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Sample records for aneuploid sperm formation

  1. A tetraploid intermediate precedes aneuploid formation in yeasts exposed to fluconazole.

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    Benjamin D Harrison

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, is generally diploid. However, 50% of isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLC, the most widely used antifungal, are aneuploid and some aneuploidies can confer FLC resistance. To ask if FLC exposure causes or only selects for aneuploidy, we analyzed diploid strains during exposure to FLC using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. FLC exposure caused a consistent deviation from normal cell cycle regulation: nuclear and spindle cycles initiated prior to bud emergence, leading to "trimeras," three connected cells composed of a mother, daughter, and granddaughter bud. Initially binucleate, trimeras underwent coordinated nuclear division yielding four daughter nuclei, two of which underwent mitotic collapse to form a tetraploid cell with extra spindle components. In subsequent cell cycles, the abnormal number of spindles resulted in unequal DNA segregation and viable aneuploid progeny. The process of aneuploid formation in C. albicans is highly reminiscent of early stages in human tumorigenesis in that aneuploidy arises through a tetraploid intermediate and subsequent unequal DNA segregation driven by multiple spindles coupled with a subsequent selective advantage conferred by at least some aneuploidies during growth under stress. Finally, trimera formation was detected in response to other azole antifungals, in related Candida species, and in an in vivo model for Candida infection, suggesting that aneuploids arise due to azole treatment of several pathogenic yeasts and that this can occur during the infection process.

  2. Is the hook of muroid rodent's sperm related to sperm train formation?

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    Tourmente, M; Zarka-Trigo, D; Roldan, E R S

    2016-06-01

    Competition between spermatozoa of rival males to gain fertilizations has led to a wide array of modifications in sperm structure and function. Sperm cells of most muroid rodents have hook-shaped extensions in the apical-ventral tip of the head, but the function of this structure is largely unknown. These 'hooks' may facilitate aggregation of spermatozoa in so-called 'trains', as an adaptation to sperm competition, because sperm in trains may swim faster than free-swimming cells. However, there is controversy regarding the role of the hook in train formation, and in relation to whether it is selected by sperm competition. We examined spermatozoa from muroid rodents with varying levels of sperm competition to assess whether (i) sperm aggregates are common in these taxa, (ii) presence of a hook relates to the formation of sperm aggregations, and (iii) formation of sperm aggregations is explained by sperm competition. Our analyses in 25 muroid species revealed that > 92% of spermatozoa swim individually in all species, with the exception of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, which has ~50% spermatozoa swimming freely. Species with hooked spermatozoa had higher sperm competition levels and longer sperm than species whose sperm lack a hook. Neither the presence of hook nor sperm competition levels were related to the percentage of sperm in aggregations. Thus, (i) sperm aggregates in muroid rodents are an exceptional trait found only in a few species, (ii) evolution of the sperm hook is associated to sperm competition levels, but (iii) the hook is unlikely to be related to the formation of sperm aggregates. The evolutionary significance of the sperm head hook thus remains elusive, and future studies should examine potential roles of this pervasive structure in sperm's hydrodynamic efficiency and sperm-female tract interactions. PMID:26969911

  3. Formation and development of sperms in angiosperms

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    S. Tatintseva

    2014-01-01

    Spermiogelnesis has been studied in a large number of Angiosperm species characterizing different levels of phylogenetic system. The formation and development of male gamets can be described as formation of sperm cells that undergo ontogenesis which stimulates changes up to full maturity of the pollen grain. The process of ontogenesis is aimed at creating a suitable delivery system by the pollen tube to a female gamete.

  4. A role for the WH-30 protein in sperm-sperm adhesion during rouleaux formation in the guinea pig.

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    Flaherty, S P; Swann, N J; Primakoff, P; Myles, D G

    1993-03-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa participate in specific cell adhesion phenomena during their development and functional lifespan; this includes interaction with Sertoli cells, the zona pellucida, and the oolemma. In some species such as the guinea pig, an additional sperm-sperm adhesion occurs during epididymal maturation which results in the formation of rouleaux in which the sperm heads are stacked one upon the other and the periacrosomal plasma membranes of adjacent sperm are linked by periodic cross-bridges. In this study, we have used a monoclonal antibody to investigate the role of the WH-30 protein on the sperm surface in the formation of the junctional zones between adjacent guinea pig sperm in rouleaux. WH-30 monoclonal antibodies caused a dose- and time-dependent dissociation of rouleaux and an increase in the percentage of single, acrosome-intact sperm; there were no effects on sperm motility (maintained at 80-90%) or ultrastructure during the 120-min incubations. The maximal effect of about 80% single sperm was obtained with a 1:4 dilution of the WH-30 hybridoma supernatant or 5-50 micrograms/ml of purified WH-30 IgG. In contrast, incubation of sperm in AH-20 IgG, myeloma cell supernatants, or purified, nonspecific mouse IgG1 had no effect on rouleaux. Treatment of sperm with a WH-30 Fab fragment resulted in almost complete dissociation of rouleaux without any observed effect on sperm motility or acrosomal status. Surface labeling of sperm followed by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE revealed that the WH-30 antibody recognizes a single polypeptide of 43-45 kDa. Using immunofluorescence, the WH-30 protein was localized over the entire surface of the sperm head (whole-head pattern), and immunogold labeling showed that WH-30 is localized in the glycocalyx on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the periacrosomal and postacrosomal plasma membranes. These results indicate that the WH-30 protein on the sperm surface is a cell adhesion protein which is involved in

  5. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

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    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  6. Bovine binder-of-sperm protein BSP1 promotes protrusion and nanotube formation from liposomes

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    Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: michel.lafleur@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Systems, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Courtemanche, Lesley [Department of Chemistry, Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Systems, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Karlsson, Goeran; Edwards, Katarina [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 579, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Schwartz, Jean-Louis [Department of Physiology, Groupe d' etude des Proteines Membranaires, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Faculty of Medecine, Universite de Montreal, 5415 L' Assomption Blvd, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 2M4 (Canada)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Binder-of-sperm protein 1 (BSP1) modifies the morphology of lipidic vesicles inducing bead necklace-like and thread-like structures. {yields} In the presence of multilamellar liposomes, BSP1 leads to the formation of long nanotubes. {yields} The insertion of BSP1 in the external lipid leaflet of membranes induces local changes in bilayer curvature. -- Abstract: Binder-of-sperm (BSP) proteins interact with sperm membranes and are proposed to extract selectively phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol from these. This change in lipid composition is a key step in sperm capacitation. The present work demonstrates that the interactions between the protein BSP1 and model membranes composed with phosphatidylcholine lead to drastic changes in the morphology of the lipidic self-assemblies. Using cryo-electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, we show that, in the presence of the protein, the lipid vesicles elongate, and form bead necklace-like structures that evolve toward small vesicles or thread-like structures. In the presence of multilamellar vesicles, where a large reservoir of lipid is available, the presence of BSP proteins lead to the formation of long nanotubes. Long spiral-like threads, associated with lipid/protein complexes, are also observed. The local curvature of lipid membranes induced by the BSP proteins may be involved in lipid domain formation and the extraction of some lipids during the sperm maturation process.

  7. Bovine binder-of-sperm protein BSP1 promotes protrusion and nanotube formation from liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Binder-of-sperm protein 1 (BSP1) modifies the morphology of lipidic vesicles inducing bead necklace-like and thread-like structures. → In the presence of multilamellar liposomes, BSP1 leads to the formation of long nanotubes. → The insertion of BSP1 in the external lipid leaflet of membranes induces local changes in bilayer curvature. -- Abstract: Binder-of-sperm (BSP) proteins interact with sperm membranes and are proposed to extract selectively phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol from these. This change in lipid composition is a key step in sperm capacitation. The present work demonstrates that the interactions between the protein BSP1 and model membranes composed with phosphatidylcholine lead to drastic changes in the morphology of the lipidic self-assemblies. Using cryo-electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, we show that, in the presence of the protein, the lipid vesicles elongate, and form bead necklace-like structures that evolve toward small vesicles or thread-like structures. In the presence of multilamellar vesicles, where a large reservoir of lipid is available, the presence of BSP proteins lead to the formation of long nanotubes. Long spiral-like threads, associated with lipid/protein complexes, are also observed. The local curvature of lipid membranes induced by the BSP proteins may be involved in lipid domain formation and the extraction of some lipids during the sperm maturation process.

  8. Effect of steady and unsteady flow on chemoattractant plume formation and sperm taxis

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    Bell, Allison F.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of chemoattractant plumes around benthic invertebrate eggs in steady and unsteady shear flows is investigated for a range of shear rates, and the ability of sperm to navigate within these plumes is assessed using several chemotactic strategies. Although many of the details of sperm taxis remain uncertain, we investigate the role of basic processes using a toy model in two dimensions. Search strategies in 2D are intrinsically less complex than 3D, but many of the basic components are similar, and the simplified geometry permits an understanding and identification of the key factors of navigation tactics. Numerical simulations are used to model the advection and diffusion of the chemoattractant within the different flows, using three different sperm swimming behaviors. A Monte-Carlo approach is then used to determine the probability of a sperm reaching an egg for a range of flow conditions, initial conditions, and swimming behaviors. The spatial structure of chemoattractant plumes at the scale of the gametes is also investigated. Success rates for locating an egg decrease monotonically with increasing shear rates, and a definitive hierarchical ordering of the tested swimming strategies is identified. A conceptual framework to study and identify important aspects of this fundamental process to support further studies is provided.

  9. The LINC complex component Sun4 plays a crucial role in sperm head formation and fertility

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    Elisabeth Pasch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, physically connecting the nucleus to the peripheral cytoskeleton. They are pivotal for dynamic cellular and developmental processes, like nuclear migration, anchoring and positioning, meiotic chromosome movements and maintenance of cell polarity and nuclear shape. Active nuclear reshaping is a hallmark of mammalian sperm development and, by transducing cytoskeletal forces to the nuclear envelope, LINC complexes could be vital for sperm head formation as well. We here analyzed in detail the behavior and function of Sun4, a bona fide testis-specific LINC component. We demonstrate that Sun4 is solely expressed in spermatids and there localizes to the posterior nuclear envelope, likely interacting with Sun3/Nesprin1 LINC components. Our study revealed that Sun4 deficiency severely impacts the nucleocytoplasmic junction, leads to mislocalization of other LINC components and interferes with the formation of the microtubule manchette, which finally culminates in a globozoospermia-like phenotype. Together, our study provides direct evidence for a critical role of LINC complexes in mammalian sperm head formation and male fertility.

  10. Human embryonic stem cells as models for aneuploid chromosomal syndromes.

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    Biancotti, Juan-Carlos; Narwani, Kavita; Buehler, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Yanuka, Ofra; Clark, Amander; Hill, David; Benvenisty, Nissim; Lavon, Neta

    2010-09-01

    Syndromes caused by chromosomal aneuploidies are widely recognized genetic disorders in humans and often lead to spontaneous miscarriage. Preimplantation genetic screening is used to detect chromosomal aneuploidies in early embryos. Our aim was to derive aneuploid human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that may serve as models for human syndromes caused by aneuploidies. We have established 25 hESC lines from blastocysts diagnosed as aneuploid on day 3 of their in vitro development. The hESC lines exhibited morphology and expressed markers typical of hESCs. They demonstrated long-term proliferation capacity and pluripotent differentiation. Karyotype analysis revealed that two-third of the cell lines carry a normal euploid karyotype, while one-third remained aneuploid throughout the derivation, resulting in eight hESC lines carrying either trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), 16, 17, 21 (Down syndrome), X (Triple X syndrome), or monosomy X (Turner syndrome). On the basis of the level of single nucleotide polymorphism heterozygosity in the aneuploid chromosomes, we determined whether the aneuploidy originated from meiotic or mitotic chromosomal nondisjunction. Gene expression profiles of the trisomic cell lines suggested that all three chromosomes are actively transcribed. Our analysis allowed us to determine which tissues are most affected by the presence of a third copy of either chromosome 13, 16, 17 or 21 and highlighted the effects of trisomies on embryonic development. The results presented here suggest that aneuploid embryos can serve as an alternative source for either normal euploid or aneuploid hESC lines, which represent an invaluable tool to study developmental aspects of chromosomal abnormalities in humans. PMID:20641042

  11. The fate of chrysotile-induced multipolar mitosis and aneuploid population in cultured lung cancer cells.

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    Beatriz de Araujo Cortez

    Full Text Available Chrysotile is one of the six types of asbestos, and it is the only one that can still be commercialized in many countries. Exposure to other types of asbestos has been associated with serious diseases, such as lung carcinomas and pleural mesotheliomas. The association of chrysotile exposure with disease is controversial. However, in vitro studies show the mutagenic potential of chrysotile, which can induce DNA and cell damage. The present work aimed to analyze alterations in lung small cell carcinoma cultures after 48 h of chrysotile exposure, followed by 2, 4 and 8 days of recovery in fiber-free culture medium. Some alterations, such as aneuploid cell formation, increased number of cells in G2/M phase and cells in multipolar mitosis were observed even after 8 days of recovery. The presence of chrysotile fibers in the cell cultures was detected and cell morphology was observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. After 4 and 8 days of recovery, only a few chrysotile fragments were present in some cells, and the cellular morphology was similar to that of control cells. Cells transfected with the GFP-tagged α-tubulin plasmid were treated with chrysotile for 24 or 48 h and cells in multipolar mitosis were observed by time-lapse microscopy. Fates of these cells were established: retention in metaphase, cell death, progression through M phase generating more than two daughter cells or cell fusion during telophase or cytokinesis. Some of them were related to the formation of aneuploid cells and cells with abnormal number of centrosomes.

  12. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

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    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation. PMID:21949351

  13. Flow cytofluorometric evidence for the differential radioresponsiveness of aneuploid and diploid cervix tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    348 patients have been included in the study over a 54-month period. Data on these patients have shown that DNA aneuploid tumours are significantly more radioresponsive than diploid cervix tumours. Analysis of the data on 213 patients with a minimum follow-up time of 15 months has, however, failed to show an overall more favourable prognosis conferred by tumour DNA aneuploidy. Analysis of the relationship between clinical stage and disease state and tumour DNA ploidy, however, suggests that (1) aneuploid tumours metastasize to distant sites at an earlier stage of the disease than diploid tumours and (2) local recurrence rates for diploid tumours, in late stage disease, are double those for aneuploid tumours. Improved staining procedures, and instrument modification, has also shown that cervix tumour heterogeneity is of considerably greater frequency than at first appeared to be the case (approximately 75% of DNA aneuploid tumours show heterogeneity). (Auth.)

  14. No evidence of trade-offs in the evolution of sperm numbers and sperm size in mammals.

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    Tourmente, M; Delbarco Trillo, J; Roldan, E R S

    2015-10-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection, in the form sperm competition, has influenced the evolution of several male reproductive traits. However, theory predicts that sperm competition would lead to trade-offs between numbers and size of spermatozoa because increased costs per cell would result in a reduction of sperm number if both traits share the same energetic budget. Theoretical models have proposed that, in large animals, increased sperm size would have minimal fitness advantage compared with increased sperm numbers. Thus, sperm numbers would evolve more rapidly than sperm size under sperm competition pressure. We tested in mammals whether sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers and size, and whether there is a trade-off between these traits. Our results showed that sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers in eutherian and metatherian mammals. There was no evidence of a trade-off between sperm numbers and sperm size in any of the two mammalian clades as we did not observe any significant relationship between sperm numbers and sperm size once the effect of sperm competition was taken into account. Maximization of both numbers and size in mammals may occur because each trait is crucial at different stages in sperm's life; for example size-determined sperm velocity is a key determinant of fertilization success. In addition, numbers and size may also be influenced by diverse energetic budgets required at different stages of sperm formation. PMID:26190170

  15. Comparative studies on in vitro sperm decondensation and pronucleus formation in egg extracts between gynogenetic and bisexual fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JIAN LI; JIAN FANG GUI

    2003-01-01

    A cell-free system based upon the egg extracts from gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)or bisexual red common carp (Cyprinus carpio red variety) was developed to investigate developmentalbehaviors of the demembranated sperm nuclei. Both red common carp and gibel carp sperm nuclei coulddecondense fully and form pronuclei in the red common carp egg extracts. Gibel carp sperm nuclei couldalso decondense fully and form pronuclei in the gibel carp egg extracts, but red common carp sperm nucleicould not decondense sufficiently in the same extracts. The significant differences of morphological changeswere further confirmed by ultrastructural observation of transmission electron microscopy. The data furtheroffer cytological evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetically reproducing gibel carp. Inaddition, the sperm nuclei in vitro decondensation is dependent on the pH in the extracts, and the decon-densed efficiency is optimal at pH 7. However, no DNA replication was observed in the two kinds of eggextracts during the incubation period of the sperm nuclei. It is suggested that the egg extracts preparedfrom the gynogenetic gibel carp should be a valid in vitro system for studying molecular mechanism ongynogenesis and reproduction mode diversity in fish.

  16. Cytogenetics of semi-fertile triploid and aneuploid intergeneric vine cacti hybrids.

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    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Mizrahi, Y

    2005-01-01

    Crosses between the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus, as the female parent, and the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus, as the male parent, yielded triploid and aneuploid hybrids. The fruits of these hybrids combined the attractive appearance of Hylocereus fruits with the delicious taste of S. megalanthus fruits. The aim of this work was to assess the fertility and breeding potential of the triploid and aneuploid hybrids with a view to developing an improved vine cactus crop. Pollen mother cells at metaphase I revealed univalents, bivalents, trivalents, and occasionally quadrivalents. Chromosome distribution at anaphase I revealed different classes of chromosome segregation as well as lagging chromosomes. At metaphase II, parallel and tripolar spindles were observed. The occurrence of triads was frequent, whereas dyads were rarely observed. Pollen stainability varied among the clones studied ranging from 9.8% to 18.6%. The diameters of the stained pollen grains varied widely, probably as a result of the number of chromosomes. Despite the allotriploid origin of our hybrids, functional female and male gametes were produced in considerable proportions, most likely as a result of balanced chromosome segregation. The triploid and aneuploid clones studied yielded viable seeds whose number per fruit was strongly dependent on the pollen donor. PMID:15618308

  17. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  18. Sperm Competition, Sperm Numbers and Sperm Quality in Muroid Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Gómez Montoto; Concepción Magaña; Maximiliano Tourmente; Juan Martín-Coello; Cristina Crespo; Juan José Luque-Larena; Montserrat Gomendio; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and qu...

  19. Microtubule organisation, pronuclear formation and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection or parthenogenetic activation and then slow-freezing with 1, 2-propanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dun-Gao; Zhu, Yan; Xing, Feng-Ying; Li, Shan-Gang; Chen, Xue-Jin; Jiang, Man-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cryopreservation on oocytes at different times after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and parthenogenetic activation. The study was performed in mouse oocytes fertilised by ICSI, or in artificially-activated oocytes, which were cryopreserved immediately, one hour or five hours later through slow-freezing. After thawing, the rates of survival, fertilisation-activation, embryonic development of oocytes-zygotes and changes in the cytoskeleton and ploidy were observed. Our results reveal a significant difference in survival rates of 0-, 1- and 5-h cryopreserved oocytes following ICSI and artificial activation. Moreover, significant differences in two pronuclei (PN) development existed between the 0-, 1- and 5-h groups of oocytes frozen after ICSI, while the rates of two-PN development of activated oocytes were different between the 1-h and 5-h groups. Despite these initial differences, there was no difference in the rate of blastocyst formation from two-PN zygotes following ICSI or artificial activation. However, compared with ICSI or artificially-activated oocytes cryopreserved at 5h, many oocytes from the 0- and 1-h cryopreservation groups developed to zygotes with abnormal ploidy; this suggests that too little time before cryopreservation can result in some activated oocytes forming abnormal ploidy. However, our results also demonstrate that spermatozoa can maintain normal fertilisation capacity in frozen ICSI oocytes and the procedure of freeze-thawing did not affect the later development of zygotes. PMID:23594385

  20. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

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    ... male partner produces too few sperm to do artificial insemination (intrauterine insemination [IUI]) or IVF. • The sperm may ... birth defects may actually be due to the infertility and not the treatments used to overcome the ...

  1. Prospects for using aneuploids and their derivatives for wheat protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for using the aneuploid technique in studies related to protein improvement in wheat are considered. Chromosomal location of gene(s) governing specific proteins or enzymes, separated by electrophoresis or electrofocusing, can be ascertained using ditelosomics where one arm of a homologous chromosome pair is absent. Reliable quantitative information on chromosomal effects on protein or specific amino-acid content can be obtained only from inter-varietal substitution lines in which a pair of the donor variety chromosomes substitutes for a pair of the recipient variety. Addition or substitution of certain rye chromosomes in wheat is reported to increase lysine of protein conten. Efficiency of mutation experiments, aimed to recover mutants with altered protein characteristics, can be greatly enhanced by treating the monosomic for the dhromosome that is known to carry the gene(s) having such influence. (author)

  2. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the Go stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs

  3. Snail sperm production characteristics vary with sperm competition risk

    OpenAIRE

    Oppliger, A.; Hosken, D J; Ribi, G

    1998-01-01

    Sperm competition is widespread and influences both male investment in spermatogenic tissue and ejaculate characteristics. Sperm competition models assume trade-offs between sperm size and number, although such trade-offs may be difficult to detect. This study examines the effects of sperm competition risk on the sperm production characteristics of the freshwater snail Viviparus ater. In this prosobranch, females mate frequently and store sperm, generating sperm competition. Males produce two...

  4. Larger sperm outcompete smaller sperm in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    LaMunyon, C W; Ward, S.

    1998-01-01

    Sperm competition is generally thought to drive the evolution of sperm miniaturization. Males gain advantage by transferring more sperm, which they produce by dividing limited resources into ever smaller cells. Here, we describe the opposite effect of size on the competitiveness of amoeboid sperm in the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Larger sperm crawled faster and displaced smaller sperm, taking precedence at fertilization. Larger sperm took longer to produce, however, and s...

  5. Sperm midpiece length predicts sperm swimming velocity in house mice

    OpenAIRE

    Firman, Renée C.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have argued that there should be a positive relationship between sperm size and sperm velocity, and that these traits influence a male's sperm competitiveness. However, comparative analyses investigating the evolutionary associations between sperm competition risk and sperm morphology have reported inconsistent patterns of association, and in vitro sperm competition experiments have further confused the issue; in some species, males with longer sperm achieve more compe...

  6. Sperm Selection in ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of sperm is a crucial part in assisted reproductive treament (ART. Sperm preparation methods do mainly differentiate according to sperm motility and are indispensable for therapies like intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Although in the beginning of the era of ICSI andrology was thought to play a minor role, ICSI has offered new options by correlating the treatment outcome to parameters of the individual applied spermatozoon. Hence the possibility for selecting spermatozoa has shifted from parameters which characterize the entire sperm cohort to a single-sperm specific assessment technology. Consequently, sperm selection is a topic which is intensively discussed nowadays. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the technologies which can be applied today and give a prospective on future techniques.

