE occurrence are related to the mesospheric temperatures at both sites.

  7. Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C; Holtmannspötter, M; Saliou, G; Willinsky, R; Krings, T; Agid, R

    2014-01-01

    Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We...... present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used...

  8. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE MEASUREMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN CASE OF POST OF SLOVENIA Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Jelovac; Ranko Orlić; Jana Suklan; Cvetko Sršen

    2016-01-01

    Local and regional similarities and differences in the organisational culture of the national postal operator were discussed. Its business units are present in all Slovenian regions. The main objective of the research is to discover the prevailing type of the organisational culture in the company. For this purpose, we used Cameron and Quinn's questionnaire. We suppose that among certain business units in different Slovenian regions there are both affinities and substantial differences in the ...

  9. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  10. A study of the hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, Juan R.; Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the effects of unequal physiologic flow conditions in the internal carotid arteries on the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms were investigated. Patient-specific vascular computational fluid dynamics models of five cerebral aneurysms were constructed from bilateral 3D rotational angiography images. The aneurysmal hemodynamics was analyzed under a range of physiologic flow conditions including the effects of unequal mean flows and phase shifts between the flow waveforms of the left and right internal carotid arteries. A total of five simulations were performed for each patient, and unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created for each flow condition. Time dependent curves of average WSS magnitude over selected regions on the aneurysms were constructed and used to analyze the influence of the inflow conditions. It was found that mean flow imbalances in the feeding vessels tend to shift the regions of elevated WSS (flow impingement region) towards the dominating inflow jet and to change the magnitude of the WSS peaks. However, the overall qualitative appearance of the WSS distribution and velocity simulations is not substantially affected. In contrast, phase differences tend to increase the temporal complexity of the hemodynamic patterns and to destabilize the intra-aneurysmal flow pattern. However, these effects are less important when the A1 confluence is less symmetric, i.e. dominated by one of the A1 segments. Conditions affecting the flow characteristics in the parent arteries of cerebral aneurysms with more than one avenue of inflow should be incorporated into flow models.

  11. The Effect of Hemodynamics on Cerebral Aneurysm Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Ralph; Mantha, Aishwarya; Karmonik, Christof; Strother, Charles

    2004-11-01

    One of the difficulties in applying principles of hemodynamics to the study of blood flow in aneurysms are the drastic variations in possible shape of both the aneurysms and the parent arteries in the region of interest. We have taken data from three para-opthalmic internal carotid artery aneurysms using 3D-digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) and performed CFD simulations of steady and unsteady flows through the three different cases using the same pressure gradients and pulsatile flow waveforms (based on the Ku model for flow through the Carotid bifurcation). We have found that the total pressure differential within the aneurysms is consistent with the direction of flow, and that the dynamic pressure gradient within the aneurysm is very small compared with the static pressure variations. Wall shear stresses were highest near regions of sharp arterial curvature, but always remained low inside the aneurysm. These results suggest a more complex role for hemodynamics in aneurysm generation, growth and rupture.

  12. Usefulness of computerized method for lung nodule detection on digital chest radiographs using similar subtraction images from different patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a novel computerized method to select automatically the similar chest radiograph for image subtraction in the patients who have no previous chest radiographs and to assist the radiologists’ interpretation by presenting the “similar subtraction image” from different patients. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. A large database of approximately 15,000 normal chest radiographs was used for searching similar images of different patients. One hundred images of candidates were selected according to two clinical parameters and similarity of the lung field in the target image. We used the correlation value of chest region in the 100 images for searching the most similar image. The similar subtraction images were obtained by subtracting the similar image selected from the target image. Thirty cases with lung nodules and 30 cases without lung nodules were used for an observer performance test. Four attending radiologists and four radiology residents participated in this observer performance test. Results: The AUC for all radiologists increased significantly from 0.925 to 0.974 with the CAD (P = .004). When the computer output images were available, the average AUC for the residents was more improved (0.960 vs. 0.890) than for the attending radiologists (0.987 vs. 0.960). Conclusion: The novel computerized method for lung nodule detection using similar subtraction images from different patients would be useful to detect lung nodules on digital chest radiographs, especially for less experienced readers.

  13. Populations having different GalA blocks characteristics are present in commercial pectins which are chemically similar but have different functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillotin, S.E.; Bakx, E.J.; Boulenguer, P.; Mazoyer, J.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Two commercially extracted pectins having different physical properties but similar chemical characteristics were fractionated into sub-populations using ion exchange chromatography. Individual sub-populations were characterised using established strategies (galacturonic acid and neutral sugar conte

  14. Flux-Variance Similarity in Complex Terrain and Its Sensitivity to Different Methods of Treating Non-stationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Nevio; Večenaj, Željko; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2016-04-01

    Various criteria have been developed to remove non-stationarity in turbulence time series, though it remains unclear how the choice of the stationarity criterion affects similarity functions in the framework of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. To investigate this, we use stationary datasets that result from applying five common criteria to remove non-stationarity in turbulence time series from the Terrain-Induced Rotor EXperiment conducted in Owens Valley, California. We determine the form of the flux-variance similarity functions and the scatter around these similarity functions for all five stationary datasets. Data were collected at two valley locations and one slope location using 34-m flux towers with six levels of turbulence measurements. Our results show (i) systematic differences from previously found near-neutral values of the parameters in the flux-variance similarity functions over flat terrain, indicating a larger anisotropy of the flow over complex than over flat terrain, (ii) a reduction of this anisotropy when stationary data are used, with the amount of reduction depending on the stationarity criterion, (iii) a general reduction in scatter around the similarity functions when using stationary data but more so for stable than for unstable stratification, and for valley locations than for the slope location, and (iv) a weak variation with height of near-neutral values of parameters in the flux-variance similarity functions.

  15. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun ... Damage Treatments Click image to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a ...

  16. Web Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrew; Vitányi, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale from 0 (identical) to 1 (completely different). The NWD approximates the similarity according to all (upper semi)computable properties. We develop the theory and give applications. The derivation of ...

  17. Morphological and hemodynamic analysis of mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamic factors are commonly believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. In this study, we aimed to identify significant hemodynamic and morphological parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm rupture status using 3-dimensional-angiography and computational fluid dynamics technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D-DSA was performed in 8 patients with mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms (Pcom-MANs. Each pair was divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. Five morphological and three hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. RESULTS: The normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS of the aneurysm sac in the ruptured group was significantly lower than that in the unruptured group (0.52±0.20 versus 0.81±0.21, P = .012. The percentage of the low WSS area in the ruptured group was higher than that in the unruptured group (4.11±4.66% versus 0.02±0.06%, P = .018. The AR was 1.04±0.21 in the ruptured group, which was significantly higher than 0.70±0.17 in the unruptured group (P = .012. By contrast, parameters that had no significant differences between the two groups were OSI (P = .674, aneurysm size (P = .327, size ratio (P = .779, vessel angle (P = 1.000 and aneurysm inclination angle (P = 1.000. CONCLUSIONS: Pcom-MANs may be a useful disease model to investigate possible causes of aneurysm rupture. The ruptured aneurysms manifested lower WSS, higher percentage of low WSS area, and higher AR, compared with the unruptured one. And hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm rupture status.

  18. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries – Differences and similarities between the five national schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In all five Nordic countries, sound classification schemes for dwellings have been published in national standards being implemented and revised gradually since the late 1990s. The national classification criteria for dwellings originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 1990s, thus...... having several similarities. In 2012, status is that number and denotations of classes for dwellings are identical in the Nordic countries, but the structures of the standards and several details are quite different. Also the issues dealt with are different. Examples of differences are sound insulation...... for classification of such buildings. This paper presents and compares the main class criteria for sound insulation of dwellings and summarizes differences and similarities in criteria and in structures of standards. Classification schemes for dwellings also exist in several other countries in Europe...

  19. Fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain - differences and similarities. A comparison of 3057 patients with diabetic painful neuropathy and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tölle Thomas R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetic neuropathy (DPN and fibromyalgia differ substantially in pathogenetic factors and the spatial distribution of the perceived pain. We questioned whether, despite these obvious differences, similar abnormal sensory complaints and pain qualities exist in both entities. We hypothesized that similar sensory symptoms might be associated with similar mechanisms of pain generation. The aims were (1 to compare epidemiological features and co-morbidities and (2 to identify similarities and differences of sensory symptoms in both entities. Methods The present multi-center study compares epidemiological data and sensory symptoms of a large cohort of 1434 fibromyalgia patients and 1623 patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Data acquisition included standard demographic questions and self-report questionnaires (MOS sleep scale, PHQ-9, PainDETECT. To identify subgroups of patients with characteristic combinations of symptoms (sensory profiles a cluster analysis was performed using all patients in both cohorts. Results Significant differences in co-morbidities (depression, sleep disturbance were found between both disorders. Patients of both aetiologies chose very similar descriptors to characterize their sensory perceptions. Burning pain, prickling and touch-evoked allodynia were present in the same frequency. Five subgroups with distinct symptom profiles could be detected. Two of the subgroups were characteristic for fibromyalgia whereas one profile occurred predominantly in DPN patients. Two profiles were found frequently in patients of both entities (20-35%. Conclusions DPN and fibromyalgia patients experience very similar sensory phenomena. The combination of sensory symptoms - the sensory profile - is in most cases distinct and almost unique for each one of the two entities indicating aetiology-specific mechanisms of symptom generation. Beside the unique aetiology-specific sensory profiles an overlap of

  20. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... past three years, and his aneurysm has now grown to 5.4 centimeters. And this is actually ... that looks like kind of railroad tracks going up and down, that’s the catheter that we’re ...

  1. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for all of you listening, you can ask online. Just click the “Ask a question” button, and ... aneurysm. Please feel free to ask any questions online. Just click “Ask a question,” and they’ll ...

  2. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... racquet-like device whether or not there is flow in this sack after we replace in aneurysm. ... space age. That’s fine. Don’t go too high. Pull it down a little bit. Pull that ...

  3. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an interventional radiologist. That’s a specialty many people haven’t heard of, but that’s a specialty that ... in that patient’s abdominal sack. Now remember we haven’t treated his aneurysm. We’re sort of ...

  4. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm using a technology called an “endograft,” which is sometimes called the “ ... separate area, and it’s because of this small technology that allows you to do this. Exactly. So ...

  5. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an aneurysm, it’s important that you ask your doctor about your options. As I said, about 80 percent of the patients we treat end up -- 80 or 90 percent these days, end up being good candidates for this type of therapy. We would encourage you to seek the least ...

  6. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Normally this procedure takes us about 45 minutes to an hour of doctor work time, which is, I think, a fairly quick procedure to replace a major life-threatening problem in the patient’s abdomen. So you can see ...

  7. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microchip that acts a little bit like a cell phone technology. We’ll show you how that works. But this is the device that we’re going to put in that space between the endograft and the patient to the wall of the aneurysm. So in that space where ...

  8. Different Moves, Similar Outcomes: A Comparison of Chinese and Swedish Preschool Teacher Education Programmes and the Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Keang-ieng Peggy; Hu, Bi Ying; Xia, Yan-ping

    2015-01-01

    A Chinese and a Swedish preschool teacher education programme were examined in search for commonalities and differences of the curriculum decision-making considerations involved in the respective programme revision process. Findings include: (1) the two programmes have shifted orientations and become similar, yet there was no fundamental…

  9. MR angiography of stenosis and aneurysm models in the pulsatile flow: variation with imaging parameters and concentration of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The image quality of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) varies according to the imaging techniques applied and the parameters affected by blood flow patterns, as well as by the shape of the blood vessels. This study was designed to assess the influence on signal intensity and its distribution of the geometry of these vessels, the imaging parameters, and the concentration of contrast media in MRA of stenosis and aneurysm models. MRA was performed in stenosis and aneurysm models made of glass tubes, using pulsatile flow with viscosity and flow profile similar to those of blood. Slice and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were obtained using various imaging techniques and parameters;there was variation in repetition time, flip angle, imaging planes, and concentrations of contrast media. On slice images of three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, flow signal intensity was measured at five locations in the models, and contrast ratio was calculated as the difference between flow signal intensity (SI) and background signal intensity (SIb) divided by background signal intensity or (SI-SIb)/SIb. MIP images obtained by various techniques and using various parameters were also analyzed, with emphasis in the stenosis model on demonstrated degree of stenosis, severity of signal void and image distortion, and in the aneurysm model, on degree of visualization, distortion of contour and distribution of signals. In 3D TOF, the shortest TR (36 msec) and the largest FA (50 deg ) resulted in the highest contrast ratio, but larger flip angles did not effectively demonstrate the demonstration of the peripheral part of the aneurysm. Loss of signal was most prominent in images of the stenosis model obtained with parallel or oblique planes to the flow direction. The two-dimensional TOF technique also caused signal void in stenosis, but precisely demonstrated the aneurysm, with dense opacification of the peripheral part. The phase contrast technique showed some

  10. Long telomeres in blood leukocytes are associated with a high risk of ascending aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija J Huusko

    Full Text Available Ascending aortic aneurysm is a connective tissue disorder. Even though multiple novel gene mutations have been identified, risk profiling and diagnosis before rupture still represent a challenge. There are studies demonstrating shorter telomere lengths in the blood leukocytes of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. The aim of this study was to measure whether relative telomere lengths are changed in the blood leukocytes of ascending aortic aneurysm patients. We also studied the expression of telomerase in aortic tissue samples of ascending aortic aneurysms. Relative lengths of leukocyte telomeres were determined from blood samples of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms and compared with healthy controls. Telomerase expression, both at the level of mRNA and protein, was quantified from the aortic tissue samples. Mean relative telomere length was significantly longer in ascending aortic aneurysm blood samples compared with controls (T/S ratio 0.87 vs. 0.61, p<0.001. Expressions of telomerase mRNA and protein were elevated in the aortic aneurysm samples (p<0.05 and p<0.01. Our study reveals a significant difference in the mean length of blood leukocyte telomeres in ascending aortic aneurysm and controls. Furthermore, expression of telomerase, the main compensating factor for telomere loss, is elevated at both the mRNA and protein level in the samples of aneurysmal aorta. Further studies will be needed to confirm if this change in telomere length can serve as a tool for assessing the risk of ascending aortic aneurysm.

  11. 'Minimally invasive procedures' for the management of large and giant aneurysms. Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giant aneurysms have a dismal natural history, thus necessitating early management. These pose a great challenge to the vascular neurosurgeon. The complexity of their anatomy, parent vessels or branches and perforators warrants additional measures for maintaining distal perfusion. Here we try to define the minimally invasive management of these aneurysms. This study compares reconstruction and bypass. This study covers 40 large and 5 giant cases of aneurysms treated in our institute. Giant aneurysms are those with a dome diameter 25 mm or more. 3D CT scan and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were the primary investigative procedures, and 3D CT scan was especially useful in thrombosed aneurysms. Aneurysms that had involved a major portion of the parent wall were reconstructed, thus avoiding bypass. Based on our experience, not only basic technique of trapping and evacuation and clipping of the aneurysm neck but also reconstruction of the artery bearing the aneurysm is vital for good postoperative results. Different clipping methods are also used to reconstruct the parent artery. Bypass techniques are also gaining importance in the management of giant aneurysms in difficult cases. However, we feel that bypass procedures are too extensive and are associated with attendant complications. Acute graft occlusion is one of the commonest complications. Aneurysmal rupture is one more complication of bypass procedures. Prolonged occlusion can also cause neurological deficits. Considering the difficulties with bypass and our experience in parent vessel reconstruction with multiple clipping, we feel bypass should be considered only in exceptional cases. (author)

  12. Bose-Einstein correlations in heavy-ions and e+e-. Similarities and differences and their interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence on transverse mass, mT, of charged boson correlations is discussed in detail for data from heavy-ions and e+e- interactions. The mT dependence of the radii parameters show strong similarities, which however find explanations in quite different models. Strong differences exist in the mT dependence of the λ parameter, and in the multiplicity dependence of the effect. These are pointed out and discussed. (author)

  13. Similarities and Differences in Adolescent Siblings’ Alcohol-Related Attitudes, Use, and Delinquency: Evidence for Convergent and Divergent Influence Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Jensen, Alexander C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings influence each other’s risky and deviant behaviors during adolescence. Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study examined the operation and implications of three different influence processes--social learning, shared friends, and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (earlier born age: M = 17.17 years, SD = 0.94; later born age: M = 14....