  7. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  8. Evolution of sperm size in nematodes: sperm competition favours larger sperm.

    OpenAIRE

    LaMunyon, C W; Ward, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the free-living rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm size is a determinant of sperm competitiveness. Larger sperm crawl faster and physically displace smaller sperm to take fertilization priority, but not without a cost: larger sperm are produced at a slower rate. Here, we investigate the evolution of sperm size in the family Rhabditidae by comparing sperm among 19 species, seven of which are hermaphroditic (self-fertile hermaphrodites and males), the rest being gonochoristic (...

  9. Sperm competition and the evolution of sperm design in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Gomendio Montserrat; Tourmente Maximiliano; Roldan Eduardo RS

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of sperm competition upon sperm size has been a controversial issue during the last 20 years which remains unresolved for mammals. The hypothesis that, when ejaculates compete with rival males, an increase in sperm size would make sperm more competitive because it would increase sperm swimming speed, has generated contradictory results from both theoretical and empirical studies. In addition, the debate has extended to which sperm components should increase i...

  10. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  11. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sperm morphology (shape): Does it affect fertility? How is a ... motility of the sperm (percentage of moving sperm), morphology of the sperm (percentage of normally shaped sperm), ...

  12. 陆地棉非整倍体的诱发和鉴定%Induction of Aneuploids and Their Identification in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-zhen GUO; Bao-min HU; Cheng-xin YI; Bao-liang ZHOU; Tian-zhen ZHANG; Jia-ju PAN

    2002-01-01

    @@ Aneuploid lines have been playing an important role in crop genetic studies and breeding utilization. Unfortunately, only several genetic materials of aneuploid can be used in Upland cotton. So far, there are 16 monosomics identified in cotton. In order to fill the gap, we carried on the irradiation research of mature pollen grains with γ-rays at different dosages and further produced F1 generation.

  13. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps=0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps=0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps=0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on sperm

  14. High efficiency production and genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Brassica aneuploids and homozygous plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zaiyun; (李再云); M.; Ceccarelli; S.; Minelli; A.; Contento; LIU; Yan; (刘; 焰); P.; G.; Cionini

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric hybridizations have been widely used in plant genetics and breeding to construct stocks for genetic analysis and to introduce into crops the desirable traits and genes from their relatives. The intergeneric crosses between Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss., B. carinata A. Braun and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz were made and the plants produced were subjected to genomic in situ hybridization analysis. The mixoploids from the cross with B. juncea were divided into three groups. The partially fertile mixoploids in the first group (2n = 36-42) mainly contained the somatic cells and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with the 36 chromosomes of B. juncea and additional chromosomes of O. violaceus. The mixoploids (2n = 30-36) in the second and third groups were morphologically quite similar to the mother plants B. juncea and showed nearly normal fertility. The plants in the second group produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 36) with their chromosomes paired and segregated normally, but 1-4 pairs of the O. violaceus chromosomes were included in some PMCs. The plants in the third group produced only PMCs with the 36 B. juncea chromosomes, which were paired and segregated normally. The mixoploids (2n = 29-34) from the cross with B. carinata produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 34) with normal chromosome pairing and segregation, but some plants had some PMCs with 1-3 pairs of chromosomes from O. violaceus and other plants had only PMCs with the B. carinata chromosomes. The Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with complete or partial chromosome complements of Brassica parents and various numbers of O. violaceus chromosomes were derived from these progeny plants. The results in this study provided the molecular cytogenetic evidence for the separation of parental genomes which was previously proposed to occur in the hybridizations of these two genera.

  15. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald;

    2003-01-01

    Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long...

  16. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra;

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of maternal airway exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2, UV-Titan) and carbon black (CB, Printex90), on male reproductive function in the two following generations. Time-mated C57BL/6J mice were exposed by inhalation to UV-Titan, or by intratracheal...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring...

  17. Contraindication of ART following a sperm FISH analysis, even though only 12% of the spermatozoa had enlarged heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthauser, Bruno; Boitrelle, Florence; Albert, Martine; Ketata, Fadoua; Meynant, Celine; Ferfouri, Fatma; Selva, Jacqueline; Vialard, Francois

    2013-08-01

    We report on a couple with a five-year history of idiopathic primary infertility. Two early miscarriages had followed intrauterine insemination (IUI). The man's fertility was then re-evaluated, in order to establish whether or not IUI was the best treatment option. Although the semen parameters were normal (sperm concentration: 89 million/ml; progressive motility: 40%; percentage of typical forms: 20%), a computer-assisted sperm morphology analysis with strict criteria found that 12% of the spermatozoa had enlarged heads. All of the latter had a normal form and none had multiple flagella. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, we found that the proportion of aneuploid and diploid spermatozoa was 78% for the sample as a whole and 68% for normally-shaped spermatozoa with a normal-sized head. Although treatment options are well documented for men with macrocephalic sperm head syndrom, there is no consensus on individuals with a low but non-negligible proportion of spermatozoa with enlarged heads. Here, our FISH results contraindicated the use of assisted reproductive technology with the man's sperm. The couple decided to resort to donor sperm. PMID:23517468

  18. Surfing and Swimming of Ejaculated Sperm in the Mouse Oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yu; Usui, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Misuzu; Kanemori, Yoshinori; Baba, Tadashi

    2016-04-01

    To accomplish fertilization in the oviductal ampulla, ejaculated sperm are required to migrate through the female reproductive tract. However, this fundamental process largely remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of oviductal smooth muscle (myosalpinx) contractions in the sperm migration. Administration of prifinium bromide, padrin, to mice effectively suppressed myosalpinx contractions, resulting in a decreased rate of fertilization in a dose-dependent manner, and an abrogation of high-speed back-and-forth/shuttling flows of oviductal fluids around the isthmus. Regardless of padrin administration, no shuttling flows were found near the ampulla. In the isthmus, sperm formed a tight assemblage that was synchronized with the shuttling flows. The sperm assemblage was gradually loosened and then completely abolished near the ampulla. No sperm assemblage was formed in the isthmus when padrin was administrated. These results suggest that myosalpinx contractions play important roles in the formation of sperm assemblage in the isthmus, and in the transport of the assemblage to the middle region of the oviduct. It is also suggested that the motility of sperm is essential for the migration of sperm from the middle oviductal region to the ampulla. PMID:26962118

  19. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time as...

  20. Pretreating porcine sperm with lipase enhances developmental competence of embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yinghui; Fan, Junhua; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Kui

    2016-08-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been widely applied in humans, mice, and some domestic animals to cure human infertility, or produce genetically superior or genetically engineered animals. However, the production efficiency of ICSI in pigs remains quite low. In this study, we developed a new sperm pretreatment method to improve production efficiency of ICSI in pigs. Experiment 1 revealed that pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation, not only can reduce the adhesion between sperm and the injection pipette without adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the operating medium, but also significantly improve male pronuclei (MPN) formation rate (55.56% vs. 40.00% (0 mg/ml), 42.59% (5.0 mg/ml), 40.00% (10.0 mg/ml), P competence of ICSI embryos (26.03% vs. 10.87% (0 mg/ml), 10.00% (5.0 mg/ml), 10.13% (10.0 mg/ml), P formation rate (50.47% vs. 30.78%, P < 0.05) and blastocyst rate (18.81% vs. 7.41%, P < 0.05) than the PVP method, and was better than the Triton X-100 treatment method (50.47% vs. 46.23%, 18.81% vs. 12.75%). Therefore, pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation is highly recommended, instead of adding PVP in the operating medium. PMID:26443110

  1. Structure and Evolution of Insect Sperm: New Interpretations in the Age of Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive review of the structure of sperm in all orders of insects evaluates phylogenetic implications, with the background of a phylogeny based on transcriptomes. Sperm characters strongly support several major branches of the phylogeny of insects-for instance, Cercophora, Dicondylia, and Psocodea-and also different infraordinal groups. Some closely related taxa, such as Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Amphiesmenoptera), differ greatly in sperm structure. Sperm characters are very conservative in some groups (Heteroptera, Odonata) but highly variable in others, including Zoraptera, a small and morphologically uniform group with a tremendously accelerated rate of sperm evolution. Unusual patterns such as sperm dimorphism, the formation of bundles, or aflagellate and immotile sperm have evolved independently in several groups. PMID:26982436

  2. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    inquires into how the bending of boundaries by “inappropriate parents”, fertility travellers, private sperm banks and fertility clinics have been part in negotiating the changes of the legislation in practice, and thus been part of developing a Danish industry of sperm banking. The presentation is based on......During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time as...... a multi-sited ethnography drawing on ethnographic research including observations and interviews from fertility clinics and sperm banks in Denmark during 2002/2003 and 2011- 2013, legislative documents and websites of fertility clinics and sperm banks. The presentation is methodologically inspired...

  3. Sialylation Facilitates the Maturation of Mammalian Sperm and Affects Its Survival in Female Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue; Pan, Qian; Feng, Ying; Choudhury, Biswa P; Ma, Qianhong; Gagneux, Pascal; Ma, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Establishment of adequate levels of sialylation is crucial for sperm survival and function after insemination; however, the mechanism for the addition of the sperm sialome has not been identified. Here, we report evidence for several different mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of the mature sperm sialome. Directly quantifying the source of the nucleotide sugar CMP-beta-N-acetylneuraminic acid in epididymal fluid indicates that transsialylation occurs in the upper epididymis. Western blots for the low-molecular-mass sialoglycoprotein (around 20-50 kDa) in C57BL/6 mice epididymal fluid reflect that additional sialome could be obtained by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored sialoglycopeptide incorporation during epididymal transit in the caput of the epididymis. Additionally, we found that in Cmah (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase)-/- transgenic mice, epididymal sperm obtained sialylated-CD52 from seminal vesicle fluid (SVF). Finally, we used Gfp (green fluorescent protein)+/+ mouse sperm to test the role of sialylation on sperm for protection from female leukocyte attack. There is very low phagocytosis of the epididymal sperm when compared to that of sperm coincubated with SVF. Treating sperm with Arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase (AUS) increased phagocytosis even further. Our results highlight the different mechanisms of increasing sialylation, which lead to the formation of the mature sperm sialome, as well as reveal the sialome's function in sperm survival within the female genital tract. PMID:27075617

  4. Evolution and function of mammalian binder of sperm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Geneviève; Prud'homme, Bruno; Fan, Jinjiang; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Binder of sperm (BSP) proteins are ubiquitous among mammals and have been extensively investigated over the last three decades. They were first characterized in bull seminal plasma and have now been identified in more than 15 different mammalian species where they represent a superfamily. In addition to sharing a common structure, BSP proteins share many characteristics. They are expressed by seminal vesicles and epididymides, interact with similar ligands and bind to the outer leaflet of sperm membranes via an interaction with choline phospholipids. In addition to playing a major role in sperm capacitation, they are implicated as molecular chaperones in sperm motility and viability, in the formation of the oviductal sperm reservoir, in the regulation of cell volume and possibly in the interaction between sperm and oocytes, making them crucial multifunctional proteins. Furthermore, BSP proteins can bind to egg yolk low-density lipoproteins and milk components, an interaction important for the protection of sperm during semen preservation in liquid or frozen state. Our current knowledge of BSP proteins strongly emphasizes their fundamental importance in male fertility and in the optimization of semen preservation techniques. Much work is still ahead in order to fully understand all the mysteries of BSP proteins. PMID:26386584

  5. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B.; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm ...

  6. Mitochondria functionality and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alexandra; Lourenço, Bárbara; Marques, Mónica; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria are best known for being the eukaryotic cell powerhouses, these organelles participate in various cellular functions besides ATP production, such as calcium homoeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis. The aim of this review was to discuss the putative roles of mitochondria in mammalian sperm function and how they may relate to sperm quality and fertilisation ability, particularly in humans. Although paternal mitochondria are degraded inside the zygote, sperm mitochondrial functionality seems to be critical for fertilisation. Indeed, changes in mitochondrial integrity/functionality, namely defects in mitochondrial ultrastructure or in the mitochondrial genome, transcriptome or proteome, as well as low mitochondrial membrane potential or altered oxygen consumption, have been correlated with loss of sperm function (particularly with decreased motility). Results from genetically engineered mouse models also confirmed this trend. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria derived ATP is not crucial for sperm motility and that glycolysis may be the main ATP supplier for this particular aspect of sperm function. However, there are contradictory data in the literature regarding sperm bioenergetics. The relevance of sperm mitochondria may thus be associated with their role in other physiological features, particularly with the production of ROS, which in controlled levels are needed for proper sperm function. Sperm mitochondria may also serve as intracellular Ca²⁺ stores, although their role in signalling is still unclear. PMID:23901129

  7. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael L Eisenberg; Lata Murthy; Kathleen Hwang; Dolores J Lamb; Larry I Lipshultz

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations.While men bear the sex-determining chromosome,the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio.We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm.We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded.Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Ychromosomes/total chromosomes).Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters.A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH.For the entire cohort,the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%.Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02).After multivariable adjustment,a higher sperm concentration,total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01).As a man's sperm production declines,so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm.Thus,a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring.

  8. Relative testis size and sperm morphometry across mammals: no evidence for an association between sperm competition and sperm length.

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Matthew J.g.; Robert P Freckleton

    2003-01-01

    Understanding why there is extensive variation in sperm form and function across taxa has been a challenge because sperm are specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. This comparative study collates published data to determine whether the evolution of sperm morphometry (sperm total length and separate component dimensions) is associated with sperm competition (when different males' sperm mix and compete for a female's ova) across 83 mammalian species. We use...

  9. Occurrence of multipolar mitoses and association with Aurora-A/-B kinases and p53 mutations in aneuploid esophageal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münch Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases and loss of p53 function are implicated in the carcinogenesis of aneuploid esophageal cancers. Their association with occurrence of multipolar mitoses in the two main histotypes of aneuploid esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the occurrence of multipolar mitoses, Aurora-A/-B gene copy numbers and expression/activation as well as p53 alterations in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cell lines. Results A control esophageal epithelial cell line (EPC-hTERT had normal Aurora-A and -B gene copy numbers and expression, was p53 wild type and displayed bipolar mitoses. In contrast, both ESCC (OE21, Kyse-410 and BAC (OE33, OE19 cell lines were aneuploid and displayed elevated gene copy numbers of Aurora-A (chromosome 20 polysomy: OE21, OE33, OE19; gene amplification: Kyse-410 and Aurora-B (chromosome 17 polysomy: OE21, Kyse-410. Aurora-B gene copy numbers were not elevated in OE19 and OE33 cells despite chromosome 17 polysomy. Aurora-A expression and activity (Aurora-A/phosphoT288 was not directly linked to gene copy numbers and was highest in Kyse-410 and OE33 cells. Aurora-B expression and activity (Aurora-B/phosphoT232 was higher in OE21 and Kyse-410 than in OE33 and OE19 cells. The mitotic index was highest in OE21, followed by OE33 > OE19 > Kyse-410 and EPC-hTERT cells. Multipolar mitoses occurred with high frequency in OE33 (13.8 ± 4.2%, followed by OE21 (7.7 ± 5.0% and Kyse-410 (6.3 ± 2.0% cells. Single multipolar mitoses occurred in OE19 (1.0 ± 1.0% cells. Distinct p53 mutations and p53 protein expression patterns were found in all esophageal cancer cell lines, but complete functional p53 inactivation occurred in OE21 and OE33 only. Conclusions High Aurora-A expression alone is not associated with overt multipolar mitoses in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cells, as specifically shown here for OE21 and OE33 cells, respectively

  10. Sperm function test

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Talwar; Suryakant Hayatnagarkar

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give ins...

  11. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-11

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

  12. Sperm function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  13. Sperm function test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  14. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples

  15. Classification of ostrich sperm characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M J; Bonato, M; Dzama, K; Malecki, I A; Cloete, S W P

    2016-05-01

    The success of assisted reproduction techniques is dependent on a sound foundation of understanding sperm characteristics to evaluate so as to improve semen processing. This study offers a descriptive basis for ostrich semen quality in terms of sperm function characteristics (SFC) that include motility, measured by computer assisted sperm analysis CASA (SCA(®)), viability (SYBR14/PI) and membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test). Relationships among these SFC's were explored and described by correlations and regressions. Certain fixed effects including the dilution of semen, season, year and male associated with semen collection were interpreted for future applications. The seasonal effect on sperm samples collected throughout the year suggested that it is prudent to restrict collections to spring and summer when SFC's and sperm concentration are maximized, compared to winter when these aspects of sperm quality are suppressed. Dilution of ejaculates helped to maintain important SFC's associated with fertilization success. The SFC's and sperm concentration varied among males, with specific males, having greater values for the percentage of motile (MOT) and progressively motile (PMOT) sperm, as well as sperm velocity (VCL, VSL, VAP) and linearity (LIN) variables. Males may thus be screened on these variables for inclusion in an artificial insemination (AI) programme to optimize fertility success rates. PMID:27039985

  16. Surgical sperm retrieval: Techniques and their indications

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rupin

    2011-01-01

    Men with azoospermia can father a child through intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection if sperm can be retrieved from their epididymis or testis. Several percutaneous and open surgical procedures have been described to retrieve sperm. The various techniques and their merits are discussed in this review. In men with obstructive azoospermia, epididymal sperm can usually be retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). If PESA fails then testicular sperm are obtained by needle aspirat...

  17. Tumor environmental factors glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis induce mitotic chromosomal instability--an implication in aneuploid human tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Dai

    Full Text Available Mitotic chromosomal instability (CIN plays important roles in tumor progression, but what causes CIN is incompletely understood. In general, tumor CIN arises from abnormal mitosis, which is caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic factors. While intrinsic factors such as mitotic checkpoint genes have been intensively studied, the impact of tumor microenvironmental factors on tumor CIN is largely unknown. We investigate if glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis--two tumor microenvironmental factors--could induce cancer cell CIN. We show that glucose deprivation with lactic acidosis significantly increases CIN in 4T1, MCF-7 and HCT116 scored by micronuclei, or aneuploidy, or abnormal mitosis, potentially via damaging DNA, up-regulating mitotic checkpoint genes, and/or amplifying centrosome. Of note, the feature of CIN induced by glucose deprivation with lactic acidosis is similar to that of aneuploid human tumors. We conclude that tumor environmental factors glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis can induce tumor CIN and propose that they are potentially responsible for human tumor aneuploidy.

  18. Metabolomic profiling and genomic analysis of wheat aneuploid lines to identify genes controlling biochemical pathways in mature grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francki, Michael G; Hayton, Sarah; Gummer, Joel P A; Rawlinson, Catherine; Trengove, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly important tool in plant genomics to decipher the function of genes controlling biochemical pathways responsible for trait variation. Although theoretical models can integrate genes and metabolites for trait variation, biological networks require validation using appropriate experimental genetic systems. In this study, we applied an untargeted metabolite analysis to mature grain of wheat homoeologous group 3 ditelosomic lines, selected compounds that showed significant variation between wheat lines Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line, tracked the genes encoding enzymes of their biochemical pathway using the wheat genome survey sequence and determined the genetic components underlying metabolite variation. A total of 412 analytes were resolved in the wheat grain metabolome, and principal component analysis indicated significant differences in metabolite profiles between Chinese Spring and each ditelosomic lines. The grain metabolome identified 55 compounds positively matched against a mass spectral library where the majority showed significant differences between Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line. Trehalose and branched-chain amino acids were selected for detailed investigation, and it was expected that if genes encoding enzymes directly related to their biochemical pathways were located on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, then corresponding ditelosomic lines would have a significant reduction in metabolites compared with Chinese Spring. Although a proportion showed a reduction, some lines showed significant increases in metabolites, indicating that genes directly and indirectly involved in biosynthetic pathways likely regulate the metabolome. Therefore, this study demonstrated that wheat aneuploid lines are suitable experimental genetic system to validate metabolomics-genomics networks. PMID:26032167

  19. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  20. Sperm competition experiments between lines of crickets producing different sperm lengths.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, E. H.; Gage, M J

    2001-01-01

    Sperm numbers can be important determinants of fertilization success in sperm competition. However, the importance of variation in sperm size is less well understood. Sperm size varies significantly both between and within species and comparative studies have suggested that some of this variance can be explained by sperm competition. In this study we examine whether variation in sperm length has consequences for fertilization precedence using controlled sperm competition experiments in the fi...

  1. RNA in human sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Pires Martins; Stephen A. Krawetz

    2005-01-01

    We have yet to develop a fundamental understanding of the molecular complexities of human spermatozoa. This encompasses the unique packaging and structure of the sperm genome along with their paternally derived RNAs in preparation for their delivery to the egg. The diversity of these transcripts is vast, including several anti-sense molecules resembling known regulatory micro-RNAs. The field is still grasping with its delivery to the oocyte at fertilization and possible significance. It remains tempting to analogize them to maternally-derived transcripts active in early embryo patterning. Irrespective of their role in the embryo, their use as a means to assess male factor infertility is promising.

  2. Sperm preparation for ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schill Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate

  3. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Dabaja, Ali A; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. In the last two decades, the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques, including fine needle aspiration (FNA), conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this gr...

  4. Human sperm rheotaxis: a passive physical process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoran Zhang; Jun Liu; Jim Meriano; Changhai Ru; Shaorong Xie; Jun Luo; Yu Sun

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing question in natural reproduction is how mammalian sperm navigate inside female reproductive tract and finally reach the egg cell, or oocyte. Recently, fluid flow was proposed as a long–range guidance cue for sperm navigation. Coitus induces fluid flow from oviduct to uterus, and sperm align themselves against the flow direction and swim upstream, a phenomenon termed rheotaxis. Whether sperm rheotaxis is a passive process dominated by fluid mechanics, or sperm actively sense an...

  5. Sperm Dynamics in Spiders (Araneae): Ultrastructural Analysis of the Sperm Activation Process in the Garden Spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Vöcking; Gabriele Uhl; Peter Michalik

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that...

  6. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  7. Sperm competition games: optimal sperm allocation in response to the size of competing ejaculates

    OpenAIRE

    Engqvist, Leif; Reinhold, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that when males are certain of sperm competition, they should decrease sperm investment in matings with an increasing number of competing ejaculates. How males should allocate sperm when competing with differently sized ejaculates, however, has not yet been examined. Here, we report the outcomes of two models assuming variation in males' sperm reserves and males being faced with different amounts of competing sperm. In the first ‘spawning model’, two males co...

  8. Mitochondria functionality and sperm quality

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Alexandra; Lourenço, Bárbara; Marques, Mónica; Ramalho-Santos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria are best known for being the eukaryotic cell powerhouses, these organelles participate in various cellular functions besides ATP production, such as calcium homoeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis. The aim of this review was to discuss the putative roles of mitochondria in mammalian sperm function and how they may relate to sperm quality and fertilisation ability, particularly in...

  9. Sperm Chromatin-Induced Ectopic Polar Body Extrusion in Mouse Eggs after ICSI and Delayed Egg Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Manqi; Li, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Meiotic chromosomes in an oocyte are not only a maternal genome carrier but also provide a positional signal to induce cortical polarization and define asymmetric meiotic division of the oocyte, resulting in polar body extrusion and haploidization of the maternal genome. The meiotic chromosomes play dual function in determination of meiosis: 1) organizing a bipolar spindle formation and 2) inducing cortical polarization and assembly of a distinct cortical cytoskeleton structure in the overlying cortex for polar body extrusion. At fertilization, a sperm brings exogenous paternal chromatin into the egg, which induces ectopic cortical polarization at the sperm entry site and leads to a cone formation, known as fertilization cone. Here we show that the sperm chromatin-induced fertilization cone formation is an abortive polar body extrusion due to lack of spindle induction by the sperm chromatin during fertilization. If experimentally manipulating the fertilization process to allow sperm chromatin to induce both cortical polarization and spindle formation, the fertilization cone can be converted into polar body extrusion. This suggests that sperm chromatin is also able to induce polar body extrusion, like its maternal counterpart. The usually observed cone formation instead of ectopic polar body extrusion induced by sperm chromatin during fertilization is due to special sperm chromatin compaction which restrains it from rapid spindle induction and therefore provides a protective mechanism to prevent a possible paternal genome loss during ectopic polar body extrusion. PMID:19787051

  10. Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Blengini, Cecilia S.; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C.; Margarita, Chiaraviglio

    2014-01-01

    In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and v...

  11. Variation in sperm morphology among Afrotropical sunbirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omotoriogun, T. C.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bowie, R. C. K.; Sedláček, O.; Hořák, D.; Ottosson, U.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2016), s. 155-166. ISSN 0019-1019 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : comparative analysis * Nectariniidae * phylogenetic signal * sperm competition * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2014

  12. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser; M.H. Mochtar; A.A. de Melker; F. van der Veen; S. Repping; T. Gerrits

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counsellin

  13. The effect of cryopreservation on sperm head morphometry in Florida male goat related to sperm freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, M; Rodríguez, I; Dorado, J M

    2007-07-01

    The Sperm Class Analyzer was used to investigate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on Florida buck sperm head morphometry, and to relate possible changes in sperm head dimensions to cryopreservation success. Semen samples (n=76) were frozen with tris and milk-based extenders and thawed. Sperm quality samples (motility, morphology, acrosome), and sperm head morphometric values (length, width, area, perimeter, ellipticity) were compared between fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Sperm freezability was judged according to the sperm quality parameters assessed. Fertility data was obtained after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen. Cryopreservation success was different between freezing methods. Sperm head dimensions were significantly (pmilk spermatozoa respectively than in those of the fresh samples. The sperm head morphometric parameters that had changed after cryopreservation were lower in suitable semen samples after thawing and with successful pregnancies after artificial insemination. These data suggest that changes in sperm head morphometry might reflect spermatozoa injury occurred during cryopreservation. PMID:16904275

  14. Assembly of Lampbrush Chromosomes from Sperm Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Joseph G.; Murphy, Christine

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the behavior of demembranated sperm heads when injected into the germinal vesicle (GV) of amphibian oocytes. Xenopus sperm heads injected into Xenopus GVs swelled immediately and within hours began to stain with an antibody against RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Over time each sperm head became a loose mass of chromosome-like threads, which by 24–48 h resolved into individually recognizable lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs). Although LBCs derived from sperm are unreplicated single ch...

  15. Human sperm rheotaxis: a passive physical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuoran; Liu, Jun; Meriano, Jim; Ru, Changhai; Xie, Shaorong; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-03-01

    A long-standing question in natural reproduction is how mammalian sperm navigate inside female reproductive tract and finally reach the egg cell, or oocyte. Recently, fluid flow was proposed as a long–range guidance cue for sperm navigation. Coitus induces fluid flow from oviduct to uterus, and sperm align themselves against the flow direction and swim upstream, a phenomenon termed rheotaxis. Whether sperm rheotaxis is a passive process dominated by fluid mechanics, or sperm actively sense and adapt to fluid flow remains controversial. Here we report the first quantitative study of sperm flagellar motion during human sperm rheotaxis and provide direct evidence indicating that sperm rheotaxis is a passive process. Experimental results show that there is no significant difference in flagellar beating amplitude and asymmetry between rheotaxis-turning sperm and those sperm swimming freely in the absence of fluid flow. Additionally, fluorescence image tracking shows no Ca2+ influx during sperm rheotaxis turning, further suggesting there is no active signal transduction during human sperm rheotaxis.

  16. Sperm Ubiquitination Correlation with Human Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sadeghi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ubiquitin, an 8.5 kDa peptide that marks other proteins for proteasomal degradation, tags defective sperm during epididymal passage. Thus, sperm ubiquitination is a universal marker for sperm defects and can be used as a sperm function test. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between sperm ubiquitination and clinical semen parameters, using simplified immunofluorescence assays in order to establish ubiquitin as a biomarker of male infertility. Methods: Semen samples from 100 couples attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic, Tehran, Iran, were collected and analyzed according to WHO criteria. Each sample was washed and adjusted at 106 sperm/ml concentration. Sperm were coated on slides, using cytospin centrifugation and were fixed in buffered formaldehyde. Subsequently ubiquitinated spermatozoa were evaluated by direct immunofluorescence microscopy using FITC-labeled anti-ubiquitin antibodies. After counting at least 200 sperm per sample, while employing light microscopy, the percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa was recorded on the same fields through epifluorescence microscopy. Results: Negative correlations were obtained between sperm ubiquitination and sperm count (r=-0.278, P< 0.001, sperm concentration (r=-0.37, P< 0.001, viability (r=-0.407, P< 0.001, sperm morphology (r=-0.509, P< 0.001, rapid progressive motility (a (r=-0.246, P< 0.001 and slow progressive motility (b (r=-0.474, P< 0.001. There was a positive correlation between ubiquitinated sperm and the percentage of immotile spermatozoa (r=0.486, P< 0.000. Conclusion: Increased sperm ubiquitination is inversely associated with good semen quality parameters, supporting the use of ubiquitin as a biomarker for evaluation of human sperm quality.

  17. Characterisation of Caenorhabditis elegans sperm transcriptome and proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Chunfang; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Yanmei; Chen, Shilin; Yang, Fuquan; Miao, Long

    2014-01-01

    Background Although sperm is transcriptionally and translationally quiescent, complex populations of RNAs, including mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, exist in sperm. Previous microarray analysis of germ cell mutants identified hundreds of sperm genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. To take a more comprehensive view on C. elegans sperm genes, here, we isolate highly pure sperm cells and employ high-throughput technologies to obtain sperm transcriptome and proteome. Results First, sperm transcriptome cons...

  18. Cryopreservation of sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Serean L; Hessian, Paul A; Mladenov, Philip V

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed for cryopreserving sperm of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus. Sperm fertilisation ability, mitochondrial function and membrane integrity were assessed before and after cryopreservation. Highest post-thaw fertilisation ability was achieved with lower concentrations (2.5%-7.5%) of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In contrast, post-thaw mitochondrial function and membrane integrity were higher for sperm frozen in intermediate and high DMSO concentrations (5%-15%). Surprisingly, some sperm frozen in seawater only, without DMSO, were able to survive post-thawing, although the fertilisation ability (10(6) sperm/ml; approximately 50% fertilisation), mitochondrial function and membrane integrity of these sperm were notably lower than of sperm frozen with DMSO (10(6) sperm cells/ml; 2.5%-7.5% DMSO; >85% fertilisation) at the concentrations tested. Amongst sperm from individual males, fertilisation ability varied before and after cryopreservation for both males frozen with and without cryoprotectant. Specific differences among males also varied. Sperm mitochondrial function and membrane integrity was similar among males before cryopreservation but differed considerably after cryopreservation. Cryopreserved sperm were able to fertilise eggs and develop to pluteus stage larvae. This study has practical applications and will provide benefits such as reduced broodstock conditioning costs, control of parental input and opportunities for hybridisation studies. PMID:15375439

  19. Sperm abnormalities in exposed humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Rubeš, J.

    Cambridge : Issue in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publ.,, 2007, s. 247-258. ISBN 978-0-85404-847-2 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution exposure * sperm abnormalities * male reproductive health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. Patterns of sperm damage in Chernobyl passerine birds suggest a trade-off between sperm length and integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosell, Ignacio G.; Laskemoen, Terje; Rowe, Melissah; Møller, Anders P.; Mousseau, Timothy A; Albrecht, Tomáš; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific variation in sperm size is enigmatic, but generally assumed to reflect species-specific trade-offs in selection pressures. Among passerine birds, sperm length varies sevenfold, and sperm competition risk seems to drive the evolution of longer sperm. However, little is known about factors favouring short sperm or constraining the evolution of longer sperm. Here, we report a comparative analysis of sperm head abnormalities among 11 species of passerine bird in Chernobyl, presumabl...

  1. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Chan, Philip J.; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  2. Improved embryo development in Japanese black cattle by in vitro fertilization using ovum pick-up plus intracytoplasmic sperm injection with dithiothreitol

    OpenAIRE

    OIKAWA, Toshinori; ITAHASHI, Tomoko; NUMABE, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of sperm and ethanol activation improve embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Further, we compared ICSI with standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) in oocytes obtained from cattle. We demonstrated that DTT reduced the disulfide bond in the bovine sperm head. Using oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse, ICSI-DTT treatment without ethanol showed the highest rate of blastocyst formation. We ...

  3. On the origin of sperm epigenetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurentino, Sandra; Borgmann, Jennifer; Gromoll, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    The influence of epigenetic modifications on reproduction and on the function of male germ cells has been thoroughly demonstrated. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation levels in sperm have been associated with abnormal sperm parameters, lower fertilization rates and impaired embryo development. Recent reports have indicated that human sperm might be epigenetically heterogeneous and that abnormal DNA methylation levels found in the sperm of infertile men could be due to the presence of sperm populations with different epigenetic quality. However, the origin and the contribution of different germ cell types to this suspected heterogeneity remain unclear. In this review, we focus on sperm epigenetics at the DNA methylation level and its importance in reproduction. We take into account the latest developments and hypotheses concerning the functional significance of epigenetic heterogeneity coming from the field of stem cell and cancer biology and discuss the potential importance and consequences of sperm epigenetic heterogeneity for reproduction, male (in)fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Based on the current information, we propose a model in which spermatogonial stem cell variability, either intrinsic or due to external factors (such as endocrine action and environmental stimuli), can lead to epigenetic sperm heterogeneity, sperm epimutations and male infertility. The elucidation of the precise causes for epimutations, the conception of adequate therapeutic options and the development of sperm selection technologies based on epigenetic quality should be regarded as crucial to the improvement of ART outcome in the near future. PMID:26884419

  4. Sperm Morphology Assessment in Captive Neotropical Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, W F; Valle, R R; Carvalho, F M; Arakaki, P R; Rodas-Martínez, A Z; Muniz, Japc; García-Herreros, M

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. Data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, Callithrix jacchus, Callimico goeldii, Alouatta caraya and Ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective World Health Organization (WHO-2010) standards and Sperm Deformity Index (SDI) criteria, objective computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) and subpopulation sperm determination (SSD) methods. There were multiple differences (p Area (A), Perimeter (P), Length (L), Width (W), Ellipticity, Elongation and Rugosity) (p ≤ 0.046). In conclusion, our findings using different evaluation methods indicate that pronounced sperm morphological variation exists among these four neotropical primate species. Because of the strong relationship observed among morphological and morphometric parameters, these results suggest that application of objective analysis methods could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help to establish valid normative sperm values for neotropical primates. PMID:27260333

  5. Etiology and Evaluation of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human sperm chromatin anomalies adversely affect reproductive outcomesand infertile men possess substantially amount of sperm with chromatin anomalies than fertilemen.Routine semen analysis evaluates parameters such as sperm motility and morphology, but doesnot examine the nuclear DNA integrity of spermatozoa. It has been suggested that altered nuclearchromatin structure or damaged DNA in spermatozoa could modify the special cellular functionsof human spermatozoa, and thereby affect the fertility potential. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI bypass the barriers to fertilization for such a sperm, then the effect of chromatin anomalies onthe development remains a concern. Therefore, it is essential to develop and use accurate diagnostictests, which may provide better prognostic capabilities than the standard sperm assessments. Thisreview discusses our current understanding of the structure and organization of sperm DNA,the different procedures for assessment of sperm chromatin anomalies including comet assay,Chromomycin A3 (CMA3, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA, acridine orange test (AOT,terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, aniline blue and sperm chromatindispersion (SCD test and the impact of chromatin anomalies on reproductive outcome.

  6. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. PMID:25998234

  7. Sperm fucosyltransferase-5 mediates the sperm-oviductal epithelial cell interaction to protect human sperm from oxidative damage

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenxin; 黃聞馨

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major cause of sperm dysfunction. Excessive ROS generation reduces fertilization and enhances DNA damage of spermatozoa. In mammals, including humans, oviduct functions as a sperm reservoir which is created by the binding of spermatozoa to the epithelial lining in the oviduct. Interaction between sperm and oviductal epithelial cells improves the fertilizing ability of and reduces chromatin damage in spermatozoa. However, the mechanism(s) ...

  8. Determination of intracellular reactive oxygen species and high mitochondrial membrane potential in Percoll-treated viable boar sperm using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R

    2006-08-01

    The use of frozen semen in the swine industry is limited by problems with viability and fertility compared with liquid semen. Part of the reduction in sperm motility and fertility associated with cryopreservation may be due to oxidative damage from excessive or inappropriate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chemiluminescence measurements of ROS are not possible in live cells and are problematic because of poor specificity. An alternative approach, flow cytometry, was developed to identify viable boar sperm containing ROS utilizing the dyes hydroethidine and 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate as oxidizable substrates and impermeant DNA dyes to exclude dead sperm. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined by flow cytometry using the mitochondrial probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide with propidium iodide staining to exclude nonviable cells. Sperm were incubated with and without ROS generators and free radical scavengers. Basal ROS formation was low (less than 4%) and did not differ (P = 0.26) between viable fresh and frozen-thawed boar sperm. In addition, fresh and frozen-thawed viable sperm were equally susceptible (P = 0.20) to intracellular formation of ROS produced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase (94.4 and 87.9% of sperm, respectively). Menadione increased (P boar sperm, both were quite susceptible to external sources of hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16864869

  9. Pregnancy rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in relation to sperm recovery techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Egbase, P. E.; Al-Sharhan, M.; Ing, R.; Grudzinskas, J G

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Methods: Clinical outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was evaluated in relation to three techniques of sperm recovery, mini-Percoll, simple concentration, and centrifugation and washing.

  10. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility. (orig.)

  11. A role for mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase in sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that mouse sperm surface galactosyltransferase may participate during fertilization by binding N- acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues in the zona pellucida. In this paper, we examined further the role of sperm surface galactosyltransferase in mouse fertilization. Two reagents that specifically perturb sperm surface galactosyltransferase activity both inhibit sperm-zona binding. The presence of the milk protein alpha- lactalbumin specifically modifies the substrate ...

  12. Effects of Sperm Conjugation and Dissociation on Sperm Viability In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Dawn M.; Henn, Kali R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Sperm conjugation is an unusual variation in sperm behavior where two or more spermatozoa physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. Conjugation has frequently been interpreted as sperm cooperation, including reproductive altruism, with some sperm advancing their siblings toward the site of fertilization while ostensibly forfeiting their own ability to fertilize through damage incurred during conjugate break-up. Conversely, conjugation has been proposed ...

  13. Sperm competition and sperm midpiece size: no consistent pattern in passerine birds

    OpenAIRE

    Immler, S.; Birkhead, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    Sperm competition is thought to be a major force driving the evolution of sperm shape and function. However, previous studies investigating the relationship between the risk of sperm competition and sperm morphometry revealed inconclusive results and marked differences between taxonomic groups. In a comparative study of two families of passerines (Fringillidae and Sylviidae) and also across species belonging to different passerine families, we investigated the relative importance of the phylo...

  14. Sperm competition and sperm length influence the rate of mammalian spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm, Steven A.; Stockley, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Sperm competition typically favours an increased investment in testes, because larger testes can produce more sperm to provide a numerical advantage in competition with rival ejaculates. However, interspecific variation in testis size cannot be equated directly with variation in sperm production rate—which is the trait ultimately selected under sperm competition—because there are also differences between species in the proportion of spermatogenic tissue contained within the testis and in the ...

  15. Application of a microfluidic sperm sorter to in vitro production of dairy cattle sex-sorted embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchun; Zhu, Sibing; He, Xianjing; Sun, Rui; He, Qianyu; Gan, Yi; Liu, Shengjun; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Li, Yanbing

    2016-04-15

    Viable sperm from sex-sorted semen without centrifugal treatment was separated by a microfluidic sperm sorter (MFSS) for IVF to improve in vitro embryo production of dairy cattle. The MFSS was originally developed to isolate motile human sperm by two laminar flows in the micro-channel (there are four chambers in an MFSS. Chamber A is the inlet for semen, chamber B is the inlet for the medium, chamber C is the exit chamber for motile sperm, and chamber D is the outlet for nonmotile sperm). Sex-sorted sperm were adjusted to 1 × 10(7) spermatozoa/mL (2 million cells/dose, sperm motility was 30% above after thawing). In a first experiment, diluted sex-sorted semen was mixed with modified Medium199(mM199) containing 5-mM caffeine for 5 minutes, resulting in variations in sperm concentration and quality parameters at chambers A, C, and D. In a second experiment, medium containing sperm from three MFSS chambers was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by flow cytometry, the relative activity of sperm mitochondria in chamber C (1.56 ± 0.03) was the highest in three observation areas (P competence of fertilized oocytes to the blastocyst stage was also higher in the MFSS-IVF system (40.12% ± 2.61%) than the modified standard IVF technique (24.55% ± 4.54%). These results demonstrate that a short coculture of dairy cattle oocytes with isolated motile sex-sorted spermatozoa gradually accumulated in the MFSS device improves the efficiencies of normally produced fertilized embryos and blastocyst formation. PMID:26768540

  16. Development of genetically engineered human sperm immunocontraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Rajesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Contraceptive vaccines targeting sperm are an exciting proposition. This review is focused on anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines and genetically engineered human antibodies that can be used as immunocontraceptives. Various methods of vaccinology and antibody engineering have been used to obtain multi-epitope contraceptive vaccines and human single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. Contraceptive vaccines comprised of various sperm antigens, pep...

  17. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728

  18. Sperm retention site and its influence on cleavage rate and early development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    OpenAIRE

    Yanaihara, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Shinji; Negishi, Momoko; Okai, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Background: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has risen to the forefront of reproductive technology. In the present study, the location of the sperm injection was noted, and a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the sperm retention site on cleavage rates and embryo quality after ICSI.

  19. The Correlation of Sperm Chromatin Decondensation Following In Vitro Exposure to Heparin and Sperm Penetration Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Carrell, Douglas T.; Emery, Benjamin R.; Peterson, C. Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation of low-dose heparin-induced decondensation of sperm chromatin with sperm concentration, motility, morphology, membrane hypoosmotic response, ejaculate volume, and the ability of sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster oocytes.

  20. Effects of sperm viability on fertilization and embryo cleavage following intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    OpenAIRE

    Poe-Zeigler, Robin; Nehchiri, Fariba; Hamacher, Pamela; Boyd, Catherine; Oehninger, Sergio; Muasher, Suheil; Lanzendorf, Susan E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In the human, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is typically performed using “viable” sperm which has been mechanically rendered nonmotile. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of nonviable sperm to fertilize human oocytes and the early developmental normalcy of the resulting embryos.

  1. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Dabaja; Peter N Schlegel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.In the last two decades,the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques,including fine needle aspiration (FNA),conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men.Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis,studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA,including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS),prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism.Micro-TESE,when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function.In this article,we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction,discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique.Furthermore,we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA.

  2. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  3. Two Types of Assays for Detecting Frog Sperm Chemoattraction

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Lindsey A.; Tholl, Nathan; Chandler, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm chemoattraction in invertebrates can be sufficiently robust that one can place a pipette containing the attractive peptide into a sperm suspension and microscopically visualize sperm accumulation around the pipette1. Sperm chemoattraction in vertebrates such as frogs, rodents and humans is more difficult to detect and requires quantitative assays. Such assays are of two major types - assays that quantitate sperm movement to a source of chemoattractant, so-called sperm accumulation assay...

  4. Long sperm fertilize more eggs in a bird

    OpenAIRE

    Bennison, Clair; Hemmings, Nicola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition, in which the ejaculates of multiple males compete to fertilize a female's ova, results in strong selection on sperm traits. Although sperm size and swimming velocity are known to independently affect fertilization success in certain species, exploring the relationship between sperm length, swimming velocity and fertilization success still remains a challenge. Here, we use the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where sperm size influences sperm swimming velocity, to determin...

  5. Cellular mechanisms regulating sperm-zona pellucida interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew T Reid; Kate Redgrove; R John Aitken; Brett Nixon

    2011-01-01

    For mammalian spermatozoa to exhibit the ability to bind the zona pellucida(ZP)they must undergo three distinct phases of maturation,namely,spermatogenesis(testis),epididymal maturation(epididymis)and capacitation(female reproductive tract).An impressive array of spermatozoa surface remodeling events accompany these phases of maturation and appear critical for recognition and adhesion of the outer vestments of the oocyte,a structure known as the ZP.It is becoming increasingly apparent that species-specific zona adhesion is not mediated by a single receptor.Instead,compelling evidence now points toward models implicating a multiplicity of receptor-ligand interactions.This notion is in keeping with emerging research that has shown that there is a dynamic aggregation of proteins believed to be important in sperm-ZP recognition to the regions of sperm that mediate this binding event.Such remodeling may in turn facilitate the assembly of a multimeric zona recognition complex(MZRC).Though formation of MZRCs raises questions regarding the nature of the block to polyspermy,formation and assembly of such a structure would no doubt explain the strenuous maturation process that sperm endure on their sojourn to functional maturity.

  6. Single blastocyst transfer after ICSI from ejaculate spermatozoa, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Staffan; Waldenström, Urban; Engström, Ann-Britt; Hellberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.

  7. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae: ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Vöcking

    Full Text Available Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present, decapsulated (secretion sheath absent and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated. After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process.