  14. Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine eAndin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Similar working memory (WM for lexical items has been demonstrated for signers and non-signers while short-term memory (STM is regularly poorer in deaf than hearing individuals. In the present study, we investigated digit-based WM and STM in Swedish and British deaf signers and hearing non-signers. To maintain good experimental control we used printed stimuli throughout and held response mode constant across groups. We showed that deaf signers have similar digit-based WM performance, despite shorter digit spans, compared to well-matched hearing non-signers. We found no difference between signers and non-signers on STM span for letters chosen to minimize phonological similarity or in the effects of recall direction. This set of findings indicates that similar WM for signers and non-signers can be generalized from lexical items to digits and suggests that poorer STM in deaf signers compared to hearing non-signers may be due to differences in phonological similarity across the language modalities of sign and speech.

  15. Differences and similarities in double special educational needs: high abilities/giftedness x Asperger’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Joyce Wellausen Vieira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed from a literature search in books, articles and theses that have been published since the year 2000 on the theme High Abilities / Giftedness and Asperger’s Syndrome. The objectives of this research were to conduct a search on publications from 2000 to 2011, about the common and different features to the person with Asperger syndrome and high ability gifted, and also relate the number of publications found in Education and Special Education. At theoretical we present the conception of High Abilities / Giftedness of Renzulli (2004 and Gardner (2000 and in the conception of Asperger Syndrome, Mello (2007 and Klin (2006. When analyzing the data, were perceived similarities and differences between the behavioral characteristics of individuals with High Abilities / Giftedness and those with Asperger’s Syndrome. It’s possible point out that there is much evidence that separate these two special educational needs and few similarities between them. But do not neglect that there may be a dual disability between these two particular special educational needs, because there are still few studies that verify theoretically the differences and similarities of these subjects, much less those that investigate these similarities and distinctions in the subjects themselves.

  16. Similar taxonomic richness but different communities of ectomycorrhizas in native forests and non-native plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Richard; Harrington, Thomas J

    2012-07-01

    This investigation sought to examine if there was a difference between the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities in plots of native oak and introduced Scots pine and Sitka spruce forest. The ECM communities in four plots of each forest type were described, from five soil cores collected in each plot, by morphotyping, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-restriction fragment length polymorphism matching of mycorrhizas and sporocarps and ITS sequencing. Fifty-one distinct taxa were distinguished; 25 were identified to species level, 11 to genus and 15 remained unidentified. Seventy-one ECM species were recorded as sporocarps from the forest plots; most (43 species) were found in the Sitka spruce plots. The below-ground ECM communities of the different forest types did not differ significantly with respect to species richness of taxa on roots, but differed in species composition. Multivariate analysis produced a clear separation of the communities of the different forest types using below-ground data, but the above-ground sporocarp data did not separate the forest types. Moreover, results of a Mantel test found no relationship between the above- and below-ground similarity matrices. The oak plots had the most distinctive ECM community, with Laccaria amethystina and Elaphomyces granulatus being frequent. The Sitka spruce plots showed the lowest intra-forest type similarity and were often dominated by "nursery type" ectomycorrhizas. There was only 10% similarity between the above- and below-ground ECM species in these plots, different colonisation methods of ectomycorrhizal taxa and insufficient below-ground sampling being possible reasons for this disparity. Our results indicate that plantations of non-native Sitka spruce can support similar levels of ECM diversity as native forests. PMID:21947779

  17. Differential Sex Response to Aspirin in Decreasing Aneurysm Rupture in Humans and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Correa, Tatiana; Jabbour, Pascal M; Zanaty, Mario; Brown, Robert D; Torner, James C; Hasan, David M

    2016-08-01

    We previously found that aspirin decreases the risk of cerebral aneurysm rupture in humans. We aim to assess whether a sex differential exists in the response of human cerebral aneurysms to aspirin and confirm these observations in a mouse model of cerebral aneurysm. A nested case-control analysis from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms was performed to assess whether a sex differential exists in the response of human cerebral aneurysms to aspirin. A series of experiments were subsequently performed in a mouse model of cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysms were induced with hypertension and elastase injection into mice basal cisterns. We found that aspirin decreased the risk of aneurysm rupture more significantly in men than in women in the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. In mice, aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor did not affect cerebral aneurysm formation but significantly decreased the incidence of rupture. The incidence of rupture was significantly lower in male versus female mice on aspirin. Gene expression analysis from cerebral arteries showed higher 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase levels in male mice. The rate of cerebral aneurysm rupture was similar in male mice receiving aspirin and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor compared with females receiving aspirin and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase agonist, signaling a reversal of the sex-differential response to aspirin. Aspirin decreases aneurysm rupture in human and mice, in part through cyclooxygenase-2 pathways. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests a consistent differential effect by sex. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activation in females reduces the incidence of rupture and eliminates the sex-differential response to aspirin. PMID:27296993

  18. CT features of mycotic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe CT features of mycotic aneurysms. We have retrospectively checked 10 patients diagnosed with mycotic aneurysm. Three revealed previously treated arteriosclerotic aneurysms, one was diabetic and had undergone a reno pancreatic transplant,and another presented advanced HIV infection. They al presented fever syndrome and eight exhibited leucocytosis. Mycotic aneurysm diagnosis was made by means of CT findings, clinical examination and positive hemo culture in all cases. Anatomopathological findings were available as confirmation for all four surgically treated patients. The CT scan was performed during arterial phase with spiral acquisition, without contrast and with endo venous administration of a contrast medium. Saccular aneurysms were found in seven patients (double aneurysms in the case of two), with seven of these being abdominal aneurysms (one retrocrural aortic,three infra renal aortic, and three iliac arteries) and two thoracic (aortic arch). In all three remaining patients, there was a pre-existing arteriosclerotic aneurysm (fusiform) and only incipient changes were observed in the adjacent fat. Perianeurysmatic soft-tissue was was noted in eight cases. Only two patients presented signs of tear (peri aneurysm hematoma and/or with contrast extravasation). In three cases, the calcium ring was disrupted. In two patients, absences were observed in other locations. In none of the cases was there gas in the aneurysm wall. Mycotic aneurysm is a rate entity, but must be considered in the evaluation of septic patients since it demands early diagnosis and treatment. In such patients, a CT finding of saccular aneurysm with adjacent soft-tissue mass, and associated with a positive hemo culture, is highly suggestive of this pathology. (Author) 9 refs

  19. Transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography for visualization of signal Intensity distribution pattern within an unruptured cerebral aneurysm: preliminarily assessment with anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural history of unruptured cerebral aneurysm is not known; also unknown is the potential growth and rupture in any individual aneurysm. The authors have developed transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) obtained by a time-of-flight sequence to investigate the interaction between the intra-aneurysmal signal intensity distribution patterns and configuration of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Transluminal color-coded images were reconstructed from volume data of source magnetic resonance angiography by using a parallel volume-rendering algorithm with transluminal imaging technique. By selecting a numerical threshold range from a signal intensity opacity chart of the three-dimensional volume-rendering dataset several areas of signal intensity were depicted, assigned different colors, and visualized transparently through the walls of parent arteries and an aneurysm. Patterns of signal intensity distribution were analyzed with three operated cases of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm and compared with the actual configurations observed at microneurosurgery. A little difference in marginal features of an aneurysm was observed; however, transluminal color-coded images visualized the complex signal intensity distribution within an aneurysm in conjunction with aneurysmal geometry. Transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography can thus provide numerical analysis of the interaction between spatial signal intensity distribution patterns and aneurysmal configurations and may offer an alternative and practical method to investigate the patient-specific natural history of individual unruptured cerebral aneurysms. (orig.)

  20. Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Deena M; Brown, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) occur in approximately 2-3 % of the population. Most of these lesions are incidentally found, asymptomatic and typically carry a benign course. Although the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is low, this complication can result in significant morbidity and mortality, making assessment of this risk the cornerstone of UIA management. This article reviews important factors to consider when managing unruptured intracranial aneurysms including patient demographics, comorbidities, family history, symptom status, and aneurysm characteristics. It also addresses screening, monitoring, medical management and current surgical and endovascular therapies. PMID:27443382

  1. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (scarcity during wet forest succession. Although similar trait spectra were observed among dry and wet secondary forest species, the consequences for succession were different resulting from contrasting environmental filters. PMID:25919023

  2. Similarities and differences between continuous sedation until death and euthanasia: professional caregivers' attitudes and experiences: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Anquinet, Livia; Raus, Kasper; Sterckx, Sigrid; Smets, Tinne; Deliens, Luc; Rietjens, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to various guidelines about continuous sedation until death, this practice can and should be clearly distinguished from euthanasia, which is legalized in Belgium. Aim: To explore professional caregivers' perceptions of the similarities and differences between continuous sedation until death and euthanasia. Design: Qualitative data were gathered through focus groups. Questions pertained to participants' perceptions of continuous sedation. The focus groups were recorded an...

  3. The problems affecting English language learning for non-native speakers: similarities and differences from the East to the West

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lirola, María; Stephen, Jeannet

    2007-01-01

    In our experience teaching English to Malay and Mexican students and after the revision of bibliographical references related to this topic, we have observed several difficulties in the second language acquisition. We intend to present an overview of the Teaching and Learning of English as an L2 in Malaysia and New Mexico. In our study we have compared the similarities and differences faced in the processes of teaching and learning English in Malaysia and New Mexico to highlight results in a ...

  4. International Guidelines for Bioequivalence of Systemically Available Orally Administered Generic Drug Products: A Survey of Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Davit, Barbara; Braddy, April C.; Conner, Dale P.; Yu, Lawrence X.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Assoc...

  5. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Sodjinou, Roger; Bosu, William K.; Fanou, Nadia; Déart, Lucie; Kupka, Roland; Tchibindat, Félicité; Baker, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region.Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences.Design: Data were collected from...

  6. Differences and similarities between carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibers during mesothelial carcinogenesis: shedding light on fiber entry mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirotaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2012-08-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology represents an important milestone, as it opens the way to a broad spectrum of applications for nanomaterials in the fields of engineering, industry and medicine. One example of nanomaterials that have the potential for widespread use is carbon nanotubes, which have a tubular structure made of graphene sheets. However, there have been concerns that they may pose a potential health risk due to their similarities to asbestos, namely their high biopersistence and needle-like structure. We recently found that despite these similarities, carbon nanotubes and asbestos differ in certain aspects, such as their mechanism of entry into mesothelial cells. In the study, we showed that non-functionalized, multi-walled carbon nanotubes enter mesothelial cells by directly piercing through the cell membrane in a diameter- and rigidity-dependent manner, whereas asbestos mainly enters these cells through the process of endocytosis, which is independent of fiber diameter. In this review, we discuss the key differences, as well as similarities, between asbestos fibers and carbon nanotubes. We also summarize previous reports regarding the mechanism of carbon nanotube entry into non-phagocytic cells. As the entry of fibers into mesothelial cells is a crucial step in mesothelial carcinogenesis, we believe that a comprehensive study on the differences by which carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibers enter into non-phagocytic cells will provide important clues for the safer manufacture of carbon nanotubes through strict regulation on fiber characteristics, such as diameter, surface properties, length and rigidity. PMID:22568550

  7. Clinical value of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianxiao Li; Dengwei Zong

    2006-01-01

    originated from the aneurysm; ③ Feasibility of endovascular occlusion: Whether the feasibility of endovascular occlusion could be judged based on the vascular anatomic form. The evaluative standards for the former two were cannot display, reluctantly display and clearly display, and those for the latter one were uncertain, possible but uncertain; certainly could not or certainly could be treated with endovascular occlusion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The images of 2D DSA and 3D DSA were observed and compared; The differences in the display of aneurysm neck, display of aneurysm form and feasibility of endovascular occlusion were compared between 2D DSA and 3D DSA. RESULTS: All the 44 patients with intracranial aneurysm (50 aneurysms) were involved in the analysis. ① Aneurysm necks displayed by 2D DSA and 3D DSA: Among the 50 ruptured aneurysms, the necks of 14 aneurysms could be clearly displayed by 2D DSA; 3D DSA could display the necks of all the aneurysm. ② Comparison of the the forms of aneurysm displayed by 2D DSA and 3D DSA: 2D DSA could clearly display the forms of 26 (36%) aneurysms; Whereas the 3D DSA with volume reconstruction clearly displayed the forms of all the aneurysms. ③ Feasibility of endovascular occlusion evaluated by 2D DSA and 3D DSA: 2D DSA believed that 6 cases were certainly unable to be treated with endovascular occlusion. 3D DSA showed that all the aneurysms were certainly able to be treated with endovascular occlusion, which was successfully performed. The reference images were obtained from the 3D DSA images in all the 49 aneurysms at the occlusion. The first spring ring was correctly selected for 48 aneurysms. CONCLUSION: 3D DSA can clearly display the form of the aneurysm, and the relationship between the aneurysm neck and the neighboring vessels, and it is helpful for obtaining the reference images in the endovascular occlusion of intracranial aneurysm; The diameter and length of the first spring ring can be correctly selected by the

  8. Application of dual volume reconstruction technique in embolization of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hai ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dual volume reconstruction technique in Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Three-dimensional imaging data of 20 patients received GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms from Jun. 2012 to Apr. 2013 were analyzed for dual volume reconstruction. The value of application of dual volume reconstruction was evaluated by the detection rate of coils bolus, degree of aneurysm occlusion, the length of aneurysm sac and aneurysm neck before and after embolization, and the characteristics and clinical value of the reconstructed images. Results  A total of 20 coil boluses were detected by dual volume reconstruction images, and the detection rate was 100%. Among all of 20 patients, no visualization of contrast medium in the aneurysm was found in 13 patients, while contrast agent was found in the aneurysm sac in 3 patients and in the aneurysm neck in 4 patients. The length of aneurysm neck and sac was somewhat changed before and after embolization with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. The dual volume reconstruction could reveal coil bolus, vessels, cranium and fusion images, and the aneurysms could be shown by different imaging modes according to the clinical requirement. Conclusion Dual volume reconstruction technique can display the location of coil bolus, degree of occlusion and aneurysm size, and evaluate the embolization effect by multifarious imaging modes, providing a great deal of information for the evaluation of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.13

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B; Olsen, P S; Perko, M J; Agerskov, Kim; Røder, O; Lorentzen, Jørgen Ewald

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 55......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems.......The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...

  10. Intracranial aneurysm and sildenafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Avinash; Edriss, Hawa; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Sildenafil is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. To date, we found five reported cases of intracerebral bleeding and two reported cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage related to sildenafil use. We report a 49-year-old hypertensive and diabetic patient who presented with acute pulmonary edema and loss of consciousness following ingestion of 100 mg of sildenafil prior to sexual intercourse. He was not previously aware of the presence of an aneurysm and had no family history of it. Computed tomography of his head revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a saccular aneurysm with subsequent repeat hemorrhage within a few hours of presentation. A sudden increase in blood pressure led to pulmonary edema. Studies have shown that sildenafil acts on phosphodiesterase-1, -2 and -5 receptors and leads to a secondary increase in intracerebral circulation and vasodilatory effects, leading to sympathetic overactivity which increases the risk for intracranial bleeding. PMID:27034561

  11. Intra-aneurysmal flow reductions in a thin film nitinol flow diverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hyper-elastic thin film nitinol (HE-TFN) covered stent has been developed to promote aneurysm occlusion by diminishing flow in the aneurysm. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of HE-TFN placed across the aneurysm neck in the parent vessel. The flow diverters were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific) with different HE-TFNs (i.e., of 82% and 77% porosity) and deployed in both in vitro wide-neck and fusiform glass aneurysm models. In wide-neck aneurysms, the 82% porous HE-TFN stent reduced mean flow velocity in the middle of the sac by 86 ± 1%, while the 77% porous stent reduced the velocity by 93 ± 5% (n = 3). Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced by about 98% in this model after device placement. Tests conducted on the fusiform aneurysm revealed smaller intra-aneurysmal flow velocity reduction by 48 ± 3% for the 82% porous stent and by 59 ± 7% for the 77% porous stent. The wall shear was reduced by approximately 50% by HE-TFN stents in fusiform models. These results suggest that HE-TFN covered stents have the potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-neck and fusiform aneurysm sacs

  12. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy L; Singh S

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms in the paediatric age group is extremely rare. Interestingly, occurrence of vasospasm has been reported to be less in comparison to the adults. Both coiling and clipping have been advocated in selected cases. Because of the thinness of the wall of the arteries, utmost care should be taken while handling these arteries during surgery. The overall results of surgery in children have been reported to be better than their adult...

  13. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage without aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Forell, W; Welschehold, S; Köhler, J; Schicketanz, K H

    2002-11-01

    The rupture and bleeding of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of a spontaneous, non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In up to 20% of these patients, no aneurysm is found, but the prognosis of these patients is known to be better than in those with aneurysms. The retrospective evaluation of the initial CT- and angiographic findings of 773 patients with spontaneous SAH, who underwent (up to three) 4-vessel DSA, brought a percentage of 12.4% with negative angiography. We found the favourable prognosis of these patients with negative angiography not only to be dependent from the distribution of the hemorrhage, with preference to perimesencephalic pattern, but the initial clinical state. 85% of our patients, who presented with perimesencephalic blood pattern and even 80% of those patients with additional intraventricular hemorrhage but the good clinical condition of Hunt-Hess I/II were discharged without neurological deficits. We recommend the obligatory 4-vessel catheter-angiography (DSA) in all patients with spontaneous SAH, independent of the blood pattern on initial CT, and one control in the presence of other than perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage, CTA might be reserved for additional controls. PMID:12458439

  14. ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AAA is defined as a distension of the infrarenal aorta by more than 50% (or 1.5 times compared with a corresponding healthy, aged and gender matched population. AAA afflicts 1 to 6 % of the general population aged more than 60 years and the incidence rises by approximately 0.15% annually. When the definition of a maximum external diameter ≥3 cm is used, the prevalence of AAA is upto 6 times greater in men than in women. AAAs are much more common than thoracic aortic aneurysms. Most common cause of AAA is atherosclerosis (95%. Less common causes include infectious or inflammatory origin or those associated with connective tissue disorders. Process of AAA formation is multifactorial. Other than the general risk factors for atherosclerosis, genetic predispo s iti on, aut o immunity and hemodynamic factors all play roles in its formation. AAA is 1.5 times more frequent in hypert ensive patients. Smokers have 8 times risk for developing AAA. The existence of familial aggre gation of AAA implicates genetic factors in the etiology of AAA. Women with AAA are more likely to have a positive family history of this disorder. Those with a family history of AAA have an increased risk of 30%, and their aneurysms tend to occur at a younger age and carry a greater risk of rupture than do sporadic aneurysms.

  15. Elastase-induced intracranial aneurysm by means of endovascular balloon occlusion: preparation of animal model and progress in its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of capital importance to establish a reliable experimental animal model of intracranial aneurysm which should be extremely similar to human intracranial aneurysm in histological and hemodynamic aspects. For recent years, the elastase-induced aneurysm model by means of endovascular balloon occlusion has been widely used abroad. This paper aims to review the preparation of animal mode, the advantages and disadvantages of such a model as well as the recent progress in its applications. (authors)

  16. Similarities and differences in adult tortoises: a morphological approach and its implication for reproduction and mobility between species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. L. Zuffi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexes in Chelonia display marked differences. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is important in evolutionary biology. Different sexual strategies result in species specific selection. Biometric variation in male and female tortoises of two species is studied. Eighteen biometrics were measured in 75 museum specimens (20 Testudo graeca; 55 T. hermanni. Nine of 18 parameters in T. hermanni and two of 18 in T. graeca were sexually dimorphic. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis highlighted two components, with bridge length the first and anal divergence the second component. The bridge length can be used to separate sexes and species. Males of both species were most different, whereas females of two species overlapped in body shape measurements. We hypothesise that female similarity could be a by-product of reproductive biology and sexual selection that optimise individual fitness.

  17. Heparan sulfate chains from glypican and syndecans bind the Hep II domain of fibronectin similarly despite minor structural differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumova, S; Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    structure, where highly sulfated, iduronate-rich domains alternate with N-acetylated domains. Syndecan-4, a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has a distinct role in cell adhesion, suggesting its chains may differ from those of other cell surface proteoglycans. To determine whether the specific role...... of syndecan-4 correlates with a distinct heparan sulfate structure, we have analyzed heparan sulfate chains from the different surface proteoglycans of a single fibroblast strain and compared their ability to bind the Hep II domain of fibronectin, a ligand known to promote focal adhesion formation...... through syndecan-4. Despite distinct molecular masses of glypican and syndecan glycosaminoglycans and minor differences in disaccharide composition and sulfation pattern, the overall proportion and distribution of sulfated regions and the affinity for the Hep II domain were similar. Therefore, adhesion...

  18. Giant superior mesenteric artery aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Temiz, Ahmet; Bostan, Mehmet; Şatıroğlu, Ömer; Çetin, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Engin

    2011-01-01

    Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare condition and most of them are symptomatic. Gradu­ally increasing abdominal pain, intestinal ischemic symp­toms and rupture are the most common symptoms. We herein report a giant SMA aneurysm detected in a patient with complaint of abdominal discomfort.

  19. Image-based analysis of blood flow modification in stented aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, Juan; Mut, Fernando; Appanaboyina, Sunil; Löhner, Rainald; Miranda, Carlos; Escrivano, Esteban; Lylyk, Pedro; Putman, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    Currently there is increased interest in the use of stents as flow diverters for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, especially wide necked aneurysms that are difficult to treat by coil embolization or surgical clipping. This paper presents image-based patient-specific computational models of the hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms before and after treatment with a stent alone, with the goal of better understanding the hemodynamic effects of these devices and their relation to the outcome of the procedures. Stenting of cerebral aneurysms is a feasible endovascular treatment option for aneurysms with wide necks that are difficult to treat with coils or by surgical clipping. However, this requires stents that are capable of substantially modifying the intra-aneurysmal flow pattern in order to cause thrombosis of the aneurysm. The results presented in this paper show that the studied stent was able to change significantly the hemodynamic characteristics of the aneurysm. In addition, it was shown that patient-specific computational models constructed from medical images are capable of realistically representing the in vivo hemodynamic characteristics observed during conventional angiography examinations before and after stenting. This indicates that these models can be used to better understand the effects of different stent designs and to predict the alteration in the hemodynamic pattern of a given aneurysm produced by a given flow diverter. This is important for improving current design of flow diverting devices and patient treatment plans.

  20. The improvement and evaluation of the establishment of side-wall aneurysm model in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve and evaluate the establishing method of carotid side-wall aneurysm model in canine. Methods: Bilateral multiple side-wall aneurysm models were surgically established on the carotid arteries in 15 dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A, being heparinized during procedure;group B, being heparinized after procedure;and group C, not receiving any heparin. Angiography was performed 2 weeks and 1 month after the procedure in order to evaluate the hemodynamic characteristics. Every one dog and two dogs from each group each time at 2 weeks and one month after the procedure respectively were sacrificed and the specimens were sent for histopathologic study. Results: Thirty-seven experimental wide-neck, side-wall aneurysms were established. Angiography showed whirl-like, vortex flow of blood within the dome of the aneurysms. One and 6 aneurysms in group A and C respectively were obliterated due to thrombus. No significant difference in the occurrence of thrombosis existed between group A and B (Nemenyi, P>0.5). Histopathologic study showed that the aneurysms remained stable with reduced inflammation one month after the procedure. Conclusion: For the establishment of side-wall aneurysm model in canine,the use of being heparinized during or after the procedure can obtain the same anti-coagulation effects. The method of surgical suture can be well controlled in establishing multiple aneurysms. This model is very useful for the study of the therapeutic technique of aneurysm. (authors)

  1. Assimilation or integration: Similarities and differences between acculturation attitudes of migrants from Central Asia and Russians in Central Russia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva N. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50), Russia (50), and Central Africa (50) (age range 21–60; M = 34). We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova) and the “Directed...

  2. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  3. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content. PMID:26914607

  4. Serial position learning effects in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Elka; Kostic, Vladimir S; Ziropadja, Ljubomir; Markovic, Milan; Ocic, Gordana

    2002-08-01

    Ruptured and repaired Anterior Communicating Artery (ACoA) aneurysm can result in devastating impairments involving memory, executive function, confabulation, and personality changes. This study tested serial position learning effects (SPEs) in patients following repaired and ruptured ACoA aneurysm, using results on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Thirty patients with ruptured aneurysms of the ACoA and 31 matched controls were included in the study. The primacy-recency effects were maintained during five learning trials in ACoA group, albeit at an overall lower level than in the controls. There was no difference in primacy-recency relation across five learning trials in ACoA group. On the delayed recall trial the patient group demonstrated neither a primacy, nor a recency phenomenon, reflecting a lack of recall of any parts of the word list. This kind of primacy-recency profile across learning trials in ACoA group has no similarity with SPE results in frontal lesion groups, or with SPE distributions in other amnesic disorders, despite the fact that memory and executive deficits were evident in our ACoA group. PMID:12187451

  5. Impact of stents and flow diverters on hemodynamics in idealized aneurysm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadhri, Santhosh; Janiga, Gábor; Beuing, Oliver; Skalej, Martin; Thévenin, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Cerebral aneurysms constitute a major medical challenge as treatment options are limited and often associated with high risks. Statistically, up to 3% of patients with a brain aneurysm may suffer from bleeding for each year of life. Eight percent of all strokes are caused by ruptured aneurysms. In order to prevent this rupture, endovascular stenting using so called flow diverters is increasingly being regarded as an alternative to the established coil occlusion method in minimally invasive treatment. Covering the neck of an aneurysm with a flow diverter has the potential to alter the hemodynamics in such a way as to induce thrombosis within the aneurysm sac, stopping its further growth, preventing its rupture and possibly leading to complete resorption. In the present study the influence of different flow diverters is quantified considering idealized patient configurations, with a spherical sidewall aneurysm placed on either a straight or a curved parent vessel. All important hemodynamic parameters (exchange flow rate, velocity, and wall shear stress) are determined in a quantitative and accurate manner using computational fluid dynamics when varying the key geometrical properties of the aneurysm. All simulations are carried out using an incompressible, Newtonian fluid with steady conditions. As a whole, 72 different cases have been considered in this systematic study. In this manner, it becomes possible to compare the efficiency of different stents and flow diverters as a function of wire density and thickness. The results show that the intra-aneurysmal flow velocity, wall shear stress, mean velocity, and vortex topology can be considerably modified thanks to insertion of a suitable implant. Intra-aneurysmal residence time is found to increase rapidly with decreasing stent porosity. Of the three different implants considered in this study, the one with the highest wire density shows the highest increase of intra-aneurysmal residence time for both the straight and

  6. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzoni, Umberto; Turci, Marco; Avesani, Francesca; Di Gennaro, Gianfranco; Bidoia, Carlo; Romanelli, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity. PMID:21994745

  7. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Romanelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1 and type 2 (HTLV-2 present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity.

  8. Similarities and differences in adolescent siblings' alcohol-related attitudes, use, and delinquency: evidence for convergent and divergent influence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Jensen, Alexander C; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings influence each other's risky and deviant behaviors during adolescence. Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study examined the operation and implications of three different influence processes--social learning, shared friends, and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (earlier born age: M = 17.17 years, SD = 0.94; later born age: M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.27) from 326 families. Data were collected via telephone interviews. Using reports from both older and younger siblings, two-stage cluster analyses revealed three influence profiles: mutual modeling and shared friends, younger sibling admiration, and differentiation. Additional analyses revealed that mutual modeling and shared friends as well as younger sibling admiration were linked to similarities in brothers' and sisters' health-risk behaviors and attitudes, whereas differentiation processes were associated with divergence in siblings' characteristics. The discussion focuses on refining the study of sibling influence, with particular attention paid to the operation and implications of both convergent and divergent influence processes. PMID:23765197

  9. Effects of Side Chains with Similar Lengths and Different Structures of Polyimides on Liquid Crystal Alignment Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hao Xia; Ying Jiang; Shi-ming Gong; Zhen Sun; Ying-han Wang

    2014-01-01

    Polyimides (PI) with different side chains in structure were synthesized by copolycondensation of pyromelliticmdianhydride (PMDA) with 3,5-diamino-(4'-methane acid hexyl ester) phenyl-benzamide (C6-PDA),(4-butoxybiphenol)-3',5'-diaminobenzoate (C4-BBDA) and 3,5-diamino-benzoic acid decyl ester (C 10-DA) named PI-PDA,PI-C4,PI-DA,respectively.The lengths of side chains of PI-PDA and PI-DA are as similar as that of PI-C4.Through the pretilt angle tests it is demonstrated that neither the structure of side chains nor the rubbing process could make an obvious difference on vertical alignment property when the lengths of the side chains are similar,standing at around 1.6 nm.The measurement of surface energy of PI surfaces further proved this result.The result of the X-ray photo-electron spectroscope measurement indicated that the side chains of PIs stretched out from the polymer bulk phase and accumulated on the surface.

  10. International guidelines for bioequivalence of systemically available orally administered generic drug products: a survey of similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Barbara; Braddy, April C; Conner, Dale P; Yu, Lawrence X

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Association, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, the USA, and the World Health Organization. We began with a comparison of how the various jurisdictions and organizations define a generic product and its corresponding reference product. We then compared the following bioequivalence approaches: recommended bioequivalence study designs, method of pharmacokinetic calculations and bioequivalence acceptance limits, recommendations for modifying bioequivalence study designs and limits for highly variable drugs and narrow therapeutic index drugs, provisions for waiving bioequivalence study requirements (granting biowaivers), and implementation of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. We observed that, overall, there are more similarities than differences in bioequivalence approaches among the regulatory authorities surveyed. PMID:23821352

  11. 18F-FDG PET-CT uptake is a feature of both normal diameter and aneurysmal aortic wall and is not related to aneurysm size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic metabolic activity is suggested to correlate with presence and progression of aneurysmal disease, but has been inadequately studied. This study investigates the 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake in a population of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), compared to a matched non-aneurysmal control group. The Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) database was searched for infra-renal AAA. Exclusion criteria were prior repair, vasculitis, and saccular/mycotic thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aneurysms. Matching of 159 non-aneurysmal (max) and target to background mediastinal blood pool ratio (TBR) were documented. Predictors of FDG uptake (age, sex, aortic diameter, hypertension, statin use, and diabetes) were assessed using univariate analysis. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to referring clinicians. Aneurysms (n = 151) and controls (n = 159) were matched (p > 0.05) for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, statin use, and indication for PET/CT. Median aneurysm diameter was 5.0 cm (range 3.2-10.4). On visual analysis there was no significant difference in the overall numbers with increased visual uptake 24 % (36/151) in the aneurysm group vs. 19 % (30/159) in the controls, p = ns. SUVmax was slightly lower in the aneurysm group vs. controls (mean (2 SD) 1.75(0.79) vs. 1.84(0.58), p = 0.02). However there was no difference in TBR between the AAA group and controls (mean (2 SD) 1.03 (0.46) vs. 1.05(0.31), p = 0.36). During a median 18 (interquartile range 8-35) months' follow-up 20 were repaired and four were confirmed ruptured. The level of metabolic activity as assessed by 18F-FDG PET/CT in infra-renal AAA does not correlate with aortic size and does not differ between aneurysms and matched controls. (orig.)