  8. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process. PMID:24039790

  9. Effects of Cadmium on Rat Sperm Motility Evaluated With Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study effects of cadmium on rat sperm motility evaluated with computer assisted sperm analysis. Methods  Different doses of cadmium chloride (0.2,0.4,0.8mg Cd/kg BW) were administrated ip to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Control animals received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl solution. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed with their testes removed. A part of one testis was used for testicular sperm head counts and daily sperm production observation. The motility of spermatozoa obtained from cauda epididymides using the “diffusion”method was measured by computer assisted sperm analysis(CASA). Results  The sperm head counts and daily sperm production decreased significantly in the high dose group. The motility of spermatozoa in the middle dose group was reduced significantly. No motile sperm was found in the high dose group. The results suggest that germinal epithelium was impaired irreversibly in a short time to produce toxic effects on spermatogenesis at high cadmium doses. Conclusion  Cadmium may reduce sperm motility at a dose far below the dose affecting sperm production at this time point. The motility of sperm is an early and sensitive endpoint for the assessment of cadmium toxicity on male reproduction.

  10. Predominance of sperm motion in corners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-01-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices. PMID:27211846

  11. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albani Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. These data all indicate that Sp17 is widely distributed in humans, expressed not only in germinal cells and in a variety of somatic tissues, but also in neoplastic cells of unrelated origin. Methods Sp17 expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy on spermatozoa. Results Here, we demonstrate the ultrastructural localization of human Sp17 throughout the spermatozoa flagellar fibrous sheath, and its presence in spermatozoa during in vitro states from their ejaculation to the oocyte fertilization. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of Sp17 in regulating sperm maturation, capacitation, acrosomal reaction and interactions with the oocyte zona pellucida during the fertilization process. Further, the high degree of sequence conservation throughout its N-terminal half, and the presence of an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP-binding motif within this region, suggest that Sp17 might play a regulatory role in a protein kinase A-independent AKAP complex in both germinal and somatic cells.

  12. Sperm Whales Suffer the Bends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Hopkin; 席芳

    2005-01-01

    据原先推测,鲸鱼对由声纳系统导致的疾病具有免疫力,但是两位美国科学家发现,抹香鲸(Sperm whales)正遭受着骨坏死疾病的侵扰,这是由于声纳系统扰乱了鲸鱼的生活习性所致,这种疾病有可能导致它们的搁浅。鲸鱼亟需得到保护!

  13. Thermodynamics of the interaction between bovine binder of sperm BSP1 and low-density lipoprotein from hen's egg yolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed Binder-of-SPerm BSP1 protein has high affinity for egg yolk low density lipoproteins. → It is estimated that 104 BSP1 molecules could bind one LDL particle. → BSP1 has 2 phosphocholine binding sites and the BSP1/LDL ratio corresponds to 1.6 phosphatidylcholine per bound BSP1. → The strong interaction between LDL particles and BSP1 is proposed to be important for sperm protection by egg yolk extender. - Abstract: Egg yolk is used in extender to protect sperm from cold shock and freezing during preservation. It is the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk that protects sperm. Even though essential for sperm capacitation, the major proteins from bull seminal plasma, the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, are detrimental for sperm preservation because they induce a continual phospholipids and cholesterol efflux from sperm membranes. The BSP proteins were proposed to bind to egg yolk LDL, preventing the sperm membrane damage. We characterized the binding between the BSP proteins and the LDL by isothermal titration calorimetry, providing the thermodynamics and quantitative description of this putative association. The association between BSP1 (major BSP proteins) and LDL is characterized by an affinity constant (Ka) of 3.4 ± 0.4 μM-1. A protein/LDL ratio of 104 ± 5 was determined indicating that 104 molecules of BSP1 would bind to one LDL particle. This stoichiometry leads to proposing that the association involves 1.6 ± 0.1 phosphatidylcholines (PC) per BSP protein. This finding is satisfactorily consistent with the fact that each BSP1 protein has 2 binding sites for choline group. In conclusion, the formation of a high affinity complex between BSP1 and LDL is proposed to be important for the protection of sperm by egg yolk extender.

  14. DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas: Role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence Aneuploidía del ADN en adenomas colónicos: Papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcántara Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aneuploidy has been observed in 6-27% of lesions known to be precursors of colorectal cancer, such as adenomas or ulcerative colitis. It has been suggested that aneuploidy may predispose to malignancy in these cases. However, its role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence has not been definitely established. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of aneuploidy in colon adenomas, as well as to study its possible role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Material and methods: the study was performed on a series of 57 large bowel adenomas measuring 10 mm or more, collected from 54 consecutive patients. All specimens were obtained either by endoscopic or by surgical resection. There were 49 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, two with high-grade dysplasia, two intramucous carcinomas, and four microinvasive carcinomas. A flow cytometric DNA analysis was performed in fresh specimens following Vindelov´s method. Results: aneuploid DNA was detected in five out of 49 low-grade dysplasia adenomas (10%, in all four high-grade dysplasia adenomas or intramucous carcinomas (100%, and in three out of four microinvasive carcinomas (75%. The association between aneuploidy and high-grade dysplasia adenomas, intramucous, or microinvasive carcinoma was statistically significant (p Introducción: en patología benigna de intestino grueso precursora del cáncer colorrectal, como adenomas o colitis ulcerosa, se ha observado aneuploidía en el 6-27% de los casos y se ha sugerido que su presencia predispone al desarrollo de malignidad. Sin embargo, su papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma no se ha demostrado de forma concluyente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue valorar la incidencia de aneuploidía en adenomas colónicos, con y sin signos de malignidad, y estudiar su posible papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma. Material y métodos: el estudio se realizó en una serie de 57 adenomas de intestino grueso, de 10 o más mil

  15. Neuroanatomical localization and quantification of amyloid precursor protein mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brains of normal, aneuploid, and lesioned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloid precursor protein mRNA was localized in frozen sections from normal and experimentally lesioned adult mouse brain and from normal and aneuploid fetal mouse brain by in situ hybridization with a 35S-labeled mouse cDNA probe. The highest levels of hybridization in adult brain were associated with neurons, primarily in telencephalic structures. The dense labeling associated with hippocampal pyramidal cells was reduced significantly when the cells were eliminated by injection of the neurotoxin ibotenic acid but was not affected when electrolytic lesions were placed in the medial septum. Since the gene encoding amyloid precursor protein has been localized to mouse chromosome 16, the authors also examined the expression of this gene in the brains of mouse embryos with trisomy 16 and trisomy 19 at 15 days of gestation. RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed a marked increase in amyloid precursor protein mRNA in the trisomy 16 mouse head and brain when compared with euploid littermates or with trisomy 19 mice

  16. A comparative overview of the sperm centriolar complex in mammals and birds: Variations on a theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, John T

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the structure, function and anomalies of the sperm centriolar complex (CC) on a comparative basis between mammals and birds. The information is based on selected references from the literature supplemented by original observations on spermiogenesis and sperm structure in disparate mammalian (cheetah and cane rat) and avian (ostrich, rhea and emu) species. Whereas the basic structure of the CC (a diplosome surrounded by pericentriolar material) is similar in Aves and Mammalia, certain differences are apparent. Centriole reduction does not generally occur in birds, but when present as in oscines, involves the loss of the proximal centriole. In ratites, the distal centriole forms the core of the entire midpiece and incorporates the outer dense fibres in addition to initiating axoneme formation. The elements of the connecting piece are not segmented in birds and less complex in basic design than in mammals. The functions of the various components of the CC appear to be similar in birds and mammals. Despite obvious differences in sperm head shape, the centrosomal anomalies afflicting both vertebrate groups demonstrate structural uniformity across species and display a similar range of defects. Most abnormalities result from defective migration and alignment of the CC relative to the nucleus. The most severe manifestation is that of acephalic sperm, while angled tail attachment, abaxial and multiflagellate sperm reflect additional defective forms. The stump-tail defect is not observed in birds. A comparison of defective sperm formation and centrosomal dysfunction at the molecular level is currently difficult owing to the paucity of relevant information on avian sperm. PMID:26907939

  17. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  18. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, F; Gil, J; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fumagalli, F; Ungerfeld, R

    2014-10-01

    Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 μl, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 μm, width 4.4 ± 0.01 μm, area 28.1 ± 0.07 μm(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 μm. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections. PMID:25104472

  19. Sperm dumping as a defense against meiotic drive

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Tom; Lewis, Zenobia; Wedell, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sperm from Drosophila simulans that carry a sex-ratio distorter is preferentially lost from females' sperm-storage organs. This suggests that sperm dumping is a major factor affecting sperm competition in this species, and may have evolved in response to sex-ratio distorters.

  20. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  1. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  2. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: ben@pks.mpg.de, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  3. Polyspermy in birds: sperm numbers and embryo survival

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmings, N.; Birkhead, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Polyspermy is a major puzzle in reproductive biology. In some taxa, multiple sperm enter the ovum as part of the normal fertilization process, whereas in others, penetration of the ovum by more than one sperm is lethal. In birds, several sperm typically enter the germinal disc, yet only one fuses with the female pronucleus. It is unclear whether supernumerary sperm play an essential role in the avian fertilization process and, if they do, how females regulate the progression of sperm through ...

  4. Female presence influences sperm velocity in the guppy

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini, Clelia; Alfredo V Peretti; Pilastro, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    As sperm production is costly, males are expected to strategically allocate resources to sperm production according to mating opportunities. While sperm number adjustments have been reported in several taxa, only a few studies investigated whether sperm quality shows adaptive plasticity as well. We tested this prediction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. A total of 46 males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm before being randomly allocated to one of two treatments simulating di...

  5. Mass-Specific Metabolic Rate and Sperm Competition Determine Sperm Size in Marsupial Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rate...

  6. Outcomes with intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved sperm from men with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bechoua, Shaliha; Berki-Morin, Yasmine; Michel, Frédéric; Girod, Sophie; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and poor semen quality are the main causes of infertility in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Different sperm retrieval techniques such as penile vibratory stimulation (PVS), electro-ejaculation (EEJ) or surgical sperm retrieval (SSR) associated or not with sperm cryopreservation can be offered to these patients to preserve their fertility. If fatherhood cannot be achieved naturally, assisted reproductive techniques can be offered to ...

  7. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  8. Aquaporin3 is a sperm water channel essential for postcopulatory sperm osmoadaptation and migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Chen; Hongying Peng; Li Lei; Ying Zhang; Haibin Kuang; Yujing Cao; Qi-xian Shi; Tonghui Ma; Enkui Duan

    2011-01-01

    In the journey from the male to female reproductive tract,mammalian sperm experience a natural osmotic decrease (e.g.,in mouse,from ~415 mOsm in the cauda epididymis to ~310 mOsm in the uterine cavity). Sperm have evolved to utilize this hypotonic exposure for motility activation,meanwhile efficiently silence the negative impact of hypotonic cell swelling. Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have shown that ion channel-controlled water influx/efflux is actively involved in the process of sperm volume regulation; however,no specific sperm proteins have been found responsible for this rapid osmoadaptation. Here,we report that aquaporin3 (AQP3) is a sperm water channel in mice and humans. Aqp3-deficient sperm show normal motility activation in response to hypotonicity but display increased vulnerability to hypotonic cell swelling,characterized by increased tail bending after entering uterus. The sperm defect is a result of impaired sperm volume regulation and progressive cell swelling in response to physiological hypotonic stress during male-female reproductive tract transition. Time-lapse imaging revealed that the cell volume expansion begins at cytoplasmic droplet,forcing the tail to angulate and form a hairpin-like structure due to mechanical membrane stretch. The tail deformation hampered sperm migration into oviduct,resulting in impaired fertilization and reduced male fertility. These data suggest AQP3 as an essential membrane pathway for sperm regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that balances the "trade-off" between sperm motility and cell swelling upon physiological hypotonicity,thereby optimizing postcopulatory sperm behavior.

  9. Long sperm fertilize more eggs in a bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennison, Clair; Hemmings, Nicola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2015-01-22

    Sperm competition, in which the ejaculates of multiple males compete to fertilize a female's ova, results in strong selection on sperm traits. Although sperm size and swimming velocity are known to independently affect fertilization success in certain species, exploring the relationship between sperm length, swimming velocity and fertilization success still remains a challenge. Here, we use the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where sperm size influences sperm swimming velocity, to determine the effect of sperm total length on fertilization success. Sperm competition experiments, in which pairs of males whose sperm differed only in length and swimming speed, revealed that males producing long sperm were more successful in terms of (i) the number of sperm reaching the ova and (ii) fertilizing those ova. Our results reveal that although sperm length is the main factor determining the outcome of sperm competition, complex interactions between male and female reproductive traits may also be important. The mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood, but we suggest that differences in sperm storage and utilization by females may contribute to the outcome of sperm competition. PMID:25621327

  10. Lactic acid is a sperm motility inactivation factor in the sperm storage tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kohsaka, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Yoshinobu; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Although successful fertilization depends on timely encounters between sperm and egg, the decoupling of mating and fertilization often confers reproductive advantages to internally fertilizing animals. In several vertebrate groups, postcopulatory sperm viability is prolonged by storage in specialized organs within the female reproductive tract. In birds, ejaculated sperm can be stored in a quiescent state within oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs), thereby retaining fertilizability for up to 15 weeks at body temperature (41 °C); however, the mechanism by which motile sperm become quiescent within SSTs is unknown. Here, we show that low oxygen and high lactic acid concentrations are established in quail SSTs. Flagellar quiescence was induced by lactic acid in the concentration range found in SSTs through flagellar dynein ATPase inactivation following cytoplasmic acidification (sperm morphology under hypoxic and high temperature conditions indicates that a combination of these factors enables sperm cells to survive during the ovulation cycles. Our findings suggested a novel physiological role for lactic acid in promoting sperm quiescence in SSTs and opened up a new opportunity for technological improvement in prolonging sperm longevity at ambient or body temperature. PMID:26619826

  11. Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) and sperm head vacuoles: state of the art in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdrix, Anne; Rives, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately 10 years after the first publication introducing the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), many questions remained about sperm vacuoles: frequency, size, localization, mode of occurrence, biological significance and impact on male fertility potential. Many studies have tried to characterize sperm vacuoles, to determine the sperm abnormalities possibly associated with vacuoles, to test the diagnostic value of MSOME for male infertility or to question the benefits of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). METHODS We searched PubMed for articles in the English language published in 2001-2012 regarding human sperm head vacuoles, MSOME and IMSI. RESULTS A bibliographic analysis revealed consensus for the following findings: (i) sperm vacuoles appeared frequently, often multiple and preferentially anterior; (ii) sperm vacuoles and sperm chromatin immaturity have been associated, particularly in the case of large vacuoles; (iii) teratozoospermia was a preferred indication of MSOME and IMSI. CONCLUSION The high-magnification system appears to be a powerful method to improve our understanding of human spermatozoa. However, its clinical use remains unclear in the fields of male infertility diagnosis and assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). PMID:23825157

  12. Sperm Proteases that May Be Involved in the Initiation of Sperm Motility in the Newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Misato Yokoe; Makoto Sano; Honami Shibata; Daisuke Shibata; Eriko Takayama-Watanabe; Kazuo Inaba; Akihiko Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    A protease of sperm in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster that is released after the acrosome reaction (AR) is proposed to lyse the sheet structure on the outer surface of egg jelly and release sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS). Here, we found that protease activity in the sperm head was potent to widely digest substrates beneath the sperm. The protease activity measured by fluorescein thiocarbamoyl-casein digestion was detected in the supernatant of the sperm after the AR and the activi...

  13. High-Resolution Flow Cytometry: a Suitable Tool for Monitoring Aneuploid Prostate Cancer Cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; Ehemann, Volker; Wiessler, Manfred; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Didinger, Bernd; Mueller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents. Temozolomide (TMZ) as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising. Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Considerations to improve this unsatisfying situation resulted in the realization of higher local TMZ concentrations, sufficient to kill cells regardless of intrinsic cellular sensitivity and cell DNA-index. Therefore, we reformulated the TMZ by ligation to a peptide-based carrier system called TMZ-BioShuttle for intervention. The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP), connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ. The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP. This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer. The next step was to syllogize a qualified method monitoring cell toxic effects in a high sensitivity under consideration of the ploidy status. The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their different DNA

  14. High-Resolution Flow Cytometry: a Suitable Tool for Monitoring Aneuploid Prostate Cancer Cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Volker Ehemann, Manfred Wiessler, Ruediger Pipkorn, Bernd Didinger, Gabriele Mueller, Waldemar Waldeck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents. Temozolomide (TMZ as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising. Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Considerations to improve this unsatisfying situation resulted in the realization of higher local TMZ concentrations, sufficient to kill cells regardless of intrinsic cellular sensitivity and cell DNA-index. Therefore, we reformulated the TMZ by ligation to a peptide-based carrier system called TMZ-BioShuttle for intervention. The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP, connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ. The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP. This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer. The next step was to syllogize a qualified method monitoring cell toxic effects in a high sensitivity under consideration of the ploidy status. The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their

  15. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E. A.; Gadêlha, H.; Smith, D. J.; Blake, J. R.; Kirkman-Brown, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics.

  16. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility. PMID:26925808

  17. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  18. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SPERM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Y. Pylyp; L. A. Spinenko; V. D. Zukin; N. M. Bilko

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intrac...

  19. Sperm-inherited organelle clearance in C. elegans relies on LC3-dependent autophagosome targeting to the pericentrosomal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeddi, Abderazak; Al Rawi, Sara; Deuve, Jane Lynda; Perrois, Charlene; Liu, Yu-Yu; Russeau, Marion; Sachse, Martin; Galy, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Macroautophagic degradation of sperm-inherited organelles prevents paternal mitochondrial DNA transmission in C. elegans. The recruitment of autophagy markers around sperm mitochondria has also been observed in mouse and fly embryos but their role in degradation is debated. Both worm Atg8 ubiquitin-like proteins, LGG-1/GABARAP and LGG-2/LC3, are recruited around sperm organelles after fertilization. Whereas LGG-1 depletion affects autophagosome function, stabilizes the substrates and is lethal, we demonstrate that LGG-2 is dispensable for autophagosome formation but participates in their microtubule-dependent transport toward the pericentrosomal area prior to acidification. In the absence of LGG-2, autophagosomes and their substrates remain clustered at the cell cortex, away from the centrosomes and their associated lysosomes. Thus, the clearance of sperm organelles is delayed and their segregation between blastomeres prevented. This allowed us to reveal a role of the RAB-5/RAB-7 GTPases in autophagosome formation. In conclusion, the major contribution of LGG-2 in sperm-inherited organelle clearance resides in its capacity to mediate the retrograde transport of autophagosomes rather than their fusion with acidic compartments: a potential key function of LC3 in controlling the fate of sperm mitochondria in other species. PMID:25922527

  20. Role of the epididymis in sperm competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Russell C. Jones; Jean-Louis Dacheux; Brett Nixon; Heath W. Ecroyd

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally understood that the testes recruited kidney ducts for reproductive function during the evolution of vertebrates, little is understood of the biological significance of the adaptation. In the context of the evolution of the mammalian epididymis, this report provides evidence that a major role of the epididymis is to enhance a male's chance of achieving paternity in a competitive mating system. A unique example of sperm cooperation in monotremes is used as evidence that the epididymis produces sperm competition proteins to form groups of 100 sperm into bundles that have a forward motility nearly thrice that of individual spermatozoa. As it required 3-h incubation in vitro under capacitation conditions to release motile sperm from the bundles, it is suggested that the monotremes provide an example of capacitation that is quite different from capacitation in higher mammals. It is Suggested that variation between species in the intensity of sperm competition could explain the variation that occurs between species in the amount of post-testicular sperm maturation and storage in the epididymis, an explanation of why the human epididymis does not play as important a role in reproduction as the epididymis of most mammals.

  1. Lifestyle influences human sperm functional quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica Ferreira; Joana Vieira Silva; Vladimiro Silva; Antnio Barros; Margarida Fardilha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of acute lifestyle changes on human sperm functional quality.Methods:In the academic festivities week, young and apparently healthy male students who voluntarily submit themselves to acute lifestyle alterations(among the potentially important variations are increase in alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco consumption and circadian rhythm shifts) were used as a model system.Sperm samples were obtained before and after the academic week and compared by traditional semen analysis(n=54) and also tested for cleavedPolyADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) protein, an apoptotic marker(n=35).Results:Acute lifestyle changes that occurred during the academic week festivities(the study model) resulted both in a significant reduction in sperm quality, assessed by basic semen analysis(decrease in sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, progressive and non-progressive motility and increase in sperm morphological abnormalities) and by an increase in the expression of the apoptotic marker, cleavedPARP, in the ejaculate.Conclusions:Acute lifestyle changes have clear deleterious effects on sperm quality.We propose cleavedPARP as a novel molecular marker, valuable for assessing spermquality in parallel with the basic semen analysis method.

  2. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W

    2009-11-22

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

  3. Comparison of efficacy of two techniques for testicular sperm retrieval in nonobstructive azoospermia: multifocal testicular sperm extraction versus multifocal testicular sperm aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ron; Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Yavetz, Haim; Azem, Fuad; Lessing, Joseph B; Botchan, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 sperm-retrieval procedures, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), during the same procedure using the same subjects as their own controls. The presence of mature testicular sperm cells and motility were evaluated in 87 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) by means of multifocal TESE and multifocal TESA, which were performed during the same procedure using the same subjects as their own controls. Sperm cells were recovered by TESE in 54 cases, but by TESA in only 36 cases. There were significantly more cases (n = 20) in which sperm cells were recovered by TESE only, compared with 2 cases in whom cells were recovered by TESA only (McNemar's test, P < .001). The mean number of locations in each testis in which sperm cells were detected was significantly higher in the TESE group. In significantly more cases (n = 27), motility was observed in TESE material only, compared with 3 cases in which motility was present in material extracted by TESA only (McNemar's test, P < .001). Mean number of locations in each testis with motile sperm cells was significantly higher in the TESE group. The TESE procedure yielded significantly more sperm cells, as was also reflected by the difference in number of straws with cryopreserved sperm. This comparative prospective clinical study revealed that multifocal TESE is more efficient than multifocal TESA for sperm detection and recovery in men with NOA and should be the procedure of choice for sperm retrieval for them. PMID:16400074

  4. Variation in sperm morphometry and sperm competition among barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laskemoen, T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Cepák, J.; De Lope, F.; Hermosell, I. G.; Johannessen, L. E.; Kleven, O.; Marzal, A.; Mousseau, T. A.; Moller, A. P.; Robertson, R. J.; Rudolfsen, G.; Saino, N.; Vortman, Y.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2013), s. 301-309. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Barn swallow * Extrapair paternity * Hirundo rustica * Sperm competition * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2013

  5. Boundaries of Ethics, Sperm on the Border –The Globalization of Danish Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past two decades, Denmark has developed into an important destination for fertility travelers in need of donor sperm. A variety of different clinics providing sperm with different modes of clinical care have developed, and an increasing number of their customers come from abroad. One o...