  12. MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are present in early aneurysmal dilatation in experimental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have suggested that inflammation actively participates in ascending aortic aneurysm formation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression changes of adhesion molecules and MMPs in an experimental model of ascending aortic aneurysm induced by ascending aorta banding in Wistar rats. Twelve rats developed aortic dilation after ascending aorta banding treatment, while nine normal animals underwent surgery without banding were used as controls. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope showed that the wall of the ascending aorta became disorganized as well as infiltration by inflammatory cells in aneurysmal rats. By using immunohistochemical techniques, a significant increase in the immunostaining of MCP-1 was observed in the aneurysmal wall as compared to the normal aortic wall. Under similar experimental conditions, we also found that the immunostaining of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased in the aneurysmal wall. In addition, gelatin zymo graphic analysis showed that the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were remarkably enhanced in the ascending aorta of ascending aortic aneurysmal rats as compared to normal rats. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are involved in the pathogenesis of ascending aortic aneurysm and an increase in the immunostaining and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may promote the progression of ascending aortic aneurysm. (authors)

  13. Exploring men's and women's experiences of depression and engagement with health professionals: more similarities than differences? A qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebland Sue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is argued that the ways in which women express emotional distress mean that they are more likely to be diagnosed with depression, while men's relative lack of articulacy means their depression is hidden. This may have consequences for communicating with health professionals. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how men and women with depression articulate their emotional distress, and examine whether there are gender differences or similarities in the strategies that respondents found useful when engaging with health professionals. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with 22 women and 16 men in the UK who identified themselves as having had depression, recruited through general practitioners, psychiatrists and support groups. Results We found gender similarities and gender differences in our sample. Both men and women found it difficult to recognise and articulate mental health problems and this had consequences for their ability to communicate with health professionals. Key gender differences noted were that men tended to value skills which helped them to talk while women valued listening skills in health professionals, and that men emphasised the importance of getting practical results from talking therapies in their narratives, as opposed to other forms of therapy which they conceptualised as 'just talking'. We also found diversity among women and among men; some respondents valued a close personal relationship with health professionals, while others felt that this personal relationship was a barrier to communication and preferred 'talking to a stranger'. Conclusion Our findings suggest that there is not a straightforward relationship between gender and engagement with health professionals for people with depression. Health professionals need to be sensitive to patients who have difficulties in expressing emotional distress and critical of gender stereotypes which suggest that women invariably find it easy to

  14. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Lohbeck

    Full Text Available Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment. We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during

  15. Differences and Similarities in the Clinicopathological Features of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in China and the United States: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Ming; Tang, Laura; Qiao, Xin-Wei; Wolin, Edward; Nissen, Nicholas N; Dhall, Deepti; Chen, Jie; Shen, Lin; Chi, Yihebali; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Ben, Qi-Wen; Lv, Bin; Zhou, Ya-Ru; Bai, Chun-Mei; Chen, Jie; Song, Yu-Li; Song, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chong-Mei; Yu, Run; Chen, Yuan-Jia

    2016-02-01

    The presentation, pathology, and prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) in Asian patients have not been studied in large cohorts. We hypothesized that the clinicopathological features of PNETs of Chinese patients might be different from those of US patients. The objectives of this study were to address whether PNETs in Chinese patients exhibit unique clinicopathological features and natural history, and can be graded and staged using the WHO/ENETS criteria. This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients with PNETs in multiple academic medical centers in China (7) and the United States (2). Tumor grading and staging were based on WHO/ENETS criteria. The clinicopathological features of PNETs of Chinese and US patients were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find associations between survival and patient demographics, tumor grade and stage, and other clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 977 (527 Chinese and 450 US) patients with PNETs were studied. In general, Chinese patients were younger than US patients (median age 46 vs 56 years). In Chinese patients, insulinomas were the most common (52.2%), followed by nonfunctional tumors (39.7%), whereas the order was reversed in US patients. Tumor grade distribution was similar in the 2 countries (G1: 57.5% vs 55.0%; G2: 38.5% vs 41.3%; and G3: 4.0% vs 3.7%). However, age, primary tumor size, primary tumor location, grade, and stage of subtypes of PNETs were significantly different between the 2 countries. The Chinese nonfunctional tumors were significantly larger than US ones (median size 4 vs 3 cm) and more frequently located in the head/neck region (54.9% vs 34.8%). The Chinese and US insulinomas were similar in size (median 1.5 cm) but the Chinese insulinomas relatively more frequently located in the head/neck region (48.3% vs 26.1%). Higher grade, advanced stage, metastasis, and larger primary tumor size were significantly associated with

  16. Similarities and Differences in Maternal Responsiveness in Three Societies: Evidence From Fiji, Kenya, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broesch, Tanya; Rochat, Philippe; Olah, Kata; Broesch, James; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    The first relationship between an infant and her caregiver, typically the mother, lays the foundation for cognitive, social, and emotional development. Maternal responsiveness and affect mirroring have been studied extensively in Western societies yet very few studies have systematically examined these caregiving features in non-Western settings. Sixty-six mother-infant dyads (7 months, SD = 3.1) were observed in a small-scale, rural island society in Fiji, a village in Kenya, and an urban center in the United States. Mothers responded similarly to infant bids overall, but differences were found across societies in the ways mothers selectively respond to affective displays. This has implications for understanding early emotion socialization as well as understanding variation in infant social ecologies across the globe. PMID:27189398

  17. Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel, Sasha Y; Huesmann, Rowell; Kunst, Jonas R; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    Information about the degree of one's genetic overlap with ethnic outgroups has been emphasized in genocides, is frequently learned about through media reporting, and is increasingly being accessed via personal genetic testing services. However, the consequence of learning about whether your own ethnic group is either genetically related to or genetically distinct from a disliked ethnic group remains unknown. Across four experiments, using diverse samples, measures and contexts, we demonstrate that altering perceptions of genetic overlap between groups in conflict--in this case Arabs and Jews--impacts factors that are directly related to interethnic hostility (e.g., aggressive behaviors, support of conflict-related policies). Our findings indicate that learning about the genetic difference between oneself and an ethnic outgroup may contribute to the promotion of violence, whereas learning about the similarities may be a vital step toward fostering peace in some contexts. Possible interventions and implications are discussed. PMID:27029578

  18. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, J.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  19. Characteristic features of the Coriolis coupling model and its similarities and differences with the weak coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early suggestions that many nuclei having the last odd nucleon in the 1g/sub 9/2/ shell, might be candidates for the Coriolis Coupling Model (CCM), much experimental information have emerged. In particular many of the high spin states in nuclei near mass number 100 seem to exhibit rotational structure. Nevertheless, many of their spectra at lower excitation energies seem to agree with the expectation of a weak coupling model (WCM). The most important point in the CCM is that the coupling term is specified to be 2 (I,j) and the core is identified to be rotational. The key difference between the WCM and the CCM is that in the WCM the particle is coupled to spherically symmetric states and in the CCM they are coupled to axially symmetric states. This difference in symmetries in two cases manifests itself in the electro-magnetic properties such as moments and transition rates. To show these similarities and the differences between the two models, the author constructs first an extreme Coriolis Coupling Model (ECCM), for the 1f/sub 7/2/ and 1g/sub 9/2/ shells. He has calculated the low lying positive parity states of /sup 50/Ti, thus extending the model of ref. 1 to an even-even nucleus

  20. Differences and similarities among volunteers who drop out during the first year and volunteers who continue after eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, María Luisa; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2010-05-01

    Differences and similarities between 130 volunteers who remain for more than eight years in the same non-profit organization and 110 volunteers who quit during the first year were analyzed in this paper. Both groups were chosen from a sample of 851 volunteers that were working as volunteers when we assessed the independent variables (Time 1). After a 12-month follow-up (Time 2), 209 (25%) of them had dropped out and 642 (75%) continued in the same organization. Using the previous time, we formed two groups made up of those who dropped out and had been in the organization less than a year and those who continued and had been in the organization more than 8 years. Results show that differences and similarities between both groups are coherent with the three-stage model of volunteer's duration (Chacón, Vecina, & Dávila, 2007). This model includes the functional approach of volunteers' motivations (Clary & Snyder, 1991), and the role identity approach (Callero, 1985), and indicates that people will remain as volunteers insofar as this satisfies the motivations that are relevant for them at the first stage, they develop organizational commitment at the second stage, and they develop role identity as volunteers at the third stage. More specifically, results show that it is possible to predict 85% of the cases correctly using seven variables. Volunteers who remain after eight years feel a higher level of emotional exhaustion, a higher level of organizational commitment, and a strong role identity as volunteers. They are also highly satisfied with the friendships in the organization and have a stronger intention to remain at the long-term (2 years). PMID:20480701

  1. Self-similar solution of radiation hydrodynamic equations and comparison of different scaling laws with numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various scaling models, which describe thermal x-ray reemission in an indirectly driven ICF system, are discussed for a given, general time-dependent temperature/flux profile. (e.g., a shaped pulse profile in a hohlraum). These scaling models are used to calculate parameters, which are crucial to the ultimate implosion efficiency of the ICF system. The scaling laws are derived analytically using self-similar solution of the radiation hydrodynamic equations, and compared with an experimentally, well tested numerical simulation. This simulation is based on I-D Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations coupled with radiation transport equation. The various scaling models, although equivalent to one another for a time-independent boundary condition, turn out to be different in a general time-dependent situation. It is found that, in general, the energy based scaling laws reproduce the results better when compared with the usual time based scaling laws. This implies that the energy accumulated in the system upto a certain time t is a better measure of the ablative characteristics of the ICF system than the absolute time t itself. In particular, in the rising period of the incident pulse, the energy model scales better in combination with the absorbed flux (E-S model). However, in the tail region of the pulse, it is the combination of energy with time (t-E model) that proves to be best. This shows that the accumulated energy over the earlier period plays a vital role in maintaining the penetrating shock and re-emission even after the external source is switched off. The merits and demerits of all the models are discussed, in detail, for a given experimentally generated temperature profile in a hohlraum system. Finally, the validity of the self-similar solution is discussed, for a general temporal profile, along with its implications on the different scaling laws. (author)

  2. Appearance of femoropopliteal segment aneurysms in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Milanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To promote better treatment outcome, as well as economic benefit it is very important to find out patients with simultaneous occurrence of both aortic and arterial aneurysms. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the frequency and factors affecting femoropopliteal (F-P segment aneurysms appearance in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA. Methods. This study included 70 patients who had underwent elective or urgent surgery of AAA from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007. After ultrasonographic examination of F-P segment, all the patients were divided into two groups - those with adjunctive F-P segment aneurysm (n = 20 and the group of 50 patients with no adjunctive F-P segment aneurysm. In both groups demographic characteristics (gender, age, risk factors (diabetes mellitus, elevated serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, arterial hypertension, smoking, obesity and cardiovascular comorbidity (cerebrovascular desease, ischemic heart desease were investigated. Results. Twenty (28.57% patients who had been operated on because of AAA, had adjunctive aneurysmal desease of F-P segment. Diabetes was no statistically significantly more present among the patients who, beside AAA, had adjunctive aneurismal desease of F-P segment (χ2 = 0.04; DF = 1; p > 0.05. Also, in both groups there was no statistically significant difference in gender structure (χ2 = 2. 05; DF = 2; p > 0.05, age (χ2 = 5. 46; DF = 1; p > 0.05, total cholesterol level (χ2 = 0.89; DF = 1; p > 0.05 and triglyceride (χ2 = 0.89; DF = 1; p > 0.05 levels, the presence of arterial hypertension (χ2 = 1.38; DF = 2; p > 0.05, smoking (χ2 = 1.74; DF = 1; p > 0.05, obesity (χ2 = 1.76; DF = 1; p > 0.05 and presence of cerebrovascular desease (χ2 = 2.34; DF = 1; p > 0.05. Conversly, ischemic heart desease was statistically significantly more present among the patients who, beside AAA, had adjunctive aneurismal desease of F-P segment (χ2 = 5

  3. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies the seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary network of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters is performed based on their waveform characteristics. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross-correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  4. Aneurisma verdadeiro bilateral de artéria tibial posterior True bilateral aneurysm of the posterior tibial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero de Barros Marques

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, faz-se o relato de um caso de aneurisma verdadeiro bilateral da artéria tibial posterior em paciente de 57 anos. Os aneurismas surgiram em épocas diferentes. Os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos deste caso são discutidos. Este relato é importante, pois os autores não têm conhecimento de caso semelhante na literatura consultada.This article reports a case of true bilateral aneurysm of the tibial posterior artery in a 57 year-old patient. The aneurysms occurred at different times. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this case are discussed. This report is important because the authors did not find a similar description in the literature.

  5. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  6. Clinical profiles and risk factors for outcomes in older patients with cervical and trochanteric hip fracture: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Alexander A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on clinical characteristics and outcomes in regard to hip fracture (HF type are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether clinical and laboratory predictors of poorer outcomes differ by HF type. Methods Prospective evaluation of 761 consecutively admitted patients (mean age 82.3 ± 8.8 years; 74.9% women with low-trauma non-pathological HF. Clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes were recorded. Haematological, renal, liver and thyroid status, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, serum 25(OH vitamin D, PTH, leptin, adiponectin and resistin were determined. Results The cervical compared to the tronchanteric HF group was younger, have higher mean haemoglobin, albumin, adiponectin and resistin and lower PTH levels (all P 20 days CAD, and age > 75 years and hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Need of institutionalisation was predicted by age > 75 years and dementia in both groups and also by hypovitaminosis D in the cervical and by hyperparathyroidism in the trochanteric HF. Conclusions Clinical characteristics and incidence of poorer short-term outcomes in the two main HF types are rather similar but risk factors for certain outcomes are site-specific reflecting differences in underlying mechanisms.

  7. Sodium insertion/extraction from single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The differences and similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Choucair, Mohammad; Rawal, Aditya; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the sodium-ion insertion and extraction of commercially-available multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes is reported. Single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit charge/discharge capacities of 126 mA h g-1 and multi-wall carbon nanotubes produce a lower capacity of 28 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 25 mA g-1. To understand these differences, a combination of X-ray diffraction and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at various states of sodium insertion and extraction.23Na nuclear magnetic resonance studies, a technique previously rarely used for characterising electrodes from sodium-ion batteries, shows differences in the sodium chemical environment near multi-wall compared to single-wall carbon nanotubes with distinct sodium sites found to be active during sodium insertion and extraction for the carbon nanotubes. Both types of carbon nanotubes show a similar amount of reversible sodium available for insertion/extraction reactions, but multi-wall carbon nanotubes feature half the initial insertion capacity relative to single-wall carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube electrodes are discussed in relation to the observed mechanism of sodium insertion.

  8. Similar rates of protein adaptation in Drosophila miranda and D. melanogaster, two species with different current effective population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachtrog Doris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive protein evolution is common in several Drosophila species investigated. Some studies point to very weak selection operating on amino-acid mutations, with average selection intensities on the order of Nes ~ 5 in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Species with lower effective population sizes should undergo less adaptation since they generate fewer mutations and selection is ineffective on a greater proportion of beneficial mutations. Results Here I study patterns of polymorphism and divergence at 91 X-linked loci in D. miranda, a species with a roughly 5-fold smaller effective population size than D. melanogaster. Surprisingly, I find a similar fraction of amino-acid mutations being driven to fixation by positive selection in D. miranda and D. melanogaster. Genes with higher rates of amino-acid evolution show lower levels of neutral diversity, a pattern predicted by recurrent adaptive protein evolution. I fit a hitchhiking model to patterns of polymorphism in D. miranda and D. melanogaster and estimate an order of magnitude higher selection coefficients for beneficial mutations in D. miranda. Conclusion This analysis suggests that effective population size may not be a major determinant in rates of protein adaptation. Instead, adaptation may not be mutation-limited, or the distribution of fitness effects for beneficial mutations might differ vastly between different species or populations. Alternative explanation such as biases in estimating the fraction of beneficial mutations or slightly deleterious mutation models are also discussed.