  6. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  7. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  8. Proteomics of ionomycin-induced ascidian sperm reaction: Released and exposed sperm proteins in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shiori; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kei; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Sperm proteins mediating sperm-egg interaction should be exhibited on the sperm surface, or exposed or released when sperm approach an egg. In ascidians (protochordates), sperm undergo a sperm reaction, characterized by enhanced sperm motility and mitochondrial swelling and shedding on contact with the vitelline coat (VC) or by treatment with Ca(2+) ionophore. Here, proteomic analysis was conducted on sperm exudates and sperm surface proteins using ionomycin-induced sperm reaction and cell-impermeable labeling in Ciona intestinalis type A (C. robusta). In the exudate from sperm treated with ionomycin, membrane proteins including a possible VC receptor CiUrabin were abundant, indicating the release of membranous compartments during sperm reaction. Among the surface proteins XP_009859314.1 (uncharacterized protein exhibiting homology to HrTTSP-1) was most abundant before the sperm reaction, but XP_004227079.1 (unknown Ig superfamily protein) appears to be most abundantly exposed by the sperm reaction. Moreover, proteins containing a notable set of domains, astacin-like metalloprotease domain and thrombospondin type 1 repeat(s), were found in this fraction. Possible roles in fertilization as well as localizations and behaviors of these proteins are discussed. PMID:26223815

  9. Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine;

    2009-01-01

    In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps), reprodu......In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps...

  10. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Zhou; Li Chen; Jie Li; Hongjun Li; Zhiwei Hong; Min Xie; Shengrong Chen; Bing Yao

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed tha...

  11. Testicular Sperm Extraction and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: Outcomes in a specialist fertility centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, J A; Fanning, D M; Davis, N F; Ward, F; Shamoun, O; Brinsden, P

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproduction with testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are fertility treatment options for couples with severe oligospermia or azoospermia. A retrospective review was performed of 146 TESE procedures in a specialist fertility centre in Ireland. The indication for TESE was obstructive azoospermia (OA) in 59% (n = 80) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in 41% (n = 56). Sperm retrieval rates after TESE were determined and the pregnancy rates per ICSI cycle number were evaluated. Sperm retrieval rates were 99% (n = 79/80) and 32% (n = 18/56) for OA and NOA men respectively. Fifty-eight couples proceeded to ICSI. Overall 114 ICSI cycles were performed and 33 cycles resulted in fertilisation (29%). Our sperm retrieval and pregnancy rates are consistent with international studies and support the ongoing role for TESE and ICSI as successful assisted reproductive techniques for male factor infertility in Ireland. PMID:26625647

  12. Towards microfluidic sperm refinement: impedance-based analysis and sorting of sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wagenaar, B; Dekker, S; de Boer, H L; Bomer, J G; Olthuis, W; van den Berg, A; Segerink, L I

    2016-04-12

    The use of high quality semen for artificial insemination in the livestock industry is essential for successful outcome. Insemination using semen with a high number of sperm cells containing morphological defects has a negative impact on fertilization outcome. Therefore, semen with a high number of these abnormal cells is discarded in order to maintain high fertilization potential, resulting in the loss of a large number of morphologically normal sperm cells (up to 70-80% of original sample). A commonly occurring morphological sperm anomaly is the cytoplasmic droplet on the sperm flagella. Currently, no techniques are available to extract morphologically normal sperm cells from rejected samples. Therefore, we aim to develop a microfluidic setup which is able to detect and sort morphologically normal sperm cells label-free and non-invasively. In a proof-of-concept experiment, differential impedance measurements were used to detect the presence of cytoplasmic droplets on sperm flagella, which was quantified by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the corresponding impedance peaks. A receiver operating characteristic curve of this electrical analysis method showed the good predictive power of this analysis method (AUC value of 0.85). Furthermore, we developed a label-free cell sorting system using LabVIEW, which is capable of sorting sperm cells based on impedance. In a proof-of-concept experiment, sperm cells and 3 μm beads were sorted label-free and non-invasively using impedance detection and dielectrophoresis sorting. These experiments present our first attempt to perform sperm refinement using microfluidic technology. PMID:27025866

  13. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  14. The Influence of Sperm Morphology, Total Motile Sperm Count of Semen and the Number of Motile Sperm Inseminated in Sperm Samples on the Success of Intrauterine Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of sperm morphology , totalmotile sperm count (TMSC and the number of motile sperm inseminated (NMSI on the outcomeof intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out 445 women undergoing 820IUI cycles. All of the patients underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation with clomiphencitrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG followed by intrauterine inseminationwith the husband’s sperm. Pregnancy rate (PR per cycle in correlation to sperm morphology,TMSC and NMSI was obtained. Statistical analysis of the data was done by the SPSS version13 (Chicago,USA.Results: A total of 81 clinical pregnancies were obtained for a pregnancy rate per cycle of 9.9%.When the TMSC was 5×106 to <10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher than thesubgroups <1×106, 1×106 to <5×106 and ≥10×106 (15%, 5.6%, 5.1%, 10.8%, respectively. Spermmorphology was in itself a significant factor that affected the likelihood of IUI success. Nonetheless,the most significant difference of the PR per cycle with sperm morphology was in the subgroup <5% (2.1% vs. 97.9%.When the NMSI was ≥10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher thanthe subgroups<5×106 and 5×106 to< 10× 106 (11.2%, 4.1%, 5.2%, respectively.Conclusion: The study showed that TMSC 5×106 to < 10×106 and normal sperm morphology ≥ 5%and NMSI ≥ 10×106 are useful prognostic factors of IUI cycles.

  15. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Leigh W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.

  16. Attitudes and motives of potential sperm donors in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Anđelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. For curing infertility, sperm donors and their donations are important source of benefits for the society. Attitudes of sperm donors towards different recipient categories and relation with offspring become more important. The aim of our study was to explore sperm donation related attitudes and motives among potential sperm donors in Serbia. Methods. The study included 303 participants from Serbia, age from 20 to 40. Measures of personality traits were obtained by using the Big Five Inventory. For measuring attitudes and motivation regarding sperm donation the Attitudes and Motivation of Sperm Donors questionnaire was applied. Results. A total of 244 participants stated that they would be willing to be sperm donors. The results showed no statistically significant differences in personality traits between people who claimed that they would be willing to become sperm donors, and those claiming otherwise, but a number of differences in personality traits were found when various attitudes regarding sperm donation process, possible users of donated sperm and relations between the donor and his biological offspring were considered. Conclusion. There are no statistically significant differences in personality traits between people who claimed that they would and those that would not be willing to become sperm donors. It is possible that some other factors (e.g. cultural values influence the decision to become sperm donor, but personality traits play an important role in making decisions regarding sperm donation process, possible receivers of donation and relations between the donor and his biological offspring.

  17. Endocannabinoids and Human Sperm Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Zolese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acylethanolamides (NAEs are naturally occurring signaling lipids consisting of amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Usually they are present in a very small amounts in many mammalian tissues and cells, including human reproductive tracts and fluids. Recently, the presence of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, the most characterised member of endocannabinoids, and its congeners palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and oleylethanolamide (OEA in seminal plasma, oviductal fluid, and follicular fluids was demonstrated. AEA has been shown to bind not only type-1 (CB1 and type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptors, but also type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1, while PEA and OEA are inactive with respect to classical cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 but activate TRPV1 or peroxisome proliferator activate receptors (PPARs. This review concerns the most recent experimental data on PEA and OEA, endocannabinoid-like molecules which appear to exert their action exclusively on sperm cells with altered features, such as membrane characteristics and kinematic parameters. Their beneficial effects on these cells could suggest a possible pharmacological use of PEA and OEA on patients affected by some forms of idiopathic infertility.

  18. Influencia de la estimulación ovárica durante un tratamiento de fecundación in vitro en la incidencia de aneuploidías embrionarias

    OpenAIRE

    Labarta Demur, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    La baja fecundidad humana podría deberse a la alta incidencia de anomalías cromosómicas embrionarias que justifica que hasta un 70% de las concepciones espontáneas no lleguen a término. La elevada tasa de aneuploidías observada en tratamientos de Fecundación in vitro (FIV) podría ser inherente a la especie humana o estar relacionada con los procedimientos derivados de la técnica, como las condiciones de cultivo in vitro o la estimulación ovárica (EO). Se ha especulado que esta última pudiera ...

  19. Effect of relaxin on human sperm functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlin, Alberto; Menegazzo, Massimo; Gianesello, Lisa; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Relaxin is a circulating hormone with functions in pregnancy, parturition, and other aspects of female reproduction. It is also secreted from the prostate gland into the seminal fluid; however, the role of relaxin in male reproduction is debated. Studies conducted in the past have suggested possible actions on human spermatozoa, but the data were contrasting. Here, we show that the relaxin receptor RXFP1 (Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1) is expressed in human spermatozoa, and it mainly localizes in the astrodome. In vitro studies on human sperm demonstrated that this hormone attenuates the natural decline in sperm motility and maintains higher mitochondrial activity and lower apoptosis level. Furthermore, relaxin induced an increase in sperm hyperactivation, intracellular calcium and cAMP, and acrosome reaction. These effects were abolished by the use of the specific anti-RXFP1 antibody. Relaxin concentrations were low in the blood (x ± SD, 0.16 ± 0.03 nM) and very high in the seminal plasma (x ± SD, 10.3 ± 4.0 nM), confirming its secretion mainly by the prostate. Taken together, these data demonstrate that relaxin influences positively many sperm functions linked to fertilizing ability, and it preserves sperm functionality, with possible practical value in assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:21903973

  20. Techniques for sperm evaluation using fluorescent probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrielle Thainar Mendes Cunha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  A variety of laboratory tests were developed to obtain more reliable results of sperm evaluation and increase the accuracy of sperm fertility predictions. These tests detected damage of sperm specific compartments or organelles, which cannot be detected in routine sperm analysis. The use of fluorescent probes and detection using fluorescent microscopy or flow cytometry is an important tool but a more precise and accurate laboratory test is needed. Propidium iodide and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate are used for evaluations of plasmatic membrane integrity. Fluorescein isothiocyanate, associated with conjugated lecithin Psium sativum or Arachis hypogaea, are used for evaluations of acrosome integrity. Two probes, MitoTracker or Rhodamine123, are generally used to measure the absence or presence of mitochondrial potential. However, a better option is 5,5’; 6,6’ - tetrachloro - 1,1’; 3,3’ -tetraetilbenzimidazolil-carbocyanine (JC-1 dye, which assesses not only the presence of mitochondrial potential and distinguished spermatozoa with poorly and highly functional mitochondria. Two techniques, TUNEL or COMETA, and the Acridine Orange Test (AOT dye are used to evaluate chromatin integrity. A fluorescence technique based on chlortetracycline (CTC or Merocyanine 540 is used to estimate whether sperm pass by or through the capacitation process. This review focuses on the fluorescent probes that are most widely used to evaluate plasma membrane integrity, capacitation, acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity and mitochondrial potential.

  1. Proteomic characterization of the human sperm nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mateo, Sara; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luis; Oliva, Rafael

    2011-07-01

    Generating a catalogue of sperm nuclear proteins is an important first step towards the clarification of the function of the paternal chromatin transmitted to the oocyte upon fertilization. With this goal, sperm nuclei were obtained through CTAB treatment and isolated to over 99.9% purity without any tail fragments, acrosome or mitochondria as assessed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The nuclear proteins were extracted and separated in 2-D and 1-D gels and the 2-D spots and 1-D bands were excised and analysed to identify the proteins through LC-MS/MS. With this approach, 403 different proteins have been identified from the isolated sperm nuclei. The most abundant family of proteins identified are the histones, for which several novel members had not been reported previously as present in the spermatogenic cell line or in the human mature spermatozoa. More than half (52.6%) of the proteins had not been detected in the previous human whole sperm cell proteome reports. Of relevance, several chromatin-related proteins, such as zinc fingers and transcription factors, so far not known to be associated with the sperm chromatin, have also been detected. This provides additional information about the nuclear proteins that are potentially relevant for epigenetic marking, proper fertilization and embryo development. PMID:21630459

  2. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ages of 21 and 34. SPERM DONATION Artificial insemination using donor sperm has been practiced for over ... with the emergence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), artificial donor insemination has been performed exclusively with frozen and quarantined ...

  3. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are...

  4. Prognostic factors for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glina, Sidney; Vieira, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Testicular sperm retrieval techniques associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection have changed the field of male infertility treatment and given many azoospermic men the chance to become biological fathers. Despite the current use of testicular sperm extraction, reliable clinical and laboratory prognostic factors of sperm recovery are still absent. The objective of this article was to review the prognostic factors and clinical use of sperm retrieval for men with non-obstructive azoospermia. The PubMed database was searched for the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms azoospermia, sperm retrieval, and prognosis. Papers on obstructive azoospermia were excluded. The authors selected articles that reported successful sperm retrieval techniques involving clinical, laboratory, or parenchyma processing methods. The selected papers were reviewed, and the prognostic factors were discussed. No reliable positive prognostic factors guarantee sperm recovery for patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. The only negative prognostic factor is the presence of AZFa and AZFb microdeletions. PMID:23503961

  5. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.;

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a...... significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in...

  6. Sperm activation by heat shock protein 70 supports the migration of sperm released from sperm storage tubules in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Gen; Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Dohra, Hideo; Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2014-02-01

    Systems for maintaining the viability of ejaculated sperm in the female reproductive tract are widespread among vertebrates and invertebrates. In birds, this sperm storage function is performed by specialized simple tubular invaginations called sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of the oviduct. Although the incidence and physiological reasons for sperm storage in birds have been reported extensively, the mechanisms of sperm uptake by the SSTs, sperm maintenance within the SSTs, and control of sperm release from the SSTs are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the highly conserved heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) stimulates sperm motility in vitro and also that HSP70 expressed in the UVJ may facilitate the migration of sperm released from the SSTs. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of HSP70 mRNA in the UVJ increases before ovulation/oviposition. Gene-specific in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis with a specific antibody to HSP70 demonstrated that HSP70 is localized in the surface epithelium of the UVJ. Furthermore, injection of anti-HSP70 antibody into the vagina significantly inhibited fertilization in vivo. In addition, we found that recombinant HSP70 activates flagellar movement in the sperm and that the binding of recombinant HSP70 to the sperm surface is mediated through an interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel protein 2 (VDAC2). Our results suggest that HSP70 binds to the sperm surface by interacting with VDAC2 and activating sperm motility. This binding appears to play an important role in sperm migration within the oviduct. PMID:24194572

  7. Is there a relationship between sperm chromosome abnormalities and sperm morphology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review explores the relationship between sperm chromosomal constitution and morphology. With the advent of techniques for obtaining information on the chromosome complements of spermatozoa, this relationship has been studied in fertile men and in men with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities. Using human sperm karyotype analysis, no relationship between sperm chromosome abnormalities and morphology was found in fertile men, translocation carriers or post-radiotherapy cancer patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis has not generally revealed a specific association between morphologically abnormal sperm and sperm chromosome abnormalities, but has indicated that teratozoospermia, like other forms of abnormal semen profiles (aesthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia is associated with a modest increase in the frequency of sperm chromosome abnormalities. However, FISH studies on some infertile men and mouse strains have suggested that certain types of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, such as macrocephalic multitailed spermatozoa, are associated with a very significantly increased frequency of aneuploidy. Thus, there may be an association between sperm morphology and aneuploidy in infertile men with specific abnormalities.

  8. Sperm competition in the absence of fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Singson, A; Hill, K L; L'Hernault, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    Hermaphrodite self-fertilization is the primary mode of reproduction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. However, when a hermaphrodite is crossed with a male, nearly all of the oocytes are fertilized by male-derived sperm. This sperm precedence during reproduction is due to the competitive superiority of male-derived sperm and results in a functional suppression of hermaphrodite self-fertility. In this study, mutant males that inseminate fertilization-defective sperm were used to reveal t...

  9. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race

    OpenAIRE

    Dziminski, Martin A.; Roberts, J. Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Leigh W. Simmons

    2009-01-01

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia geor...

  10. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Goslvez; Stephen Johnston; Carmen Lpez-Fernndez; Altea Goslbez; Francisca Arroyo; Jose Lus Fernndez; Juan G lvarez

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the DNA longevity characteristics associated with each resultant fraction following density gradient centrifugation (DGC) in comparison to that of the original neat ejaculated sample. Methods:An aliquot of neat semen (NSS) collected from 7 patients was processed using DGC resulting in 3 fractions;Fraction 1:seminal plasma/40%gradient interface (GI);Fraction 2:40%GI/80%GI;Fraction 3:80%GI/pellet. An aliquot of each fraction and NSS was cryopreserved, thawed and incubated at 37 ℃for 24h;the increase of sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the Dyn-Halosperm assay following 0, 3, 6 and 24h of incubation. Results:While there was a significant reduction in the incidence of baseline sperm DNA fragmentation following DGC in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity was shown to be higher in the NSS than in any other sub-population following incubation. The highest levels of baseline DNA damage were found in Fractions 1 and 2;these fractions also showed the highest rate DNA fragmentation following incubation, subsequently exhibiting the lowest DNA longevity. Conclusion:1) Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2) Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  11. Sperm preparation: state-of-the-art-physiological aspects and application of advanced sperm preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralf Henkel

    2012-01-01

    For assisted reproduction technologies (ART),numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes.While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable,motile spermatozoa,with progress of ART,particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization.Conventional sperm preparation techniques,namely,swim-up,density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration,are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage,because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract.These processes only allow one male germ cell out of tens of millions to fuse with the oocyte.Sites of sperm selection in the female genital tract are the cervix,uterus,uterotubal junction,oviduct,cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida.Newer strategies of sperm preparation are founded on:(i) morphological assessment by means of‘motile sperm organelle morphological examination (MSOME)'; (ii) electrical charge; and (iii) molecular binding characteristics of the sperm cell.Whereas separation methods based on electrical charge take advantage of the sperm's adherence to a test tube surface or separate in an electrophoresis,molecular binding techniques use Annexin V or hyaluronic acid (HA) as substrates.Techniques in this category are magnet-activated cell sorting,Annexin V-activated glass wool filtration,flow cytometry and picked spermatozoa for ICSI (PICSI) from HA-coated dishes and HA-containing media.Future developments may include Raman microspectrometry,confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy and polarization microscopy.

  12. Could using the zona pellucida bound sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI)enhance the outcome of ICSI?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Yi Liu

    2011-01-01

    @@ In the recent literature, several interesting articles have been published using the zona pellucdia(ZP)-bound sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI)to enhance embryo quality, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates.1-3

  13. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with...... meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men......) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21...

  14. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  15. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic informat...

  16. Sperm Cryopreservation in Live-Bearing Xiphophorus Fishes: Offspring Production from Xiphophorus variatus and Strategies for Establishment of Sperm Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G.; Walter, Ronald B.; Terrence R. Tiersch

    2012-01-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm,...

  17. Thermodynamics of the interaction between bovine binder of sperm BSP1 and low-density lipoprotein from hen's egg yolk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusignan, Marie-France; Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: michel.lafleur@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS), Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-03-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed Binder-of-SPerm BSP1 protein has high affinity for egg yolk low density lipoproteins. {yields} It is estimated that 104 BSP1 molecules could bind one LDL particle. {yields} BSP1 has 2 phosphocholine binding sites and the BSP1/LDL ratio corresponds to 1.6 phosphatidylcholine per bound BSP1. {yields} The strong interaction between LDL particles and BSP1 is proposed to be important for sperm protection by egg yolk extender. - Abstract: Egg yolk is used in extender to protect sperm from cold shock and freezing during preservation. It is the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk that protects sperm. Even though essential for sperm capacitation, the major proteins from bull seminal plasma, the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, are detrimental for sperm preservation because they induce a continual phospholipids and cholesterol efflux from sperm membranes. The BSP proteins were proposed to bind to egg yolk LDL, preventing the sperm membrane damage. We characterized the binding between the BSP proteins and the LDL by isothermal titration calorimetry, providing the thermodynamics and quantitative description of this putative association. The association between BSP1 (major BSP proteins) and LDL is characterized by an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 3.4 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M{sup -1}. A protein/LDL ratio of 104 {+-} 5 was determined indicating that 104 molecules of BSP1 would bind to one LDL particle. This stoichiometry leads to proposing that the association involves 1.6 {+-} 0.1 phosphatidylcholines (PC) per BSP protein. This finding is satisfactorily consistent with the fact that each BSP1 protein has 2 binding sites for choline group. In conclusion, the formation of a high affinity complex between BSP1 and LDL is proposed to be important for the protection of sperm by egg yolk extender.

  18. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  19. Interaction of resident sperm with sperm-storage tubule (SST) epithelial cell microvilli in the turkey hen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most mammals, birds do not need to synchronize copulation with ovulation. Hens are endowed with tubular structures, the sperm-storage tubules (SST), in their oviducts which the sperm enter and survive for weeks after mating or artificial insemination. Sperm are slowly but continually releas...

  20. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  1. Exogenous neurotensin modulates sperm function in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezu, Kohei; Hiradate, Yuuki; Oikawa, Toshinori; Ishiguro, Hirotoshi; Numabe, Takashi; Hara, Kenshiro; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-08-25

    Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions. PMID:27210588

  2. Concepts in sperm heterogeneity, sperm selection and sperm competition as biological foundations for laboratory tests of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Van Look, Katrien J W

    2004-05-01

    Stringent selection mechanisms, in both internal and external fertilisation systems, reject all but a significant minority of the spermatozoa released at ejaculation. Sperm competition theory provides circumstantial evidence that the selection process involves mechanisms by which the quality of the fertilising spermatozoon is controlled, thereby ensuring that females and their offspring receive high quality genetic material. In this review we examine some of these selection processes to see whether they could be exploited for the improvement of laboratory tests of sperm quality. Such tests are not only required for clinical and agricultural purposes, but are increasingly needed in fields such as reproductive and environmental toxicology where the species requirement is much broader. Despite many years of research, sperm quality assessment methods continue to provide imprecise data about fertility; here we suggest that this may be a consequence of using tests that focus on the spermatozoa that would normally be unable to fertilise under natural conditions. To achieve fertilisation a spermatozoon must be capable of responding appropriately to external signalling stimuli; those involving protein kinase-regulated flagellar function seem especially influential in governing effects ranging from non-Mendelian inheritance in mammals to sperm chemotaxis in sea urchins. Examination of the elicited responses reveals considerable heterogeneity in all species. Here we propose that this level of heterogeneity is meaningful both in terms of understanding how spermatozoa from some individuals possess fertility advantages over spermatozoa from their rivals in sperm competition, and in that the heterogeneity should be exploitable in the development of more accurate laboratory tests. PMID:15129008

  3. Identification and isolation of boar sperm specific antigens with potential role in sperm-egg interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baracova, V.; Mollova, M.; Stamenova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 64, 1-2 (2004), s. 91-106. ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/1373; GA MZd(CZ) NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : spermatozoa * sperm surface antigens * sperm-egg fusion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  4. Active digestion of sperm mitochondrial DNA in single living sperm revealed by optical tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Yoshiki; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Takeshi; Sumi, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2006-01-01

    In almost all eukaryotes, mitochondrial (mt) genes are transmitted to progeny mainly from the maternal parent. The most popular explanation for this phenomenon is simple dilution of paternal mtDNA, because the paternal gametes (sperm) are much smaller than maternal gametes (egg) and contribute a limited amount of mitochondria to the progeny. Recently, this simple explanation has been challenged in several reports that describe the active digestion of sperm mtDNA, down-regulation of mtDNA repl...

  5. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  6. By Hook or by Crook? Morphometry, Competition and Cooperation in Rodent Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Immler; Harry D M Moore; Breed, William G.; Tim R Birkhead

    2007-01-01

    Background Sperm design varies enormously across species and sperm competition is thought to be a major factor influencing this variation. However, the functional significance of many sperm traits is still poorly understood. The sperm of most murid rodents are characterised by an apical hook of the sperm head that varies markedly in extent across species. In the European woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus (Muridae), the highly reflected apical hook of sperm is used to form sperm groups, or “tr...

  7. Predictive capacity of sperm quality parameters and sperm subpopulations on field fertility after artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, P; Vicente-Fiel, S; Palacín, I; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Silvestre, M A; Yániz, J L

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relevance of several sperm quality parameters and sperm population structure on the reproductive performance after cervical artificial insemination (AI) in sheep. One hundred and thirty-nine ejaculates from 56 adult rams were collected using an artificial vagina, processed for sperm quality assessment and used to perform 1319 AI. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), sperm nuclear morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA), membrane integrity by acridine orange-propidium iodide combination and sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) were performed. Clustering procedures using the sperm kinematic and morphometric data resulted in the classification of spermatozoa into three kinematic and three morphometric sperm subpopulations. Logistic regression procedures were used, including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and farm, year, month of AI, female parity, female lambing-treatment interval, ram, AI technician and sperm quality parameters (including sperm subpopulations) as independent factors. Sperm quality variables remaining in the logistic regression model were viability and VCL. Fertility increased for each one-unit increase in viability (by a factor of 1.01) and in VCL (by a factor of 1.02). Multiple linear regression analyses were also performed to analyze the factors possibly influencing ejaculate fertility (N=139). The analysis yielded a significant (Psemen variables to predict field fertility was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sperm viability and VCL showed significant, albeit limited, predictive capacity on field fertility (0.57 and 0.54 Area Under Curve, respectively). The distribution of spermatozoa in the different subpopulations was not related to fertility. PMID:26507945

  8. Effects of cryopreservation on sperm viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, and DNA damage of bovine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, H; Malama, E; Heppelmann, M; Calisici, O; Leiding, C; Kastelic, J P; Bollwein, H

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to examine if there are relationships between alterations in sperm viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis, and DNA integrity induced by cryopreservation of bovine sperm. Four ejaculates were collected from each of six bulls. Each ejaculate was diluted and divided into two aliquots; one was incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C, and the other frozen, thawed, and incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Analyses of quality of sperm were performed after 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours of incubation. Progressive motile sperm was determined with computer assisted sperm analysis. Percentages of plasma membrane- and acrosome-intact sperm, sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm showing a high degree of DNA fragmentation (%DFI), and their reactive oxygen species content were assessed with dichlorofluorescein-diacetate, dihydrorhodamine, diaminofluorescein diacetate, and mitochondrial superoxide indicator using flow cytometry. Although all other sperm parameters showed alterations (P  0.05, 0.91 ± 0.23) in nonfrozen sperm. Cryopreservation induced changes of all sperm parameters (P < 0.05). In contrast to all other sperm parameters, dichlorofluorescein-diacetate-fluoroescence indicating the synthesis of H2O2 showed a similar exponential rise (P < 0.05) like the %DFI values in frozen sperm. In conclusion, changes of DNA integrity in frozen sperm seem to be related to synthesis of H2O2 but not to sperm viability and synthesis of other reactive oxygen species. PMID:27039074

  9. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa. PMID:27085371

  10. Comparative study on efficacy of three sperm-separation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanXU; Ren-KangLU; LingCHEN; Yan-LuanZHENG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of real-time sperm separation technique (Wang's tube method) and other two conventional methods in isolating high-quality sperm preparation, and to compare the spouse pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination (IUI) with sperm preparations isolated by these methods. Methods: The effectiveness of the real-time sperm separation technique, the conventional swim-up and the Percoll discontinuous density gradient methods in isolating sperm preparations from 60 infertile patients (20 with apparently normal semen and 40, abnormal semen contaminated with microorganisms and other impurities) was evaluated and compared. The microorganisms to bere moved included bacteria, virus, Chlamydia trachomaticum, Ureaplsama urealyticum, etc. The spouse pregnancy rates in IUI with sperm preparations isolated by these three techniques from 80 oligoasthenoteratospermic patients werealso compared. Results: The quality (including the percentages of normal form, normal-chromatin and motilesperm, and the grade of motility) of sperm obtained by the real-time sperm separation technique was much higher ( P<0.01 ) as compared with those by the other two methods. The Wang's tube method was also more effective in removing microorganisms and other impurities. The method provided a higher IUI pregnancy rate than the other two sperm separation techniques ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: The real-time sperm separation technique is the most effective method so far available in isolating high-quality sperm samples to be used in assisted reproduction.

  11. Sperm processing for advanced reproductive technologies: Where are we today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Kari L; Rodriguez, Harold F; Hakkarainen, Gloria C; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Asghar, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) utilize sperm sorting methods to select viable sperm from the semen samples. Conventional sperm sorting techniques in current use are density gradient centrifugation, direct swim-up, and conventional swim-up. These methods use multiple centrifugation steps, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that decrease DNA integrity and damage sperm. Newer technologies, such as microfluidics, electrophoresis, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), and birefringence eliminate the centrifugation steps and can improve the selection of sperm with higher DNA integrity, normal morphology, and motility as well as improved artificial insemination outcomes. In this review, we discuss some recent research in centrifugation and non-centrifugation based techniques and their effect on sperm quality and ART outcomes. PMID:26845061

  12. Sperm storage induces an immunity cost in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Armitage, Sophie A O; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    Ant queens are among the most long-lived insects known. They mate early in adult life and maintain millions of viable sperm in their sperm storage organ until they die many years later. Because they never re-mate, the reproductive success of queens is ultimately sperm-limited, but it is not known...... what selective forces determine the upper limit to sperm storage. Here we show that sperm storage carries a significant cost of reduced immunity during colony founding. Newly mated queens of the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica upregulate their immune response shortly after completing their nest burrow......, probably as an adaptive response to a greater exposure to pathogens in the absence of grooming workers. However, the immune response nine days after colony founding is negatively correlated with the amount of sperm in the sperm storage organ, indicating that short-term survival is traded off against long...

  13. Directional freezing of sperm and associated derived technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Saragusty, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Directional freezing has now completed 30 years of development since it was first introduced to cryobiology. In the field of sperm cryopreservation, directional freezing has been shown to be advantageous over slow freezing for numerous domestic and wildlife species. In particular, it was shown that freezing of large volume is possible. Furthermore, double freezing of sperm and freezing of sex-sorted sperm are possible and became the routine in the sex sorted sperm industry. In wild animals, our labs and others showed that sperm from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species can be successfully cryopreserved using directional freezing. Finally, we will describe for the first time the successful freeze-drying of human sperm in an aseptic method. Using a device that produces clean liquid air, we froze human sperm in small droplets and then dried them in a bench top lyophilizer that was sterilized prior to use. More than 80% of DNA integrity was found after rehydration. PMID:26879097

  14. Sperm cells as vectors in the production of transgenic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, R.M.

    1993-04-28

    Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.

  15. Effect of Human Sperm MTT Viability Test on Outcome of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Aboutorabi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of human sperm MTT viability assay on outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. MTT is a tetrazolium salt, routinely used for cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Materials and Methods: 50μl of processed semen was treated with MTT solution, while the remaining used as the control. Meanwhile, 109 donated human oocytes (metaphase II obtained from 12 patients were divided into two groups. Fifty five oocytes were injected using MTT positive sperms, while 54 oocytes were injected with sperms from the control group. Then the injected oocytes were cultured and observed at 18, 42, 66, 90, and 114 hours pos- ICSI. Finally, the fertilization and embryo development rates were compared in both groups. Results: No significant differences were observed between fertilization and embryo development rates in the MTT and control groups. Conclusion: In future studies after approving that the MTT has not cytotoxic or teratogenic effects, then sperm MTT viability assay might be useful for ICSI in patients with absolute or severe asthenospermia or in patients with highly deformed sperm tails

  16. The monopulsed nature of sperm whale clicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.; Heerfordt, Anders; Lund, Anders

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally, sperm whale clicks have been described as multipulsed, long duration, nondirectional signals of moderate intensity and with a spectrum peaking below 10 kHz. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Here, data are presented suggesting that the traditional view of sperm whale clicks is incomplete and derived from off-axis recordings of a highly directional source. A limited number of assumed on-axis clicks were recorded and found to be essentially monopulsed clicks, with durations of 100 μs, with a composite directionality index of 27 dB, with source levels up to 236 dB re: 1 μPa (rms), and with centroid frequencies of 15 kHz. Such clicks meet the requirements for long-range biosonar purposes. Data were obtained with a large-aperture, GPS-synchronized array in July 2000 in the Bleik Canyon off Vestera˚len, Norway (69°28' N, 15°40' E). A total of 14 h of sound recordings was collected from five to ten independent, simultaneously operating recording units. The sound levels measured make sperm whale clicks by far the loudest of sounds recorded from any biological source. On-axis click properties support previous work proposing the nose of sperm whales to operate as a generator of sound.

  17. Effect of astaxanthin on human sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Gabriella; Kožuh, Ivana; Brunati, Anna Maria; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Armanini, Decio; Clari, Giulio; Bordin, Luciana

    2013-06-01

    In order to be able to fertilize oocytes, human sperm must undergo a series of morphological and structural alterations, known as capacitation. It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR). Astaxanthin (Asta), a photo-protective red pigment belonging to the carotenoid family, is recognized as having anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties and is present in many dietary supplements. This study evaluates the effect of Asta in a capacitating buffer which induces low ROS production and low percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC). Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam) and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC). Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. It is suggested that Asta can be inserted in the membrane and therefore create capacitation-like membrane alteration which allow Tyr-P of the head. Once this has occurred, AR can take place and involves a higher numbers of cells. PMID:23736766

  18. Effect of Astaxanthin on Human Sperm Capacitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bordin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to be able to fertilize oocytes, human sperm must undergo a series of morphological and structural alterations, known as capacitation. It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR. Astaxanthin (Asta, a photo-protective red pigment belonging to the carotenoid family, is recognized as having anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties and is present in many dietary supplements. This study evaluates the effect of Asta in a capacitating buffer which induces low ROS production and low percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC. Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC. Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. It is suggested that Asta can be inserted in the membrane and therefore create capacitation-like membrane alteration which allow Tyr-P of the head. Once this has occurred, AR can take place and involves a higher numbers of cells.

  19. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  20. Sperm retrieval techniques for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Different surgical methods such as PESA, MESA, TESA, TESE and micro-TESE have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from either the epididymis or the testis according to the type of azoospermia, i.e., obstructive or non-obstructive. Laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, and red blood cells following collection of the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue. Surgically-retrieved spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and/or cryopreservation. In this article, we review the surgical procedures for retrieving spermatozoa from both the epididymis and the testicle and provide technical details of the commonly used methods. A critical analysis of the advantages and limitations of the current surgical methods to retrieve sperm from males with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia is presented along with an overview of the laboratory techniques routinely used to process surgically-retrieved sperm. Lastly, we summarize the results from the current literature of sperm retrieval, as well as the clinical outcome of ICSI in the clinical scenario of obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia.

  1. Life after Death. Sperm, Property, and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Willum Adrian, Stine

    A tragic workplace accident led in 2010 to the death of Mark Edwards. Subsequently, his wife Joycelyn Edwards requested for the New South Wales Superior Court´s permission to extract sperm posthumous from her husband. She got the permission and one year later, the Court decided to grant her acces...

  2. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mariana Andrade; Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell'Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant'Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor; de Andrade, André Furugen Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  3. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity, and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Egeland, Torvald B.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Nordeide, Jarle T.; Folstad, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker male...

  4. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Torvald Blikra Egeland; Geir eRudolfsen; Jarle Tryti Nordeide; Ivar eFolstad

    2015-01-01

    How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often ...

  5. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Fertilization Rate Does Not Depend on the Proportion of Round-headed Sperm, Small-acrosomal Sperm, or Morphologically Normal Sperm in Patients with Partial Globozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ying Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI may be the preferable method to treat partial globozoospermia, but whether there exist some correlations between ICSI fertilization rate and the proportion of round-headed sperm or morphologically normal sperm remains open. This study was to explore the correlation between ICSI fertilization rate and the sperm morphology in patients with partial globozoospermia. Methods: Thirty-four patients diagnosed with partial globozoospermia accepted the following assisted fertilization treatments - 2 cases accepted in-vitro fertilization (IVF alone, 26 cases accepted ICSI alone, and 6 accepted split IVF/ICSI. Detailed morphological characteristics were described using Diff-Quik rapid staining. Sixty cases accepting IVF or ICSI treatment in our reproductive center were considered as the control group after being matched by relevant criteria. Fertilization rate, embryo quality, embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were calculated. Results: Besides very high proportion of round-headed sperm, partial globozoospermia also showed very high proportion of small-acrosomal sperm and very low proportion of morphologically normal sperm. Fertilization rate of IVF (IVF alone plus split IVF was very low in partial globozoospermia (25.4% ± 17.4%, but ICSI (ICSI alone plus split ICSI achieved satisfying fertilization rate compared with the control group (66.2% ± 22.5% vs. 68.8% ± 29.4%, P > 0.05. In patients with partial globozoospermia, there were no correlations between ICSI fertilization rate and the proportion of round-headed sperm, small-acrosomal sperm, or morphologically normal sperm. Conclusions: There was high proportion of small-acrosomal sperm in partial globozoospermia. For patients with partial globozoospermia, ICSI is more preferable than IVF. ICSI fertilization rate does not depend on the proportion of round-headed sperm, small-acrosomal sperm, or morphologically normal sperm.

  6. Reproductive effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on mouse sperm function and early embryonic development in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Acetamiprid (ACE and imidacloprid (IMI are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (PIMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations.

  7. Postfertilization autophagy of sperm organelles prevents paternal mitochondrial DNA transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawi, Sara; Louvet-Vallée, Sophie; Djeddi, Abderazak; Sachse, Martin; Culetto, Emmanuel; Hajjar, Connie; Boyd, Lynn; Legouis, Renaud; Galy, Vincent

    2011-11-25

    In sexual reproduction of most animals, the spermatozoon provides DNA and centrioles, together with some cytoplasm and organelles, to the oocyte that is being fertilized. Paternal mitochondria and their genomes are generally eliminated in the embryo by an unknown degradation mechanism. We show that, upon fertilization, a Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoon triggers the recruitment of autophagosomes within minutes and subsequent paternal mitochondria degradation. Whereas the nematode-specific sperm membranous organelles are ubiquitinated before autophagosome formation, the mitochondria are not. The degradation of both paternal structures and mitochondrial DNA requires an LC3-dependent autophagy. Analysis of fertilized mouse embryos shows the localization of autophagy markers, which suggests that this autophagy event is evolutionarily conserved to prevent both the transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA to the offspring and the establishment of heteroplasmy. PMID:22033522

  8. RAB-like 2 has an essential role in male fertility, sperm intra-flagellar transport, and tail assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Y Lo

    Full Text Available A significant percentage of young men are infertile and, for the majority, the underlying cause remains unknown. Male infertility is, however, frequently associated with defective sperm motility, wherein the sperm tail is a modified flagella/cilia. Conversely, a greater understanding of essential mechanisms involved in tail formation may offer contraceptive opportunities, or more broadly, therapeutic strategies for global cilia defects. Here we have identified Rab-like 2 (RABL2 as an essential requirement for sperm tail assembly and function. RABL2 is a member of a poorly characterized clade of the RAS GTPase superfamily. RABL2 is highly enriched within developing male germ cells, where it localizes to the mid-piece of the sperm tail. Lesser amounts of Rabl2 mRNA were observed in other tissues containing motile cilia. Using a co-immunoprecipitation approach and RABL2 affinity columns followed by immunochemistry, we demonstrated that within developing haploid germ cells RABL2 interacts with intra-flagella transport (IFT proteins and delivers a specific set of effector (cargo proteins, including key members of the glycolytic pathway, to the sperm tail. RABL2 binding to effector proteins is regulated by GTP. Perturbed RABL2 function, as exemplified by the Mot mouse line that contains a mutation in a critical protein-protein interaction domain, results in male sterility characterized by reduced sperm output, and sperm with aberrant motility and short tails. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the RABL protein family, an essential role for RABL2 in male fertility and a previously uncharacterised mechanism for protein delivery to the flagellum.

  9. Factors affecting sperm quality before and after mating of calopterygid damselflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm at each stage of mating and after different storage times in male and female reproductive organs in two damselfly species, Mnais pruinosa and Calopteryx cornelia. Viability of stored sperm in females was lower than that of male stores even just after copulation. Male sperm vesicles were not equipped to maintain sperm quality for longer periods than the internal reproductive organs. However, the sperm vesicles were only used for short-term storage; therefore, this process appeared unlikely to reduce sperm viability when transferred to the female. Males remove rival sperm prior to transfer of their own ejaculate using a peculiar-shaped aedeagus, but sperm removal by males is not always complete. Thus, dilution occurs between newly received sperm and aged sperm already stored in the female, causing lower viability of sperm inside the female than that of sperm transferred by males. If females do not remate, sperm viability gradually decreases with the duration of storage. Frequent mating of females may therefore contribute to the maintenance of high sperm quality.

  10. Different sperm sources and parameters can influence intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes before embryo implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-hong LU; Hui-juan GAO; Bai-jia LI; Ying-ming ZHENG; Ying-hui YE; Yu-li QIAN; Chen-ming XU; He-feng HUANG; Fan JIN

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of sperm with different parameters and sources on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),1972 ICSI cycles were analyzed retrospectively.Groups 1 to 5 were composed of cycles using ejaculated sperm and were grouped according to sperm quantity,quality,and morphology into normal (288 cycles),or mild (329 cycles),moderate (522 cycles),severe (332 cycles),and extremely severe (171 cycles)oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia and/or teratozoospermia (OAT) groups.Group 6 was composed of 250 cycles using testicular or epididymal sperm,and Group 7 consisted of 80 cycles using frozen-thawed sperm.We found that fertilization rates were gradually reduced from Groups 1 to 6,and reached statistical difference in Groups 5 and 6 (P<0.05).The high-quality embryo rate was higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2,3,5,6,and 7 (P<0.05).No statistical differences were observed in the rates of embryo cleavage,clinical pregnancy,miscarriage,live-birth,premature birth,low birth weight,weeks of premature birth,average birth weight,or sex ratio for all seven groups (P>0.05).A total of nine cases of malformation were observed,with a malformation rate of 1.25% (9/719).In conclusion,different sperm sources and parameters can affect ICSI outcomes before embryo implantation.A full assessment of offspring malformation will require further study using a larger sample size.

  11. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level. PMID:26318229

  12. Dynamics of sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, Angelika; Heinze, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Mating tactics differ remarkably between and within species of social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) concerning, e.g., mating frequencies, sperm competition, and the degree of male sperm limitation. Although social Hymenoptera might, therefore, potentially be ideal model systems for testing sexual selection theory, the dynamics of mating and sperm transfer have rarely been studied in species other than social bees, and basic information needed to draw conclusions about possible sperm competition and female choice is lacking. We investigated sperm transfer in the ant Leptothorax gredleri, a species in which female sexuals attract males by “female calling.” The analysis of 38 female sexuals fixed immediately or up to 7 days after copulation with a single male each revealed that the sperm is transferred into the female bursa copulatrix embedded in a gelatinous mass, presumably a spermatophore. Sperm cells rapidly start to migrate from the tip of the spermatophore towards the spermatheca, but transfer is drastically slowed down by an extreme constriction of the spermathecal duct, through which sperm cells have to pass virtually one by one. This results in the spermatheca being filled only between one and several hours after mating. During this time, the posterior part of the spermatophore seals the junction between bursa copulatrix and spermathecal duct and prevents sperm loss. The prolonged duration of sperm transfer might allow female sexuals to chose between ejaculates and explain previously reported patterns of single paternity of the offspring of multiply mated queens.

  13. Polyspermy in birds: sperm numbers and embryo survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, N; Birkhead, T R

    2015-11-01

    Polyspermy is a major puzzle in reproductive biology. In some taxa, multiple sperm enter the ovum as part of the normal fertilization process, whereas in others, penetration of the ovum by more than one sperm is lethal. In birds, several sperm typically enter the germinal disc, yet only one fuses with the female pronucleus. It is unclear whether supernumerary sperm play an essential role in the avian fertilization process and, if they do, how females regulate the progression of sperm through the oviduct to ensure an appropriate number reach the ovum. Here, we show that when very few sperm penetrate the avian ovum, embryos are unlikely to survive beyond the earliest stages of development. We also show that when the number of inseminated sperm is limited, a greater proportion than expected reach and penetrate the ovum, indicating that females compensate for low sperm numbers in the oviduct. Our results suggest a functional role for supernumerary sperm in the processes of fertilization and early embryogenesis, providing an exciting expansion of our understanding of sperm function in birds. PMID:26511048

  14. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    Full Text Available As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+/K(+-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+/K(+-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  15. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina; den Boer, Susanne P A

    2016-05-01

    The queens of eusocial ants, bees, and wasps only mate during a very brief period early in life to acquire and store a lifetime supply of sperm. As sperm cannot be replenished, queens have to be highly economic when using stored sperm to fertilize eggs, especially in species with large and long-lived colonies. However, queen fertility has not been studied in detail, so that we have little understanding of how economic sperm use is in different species, and whether queens are able to influence their sperm use. This is surprising given that sperm use is a key factor of eusocial life, as it determines the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found that queens are remarkably efficient and only use a median of 2 sperm per egg fertilization, with decreasing sperm use in older queens. The number of sperm in storage was always a significant predictor for the number of sperm used per fertilization, indicating that queens use a constant ratio of spermathecal fluid relative to total spermathecal volume of 2.364 × 10(-6) to fertilize eggs. This allowed us to calculate a lifetime fecundity for honeybee queens of around 1,500,000 fertilized eggs. Our data provide the first empirical evidence that honeybee queens do not manipulate sperm use, and fertilization failures in worker-destined eggs are therefore honest signals that workers can use to time queen replacement, which is crucial for colony performance and fitness. PMID:27217944

  16. Effects of Synthetic Serum Supplementation in Sperm Preparation Media on Sperm Capacitation and Function Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fu Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Albumin supplementation of culture media induces sperm capacitation in assisted reproduction technique cycles. Synthetic serum supplementation is clinically used to replace albumin for preventing transmission of infectious agents. However, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation have rarely been investigated. Spermatozoa from 30 men with normal basic semen analysis results were collected, divided into five aliquots, and cultured in capacitating conditions in four combinations of two synthetic serum supplements, serum substitute supplement (SSS and serum protein substitute (SPS, and two fertilization media, Quinns Advantage™ Fertilization (QF and human tubular fluid (HTF media. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in spermatozoa were measured through chemiluminescence. Furthermore, acrosome reaction and western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation were used to evaluate sperm capacitation. HTF+SSS had significantly higher ROS levels than QF+SPS did (11,725 ± 1,172 versus 6,278 ± 864 relative light units. In addition, the spermatozoa cultured in QF+SPS had lower motility, acrosome reaction rates, and tyrosine phosphorylation levels compared with those cultured in HTF+SSS. In conclusion, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation varied according to the combination of media. These differences may lead to variations in spermatozoon ROS levels, thus affecting sperm function test results.