  9. Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Signaling during Leaf and Flower Senescence: Similar But Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hilary; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of many developmental processes, including senescence, and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several mechanisms of ROS generation and scavenging are similar, but others differ between senescing leaves and petals, despite these organs sharing a common evolutionary origin. Photosynthesis-derived ROS, nutrient remobilization, and reversibility of senescence are necessarily distinct features of the progression of senescence in the two organs. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed specific redox signaling processes that act in concert with phytohormones and transcription factors to regulate senescence-associated genes in leaves and petals. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the production and elimination of ROS in these two organs. We focus on unveiling common and differential aspects of redox signaling in leaf and petal senescence, with the aim of linking physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. We conclude that the spatiotemporal impact of ROS in senescing tissues differs between leaves and flowers, mainly due to the specific functionalities of these organs. PMID:27208233

  10. Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Signaling during Leaf and Flower Senescence: Similar But Different1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of many developmental processes, including senescence, and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several mechanisms of ROS generation and scavenging are similar, but others differ between senescing leaves and petals, despite these organs sharing a common evolutionary origin. Photosynthesis-derived ROS, nutrient remobilization, and reversibility of senescence are necessarily distinct features of the progression of senescence in the two organs. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed specific redox signaling processes that act in concert with phytohormones and transcription factors to regulate senescence-associated genes in leaves and petals. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the production and elimination of ROS in these two organs. We focus on unveiling common and differential aspects of redox signaling in leaf and petal senescence, with the aim of linking physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. We conclude that the spatiotemporal impact of ROS in senescing tissues differs between leaves and flowers, mainly due to the specific functionalities of these organs. PMID:27208233

  11. Similarities and differences in business culture in the people’s Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakić Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available World economic crisis has affected the whole world including Serbia. Among various strategies used for improving this difficult situation, Serbian Government primarily focuses on attracting foreign investments. One of the possible future investors could be, among other countries, the People’s Republic of China. At present, Serbian Government is trying to help Chinese investors in Serbia, but there is still a need for better understanding of how Chinese businessmen work, negotiate and make deals. The main goal of this paper is to present similarities and differences in business culture in China and Serbia in order to define possibilities for mutual cooperation. The methodology of this paper is based on cultural dimensions research made by Hofstede. His national dimensions of culture can be used for explanation of specific types of business culture in China and Serbia. The data from this research will show similari­ties and differences in business culture in these two countries, and also some suggestions are made with regard to improving mutual understanding and doing business.

  12. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomic responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ubach, A; Sardans, J; Hódar, J A; Garcia-Porta, J; Guenther, A; Oravec, M; Urban, O; Peñuelas, J

    2016-05-01

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at element and molecular levels have focused on the elemental composition or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defence metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and avoid those with higher levels of defence compounds. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, both local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under attack from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing relative concentrations of terpenes and some phenolics. Systemic responses differed between pine subspecies, and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Our results support the hypothesis that foliar nutrient concentrations are not a key factor for plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition, since folivory was not associated with any of the elements analysed. Phenolic compounds generally did not increase in the attacked trees, questioning the suggestion of induction of phenolics following folivory attack and the anti-feeding properties of phenolics. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, in both primary and secondary metabolism, which was less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Local pine responses were similar between pine subspecies, while systemic responses were more distant. PMID:26642818

  13. Amazonian anthrosols support similar microbial communities that differ distinctly from those extant in adjacent, unmodified soils of the same mineralogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Julie M; O'Neill, Brendan E; Tsai, Siu Mui; Liang, Biqing; Neves, Eduardo; Lehmann, Johannes; Thies, Janice E

    2010-07-01

    We compared the microbial community composition in soils from the Brazilian Amazon with two contrasting histories; anthrosols and their adjacent non-anthrosol soils of the same mineralogy. The anthrosols, also known as the Amazonian Dark Earths or terra preta, were managed by the indigenous pre-Colombian Indians between 500 and 8,700 years before present and are characterized by unusually high cation exchange capacity, phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca) contents, and soil carbon pools that contain a high proportion of incompletely combusted biomass as biochar or black carbon (BC). We sampled paired anthrosol and unmodified soils from four locations in the Manaus, Brazil, region that differed in their current land use and soil type. Community DNA was extracted from sampled soils and characterized by use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. DNA bands of interest from Bacteria and Archaea DGGE gels were cloned and sequenced. In cluster analyses of the DNA fingerprints, microbial communities from the anthrosols grouped together regardless of current land use or soil type and were distinct from those in their respective, paired adjacent soils. For the Archaea, the anthrosol communities diverged from the adjacent soils by over 90%. A greater overall richness was observed for Bacteria sequences as compared with those of the Archaea. Most of the sequences obtained were novel and matched those in databases at less than 98% similarity. Several sequences obtained only from the anthrosols grouped at 93% similarity with the Verrucomicrobia, a genus commonly found in rice paddies in the tropics. Sequences closely related to Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria sp. were recovered only from adjacent soil samples. Sequences related to Pseudomonas, Acidobacteria, and Flexibacter sp. were recovered from both anthrosols and adjacent soils. The strong similarities among the microbial communities present in the anthrosols for

  14. Surgical anatomy of bilateral extralaryngeal bifurcation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: Similarities and differences between both sides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Gurleyik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN such as extralaryngeal terminal bifurcation is an important risk for its motor function. Aims: The objective is to study surgical anatomy of bilateral bifurcation of the RLNs in order to decrease risk of vocal cord palsy in patients with bifurcated nerves. Materials and Methods: Surgical anatomy including terminal bifurcation was established in 292 RLNs of 146 patients. We included patients with bilateral bifurcation of RLN in this study. Based on two anatomical landmarks (nerve-artery crossing and laryngeal entry, the cervical course of RLN was classified in four segments: Pre-arterial, arterial, post-arterial and pre-laryngeal. According to these segments, bifurcation point locations along the cervical course of RLNs were compared between both sides in bilateral cases. Results: RLNs were exposed throughout their entire courses. Seventy (48% patients had bifurcated RLNs. We identified terminal bifurcation in 90 (31% of 292 RLNs along the cervical course. Bilateral bifurcation was observed in 20 (28.6% patients with bifurcated RLNs. Bifurcation points were located on arterial and post-arterial segments in 37.5% and 32.5% of cases, respectively. Pre-arterial and pre-laryngeal segments contained bifurcations in 15% of cases. Comparison of both sides indicated that bifurcation points were similar in 5 (25% and different in 15 (75% patients with bilateral bifurcation. Permanent nerve injury did not occur in this series. Conclusion: Bilateral bifurcation of both RLNs was observed in approximately 30% of patients with extralaryngeal bifurcation which is a common anatomical variation. Bifurcation occurred in different segments along cervical course of RLN. Bifurcation point locations differed between both sides in the majority of bilateral cases. Increasing surgeons′ awareness of this variation may lead to safely exposing bifurcated nerves and prevent the injury to extralaryngeal

  15. An Advanced Dictionary? Similarities and Differences between Duramazwi ReChiShona and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article a comparative analysis of Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC and Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC is made. Both DRC and DGC are monolingual Shona dictionaries compiled by a team of researchers under the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, now the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. During the compilation process, DRC was known as the General Shona Dictionary and DGC as the Advanced Shona Dictionary. A simple analysis of these titles shows that the dictionaries are similar in some ways and also different in others. The writer tries to show the ways in which DGC is regarded as a more advanced dictionary when compared to DRC. Although the argument of the article is mainly built on those differences which make DGC the more advanced, attention is also paid to the similarities between the dictionaries.

    Keywords: ALLEX PROJECT, ALRI, DURAMAZWI RECHISHONA, DURAMAZWI GURU RECHISHONA, DICTIONARY, SHONA, HEADWORD, SENSE, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, CORPUS, IDIOM, PROVERB, PITHY SAYING

    Opsomming: 'n Gevorderde woordeboek? Ooreenkomste en verskille tussen Duramazwi ReChiShona en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona. In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelykende ontleding van Duramazwi ReChiShona (DRC en Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (DGC gemaak. Sowel die DRC en DGC is eentalige Sjonawoordeboeke, saamgestel deur ?n span navorsers by die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project, tans die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI. Gedurende die samestellingsproses was DRC bekend as die Algemene Sjonawoordeboek en DGC as die Gevorderde Sjonawoordeboek. 'n Eenvoudige ontleding van hierdie titels toon dat die woordeboeke op sommige maniere eenders en op ander ook verskillend is. Die skrywer probeer die maniere aantoon waarop DGC beskou word as 'n meer gevorderde woordeboek wanneer dit met DRC vergelyk word. Alhoewel die argument van die artikel hoofsaaklik gebou is op daardie verskille wat DGC die gevorderdste maak, word ook aandag gegee aan

  16. Endovascular treatment of PICA aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukonoweshuro, W.; Laitt, R.D.; Hughes, D.G. [Radiology Dept., Greater Manchester Neurosciences Unit, Hope Hospital, Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) avoids manipulation of the brainstem or lower cranial nerves and should therefore carry a lower risk of neurological morbidity than surgical clipping. We reviewed our experience of 23 patients with PICA aneurysms treated by endovascular occlusion with Guglielmi detachable coils and documented their long-term outcome on follow-up. We observed a 28 day procedure-related neurological morbidity of 13% (3/23 patients). One patient suffered permanent neurological complications. There were no procedure-related deaths. None of our patients suffered a re-bleed from their treated aneurysms. Our series shows endovascular treatment of ruptured PICA aneurysms to be safe and effective. (orig.)

  17. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    from the Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for up to 34years and in 56,211 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study followed for up to 7years. RESULTS: During follow-up, 335 and 169 individuals developed aortic aneurysm outcomes in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...

  18. Cluster headache and intracranial aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; Andrade-Valença, Luciana P. A.; Martins, Carolina; de Aragão, Maria Fátima Vasco; Batista, Laécio Leitão; Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; da Silva, Wilson Farias

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we describe the cases of two patients with cluster-like headache related to intracranial carotid artery aneurysm. One of these patients responded to verapamil prescription with headache resolution. In both cases the surgical clipping of the aneurysm resolved the cluster pain. These findings strongly suggest a pathophysiological link between the two conditions. The authors discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cluster-like headache due to intracran...

  19. Hydrochemical differences between Carpathian streams with similar physico-geographical conditions of catchments (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna; Wiejaczka, Łukasz

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted during one hydrological year (2012/2013) in two Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (11.39 km2 and 8.95 km2, respectively) located in the Gorce Mountains with environmental features representative for the Western Flysch Carpathians (in 2012/2013 hydrological year). The Jaszcze and Jamne streams (9.3 km and 6.4 km long, respectively), are left tributaries of the Ochotnica river. Both catchments are in the range of the Magura nappe of the Carpathian Flysch. The Jaszcze and Jamne valleys are located in two climatic vertical zones: 1) a temperate cold zone (of a mean annual temperature of 4-6 ºC) and 2) a cold zone (2-4ºC), above 1,100 m a.s.l. Mean annual precipitation for this region in the years 1958-2008 was 841 mm. The aim of the research was to determine differences in the physicochemical properties between streams, the valleys of which are characterised by similar physico-geographical conditions. The discussed valleys are alike because of their proximity, and the similarity manifests itself through the occurrence of the same geology, relief and exposure of both valleys, as well as inclination and soil cover. The climatic conditions and circulation of groundwater are also similar. In both valleys, forest is the dominant land use form (the Jaszcze catchment - 77% and the Jamne - 55%). The research showed that the Jaszcze stream is characterised by a higher discharge throughout the year than the Jamne stream. In spring, the mean water flow rate calculated for the entire longitudinal profile of the Jaszcze stream was 1.6 times higher than the rate obtained for the Jamne stream. In summer and autumn, this rate was respectively 1.8 and 2.2 times higher in the Jaszcze stream than in the Jamne stream. The mean annual temperature of water in the Jamne stream is higher by 0.8 °C than the temperature of water in the Jaszcze stream. This is caused by the higher temperature of groundwater (even by up to 2-3 °C) and the lower discharge (the temperature

  20. Breastfeeding support for adolescent mothers: similarities and differences in the approach of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Susan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding are now major public health priorities. It is well established that skilled support, voluntary or professional, proactively offered to women who want to breastfeed, can increase the initiation and/or duration of breastfeeding. Low levels of breastfeeding uptake and continuation amongst adolescent mothers in industrialised countries suggest that this is a group that is in particular need of breastfeeding support. Using qualitative methods, the present study aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in the approaches of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters (the Breastfeeding Network (BfN in supporting breastfeeding adolescent mothers. Methods The study was conducted in the North West of England between September 2001 and October 2002. The supportive approaches of 12 midwives and 12 BfN supporters were evaluated using vignettes, short descriptions of an event designed to obtain specific information from participants about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to a particular situation. Responses to vignettes were analysed using thematic networks analysis, involving the extraction of basic themes by analysing each script line by line. The basic themes were then grouped to form organising themes and finally central global themes. Discussion and consensus was reached related to the systematic development of the three levels of theme. Results Five components of support were identified: emotional, esteem, instrumental, informational and network support. Whilst the supportive approaches of both groups incorporated elements of each of the five components of support, BfN supporters placed greater emphasis upon providing emotional and esteem support and highlighted the need to elicit the mothers' existing knowledge, checking understanding through use of open questions and utilising more tentative language. Midwives were more directive and gave more

  1. The economic growth of small states and small economies in regional economic organizations and integrations: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurečić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the effect of membership of small states in regional economic organizations and integrations on the growth of GDP. The aim is to use cost-benefit analysis to answer the question of whether small states, and also small economies, achieve greater economic growth through regional economic organizations and integrations than those small states that are not small economies. Small states, as the subjects of research work, have been chosen precisely because of their size, here defined by quantitative criteria, but taking into account that relational criteria are very important for their positioning in international relations, such as greater exposure to external influences and their dependence on membership in regional economic organizations and integrations. The GDP of small states, in an attempt to answer the hypothesis, was followed for a period of twenty years. Characteristics that depend on regional affiliation of small states, as well as the similarities and differences between small states which are members of the same regional economic organizations/integrations, were also the subject of this paper.

  2. Differences and similarities between obsessive and ruminative thoughts in obsessive-compulsive and depressed patients: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Karina; Schönfeld, Sabine; Hissbach, Johanna; Küsel, Sebastian; Zurowski, Bartosz; Moritz, Steffen; Hohagen, Fritz; Kordon, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Repetitive, intrusive cognitive phenomena are central both to obsessive-compulsive patients - typically as obsessive thoughts - and to depressed patients - typically as ruminative thoughts. The objective of the present study is to compare obsessive and ruminative thoughts in non-depressed obsessive-compulsive and depressed patients. Thirty-four patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 34 patients diagnosed with major depression disorder were asked to identify both a personally relevant obsessive and a personally relevant ruminative thought and to subsequently evaluate these thoughts on a modified version of the Cognitive Intrusions Questionnaire (CIQ) developed by Freeston, Ladouceur, Thibodeau, and Gagnon (1991). The CIQ assesses general descriptors, emotional reactions, appraisal and coping strategies on a nine-point Likert scale. A mixed-model ANOVA demonstrated that obsessive and ruminative thoughts are distinct cognitive processes, clearly distinguishable in form, appraisal and temporal orientation across disorders. In obsessive-compulsive patients, ruminative thoughts were more common and more emotionally distressing than predicted. In depressed patients, obsessive thoughts occurred infrequently and were not associated with high negative emotions. Clarifying similarities and differences between ruminative and obsessive thoughts and understanding their interaction might ultimately help to expand on the role of cognitive vulnerability factors in obsessive-compulsive and major depression disorder. PMID:21596010

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural crest stem cells from adult bone marrow: characterization of their surprising similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Alix, Philippe; Leprince, Pierre; Glejzer, Aneta; Poulet, Christophe; Hennuy, Benoit; Sommer, Lukas; Shakhova, Olga; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crest stem cells (NCSC) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), including their similarities and differences. In this paper, using transcriptomic as well as proteomic technologies, we compared NCSC to MSC and stromal nestin-positive cells, all of them isolated from adult bone marrow. We demonstrated that the nestin-positive cell population, which was the first to be described as able to differentiate into functional neurons, was a mixed population of NCSC and MSC. More interestingly, we demonstrated that MSC shared with NCSC the same ability to truly differentiate into Tuj1-positive cells when co-cultivated with paraformaldehyde-fixed cerebellar granule neurons. Altogether, those results suggest that both NCSC and MSC can be considered as important tools for cellular therapies in order to replace neurons in various neurological diseases. PMID:22349262

  4. Similarity and differences between the radion and Higgs boson production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, E. E.; Keizerov, S. I.; Rahmetov, E. R.; Svirina, K. S., E-mail: svirina@theory.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The radion is a scalar particle that occurs in brane world models and interacts with the trace of the energy–momentum tensor of the Standard Model (SM). The radion–SM fermion interaction Lagrangian differs from the Higgs boson–fermion interaction Lagrangian for off-shell fermions. It is shown that all additional, as compared to the Higgs boson, contributions to the amplitudes of radion production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions are canceled out for both massless and massive fermions. Thus, additional terms in the interaction Lagrangian do not change properties of these processes for the radion and the Higgs boson, except for the general normalization factors. This similarity is a consequence of gauge invariance for the processes with production of gauge bosons. When an additional scalar particle is produced, there are no apparent reasons for the above cancellation, as confirmed, for example, by the process with production of two scalar particles, which features an additional contribution of the radion in comparison with the Higgs boson.