  17. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  18. Proteins associated with critical sperm functions and sperm head shape are differentially expressed in morphologically abnormal bovine sperm induced by scrotal insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadi, H.A.S.; Riemsdijk, van E.L.C.; Dance, A.L.; Rajamanickam, G.D.; Kastelic, J.P.; Thundathil, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n = 3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in a

  19. Doble aneuploidía en un niño Colombiano: síndrome de Down–Klinefelter, con fenotipo de síndrome de Down = Double aneuploidy in a Colombian child: Down-Klinefelter syndrome with Down syndrome phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachajoa Londoño, Harry

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La ocurrencia de una doble aneuploidía en una misma persona es un evento relativamente raro. Se presenta el caso de un niño de siete meses de edad, de padres no consanguíneos con características clínicas de síndrome de Down y cariotipo 48XXY.

  20. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (p<0.05). Therefore, HA could be a promising cryoprotectant for boar sperm. PMID:26944660

  1. LOCALIZATION OF HUMANIN IN HUMAN, RABBIT AND MOUSE SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Geminiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a peptide showing neuroprotective properties against damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In male reproductive system HN is expressed in human and rat testis. This preliminary study aimed to localize HN by immunocytochemistry (ICC directly in human, mouse and rabbit sperm. Semen samples were processed for the ICC analyses using two different rabbit polyclonal anti-HN antibodies. Western blotting analyses were performed using fresh human semen samples. Normal human, rabbit and mouse sperm, showed HN labeling in sub-acrosomal and mid-piece regions, whereas human abnormally shaped sperm were stained also at acrosomal level and particularly in the flagellum. Western blotting analysis revealed the presence of HN in analyzed human semen samples. HN was localized directly on human, rabbit and mouse spermatozoa. In human samples, we demonstrated a different localization pattern in normally shaped sperm compared to abnormal sperm probably due to a protective effect of HN in pathological sperm.

  2. Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin

    2015-08-01

    Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an `off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes.

  3. Magnetic propulsion of robotic sperms at low-Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Islam S. M.; Fatih Tabak, Ahmet; Klingner, Anke; Sitti, Metin

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the microswimming behaviour of robotic sperms in viscous fluids. These robotic sperms are fabricated from polystyrene dissolved in dimethyl formamide and iron-oxide nanoparticles. This composition allows the nanoparticles to be concentrated within the bead of the robotic sperm and provide magnetic dipole, whereas the flexibility of the ultra-thin tail enables flagellated locomotion using magnetic fields in millitesla range. We show that these robotic sperms have similar morphology and swimming behaviour to those of sperm cells. Moreover, we show experimentally that our robotic sperms swim controllably at an average speed of approximately one body length per second (around 125 μm s-1), and they are relatively faster than the microswimmers that depend on planar wave propulsion in low-Reynolds number fluids.

  4. Effect of environmental pH on sperm kinematic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, Hiva; Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Dissing, Marianne Charlotte;

    2015-01-01

    differences in the details of the sperm movement (kinematics) of human sperm provided by computerized sperm analysis systems. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different media pH levels on kinematic parameters of the human sperm. Samples were prepared using the 40%/80% Pureception (Sage, USA...... of this study illustrated a general insignificant decrease in the ratio of progressively motile and hyperactive sperm after 6 and 24 hours. However a significant difference between the test groups was observed in the curvilinear, straight line and Mean path velocity and Straightness after 6 and 24 hours....... Linearity and Wobble showed significant difference after 24 hours. This study demonstrated a difference in the sperm motion pattern and velocity in different environmental pH levels. Based on these findings, further investigations are required to elucidate knowledge about possible effect of marginal p...

  5. Effect of short abstinence time on sperm motility parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, Hiva; Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Van Der Horst, Gerhard;

    2015-01-01

    differences in the details of the sperm movement (kinematics) of human sperm provided by computerized sperm analysis systems. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different media pH levels on kinematic parameters of the human sperm. Samples were prepared using the 40%/80% Pureception (Sage, USA...... of this study illustrated a general insignificant decrease in the ratio of progressively motile and hyperactive sperm after 6 and 24 hours. However a significant difference between the test groups was observed in the curvilinear, straight line and Mean path velocity and Straightness after 6 and 24 hours....... Linearity and Wobble showed significant difference after 24 hours. This study demonstrated a difference in the sperm motion pattern and velocity in different environmental pH levels. Based on these findings, further investigations are required to elucidate knowledge about possible effect of marginal p...

  6. Some Reflections on Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ebner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI allows proper fertilization in most cases of male sub fertility, it is one of the most unphysiological techniques in assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Thus, over the last decade, researchers have tried to improve sperm observation with higher-resolution microscopy techniques such as the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI technique. In order to identify literatures for this review, the PubMed database was searched from 2000 onwards using the terms IMSI, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME and sperm vacuole. Approximately 10 years after the introduction of the MSOME and IMSI procedures, several questions related to the prevalence, origin, location, and clinical consequences of sperm vacuoles have not yet been clarified. It seems that IMSI as a routine application is not state of the art and the only confirmed indications for IMSI are recurrent implantation failure following ICSI and severe male factor.

  7. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration: indications,techniques and outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M Bernie; Ranjith Ramasamy; Doron S Stember; Peter J Stahl

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) refers to retrieval of sperm-containing fluid from optimal areas of the epididymis that are selected and sampled using high-power optical magnification provided by an operating microscope.Retrieved sperm are subsequently used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to induce fertilization and pregnancy.MESA is considered by many experts to be the gold standard technique for sperm retrieval in men with obstructive azoospermia given its high yield of quality sperm,excellent reported fertilization and pregnancy rates,and low risk of complications.However,MESA must be performed in an operating room,requires microsurgical skills and is only useful for reproduction using ICSI.Herein we present an overview of the evaluation of candidate patients for MESA,the technical performance of the procedure and the outcomes that have been reported.

  8. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  9. Virtual azoospermia and cryptozoospermia--fresh/frozen testicular or ejaculate sperm for better IVF outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ron; Bibi, Guy; Yogev, Leah; Carmon, Ariella; Azem, Foad; Botchan, Amnon; Yavetz, Haim; Klieman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Men diagnosed as having azoospermia occasionally have a few mature sperm cells in other ejaculates. Other men may have constant, yet very low quality and quantity of sperm cells in their ejaculates, resulting in poor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. It has not been conclusively established which source of sperm cells is preferable for ICSI when both ejaculate and testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells are available. It is also unclear whether there is any advantage of fresh over frozen sperm if testicular sperm is to be used. We used ejaculate, testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells, or both for ICSI in 13 couples. Five of these couples initially underwent ICSI by testicular sperm extraction, because the males had total azoospermia, and in later cycles with ejaculate sperm cells. Ejaculate sperm cells were initially used for ICSI in the other 8 patients, and later with testicular sperm cells. The fertilization rate was significantly higher when fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm cells were used than when ejaculated sperm cells were used. Likewise, the quality of the embryos from testicular (fresh and frozen) sperm was higher than from ejaculated sperm (65.3% vs 53.2%, respectively, P < .05). The use of fresh testicular sperm yielded better implantation rates than both frozen testicular sperm and ejaculate. Therefore, fresh testicular sperm should be considered first for ICSI in patients with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia because of their superior fertility. PMID:21164144

  10. Methods for Cryopreservation of Guinea Fowl Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Váradi, Éva; Végi, Barbara; Liptói, Krisztina; Barna, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of indigenous poultry species is an important part of the new Hungarian agricultural strategy. Semen cryopreservation is the most practical method for the long term storage of poultry genetic material. The objective was to compare four protocols for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm (slow and fast programmable, freezing in nitrogen vapor, and pellet) and three cryoprotectants (10% ethylene glycol, 6% dimethyl-formamide and 6% dimethyl-acetamide). The efficiency of the methods...

  11. Calcium Clearance Mechanisms of Mouse Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Wennemuth, Gunther; Babcock, Donner F; Hille, Bertil

    2003-01-01

    The spermatozoon is specialized for a single vital role in fertilization. Past studies show that Ca2+ signals produced by the opening of plasma membrane entry channels initiate several events required for the sperm to reach and enter the egg but reveal little about how resting [Ca2+]i is maintained or restored after elevation. We examined these homeostatic mechanisms by monitoring the kinetics of recovery from depolarizing stimuli under conditions intended to inhibit candidate mechanisms for ...

  12. Inverse turbulent cascade in swarming sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa; Plouraboue, Franck; Inra, Cnrs, Umr, F-37380 Nouzilly, France Team; Université de Toulouse, Inpt, Ups, Imft, Umr 5502, France Team

    2014-11-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small scale turbulence arising where viscosity effects are dominant. We report the first observation of an universal inverse enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of velocity field power-spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in two-dimensional turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures the size of which provides turbulence's integral scale. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-two-dimensional turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interaction and alignment, a state of active matter that we call ``swarming liquid crystal.'' We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation. The implication of multi-scale collective dynamics of sperm's collective motility for fertility assessment is discussed. This work has been supported by the French Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR) in the frame of the Contract MOTIMO (ANR-11-MONU-009-01). We thank Pierre Degond, Eric Climent, Laurent Lacaze and Frédéric Moulin for interesting discussions.

  13. Rogue Sperm Indicate Sexually Antagonistic Coevolution in Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Janice J.; Woodruff, Gavin C.; Leung, Gemma; Shin, Na-Ra; Cutter, Asher D.; Haag, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary The sexes have divergent reproductive interests, and conflict arising from this disparity can drive the rapid evolution of reproductive traits and promote speciation. Here we describe a unique reproductive barrier in Caenorhabditis nematodes that is induced by sperm. We found that mating between species can sterilize maternal worms and even cause premature death, and we were able to attribute this phenomenon directly to the sperm themselves. Sperm from other species can displac...

  14. Surgical recovery of sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2011-01-01

    The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) opened a new era in the field of assisted reproduction and revolutionized the assisted reproductive technology protocols for couples with male factor infertility. Fertilisation and pregnancies can be achieved with spermatozoa recovered not only from the ejaculate but also from the seminiferous tubules. The most common methods for retrieving testicular sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are testicular sperm aspiration (TESA: ne...

  15. Sperm density required for inducing gynogenetic haploidy in scallop Chlamys nobilis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    Experiments conducted for standardizing sperm density for artificial insemination and inducing gynogenesis by ultra-violet rays irradiated sperms in Chlamys nobilis showed that 10:1 ratio of sperms to eggs, gave maximum rate of fertilization...

  16. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.

  17. A sterile sperm caste protects brother fertile sperm from female-mediated death in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Snook, Rhonda R

    2008-01-01

    antispermicidal mechanisms have been definitively identified. One such adaptation may be the enigmatic infertile sperm morphs or "parasperm" produced by many species, which have been hypothesized to protect their fertile brother "eusperm" from spermicide [2, 3]. Here, we show that female Drosophila pseudoobscura...... reproductive tracts are spermicidal and that the survival of eusperm after exposure to the female tract is highest when males produce many parasperm. This study clarifies the adaptive significance of infertile sperm castes, which has remained elusive in Drosophila and other taxa despite much recent interest [2......Spermicide (i.e., female-mediated sperm death) is an understudied but potentially widespread phenomenon that has important ramifications for the study of sexual conflict, postcopulatory sexual selection, and fertility [1, 2]. Males are predicted to evolve adaptations against spermicide, but few...

  18. Species-specific sperm-egg interaction affects the utility of a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system for evaluating antelope sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, A J; Atkinson, M W; Gandolf, A R; Roth, T L

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cryopreserved fringe-eared (FE) oryx (Oryx gazella callotis) sperm function using a heterologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) system previously developed to study scimitar-horned (SH) oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from FE oryx (n = 2) and SH oryx (n = 2), evaluated immediately postcollection, and cryopreserved. Thawed spermatozoa were evaluated for motility, forward progression, and acrosomal status immediately post-thaw, after Percoll-separation, and 1, 2, 3, and 8 h after culture in IVF medium. In vitro-matured cow oocytes (n = 924) were inseminated with either domestic bull, FE, or SH oryx spermatozoa and after an 8-h coincubation period, half the oocytes were fixed and examined for sperm penetration, polyspermy, and male pronuclear formation. The remaining oocytes were placed into in vitro culture and evaluated for cleavage after 48 h. Overall, there were no between-species differences in sperm motility and acrosome integrity. However, an effect of time (P 90%, >85%, and >70%, respectively) for oocytes inseminated with domestic bull and SH oryx spermatozoa and did not differ (P > 0.05) between species. In contrast, very few oocytes (2.8%, 4 of 141) inseminated with FE oryx sperm were penetrated. Cleavage was rare (8.0%, 16 of 200) in oocytes inseminated with FE oryx spermatozoa and did not differ (P > 0.05) from that in parthenogenetic controls (4.2%, 3 of 72). Furthermore, FE oryx spermatozoa were incapable of penetrating zona-free cow oocytes. These results indicate that species-specific differences in gamete interaction may exist even between very closely related nondomestic bovids. PMID:11566750

  19. Effect of Neem Oil on Sperm Mitochondrial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Patil; Gaikwad RD; Sawane MV; Waghmare VS

    2010-01-01

    It is a known fact that neem oil has some effect on motility of sperm. Motility of sperm depends on mitochondrial activity present in mid-piece of sperm. In the present study, the mitochondrial activity of sperm was evaluated after treating semen with the different quantities of neem oil. The mitochondrial activity was also evaluated after subjecting the semen samples for different incubation periods keeping the quantity of semen as well as that of neem oil same. Tests were done on thirty nor...

  20. Sperm is epigenetically programmed to regulate gene transcription in embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teperek, Marta; Simeone, Angela; Gaggioli, Vincent; Miyamoto, Kei; Allen, George E; Erkek, Serap; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M; Zegerman, Philip; Bradshaw, Charles R; Peters, Antoine H F M; Gurdon, John B; Jullien, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    For a long time, it has been assumed that the only role of sperm at fertilization is to introduce the male genome into the egg. Recently, ideas have emerged that the epigenetic state of the sperm nucleus could influence transcription in the embryo. However, conflicting reports have challenged the existence of epigenetic marks on sperm genes, and there are no functional tests supporting the role of sperm epigenetic marking on embryonic gene expression. Here, we show that sperm is epigenetically programmed to regulate embryonic gene expression. By comparing the development of sperm- and spermatid-derived frog embryos, we show that the programming of sperm for successful development relates to its ability to regulate transcription of a set of developmentally important genes. During spermatid maturation into sperm, these genes lose H3K4me2/3 and retain H3K27me3 marks. Experimental removal of these epigenetic marks at fertilization de-regulates gene expression in the resulting embryos in a paternal chromatin-dependent manner. This demonstrates that epigenetic instructions delivered by the sperm at fertilization are required for correct regulation of gene expression in the future embryos. The epigenetic mechanisms of developmental programming revealed here are likely to relate to the mechanisms involved in transgenerational transmission of acquired traits. Understanding how parental experience can influence development of the progeny has broad potential for improving human health. PMID:27034506

  1. MILT DILUTION EFFECTIVENESS ON PIKEPERCH (SANDER LUCIOPERCA SPERM DNA INACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KORBULY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Percid fishes, including pikeperch (Sander lucioperca have recently become the subject of intense research. In order to obtain gynogenetic all female pikeperch populations, normal pikeperch eggs are fertilized with inactivated sperm. Because pikeperch semen has a high viscosity, milt has to be diluted in an immobilizing solution before DNA inactivation. The aim of this study was to assess milt diluting solutions effectiveness in order to inactivate sperm DNA with UV irradiation, to produce meiotic gynogenetic pikeperch (Sander lucioperca. We assessed sperm motility after dilution in 5 different immobilizing solutions. Best results were obtained using Ringer’s solution as pikeperch sperm diluent.

  2. Competition drives cooperation among closely-related sperm of deer mice

    OpenAIRE

    FISHER, HEIDI S.; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    2010-01-01

    Among the extraordinary adaptations driven by sperm competition is the cooperative behaviour of spermatozoa1. By forming cooperative groups, sperm can increase their swimming velocity and thereby gain an advantage in intermale sperm competition1,2. Accordingly, selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm to maximize fitness3. Here we show that sperm of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system test predictions of sperm cooperation...

  3. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  4. Porcine embryos produced after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using xenogeneic pig sperm from neonatal testis tissue grafted in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Honaramooz, Ali; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Embryo development after homologous intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with sperm from testis tissue xenografts from pigs or any other farm animal species has not been evaluated critically. Here, we report development of porcine embryos in vitro following ICSI with sperm retrieved from xenografted neonatal pig testis. Small pieces of testis tissue from newborn piglets were grafted under the back skin of castrated immunodeficient mice (n = 4) and the xenografts were collected 8 months aft...

  5. Sperm tail differentiation in the nudibranch mollusc Hypselodoris tricolor (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Moreno, F J; García-Herdugo, G

    1988-06-01

    The sperm axoneme of Hypselodoris tricolor forms from a single centriole that is located initially beneath the plasma membrane and then migrates to the nuclear surface. A conspicuous centriolar adjunct-like formation is present in the neck of midspermatids, but it becomes very reduced at the end of spermiogenesis. In spermatocyte and spermatid mitochondria, intracristal bodies originate from the accumulation of a dense material in some cristae. From our observations and foregoing reports, it may be concluded that the process of sperm tail differentiation in opisthobranchs resembles that in pulmonates, whereas it differs in many respects from that occurring in prosobranchs. The appearance of intracristal bodies in modified mitochondria seems to be a special feature of spermatogenesis in the opisthobranchs that does not occur in the two other groups of gastropod molluscs. PMID:3235038

  6. Nuclear reconstitution of demembranated Orychophragmus violaceus sperm in Xenopus laevis egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Ping(卢萍); REN; Min(任民); ZHAI; Zhonghe(翟中和)

    2002-01-01

    The cell-free extracts from animal Xenopus laevis egg could induce chromatin decon- densation and pronuclear formation from demembranated plant (Orychophragmus violaceus)sperm. The demembranated Orychophragmus violaceus sperm began to swell in 30 min incubation, and then were gradually decondensed. The reassembly of nuclear envelope in the reconstituted nuclei had been visualized by means of electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. Membrane vesicles fused to form the double envelope around the periphery of the decondensed chromatin. The morphology of the newly formed nucleus, with a double membrane, was similar to those nuclei after fertilization. Transmission electron microscope micrograph of the whole mount prepared nuclear matrix-lamina showed the reconstituted nucleus to be filled with a dense network.

  7. Electroejaculated Baboon (Papio anubis) Sperm Requires a Higher Dosage of Pentoxifylline to Enhance Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Cseh, Sandor; Chan, Philip J.; Corselli, Johannah; Bailey, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Sperm collected by electroejaculation often showpoor motility. The objective was to determine whether theaddition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pentoxifylline,would stimulate electroejaculated baboon sperm motility.