  5. A look at the Peronist Social Tourism: similarities and differences with authoritarian regimes and the New Deal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available More than a regime that stormed to Argentina in the 1940s, Peronism is configured as a system of complex ideas and exceptional, a identification (as defined by Beatriz SARLO. This article focuses on the brightest stage og the Justicialism (another name for the period that was Juan Domingo Perón as its greatest exponent, the First Peronism (1946-1955 - and the construction of a policy of spreading the so-called Social Tourism, while one arm of a larger project carried forward by the powerful Central Office of Information (SI, in Spanish. This strategy was fundamentally based on the production and dissemination of posters. On the other hand, the study shows similarities and differences in this field to other regimes of the first half of the 20th century (Salazarism, Francoism, Fascism, Nazism, Stalinism and New Deal. And it shows how the vision of Michel FOUCAULT about the Disciplinary Power was largely present in the peronist Social Tourism.

  6. Flow Diverters for Intracranial Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan J. Alderazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow diverters (pipeline embolization device, Silk flow diverter, and Surpass flow diverter have been developed to treat intracranial aneurysms. These endovascular devices are placed within the parent artery rather than the aneurysm sac. They take advantage of altering hemodynamics at the aneurysm/parent vessel interface, resulting in gradual thrombosis of the aneurysm occurring over time. Subsequent inflammatory response, healing, and endothelial growth shrink the aneurysm and reconstruct the parent artery lumen while preserving perforators and side branches in most cases. Flow diverters have already allowed treatment of previously untreatable wide neck and giant aneurysms. There are risks with flow diverters including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, distant and delayed hemorrhages, and perforator occlusions. Comparative efficacy and safety against other therapies are being studied in ongoing trials. Antiplatelet therapy is mandatory with flow diverters, which has highlighted the need for better evidence for monitoring and tailoring antiplatelet therapy. In this paper we review the devices, their uses, associated complications, evidence base, and ongoing studies.

  7. Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, Alessandro [Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Pravatà, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.pravata@gmail.com [Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); De Blasi, Roberto [Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Tschuor, Costa Silvia [Dipartimento di Radiologia, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Bonaldi, Giuseppe [U.O. Neuroradiologia, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo, Largo Barozzi, 1, 24128 Bergamo (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls.

  8. Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls

  9. Simulation of Aorta Artery Aneurysms Using Active Electronic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Hassani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusiform and saccular aneurysms in different aorta artery sections were studied using an electronic circuit of cardiovascular system. The geometrical model of each artery section including thoracic and abdominal were generated in accordance with original anatomical data. By increasing the rate of aneurysm in each studied section, the pressure drop were calculated using CFD method, furthermore the compliance variations due to aneurysms were determined by mathematical method. The equivalent electronic circuit was then used to study the effects of the pressure drops and compliance variations on whole cardiovascular system. The results of the simulation exhibited the features of the pathology, including hypertension, the increase of the pulse pressure with the rate of aneurysm and the large magnitude of back flow during systole. Finally, the obtained results were compared with relevant clinical data .We have concluded from the study that aorta aneurysms in both fusiform and saccular, especially at highest diameters, may be the most important determinant of the artery rapture and heart failure.

  10. Intracranial aneurysm associated with relapsing polychondritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbaras, M.; Boulin, A.; Pierot, L. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Piette, A.M.; Bletry, O. [Dept. of Medicine, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Graveleau, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France)

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 50-year-old man with relapsing polychondritis (RP) involving auricular cartilage, uveitis and hearing loss, who had an aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. Intracranial aneurysm is a rare manifestation of RP. (orig.)

  11. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  12. Aneurysms - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Aneurysms URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/aneurysms.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. Aortic aneurysm secondary to umbilical artery catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14-month-girl presented with an asymptomatic posterior mediastinal mass. She had a history of prematurity, umbilical artery catheterization, and sepsis. The diagnosis of aortic aneurysm was made by dynamic computed tomography. The aneurysm was successfully resected. (orig.)

  14. Effects of postimplantation systemic inflammatory response on long-term clinical outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Min-Ju; Han, Youngjin; Noh, Minsu; Kwon, Tae-Won; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between postimplantation syndrome (PIS) and long-term clinical outcomes after elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an abdominal aortic aneurysm.In this single-center, observational cohort study, a total of 204 consecutive patients undergoing EVAR were included. Primary outcome was long-term mortality from any cause; secondary outcomes included long-term mortality, systemic or implant-related complications, and secondary therapeutic procedures.The diagnosis of PIS was established in 64 patients (31.4%). PIS patients were more likely to receive woven polyester endografts and have a longer postoperative hospital stay and lower incidence of type II endoleaks. In multivariate analysis, PIS was significantly associated with a decreased risk of developing type II endoleaks (P = 0.044). During follow-up period of 44 months, clinical outcomes showed no significant differences in mortality (P = 0.876), systemic (P = 0.668), or implant-related complications (P = 0.847), although rates of secondary therapeutic procedure were significantly higher in non-PIS patients (P = 0.037). The groups had similar rates of overall survival (P = 0.761) and other clinical outcomes (P = 0.562).Patients with and without PIS had similar long-term overall survival rates and other clinical outcomes. PIS was beneficial in preventing type II endoleaks during postoperative period. PMID:27512875

  15. Public Acceptance. Chapter 7. [Similarities and differences in public perception and public acceptance between CO2 and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste, particularly the handling and disposal of radioactive waste, is one of the most disputed political and societal issues in many countries. Identifying factors relevant for public acceptance of the disposal of such waste is a challenge still to be solved [7.1]. Compared to the long standing controversy on radioactive waste, particularly on high level waste (HLW), CO2 disposal is still a peripheral subject in most European countries. Only a portion of the public is aware of this technology and risk perception is underdeveloped and unstable. The debate on CO2 disposal and local resistance against a few (proposed) CO2 disposal only began to impact on national CCD policies about four years ago in the cases reviewed in this chapter. Although radioactive waste and CO2 disposal differ in many aspects, they also share certain similarities. In particular, social acceptance is a critical resource needed to increase the chance of implementing disposal projects. Comparing the challenges and problems of social acceptance and the closely intertwined policies in both issue areas may facilitate mutual learning. A comparative analysis was performed for three countries: the Czech Republic, Germany and Lithuania. Special attention was given to public awareness and knowledge, public opinion, public and political debates, and policies. This chapter is organized as follows: Section 7.2 presents the methodological foundations of the comparative analyses. Section 7.3 provides detailed analyses of public acceptance in the broader national context for the three participating countries. Finally, Section 7.4 summarizes the main insights from the national and cross-national assessments

  16. Similar but Different: Dynamic Social Network Analysis Highlights Fundamental Differences between the Fission-Fusion Societies of Two Equid Species, the Onager and Grevy's Zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Daniel I; Sundaresan, Siva R; Fischhoff, Ilya R; Tantipathananandh, Chayant; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why animal societies take on the form that they do has benefited from insights gained by applying social network analysis to patterns of individual associations. Such analyses typically aggregate data over long time periods even though most selective forces that shape sociality have strong temporal elements. By explicitly incorporating the temporal signal in social interaction data we re-examine the network dynamics of the social systems of the evolutionarily closely-related Grevy's zebras and wild asses that show broadly similar social organizations. By identifying dynamic communities, previously hidden differences emerge: Grevy's zebras show more modularity than wild asses and in wild asses most communities consist of solitary individuals; and in Grevy's zebras, lactating females show a greater propensity to switch communities than non-lactating females and males. Both patterns were missed by static network analyses and in general, adding a temporal dimension provides insights into differences associated with the size and persistence of communities as well as the frequency and synchrony of their formation. Dynamic network analysis provides insights into the functional significance of these social differences and highlights the way dynamic community analysis can be applied to other species. PMID:26488598

  17. True Giant Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizio Colotto; Gabriele Testi; Giacomo Di Iasio; Alessandro Robaldo

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of true atherosclerotic posterior tibial artery (PTA) aneurysm without any apparent causative history. To our knowledge, in the English Literature only seven previously cases of true PTA aneurysms are reported. Due to its location, this lesion may require surgical intervention and removal. The presentation, the diagnostic evaluation, and the surgical management of the aneurysm are discussed.

  18. Microsurgical cerebral aneurysm training porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Olabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors developed a simple reproducible technique for aneurysm creation and adapted it to mimic intracranial dissection conditions using glue application as a pseudo-arachnoid type layer. Ten 1-2-month-old healthy domestic swine were employed under general anesthesia. A novel technique for bifurcation aneurysm creation was developed using two arteries and a vein. After aneurysm creation, diluted sulfuric acid was applied on the dome with a micropipette to increase aneurysm fragility in selected zones. The surgical field was then dried and contact glue was applied around the vascular complex in a circular manner so as to emulate arachnoidal connection fibers. Microsurgical dissection of the aneurysm and surrounding vessels was performed by delicately removing the adhesive substance. Diverse aneurysm clipping techniques, emergency rupture situations and vascular reconstruction procedures were trained. Twenty-two aneurysms were created at several vascular sites, one aneurysm dome ruptured during application of sulfuric acid, two aneurysm models were proved to be thrombosed, two aneurysms ruptured during the dissection and no intraoperative deaths occurred. All aneurysms were clipped in an acceptable manner. This bifurcation aneurysm model provides a novel training system to be used not only by neurosurgeons but also by neurovascular interventionists.

  19. Internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms. Surgical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation aneurysms are relatively uncommon and frequently rupture at a younger age compared to other intracranial aneurysms. We have treated a total of 999 patients for intracranial aneurysms, of whom 89 (8.9%) had ICA bifurcation aneurysms, and 42 of the 89 patients were 30 years of age or younger. The present study analyzed the clinical records of 70 patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms treated from mid 1997 to mid 2003. Multiple aneurysms were present in 15 patients. Digital subtraction angiography films were studied in 55 patients to identify vasospasm and aneurysm projection. The aneurysm projected superiorly in most of these patients (37/55, 67.3%). We preferred to minimize frontal lobe retraction, so widely opened the sylvian fissure to approach the ICA bifurcation and aneurysm neck. Elective temporary clipping was employed before the final dissection and permanent clip application. Vasospasm was present in 24 (43.6%) of 55 patients. Forty-eight (68.6%) of the 70 patients had good outcome, 14 (20%) had poor outcome, and eight (11.4%) died. Patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms tend to bleed at a much younger age compared to those with other intracranial aneurysms. Wide opening of the sylvian fissure and elective temporary clipping of the ICA reduces the risk of intraoperative rupture and perforator injury. Mortality was mainly due to poor clinical grade and intraoperative premature aneurysm rupture. (author)

  20. Hemodynamic patterns of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: a possible association with rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the different flows present at anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysms and investigate possible associations with rupture. For that purpose, patient-specific computational models of 26 AcoA aneurysms were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images. Bilateral images were acquired in 15 patients who had both A1 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries and models were created by fusing the reconstructed left and right arterial trees. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed under pulsatile flow conditions. Visualizations of the flow velocity pattern were created to classify the aneurysms into the following flow types: A) inflow from both A1 segments, B) flow jet in the parent artery splits into three secondary jets, one enters the aneurysm and the other two are directed to the A2 segments, C) the parent artery jet splits into two secondary jets, one is directed to one of the A2 segments and the other enters the aneurysm before being directed to the other A2 segment, and D) the parent artery jet enters the aneurysm before being directed towards the A2 segments. The maximum wall shear stress in the aneurysm at the systolic peak (MWSS) was calculated. Most aneurysms in group A were unruptured and had the lowest MWSS. Group B had the same number of unruptured and ruptured aneurysms, and a low MWSS. Groups C and D had high rupture ratios, being the average MWSS significantly higher in group C. Finally, it was found that the MWSS was higher for ruptured aneurysms of all flow types.

  1. Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab to Treat a Macular Edema Caused by Leber's Miliary Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Takeyama, Masayuki; Iwaki, Masayoshi; Zako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Leber's miliary aneurysm is a variant of Coats’ disease and similar to type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia. A recent report showed that an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) was effective in an adult patient with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia. We describe our experience with an adult patient with a macular edema caused by Leber's miliary aneurysm, which had not been resolved by prior retinal laser photocoagulation, who underwent IVB. Methods We investigated th...

  2. Gyrotropy and Anisotropy of Rocks: Similarities and Differences Gyrotropie et anisotropie des roches : similitudes et différences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichinina T. I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main features of wave propagation in gyrotropic media are compared with wave propagation in anisotropic media. The results of numerical modelling are presented for three typical seismic exploration models. The first two models are azimuthally anisotropic media (of orthorombic symmetry system, group 2m without and with gyration. The third model is a gyrotropic transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis. The computations have been made for propagation of shear waves along the vertical symmetry axis. For sufficiently short wave paths (in our models less than 400 m the two-component (x, y seismograms are similar for all three models. For longer paths both signal shape and signal duration for the first and the third model differ noticeably. Some evidence (experimental data and a micromodel is given to show that the gyrotropy of rocks does exist or, at least, can exist. Les principales caractéristiques de la propagation des ondes dans les milieux gyrotropes sont comparées avec la propagation des ondes dans les milieux azimutalement anisotropes. Les résultats d'une modélisation numérique sont présentés pour trois modèles caractéristiques d'exploration sismique. Les deux premiers modèles sont des milieux anisotropes (de symétrie orthorhombique, groupe 2m avec et sans gyrotropie. Le troisième modèle est un milieu gyrotrope transverse isotrope avec un axe de symétrie vertical. Ces calculs ont été réalisés pour la propagation des ondes transversales le long de l'axe de symétrie vertical. Pour des trajets sismiques suffisamment courts (pour nos modèles, moins de 400 m, les sismogrammes à deux composantes (x, y sont similaires pour les trois modèles. Pour des trajets plus longs, la forme et la durée du signal diffèrent sensiblement pour les modèles 1 et 3. Ceci a pour but de montrer (à l'aide des données expérimentales et d'un micromodèle que la gyrotropie dans les roches existe, ou, tout au moins, peut

  3. Comparative study of novel endovascular treatment techniques for intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Gádor; Lasheras, Juan C.; Levy, David I.; Sparks, Steven R.

    2002-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are life-threatening vascular lesions, which are potentially treatable to avoid the consequences of their rupture. Current treatments, either surgical or endovascular, are all guided to reduce the hemodynamic forces acting on the aneurysm wall in an effort to minimize the risk of rupture. Surgical clipping is still the most used technique to treat this type of aneurysm but there is a continued demand for less invasive approaches. This has led to the development of several endovascular techniques. We report here a comparative study of the reduction in the hemodynamic stresses and the modification of the flow in the parent vessel resulting from the use of three different techniques. The first one consists of endosaccular packing with platinum coils (GDC, Target Therapeutics), which is already widely used but its long-term efficacy has not yet been determined. The second one consists of the embolization of the aneurismal sac with Onyx, a polymer which hardens when in contact with the blood (being developed by Micro Therapeutics, Inc.). The third one involves the packing of the sac with hydrocoils, platinum wires coated with a gel which quickly hydrates when in contact with blood (developed by MicroVention). A Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) system is used to measure in vitro the velocity field inside a model of an ACOM aneurysm (an aneurysm forming in the anterior communicating artery). Physiological accurate pulsatile flow conditions are input to the arterial model through a programmable pump. The measurements show that although all treatment techniques lead to a reduction in both normal and tangential shear stresses on the aneurismal sac, each one of them also leads to different modifications of the flow in the parent vessel which may have consequences related to potential for clotting. Comparison of the untreated aneurysm with the above three treated cases also showed that the characteristics of the wall shear stresses on the parent

  4. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2014-01-01

    crossover design with 4 breads: white-wheat bread low in dietary fiber, rye bread with whole-rye kernels, and 2 whitewheat breads supplemented with either wheat arabinoxylan or oat b-glucan. Blood samples drawn 215, 30, and 120 min postprandially were analyzed by untargeted liquid chromatography......Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans...... respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized...

  5. Maternal and Paternal Similarities and Differences in Parenting: An Examination of Mexican-American Parents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Ramakumar, Sri; Diaz, Abel

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the degree of parental similarity-dissimilarity across parenting dimensions operationalized in terms of: (1) one's own and one's partner's style; (2) meta-emotion belief structures; (3) behavioral strategies in reaction to children's emotions; as well as (4) parental support and responsiveness. The first four dimensions…

  6. Social contexts and personal relationships : The effect of meeting opportunities on similarity for relationships of different strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald; Völker, Beate; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of social contexts on similarity in personal relationships. We argue that the effect of social contexts is larger for weaker, and smaller for stronger relationships. Using data from The Survey of the Social Networks of the Dutch (collected in 1999/2000, n = 1007), we f

  7. [Subdural hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, R; Alfaro, A; Perla, C; Blasco, R; Cortés, F; Solís, P

    1994-02-01

    Although most subdural hematomas are considered to be venous in origin, they may also be of arterial origin. When subdural bleeding is due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, most commonly at the middle cerebral or internal carotid arteries, the amount of subdural blood is usually small and of no clinical importance. We describe two patients with subdural hematomas secondary to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, who needed prompt surgical treatment. The first patient had a left internal carotid artery aneurysm at the origin of the ophthalmic artery. In the second patient the aneurysm was at the anterior communicating artery and rebled into the subdural space directly through a right intraparenchymatous frontobasal hematoma. The most probable mechanism of subdural bleeding in our two patients was the existence of adhesions between the aneurysm and the arachnoid due to previous minor hemorrhages. The indication of cerebral angiography in a patient with subdural hematoma is based mainly upon the existence of meningeal signs, the presence of blood in more than one intracranial compartment or the rapid progression of bleeding. PMID:8204251

  8. Trials and tribulations: an evidence-based approach to aneurysm treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Thomas; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of embolic coils in the early 1990s, endovascular treatment has gained much traction for use when treating ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Three prospective studies have been conducted comparing endovascular coil embolization versus clipping for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The first study took place in Finland and was the first head-to-head look at treating ruptured aneurysms by either endovascular coiling or surgical clipping. Results from this study suggested better functional outcome after endovascular treatment than surgery at the expenses of higher rates of incomplete aneurysm occlusion. The second largest and only multicenter study was the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT). The ISAT took place across Europe and was the first large-scale comparison between endovascular and surgical treatments. The results from this study caused a major opinion shift across the world in regards to optimal treatment of ruptured aneurysms. Additionally, the quantity of data from this study allowed for many subgroup analyses to be made. However, to assess the generalizability of the ISAT study, the Barrow Neurological Institute investigators conducted a single-center study. The intent of this latter study was to remove any potential bias and preselection by enrolling every consenting patient that presented with the designated pathology without any exclusion. However, this enrollment strategy resulted in a high percentage of patients with aneurysms not suitable for endovascular therapy being assigned to the coil group which in turn resulted in a high rate of turn over from the endovascular to the surgical arm of the study. Despite, these limitations, this latter trial presented similar results as the Kuopio and ISAT. Although each of these trials was not methodologically flawless, the combined results from all three suggest that endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms suitable for this treatment strategy results in

  9. Artificial Luminal Narrowing on Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiograms on an Occasion of Stent-Assisted Coiling of Intracranial Aneurysm: In Vitro Comparison Using Two Different Stents with Variable Imaging Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Jee Hyun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Myeong Jin; Shin, Yong Sam; Kim, Bum Soo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Intracranial stenting for stent-assisted coiling of aneurysms requires adequate follow-up imaging. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare in-stent artificial luminal narrowing on contrast-enhanced MR angiograms (CE-MRA) when applying Neuroform and Enterprise stents for stent-assisted coiling. Two intracranial nitinol stents (Enterprise and Neuroform) were placed in silicon tubes and then imaged at 3 T and 1.5 T by the use of a T1-weighted three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence with minimal TR and TE. CE-MRAs were obtained by using different imaging planes, voxel sizes, and bandwidths, and with or without parallel imaging. Artificial lumen narrowing (ALN) was calculated and the results were compared. Lower magnetic field strength, axial plane perpendicular to axis of stent, and wider bandwidth resulted in a lower ALN on CE-MRA for both stents. Larger voxel size resulted in lower ALN for Neuroform stent. The parallel imaging acceleration factor did not affect ALN. The mean ALN was lower for Neuroform, but it was not significant by a paired t test. CE-MRA of the stented lumen of vascular phantom was partially impaired with ALN. Consequently, image plane orientation, magnetic field strength, bandwidth, and voxel size should be adjusted appropriately to reduce ALN.

  10. Artificial Luminal Narrowing on Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiograms on an Occasion of Stent-Assisted Coiling of Intracranial Aneurysm: In Vitro Comparison Using Two Different Stents with Variable Imaging Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial stenting for stent-assisted coiling of aneurysms requires adequate follow-up imaging. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare in-stent artificial luminal narrowing on contrast-enhanced MR angiograms (CE-MRA) when applying Neuroform and Enterprise stents for stent-assisted coiling. Two intracranial nitinol stents (Enterprise and Neuroform) were placed in silicon tubes and then imaged at 3 T and 1.5 T by the use of a T1-weighted three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence with minimal TR and TE. CE-MRAs were obtained by using different imaging planes, voxel sizes, and bandwidths, and with or without parallel imaging. Artificial lumen narrowing (ALN) was calculated and the results were compared. Lower magnetic field strength, axial plane perpendicular to axis of stent, and wider bandwidth resulted in a lower ALN on CE-MRA for both stents. Larger voxel size resulted in lower ALN for Neuroform stent. The parallel imaging acceleration factor did not affect ALN. The mean ALN was lower for Neuroform, but it was not significant by a paired t test. CE-MRA of the stented lumen of vascular phantom was partially impaired with ALN. Consequently, image plane orientation, magnetic field strength, bandwidth, and voxel size should be adjusted appropriately to reduce ALN.

  11. Combined treatment for complex intracranial aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex aneurysms often cannot be completely excluded by a single approaches. Today successful treatment of these lesions requires a combination between microsurgical and endovascular techniques. Planning of combined treatment require a very good understanding of aneurysm anatomy and a close collaboration between neurosurgeon and neuroendovascular interventionist. Endovascular coiling can usually be used as early treatment for a partially aneurysm occlusion including the ruptured area and followed by definitive clipping. On the other hand microsurgical clipping also can be used as first treatment for complex aneurysm neck reconstruction, allowing successful secondary placement of coils inside the remnant aneurysm sac

  12. The most oligotrophic subtropical zones of the global ocean: similarities and differences in terms of chlorophyll and yellow substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cores of the subtropical anticyclonic gyres are characterized by their oligotrophic status and minimal chlorophyll concentration, compared to that of the whole ocean. These zones are unambiguously detected by space borne ocean color sensors thanks to their typical spectral reflectance, which is that of extremely clear and deep blue waters. Not only the low chlorophyll (denoted [Chl] level, but also a reduced amount of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM or "yellow substance" account for this clarity. The oligotrophic waters of the North and South Pacific gyres, the North and South Atlantic gyres, and the South Indian gyre have been comparatively studied with respect to both [Chl] and CDOM contents, by using 10-year data (1998–2007 of the Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, NASA. Albeit similar these oligotrophic zones are not identical regarding their [Chl] and CDOM contents, as well as their seasonal cycles. According to the zone, the averaged [Chl] value varies from 0.026 to 0.059 mg m−3, whereas the ay(443 average (the absorption coefficient due to CDOM at 443 nm is comprised between 0.0033 and 0.0072 m−1. The CDOM-to-[Chl] relative proportions also differ between the zones. The clearest waters, corresponding to the lowest [Chl] and CDOM concentrations, are found near Easter Island and near Mariana Islands in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. In spite of its low [Chl], the Sargasso Sea presents the highest CDOM content amongst the six zones studied. Except in the North Pacific gyre (near Mariana and south of Hawaii islands, a conspicuous seasonality appears to be the rule in the other 4 gyres and affects both [Chl] and CDOM; both quantities vary in a ratio of about 2 (maximum-to-minimum. Coinciding [Chl] and CDOM peaks occur just after the local winter solstice, which is also the period of the maximal mixed layer depth in these latitudes. It is hypothesized

  13. The most oligotrophic subtropical zones of the global ocean: similarities and differences in terms of chlorophyll and yellow substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cores of the subtropical anticyclonic gyres are characterized by their oligotrophic status and minimal chlorophyll concentration, compared to that of the whole ocean. These zones are unambiguously detected by space borne ocean color sensors thanks to their typical spectral reflectance, which is that of extremely clear and deep blue waters. Not only the low chlorophyll (denoted [Chl] level, but also a reduced amount of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM or "yellow substance" account for this clarity. The oligotrophic waters of the North and South Pacific gyres, the North and South Atlantic gyres, and the South Indian gyre have been comparatively studied with respect to both [Chl] and CDOM contents, by using 10-year data (1998–2007 of the Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, NASA. Albeit similar these oligotrophic zones are not identical regarding their [Chl] and CDOM contents, as well as their seasonal cycles. According to the zone, the averaged [Chl] value varies from 0.026 to 0.059 mg m−3, whereas the ay(443 average (the absorption coefficient due to CDOM at 443 nm is between 0.0033 and 0.0072 m−1. The CDOM-to-[Chl] relative proportions also differ between the zones. The clearest waters, corresponding to the lowest [Chl] and CDOM concentrations, are found near Easter Island and near Mariana Islands in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. In spite of its low [Chl], the Sargasso Sea presents the highest CDOM content amongst the six zones studied. Except in the North Pacific gyre (near Mariana and south of Hawaii islands, a conspicuous seasonality appears to be the rule in the other 4 gyres and affects both [Chl] and CDOM; both quantities vary in a ratio of about 2 (maximum-to-minimum. Coinciding [Chl] and CDOM peaks occur just after the local winter solstice, which is also the period of the maximal mixed layer depth in these latitudes. It is hypothesized that the vertical

  14. The hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysm ruptured region with active contrast leakage during computed tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Lung; Wang, Yi-Chou; Liou, Tong-Miin; Lin, Chao-An

    2014-10-01

    Precise locations of rupture region under contrast agent leakage of five ruptured cerebral artery aneurysms during computed tomography angiography, which is to our knowledge for the first time, were successfully identified among 101 patients. These, together with numerical simulations based on the reconstructed aneurysmal models, were used to analyze hemodynamic parameters of aneurysms under different cardiac cyclic flow rates. For side wall type aneurysms, different inlet flow rates have mild influences on the shear stresses distributions. On the other hand, for branch type aneurysms, the predicted wall shear stress (WSS) correlates strongly with the increase of inlet vessel velocity. The mean and time averaged WSSes at rupture regions are found to be lower than those over the surface of the aneurysms. Also, the levels of the oscillatory shear index (OSI) are higher than the reported threshold value, supporting the assertion that high OSI correlates with rupture of the aneurysm. However, the present results also indicate that OSI level at the rupture region is relatively lower.

  15. Functional Trait Strategies of Trees in Dry and Wet Tropical Forests Are Similar but Differ in Their Consequences for Succession

    OpenAIRE

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Lebrija-Trejos, E.E.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; J.A. Meave; Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in ...

  16. Trying similarity, doing difference: the role of interviewer self-disclosure in interview talk with young people

    OpenAIRE

    Abell, Jackie; Locke, Abigail; Condor, Susan; Gibson, Stephen; Stevenson, Clifford

    2006-01-01

    Advocates of semi-structured interview techniques have often argued that rapport may be built, and power inequalities between interviewer and respondent counteracted, by strategic self-disclosure on the part of the interviewer. Strategies that use self-disclosure to construct similarity between interviewer and respondent rely on the presumption that the respondent will in fact interpret the interviewer's behaviour in this way. In this article we examine the role of interviewer self-disclosure...

  17. Joint GWAS Analysis: Comparing similar GWAS at different genomic resolutions identifies novel pathway associations with six complex diseases

    OpenAIRE

    McGeachie, Michael J.; Clemmer, George L.; Jessica Lasky-Su; Amber Dahlin; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    We show here that combining two existing genome wide association studies (GWAS) yields additional biologically relevant information, beyond that obtained by either GWAS separately. We propose Joint GWAS Analysis, a method that compares a pair of GWAS for similarity among the top SNP associations, top genes identified, gene functional clusters, and top biological pathways. We show that Joint GWAS Analysis identifies additional enriched biological pathways that would be missed by traditional Si...

  18. Cross-cultural similarities and differences in person-body reasoning: Experimental evidence from the United Kingdom and Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, E; Burdett, E; Knight, N.; Barrett, J

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-cultural investigation of person-body reasoning in the United Kingdom and northern Brazilian Amazon (Marajo´ Island). The study provides evidence that directly bears upon divergent theoretical claims in cognitive psychology and anthropology, respectively, on the cognitive origins and cross-cultural incidence of mind-body dualism. In a novel reasoning task, we found that participants across the two sample populations parsed a wide range of capacities similarly ...

  19. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Tabita; Skårberg, Kurt; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, ...

  20. An Experimental Aneurysm Model: a Training Model for Neurointerventionalists

    OpenAIRE

    Grunwald, I Q; Romeike, B.; Eymann, R; Roth, C.; Struffert, T; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    Reproducible animal models not only facilitate the pre-clinical assessment of aneurysm therapy but can also help in training for interventional procedures. The objective of this study was to find an animal model that can be used to test different endovascular occlusion techniques.

  1. Management of symptomatic venous aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Roberto; Rosati, Maria Sofia; Siani, Andrea; Irace, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Venous aneurysms (VAs) have been described in quite of all the major veins. They represent uncommon events but often life-threatening because of pulmonary or paradoxical embolism. We describe our twelve patients' series with acute pulmonary emboli due to venous aneurysm thrombosis. Our experience underlines the importance of a multilevel case-by-case approach and the immediate venous lower limbs duplex scan evaluation in pulmonary embolism events. Our data confirm that anticoagulant alone is not effective in preventing pulmonary embolism. We believe that all the VAs of the deep venous system of the extremities should be treated with surgery as well as symptomatic superficial venous aneurysm. A simple excision can significantly improve symptoms and prevent pulmonary embolism. PMID:22566766

  2. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J.J.; Paul, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 ...

  3. Nonruptured intracranial aneurysms: therapeutic recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of new diagnostic noninvasive tools an increase in the diagnosis of asymptomatic nonruptured intracranial aneurysms has been shown. Physician and patient now have to decide wether to treat or to follow-up these aneurysms. This paper trys to review and to discuss the literature and to give guidelines for therapeutic decisions. The decision to treat an unruptured intracranial aeurysm must always comprise the individuell factors such as age, life prognosis, neurological status, and the advantages and disdavantages of the considered method. (orig.)

  4. [Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, François; Douvrin, Françoise; Gilles-Baray, Marie; Levêque, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhages is about 10.5/100,000 persons/year. Early obliteration of the aneurysmal sac is necessary to avoid rebleeding. The neurovascular staff meeting must decide the appropriate obliteration procedure for each patient. Intraoperative morbidity is 8% after endovascular coiling and 10% after microsurgical clipping. Endovascular coiling leads to complete obliteration of the aneurysm in 60% of patients and microsurgical clipping in 95%. Delayed ischemic deficits may be prevented by volemic expansion and calcium channel blockers. Hospitalization and general prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis, pain and seizures are essential. Curative treatment is required against common complications such as intraparenchymatous hematoma, hydrocephalus, and delayed ischemic deficit. PMID:17296483

  5. Vortex Dynamics in Cerebral Aneurysms

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We use an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system to study embedded vortex structures that are observed to form in computational fluid dynamic simulations of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm geometries. These structures, described by a vortex which is enclosed within a larger vortex flowing in the opposite direction, are created and destroyed in phase space as fixed points undergo saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines. We illustrate how saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines also govern the formation and evolution of embedded vortices in cerebral aneurysms under variable inflow rates during the cardiac cycle.

  6. Septal aneurysm with associated anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15-year-old boy had a history of a functional systolic murmur with systolic and diastolic murmurs and radiological evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The angiorcardiogram demonstrated an aneurysm of the membranous septum, bicuspid aortic valve, dilatation of the left subclavian artery and left common carotid artery. Echocardiography showed a holosystolic prolapse of the mitral valve with mitral insufficiency and a bicuspid aortic valve with insignificant incompetence of the aortic valve. Classical TM mode echocardiography did not show an aneurysm of the membranous septum. (orig.)

  7. Balloon-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms is not associated with a higher complication rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the neurosurgical literature on intracranial aneurysms, balloon-assisted coiling (BAC) remains controversial when compared to conventional coiling (CC). The aim of this study was to compare our results with BAC and CC over a 4-year period. Daily interventional neuroradiology has been available since March 2004 in our institution. Between March 2004 and February 2008, 275 patients with 357 aneurysms were treated by an endovascular approach, including 174 patients/204 aneurysms treated by CC (group I) and 80 patients/92 aneurysms treated by BAC (group II). The remaining patients were treated with other endovascular techniques. Indications of BAC were as follow: aneurysms with an unfavourable neck/sac ratio and/or a branch arising from the neck (90.2%), unstable coiling catheter (6.5%), and anticipated aneurysm rupture (3.3%). The clinical charts, procedural data, and angiographic results of groups I and II were compared. BAC was used in 25.8% (92/357) of all embolized aneurysms and it was successful in 83/92 aneurysms (90%). There was no significant difference in the procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates between group I (2.3% and 1.15%, respectively) and group II (2.5% and 1.25%, respectively). Although retreatment was more frequent in group II (13%) than in group I (11%), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.8125). When BAC is used frequently, it is a safe and effective technique that is associated with complication rates comparable to those of CC. Although BAC is not associated with more stable anatomical results, it should be considered as an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of broad-based intracranial aneurysms. (orig.)

  8. Phenotypic similarities and differences in patients with a p.Met112Ile mutation in SOX10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Veronique; Pierre-Louis, Laurence; Chaoui, Asma; Verloes, Alain; Sarrazin, Elisabeth; Brandberg, Goran; Bondurand, Nadege; Uldall, Peter; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by an association of pigmentation abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss. Four types, defined on clinical grounds, have been delineated, but this phenotypic classification correlates imperfectly with known molecular anomalies. SOX10 mutations have been found in patients with type II and type IV WS (i.e., with Hirschsprung disease), more complex syndromes, and partial forms of the disease. The phenotype induced by SOX10 mutations is highly variable and, except for the neurological forms of the disease, no genotype-phenotype correlation has been characterized to date. There is no mutation hotspot in SOX10 and most cases are sporadic, making it particularly difficult to correlate the phenotypic and genetic variability. This study reports on three independent families with SOX10 mutations predicted to result in the same missense mutation at the protein level (p.Met112Ile), offering a rare opportunity to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying phenotypic variability. The pigmentation defects of these patients are very similar, and the neurological symptoms showed a somewhat similar evolution over time, indicating a potential partial genotype-phenotype correlation. However, variability in gastrointestinal symptoms suggests that other genetic factors contribute to the expression of these phenotypes. No correlation between the rs2435357 polymorphism of RET and the expression of Hirschsprung disease was found. In addition, one of the patients has esophageal achalasia, which has rarely been described in WS. PMID:24845202

  9. Joint GWAS Analysis: Comparing similar GWAS at different genomic resolutions identifies novel pathway associations with six complex diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McGeachie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We show here that combining two existing genome wide association studies (GWAS yields additional biologically relevant information, beyond that obtained by either GWAS separately. We propose Joint GWAS Analysis, a method that compares a pair of GWAS for similarity among the top SNP associations, top genes identified, gene functional clusters, and top biological pathways. We show that Joint GWAS Analysis identifies additional enriched biological pathways that would be missed by traditional Single-GWAS analysis. Furthermore, we examine the similarities of six complex genetic disorders at the SNP-level, gene-level, gene-cluster-level, and pathway-level. We make concrete hypotheses regarding novel pathway associations for several complex disorders considered, based on the results of Joint GWAS Analysis. Together, these results demonstrate that common complex disorders share substantially more genomic architecture than has been previously realized and that the meta-analysis of GWAS needs not be limited to GWAS of the same phenotype to be informative.

  10. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to identify similarities and differences between cerebellar and Parkinsonism forms of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Po-Shan [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Neurological Institute, Taipei (China); Taipei Municipal Gan-Dau Hospital, Neurological Institute, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Brain Science, Taipei (China); Wu, Hsiu-Mei [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Brain Science, Taipei (China); Soong, Bing-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Neurological Institute, Taipei (China)

    2011-07-15

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging to determine if multiple system atrophy (MSA)-cerebellar (C) and MSA-Parkinsonism (P) show similar changes, as shown in pathological studies. Nineteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 20 patients with Parkinson disease, and 20 healthy controls were evaluated with the use of voxel-based morphometry analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. There was an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values in the middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellum and a decrease in fractional anisotropy in the pyramidal tract, middle cerebellar peduncles, and white matter of the cerebellum in patients with MSA-C and MSA-P compared to the controls (P<0.001). In addition, isotropic diffusion-weighted image values were reduced in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei in patients with MSA-C and increased in the basal ganglia in patients with MSA-P. These results indicate that despite their disparate clinical manifestations, patients with MSA-C and MSA-P share similar diffusion tensor imaging features in the infratentorial region. Further, the combination of FA, ADC and iDWI images can be used to distinguish between MSA (either form) and Parkinson disease, which has potential therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  11. Modal Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Vigo , Dr. Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Just as Boolean rules define Boolean categories, the Boolean operators define higher-order Boolean categories referred to as modal categories. We examine the similarity order between these categories and the standard category of logical identity (i.e. the modal category defined by the biconditional or equivalence operator). Our goal is 4-fold: first, to introduce a similarity measure for determining this similarity order; second, to show that such a measure is a good predictor of the similari...

  12. Correlation between Hemodynamics and Treatment Outcome of Intracranial Aneurysms after Intervention with Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Damiano, Robert; Davies, Jason; Siddiqui, Adnan; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Endovascular intervention by Flow Diverter (FD) - a densely woven stent - occludes an aneurysm by inducing thrombosis in the aneurysm sac and reconstructing the vessel. Hemodynamics plays a vital role in the thrombotic occlusion of aneurysms and eventual treatment outcome. CFD analysis of pre- and post-treatment aneurysms not only provides insight of flow modifications by FD, but also allows investigation of interventional strategies and prediction of their outcome. In this study 80 patient-specific aneurysms treated with FDs were retrospectively studied to evaluate the effect of intervention. Out of these cases, 16 required retreatment and thus are considered as having unfavorable outcome. Clinical FD deployment in these cases was simulated using an efficient virtual stenting workflow. CFD analysis was carried out on both pre- and post-treatment cases, and changes in hemodynamic parameters were calculated. Support vector machine algorithm was used to correlate the hemodynamic changes with outcome. Results show that cases having higher flow reduction into the aneurysmal sac have a better likelihood of occlusion. This suggests that changes in hemodynamics can be potentially used to predict the outcome of different clinical intervention strategies in aneurysms. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R01 NS091075).

  13. A failure of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in the prevention of rat intracranial aneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested the hypothesis that nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition with doxycycline would decrease the incidence of intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat aneurysm model. We performed common carotid artery ligation on 96 Long-Evans rats. A treatment group of 48 animals was chosen at random to receive oral doxycycline (3 mg/kg) in addition to standard rat chow, and the control group of 48 animals received standard rat chow only. The major circle of Willis arteries was dissected at 1 year following carotid ligation, and the proportions of animals with aneurysms were compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Four animals given oral doxycycline and ten control animals expired before 1 year. Of the examined animals, eight saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 8 of 45 animals which had received doxycycline (17.8%) and seven saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 7 of 37 control animals (18.9%). There was no significant difference in aneurysm formation between the doxycycline-treated and control groups (P=0.894). Nonspecific MMP inhibition with doxycycline is not effective in preventing intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat model. (orig.)

  14. A failure of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in the prevention of rat intracranial aneurysm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, T.J.; Kallmes, D.F. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Marx, W.F. [Asheville Radiology Associates, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2006-03-15

    We tested the hypothesis that nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition with doxycycline would decrease the incidence of intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat aneurysm model. We performed common carotid artery ligation on 96 Long-Evans rats. A treatment group of 48 animals was chosen at random to receive oral doxycycline (3 mg/kg) in addition to standard rat chow, and the control group of 48 animals received standard rat chow only. The major circle of Willis arteries was dissected at 1 year following carotid ligation, and the proportions of animals with aneurysms were compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Four animals given oral doxycycline and ten control animals expired before 1 year. Of the examined animals, eight saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 8 of 45 animals which had received doxycycline (17.8%) and seven saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 7 of 37 control animals (18.9%). There was no significant difference in aneurysm formation between the doxycycline-treated and control groups (P=0.894). Nonspecific MMP inhibition with doxycycline is not effective in preventing intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat model. (orig.)

  15. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Købler, Carsten, E-mail: carko@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Atluri, Rambabu, E-mail: rba@nrcwe.dk [Nanologica AB, SE-114 28 Stockholm (Sweden); Pozzebon, Maria E., E-mail: mariaelena.pozzebon@yahoo.it [Veneto Nanotech SCpA, ECSIN — European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Mucelli, Stefano P., E-mail: stefano.pozzimucelli@venetonanotech.it [Veneto Nanotech SCpA, ECSIN — European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Simion, Monica, E-mail: moni304ro@gmail.com [Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Rickerby, David, E-mail: david.rickerby@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability, I-21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Jackson, Petra, E-mail: pja@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Kyjovska, Zdenka O., E-mail: zky@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); and others

    2015-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of a small, curled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm in length) or large, thick MWCNT (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm in length). The two MWCNTs were extensively characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Lung tissues were harvested 24 h, 3 days and 28 days post-exposure. DNA microarrays were used to analyze gene expression, in parallel with analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung histology, DNA damage (comet assay) and the presence of reactive oxygen species (dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay), to profile and characterize related pulmonary endpoints. Overall changes in global transcription following exposure to CNT{sub Small} or CNT{sub Large} were similar. Both MWCNTs elicited strong acute phase and inflammatory responses that peaked at day 3, persisted up to 28 days, and were characterized by increased cellular influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, interstitial pneumonia and gene expression changes. However, CNT{sub Large} elicited an earlier onset of inflammation and DNA damage, and induced more fibrosis and a unique fibrotic gene expression signature at day 28, compared to CNT{sub Small}. The results indicate that the extent of change at the molecular level during early response phases following an acute exposure is greater in mice exposed to CNT{sub Large}, which may eventually lead to the different responses observed at day 28. - Highlights: • We evaluate the toxicogenomic response in mice following MWCNT instillation. • Two MWCNTs of different properties were examined and thoroughly characterized. • MWCNT exposure leads to increased pulmonary

  16. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of a small, curled (CNTSmall, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm in length) or large, thick MWCNT (CNTLarge, 4 ± 0.4 μm in length). The two MWCNTs were extensively characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Lung tissues were harvested 24 h, 3 days and 28 days post-exposure. DNA microarrays were used to analyze gene expression, in parallel with analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung histology, DNA damage (comet assay) and the presence of reactive oxygen species (dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay), to profile and characterize related pulmonary endpoints. Overall changes in global transcription following exposure to CNTSmall or CNTLarge were similar. Both MWCNTs elicited strong acute phase and inflammatory responses that peaked at day 3, persisted up to 28 days, and were characterized by increased cellular influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, interstitial pneumonia and gene expression changes. However, CNTLarge elicited an earlier onset of inflammation and DNA damage, and induced more fibrosis and a unique fibrotic gene expression signature at day 28, compared to CNTSmall. The results indicate that the extent of change at the molecular level during early response phases following an acute exposure is greater in mice exposed to CNTLarge, which may eventually lead to the different responses observed at day 28. - Highlights: • We evaluate the toxicogenomic response in mice following MWCNT instillation. • Two MWCNTs of different properties were examined and thoroughly characterized. • MWCNT exposure leads to increased pulmonary inflammation and acute phase response.

  17. The effects of heart rate on blood flow in intracranial aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An aneurysm is an acquired, abnormal dilation of a blood vessel. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to try and understand this phenomena. CFD studies use assumptions in the simulation model and pick variables to look at. A variable that seldom gets much attention in these studies is the heart rate. We have investigated the differences between high and low heart rate. Method: We used twelve different patient specific aneurysms. Three simulations were done pe...

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF EASTERN AND WESTERN WOMENS IMAGES IN LIANG SANBO YU ZHU YINGTAI AND ROMEO AND JULIET NOVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny

    2010-10-01

    images between those two decades It can be concluded that in both writings, they have some similarities when describing love, mindset, and women's personality. The differences are about education, marriage, and women's position at feudalism and Renainsance decades.

  19. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    Full Text Available Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an "ECOMICS" web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

  20. Skin changes in 'screen dermatitis' versus classical UV- and ionizing irradiation-related damage - similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of persons say that they get cutaneous problems as well as symptoms from certain internal organs, such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the heart, when being close to electric equipment. A major group of these patients are the users of video display terminals (VDTs), who claim to have subjective and objective skin- and mucosa-related symptoms, such as pain, itch, heat sensation, ery-therma, papules, and pustules. The CNS symptoms are, e.g. dizziness, tiredness, and headache. Erythema, itch, heat sensation, edema and pain are also common symptoms of sunburn (UV dermatitis). Alterations have been observed in cell populations of the skin of patients suffering from so-called 'screen dermatitis' similar to those observed in the skin damaged due to ultraviolet (UV) light or ionizing radiation. In 'screen dermatitis' patients a much higher number of mast cells have been observed. It is known that UVE irradiation induces mast cell degranulation and release of TNF-α. The high number of mast cells present in the 'screen dermatitis' patients and the possible release of specific substances, such as histamine, may explain their clinical symptoms of itch, pain, edema and erythema. The most remarkable change among cutaneous cells, after exposure with the above-mentioned irradiation sources, is the disappearance of the Langerhans' cells. This change has also been observed in 'screen dermatitis' patients, again pointing to a common cellular and molecular basis. The results of this literature study demonstrate that highly similar changes exist in the skin of 'screen dermatitis' patients, as regard the clinical manifestations as well as alterations in the cell populations, and in skin damaged by UV light or ionizing radiation. (au)