  8. Photoreactivation of developmental abnormality in sea urchin embryos induced by UV-irradiated sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of UV-irradiation of sperm on the embryonic development of sea urchins (H. pulcherrimus, Anthocidaris crassispina, Pseudocentrotus depressus, and C. japonicus) were studied. Eggs inseminated with UV-irradiated sperm developed almost normally into blastulae without arrest of cleavage or hatching, even though they showed some division delay. Morphogenesis was disturbed in and after the gastrula stage, and the formation of normal pluteus larvae was inhibited depending on the UV dose (5 - 30 J/m2) given to the sperm. Morphological abnormalities observed were as follows: inhibition of gastrulation; abnormal delamination and random arrangement of primary mesenchymal cells onto the ectodermal wall; abnormal localization or an excess number of spicules; malformed skeletons. These developmental abnormalities were photoreactivated with high efficiency. Inhibition of pluteus formation to less than 5% by the UV-irradiation with 20 J/m2 completely recovered under fluorescent light illumination with 10 klux. By treating the eggs with brief illumination at various times after insemination, a stage-dependent change of the photoreactivation (PR) efficiency was found. PR treatment after the insemination up to the onset of the first DNA synthesizing phase was highly effective for the recovery, while the PR efficiency began to decrease during the S phase, becoming zero on and after the end of the phase. In eggs fertilized with UV-irradiated sperm, mitoses were abnormal and shromosomal bridges were formed at the anaphase of the first mitosis. Their frequency increased depending on the UV dose. The mitotic abnormality was also photoreactivated with visible light treatment after fertilization. The change in PR efficiency of the illumination was very similar to that of morphological abnormality. (Author)

  9. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  10. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  11. Cryopreservation of European catfish Silurus glanis sperm: Sperm motility, viability and hatching success of embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajšhans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2005), s. 250-261. ISSN 0011-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178; GA AV ČR IBS5045314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : fish * sperm * aquaculture Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2005

  12. Modulation of bovine sperm signalling pathways: correlation between intracellular parameters and sperm capacitation and acrosome exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Bailey, Janice L; Leclerc, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the viability, intracellular pH (pHi), cAMP ([cAMP]i), calcium concentration and protein phosphotyrosine content were evaluated in relation to the acrosomal and capacitation status of freshly ejaculated bull spermatozoa. These parameters were evaluated before and after incubation with the capacitation inducer heparin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), the phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase inhibitors phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and sodium orthovanadate, and hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained were integrated to address the physiological interactions between the different signalling events affecting sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. As expected, heparin promoted the expression of the 'B' pattern of chlortetracycline binding, increased pHi, [cAMP]i and the phosphotyrosine content of sperm proteins. The effects of heparin were enhanced by IBMX. Both PAO and sodium orthovanadate stimulated protein phosphotyrosine content and acrosomal exocytosis, although only PAO affected pH, Ca2+ and cAMP levels. Intracellular pH was increased while both Ca2+ and [cAMP]i were decreased. Physiological concentrations of H2O2 increased [cAMP]i and promoted acrosomal exocytosis. A significant positive correlation was found between sperm capacitation, protein phosphotyrosine content and stored Ca2+ concentration, whereas the acrosome reaction was correlated with pHi and Ca2+ concentration. This study presents the first global analysis of the major elements individually described during sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction signalling pathways, supported by statistical correlations. PMID:19383258

  13. Mouse sperm-egg interaction in vitro in the presence of neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, S C; Williams, R S

    1993-01-01

    In vitro evidence is presented showing toxicity of neem oil on sperm-egg interaction in mouse. Cumulus oophorus-enclosed ova, inseminated with capacitated spermatozoa, were cultured in 1 ml of in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and overlayered by 1 ml of different concentrations of neem oil (1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100%) for IVF duration of 4h. At the end of incubation, ova were allowed to grow in neem oil-free culture medium and assessed for fertilization, first cleavage (2-cell formation) and blastocyst formation in vitro at 4-14h, 24h and 108h post-insemination respectively. The study showed that the presence of neem oil at concentrations of 10, 25 and 50% caused inhibition of IVF in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effect of exposure of 25 and 50% neem oil was further carried over to the first cleavage of the resulting fertilized ova and the toxic effect of 5, 10, 25 and 50% was carried over to the blastocyst formation from the resulting fertilized ova when grown in neem-oil free culture medium. A total of 94.1% inhibition of 2-cell formation and 100% inhibition of blastocyst formation from the inseminated ova was observed in 50 and 25% neem oil-treated groups respectively. Neem oil at 100% concentration caused 100% degeneration of ova at 1h of sperm-ova coculture. The study showed a direct toxic effect of neem oil on sperm-egg interaction in vitro and encourages research investigations of this herbal product as a pre-coital contraceptive. PMID:8231626

  14. Comparison of semen variables, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins in two male layer breeder lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Shanmugam; T R, Kannaki; A, Vinoth

    2016-09-01

    Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines. PMID:27470200

  15. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  16. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm

  17. A sperm competition model for the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 14 (2013), s. 1709-1730. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * alternative mating tactics * mating system * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm motility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2013

  18. Chemotactic behavior of the sperm of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R L

    1977-11-01

    Observations of sperm behavior in the vicinity of gradients of egg-water or alcohol extracts of whole freshly-spawned eggs of several chitons reveal what appear to be directed movements of sperm up the gradient, resulting in the aggregation of motile sperm at the gradient source. Plots of the tracks of the sperm approaching the gradient source show that the cells increase the time during which they move toward the source and decrease the time spent moving away. Although this resembles the kinesis behavior shown by bacteria in a gradient, the path directions are markedly non-random. The reorientation behavior of thigmotactic sperm involves enlargement of the normal circular path diameter in the direction of the source and an alternation of tight loops and wide circular arcs, with the latter made in the direction of the source. The form of the path of attracted chiton sperm is like that observed during chemotaxis of the sperm of the hydroid Tubularia and the tunicate Ciona and resembles the behavior of Ciona sperm in that there is no increase in velocity as the cells move up the gradient. However, unlike the cnidarian and urochordate cases, the attracting substances extracted from chiton eggs do not act species-specifically. PMID:925668

  19. Maintenance of sperm variation in a highly promiscuous wild bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calhim

    Full Text Available Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important force in the evolution of reproductive traits, including sperm morphology. In birds, sperm morphology is known to be highly heritable and largely condition-independent. Theory predicts, and recent comparative work corroborates, that strong selection in such traits reduces intraspecific phenotypic variation. Here we show that some variation can be maintained despite extreme promiscuity, as a result of opposing, copulation-role-specific selection forces. After controlling for known correlates of siring success in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, we found that (a lifetime extra-pair paternity success was associated with sperm with a shorter flagellum and relatively large head, and (b males whose sperm had a longer flagellum and a relatively smaller head achieved higher within-pair paternity. In this species extrapair copulations occur in the same morning, but preceding, pair copulations during a female's fertile period, suggesting that shorter and relatively larger-headed sperm are most successful in securing storage (defense, whereas the opposite phenotype might be better at outcompeting stored sperm (offense. Furthermore, since cuckolding ability is a major contributor to differential male reproductive output, stronger selection on defense sperm competition traits might explain the short sperm of malurids relative to other promiscuous passerines.

  20. Heritability of sperm length in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; de Jong, Gerdien; Schmid-Hempel, Regula;

    2006-01-01

    Sperm length is highly variable, both between and within species, but the evolutionary significance of this variation is poorly understood. Sexual selection on sperm length requires a significant additive genetic variance, but few studies have actually measured this. Here we present the first est...

  1. Cryopreservation of sperm from seven-band grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ivan Chong Chu; Yokoi, Ken-Ichi; Tsuji, Masaharu; Tsuchihashi, Yasushi; Ohta, Hiromi

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined methods for the cryopreservation of Epinephelus septemfasciatus spermatozoa. The percent motility, average path velocity, and linearity of movement (LIN) of fresh and corresponding post-thaw sperm were evaluated. Sperm motility was investigated using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Five percent dimethyl sulphoxide (Me₂SO) with 95% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was the most successful cryoprotectant diluent with a comparative post-thaw motility of 77.6±8.5%; 5% dimethyl formamide was also effective. Fetal bovine serum was significantly better as an extender when compared with artificial seminal plasma, glucose, and trehalose solution. Sperm tolerated a wide range of cooling rates (from 27.1 to 94.3 °C min⁻¹); however, the post-thaw motility of sperm cooled to -30 °C was significantly lower than that of other cooled temperatures (-40 to -70 °C). The velocity of post-thaw sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm, although LIN remained the same. For effective cryopreservation of seven-band grouper sperm, samples should be diluted in 5% Me₂SO with 95% FBS and cooled to at least -40 °C before immersion in liquid nitrogen. PMID:20869362

  2. Bending the law and crossing borders choosing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    In recent years, Denmark has become a European destination for couples and single women wanting sperm donation. One reason is that the current regulation is liberal in the sense that it enables single women and lesbians to be treated. Since neither private sperm banks nor clinics run by midwifes ...

  3. Sperm banking for male cancer patients: social and semen profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C.S. Bonetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Report the characteristics of cryopreserved semen from a cohort of male cancer patients, attitudes towards cryopreservation and outcomes of semen samples based on a 12-year cryopreservation program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 98 male cancer patients whose sperm samples were banked were evaluated. Demographic parameters, semen characteristics, destination of sperm banked samples and questionnaires answered by the patients regarding cryopreservation time were evaluated. RESULTS: The cancer diagnoses were testicle (56.1%, prostate (15.3%, Hodgkin’s lymphomas (9.2%, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (7.1%, leukemia (3.1% and other malignancies (9.2%. The patients with testicular cancer presented lower sperm concentration (p < 0.001; however, there were no differences with the percentage of normozoospermic patients among cancer type groups (p = 0.185. A shorter time between cancer diagnosis and sperm banking was observed for testicular and prostate cancer patients (p < 0.001. Most of the patients (89.5% favored sperm banking as a fertility preservation method. CONCLUSIONS: Although less than 20% of banked sperm samples were disposed of, the majority of patients related sperm banking with safe for fertility preservation. Our results show that all male cancer patients of reproductive age facing cancer treatment could be offered sperm banking.

  4. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in boar sperm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěknicová, Jana; Geussová, Gizela; Kaláb, P.

    Česká republika: XXX , 2002. s. X-X. [Symposium českých reprodukčních imunologů s mezinárodní účastí/8./. 16.05.2002-19.05.2002, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/1651; GA ČR GA204/02/1373; GA MZd NJ5851 Keywords : boar sperm * phosphorylation * VCP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Role of sperm surface proteins in reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáková, Věra; Postlerová, Pavla; Davidová, Nina; Tichá, M.; Pěknicová, Jana

    Barcelona : The American Society, 2009. s. 1-155 ISSN 0196-3635. [9th International Congress of Andrology. 07.03.2009-10.03.2009, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/0895; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : sperm surface protein * spermadhesin * reproduction Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  6. Methods useful for evaluation of human sperm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubátová, Alena; Čapková, Jana; Pěknicová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, Issue Supplement s1 (2012), s. 27-27. ISSN 1046-7408. [13th International Symposium for Immunology of reproduction "From the roots to the tops of Reproductive Immunology". 22.06.2012-24.06.2012, Varna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : human sperm * immunofluorescence test * human seminal plasma proteins * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. Biomarkers for detection of sperm pathology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, M.; Teplá, O.; Havranová, M.; Elzeinová, Fatima; Křen, R.; Mrkvičková, P; Kočí, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    Praha : ÚMG AV ČR, v. v. i, 2007. s. 45-45. [Symposium českých reprodukčních imunologů s mezinárodní účastí /13./. 24.05.2007-27.05.2007, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011; GA MŠk 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : sperm pathology * monoclonal antibody * IVF cycle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  9. Our experience in sperm morphology assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia Irene Ariagno; Susana Mercedes Curi; Patricia Chenlo; Herberto Ernesto Hector Repetto; Mercedes Norma Pugliese; Luis Alberto Palaoro; Melba Sardi; Gabriela Ruth Mendeluk

    2011-01-01

    @@ We read with great interest the article recently published by Menkeveld et al.1 as we have a double interest in sperm morphology assess-ment.The first one as a Clinical Andrology Laboratory(Laboratory of Male Fertility,Department of Clinical Biochemistry,Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina)attempting to give aluable diagnosis to our patients, and the second one as Sponsors of the External Quality Control for the Study of Human Semen in Argentina(Programa de Evaluación Externa de la Calidad(PEEC)de la Fundación Bioquimica Argentina2).

  10. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a...... number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... spurious results. I provide methodological advice on sperm viability staining aimed at minimising artefacts and producing robust conclusions, and discuss possible avenues for future research....

  11. Ketamine inhibits human sperm function by Ca(2+)-related mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanqiao; Zou, Qianxing; Li, Bingda; Chen, Houyang; Du, Xiaohong; Weng, Shiqi; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Xuhui

    2016-09-01

    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, which was widely used in human and animal medicine, has become a popular recreational drug, as it can induce hallucinatory effects. Ketamine abuse can cause serious damage to many aspects of the organism, mainly reflected in the nervous system and urinary system. It has also been reported that ketamine can impair the male genital system. However, the detailed effect of ketamine on human spermatozoa remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vitro effects of ketamine on human sperm functions, to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Human sperm were treated in vitro with different concentrations of ketamine (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 g/L). The results showed that 0.25-1 g/L ketamine inhibited sperm total motility, progressive motility and linear velocity, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the sperm's ability to penetrate viscous medium and the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction were significantly inhibited by ketamine. Ketamine did not affect sperm viability, capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reaction. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), which is a central factor in the regulation of human sperm function, was decreased by ketamine (0.125-1 g/L) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the currents of the sperm-specific Ca(2+) channel, CatSper, which modulates Ca(2+) influx in sperm, were inhibited by ketamine (0.125-1 g/L) in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that ketamine induces its toxic effects on human sperm functions by reducing sperm [Ca(2+)]i through inhibition of CatSper channel. PMID:27143628

  12. Comparison of methods for assessing integrity of equine sperm membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M L; Love, C C; Varner, D D; Brinsko, S P; Hinrichs, K; Teague, S; Lacaze, K; Blanchard, T L

    2011-07-15

    Sperm membrane integrity (SMI) is thought to be an important measure of stallion sperm quality. The objective was to compare three methods for evaluating SMI: flow cytometry using SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) stain; an automated cell counting device using PI stain; and eosin-nigrosin stain. Raw equine semen was subjected to various treatments containing 20 to 80% seminal plasma in extender, with differing sperm concentrations, to simulate spontaneous loss of SMI. The SMI was assessed immediately, and after 1 and 2 d of cooled storage. Agreement between methods was determined according to Bland-Altman methodology. Eosin-nigrosin staining yielded higher (2%) overall mean values for SMI than did flow cytometry. Flow cytometry yielded higher (6%) overall mean values for SMI than did the automated cell counter. As percentage of membrane-damaged sperm increased, agreement of SMI measurement between methods decreased. When semen contained 50-79% membrane-intact sperm, the 95% limits of agreement between SMI determined by flow cytometry and eosin-nigrosin staining were greater (range = -26.9 to 24.3%; i.e., a 51.2% span) than for SMI determined by flow cytometry and the automated cell counter (range = -3.1 to 17.0%; 20.1% span). When sperm populations contained range = -35.9 to 19.0%; 54.9% span) than for SMI determined by flow cytometry and the automated cell counter (range = -11.6 to 28.7%; 40.3% span). We concluded that eosin-nigrosin staining assessments of percent membrane-intact sperm agreed less with flow cytometry when <80% of sperm had intact membranes, whereas automated cell counter assessments of percent membrane-intact sperm agreed less with flow cytometry when <30% of sperm had intact membranes. PMID:21496902

  13. Preliminary study of sperm chromatin characteristics of the brachyuran crab Maja brachydactyla. Histones and nucleosome-like structures in decapod crustacean sperm nuclei previously described without SNBPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, K; Ausió, J; Chiva, M

    2009-10-01

    An interesting characteristic of decapod crustacean sperm nuclei is that they do not contain highly packaged chromatin. In the present study we re-examine the presence of DNA-interacting proteins in sperm nuclei of the brachyuran Maja brachydactyla. Although previous reports have indicated that, unlike the majority of sperm cells, DNA of decapod sperm is not organized by basic proteins, in this work we show that: (1) histones are present in sperm of M. brachydactyla; (2) histones are associated with sperm DNA; (3) histone H3 appears in lower proportions than the other core histones, while histone H2B appears in higher proportions; and (4) histone H3 in sperm nuclei is acetylated. This work complements a previous study of sperm histones of Cancer pagurus and supports the suggestion that decapod crustacean sperm chromatin deserves further attention. PMID:19324386

  14. Sperm Proteases that May Be Involved in the Initiation of Sperm Motility in the Newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Yokoe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A protease of sperm in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster that is released after the acrosome reaction (AR is proposed to lyse the sheet structure on the outer surface of egg jelly and release sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS. Here, we found that protease activity in the sperm head was potent to widely digest substrates beneath the sperm. The protease activity measured by fluorescein thiocarbamoyl-casein digestion was detected in the supernatant of the sperm after the AR and the activity was inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, an inhibitor for serine or cysteine protease, suggesting the release of serine and/or cysteine proteases by AR. In an in silico analysis of the testes, acrosins and 20S proteasome were identified as possible candidates of the acrosomal proteases. We also detected another AEBSF-sensitive protease activity on the sperm surface. Fluorescence staining with AlexaFluor 488-labeled AEBSF revealed a cysteine protease in the principal piece; it is localized in the joint region between the axial rod and undulating membrane, which includes an axoneme and produces powerful undulation of the membrane for forward sperm motility. These results indicate that AEBSF-sensitive proteases in the acrosome and principal piece may participate in the initiation of sperm motility on the surface of egg jelly.

  15. Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (Psemen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

  16. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Human Sperm Creatine Kinase Activity: As An ATP Buffering System in Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa are a group of cells that consume adenosine triphosphate (ATP rapidly.Creatine kinase (CK, produced by creatine phosphate, is an energy reservoir for the rapid bufferingand regeneration of ATP and can play an important role in sperm motility. Therefore, this studyinvestigates the effects of cigarette smoking on human sperm CK activity in males who smoke.Materials and Methods: In this case - control study, we obtained semen samples from male smokers(n=64 and nonsmokers (n=83. Smokers were categorized as light, moderate, or heavy smokersaccording to the daily number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years they have smoked. Datawere analyzed by the independent t test and Pearson’s analysis.Results: This investigation showed significantly lower sperm CK activity and movement in malesmokers compared to nonsmokers. In addition, it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking had adose-dependent effect on these parameters. There was a positive relation, although not significant,between sperm CK activity and its motility in male smokers.Conclusion: Smoking, by diminishing sperm CK activity, may potentially impair sperm energyhomeostasis and have an association with damage to sperm motility. This effect can be an importantmechanism that may cause infertility in male smokers. However, further research is necessary toelucidate the underlying mechanism of sperm motility damage caused by cigarette smoking.

  17. Patterns of sperm damage in Chernobyl passerine birds suggest a trade-off between sperm length and integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermosell, I. G.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Moller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2013), s. 20130530. ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : acrosome * radiation * sperm evolution * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.425, year: 2013

  18. Effects of ketamine or medetomidine administration on quality of electroejaculated sperm and on sperm flow in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, D; Cunto, M; Prati, F; Merlo, B

    2007-09-15

    The effects of two commonly used drugs for anaesthesia in the domestic cat, ketamine and medetomidine, on features of electroejaculated semen and on sperm flow in this species were evaluated performing three experiments. This is the first study about these topics in the domestic cat. In Experiment 1, ketamine or medetomidine effects on cat sperm quality after collection by electroejaculation (E.E.) have been assessed in nine animals. Results showed that mean sperm concentration was significantly higher (pketamine administration. In Experiment 2, ketamine or medetomidine effects on sperm flow in 12 electroejaculated cats were studied. Mean sperm concentration and mean total number of spermatozoa resulted significantly higher (pketamine treated animals. The number of spermatozoa displaced in urethra was significantly higher (pketamine or medetomidine effects on urethral sperm flow, without any stimulation for sperm collection, were evaluated. Data obtained showed a significantly higher (pketamine injection. In conclusion, E.E. in the cat after medetomidine administration determined a higher number of spermatozoa per ejaculate than after ketamine administration, with a good pharmacological restriction and without increasing sperm retrograde flow. PMID:17662381

  19. Ion channels, phosphorylation and mammalian sperm capacitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo E Visconti; Dario Krapf; José Luis de la Vega-Beltrán; Juan José Acevedo; Alberto Darszon

    2011-01-01

    Sexually reproducing animals require an orchestrated communication between spermatozoa and the egg to generate a new individual. Capacitation, a maturational complex phenomenon that occurs in the female reproductive tract, renders spermatozoa capable of binding and fusing with the oocyte, and it is a requirement for mammalian fertilization. Capacitation encompasses plasma membrane reorganization, ion permeability regulation, cholesterol loss and changes in the phosphorylation state of many proteins. Novel tools to study sperm ion channels, image intracellular ionic changes and proteins with better spatial and temporal resolution, are unraveling how modifications in sperm ion transport and phosphorylation states lead to capacitation. Recent evidence indicates that two parallel pathways regulate phosphorylation events leading to capacitation, one of them requiring activation of protein kinase A and the second one involving inactivation of ser/thr phosphatases. This review examines the involvement of ion transporters and phosphorylation signaling processes needed for spermatozoa to achieve capacitation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to fertilization is central for societies to deal with rising male infertility rates, to develop safe male gamete-based contraceptives and to preserve biodiversity through better assisted fertilization strategies.

  20. Sperm quality and embryo quality%精子质量与胚胎质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 方丛

    2011-01-01

    As to male factor infertility with very poor semen parameters, the fertilization rate and pregnancy rate were both very poor lefore the use of Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).ICSI has dramatically increased the fertilization rate in this kind of patients, while embryo development, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate are not accordingly improved.It has been well documented that sperm quality affects not only fertilization but also embryo development.Sperm quality has a great impact on human embryo morphology, early cleavage and formation of blastocysts, and implantation of embryo as well.This article reviews the studies on the correlation of sperm quality with embryo quality.%@@ 衡量男性的生殖能力一般采用WHO的精液分析标准,包括精子的活力、密度、畸形率等,然后结合女方的一些相关检查,为夫妇选择适应的妊娠方式.对于婚后1年规律性生活仍未怀孕者,则认为是不孕,应选择合适的助孕治疗.随着卵胞浆内单精子注射(ICSI)的发展,男性不育得到了有效的治疗,但ICSI却使精子的自然选择作用消失,操作过程中有可能选择了质量差的精子进行受精,其胚胎的发育和质量、妊娠率及妊娠结局不能达到期望的水平.

  1. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion for non-tubal infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Marjoribanks, Jane; Farquhar, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a common treatment for couples with subfertility that does not involve the fallopian tubes. It is used to bring the sperm close to the released oocyte. Another method of introducing sperm is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). Fallopian tube sperm perf

  2. Impacts on transfer of the sperm of helicoverpa Armigera by irradiation (L. noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation did not influence the quantity of the eupyrene sperm bundles in duplex and that of the eupyrene sperm in spermatophore, but affected the maturing of eupyrene sperm bundles. When males were given sterilizing dose of 400 Gy, the quantity and the activity of the eupyrene sperm in the spermatheca were reduced significantly (P < 0.05)

  3. Sperm precedence in a novel context: mating in a sessile marine invertebrate with dispersing sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Pemberton, A J; Noble, L R

    2000-06-01

    The compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum releases aquatic sperm which are dispersed passively to potential mates as individual gametes prior to storage of sperm, internal fertilization and brooding of embryos. The storage of exogenous sperm enables D. listerianum to produce a lengthy series of progeny following a brief period of mating. Molecular paternity analysis following sequential mating of colonies in laboratory culture revealed a consistent pattern with a clear initial bias in paternity towards the first of two acting males. The sites of sperm storage and fertilization and the morphology of the ovary in D. listerianum suggest that this bias reflects first-in-first-out use of individual stored gametes. The proportion of second-male paternity subsequently increased with time within the progeny arrays. This may have reflected the ageing or passive loss of first-male sperm. It is also possible that the modular nature of the organism contributed to this temporal trend: any recently budded colony modules maturing in the interval between matings would have been available exclusively to second-male sperm as virgin zooids. Two sets of mating trials were run. In the first, the collection of progeny suffered an interruption of 13 days and each male gained a larger proportion of recorded paternity within the progeny analysed when mating first rather than when mating second. In one mating combination, the first male obtained almost 100% of recorded paternity. In the second set of trials, with different clonal combinations, the complete sequence of progeny was collected and the estimated overall proportion of second-male paternity (P2) was consistently > 0.5. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that the overall P2-value can vary widely within the population studied. Proposed mechanisms of mating-order effects in species with copulatory mating include several which can have no counterpart in indirect aquatic mating since they involve the active removal, sealing off

  4. The Role of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Razavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA is known to contribute one half of the genomic material to the offspring. The integrity of sperm DNA is important in fertilization, embryonic and fetal development, and postnatal child well being. The nature has created multiple barriers that allow only the fittest sperm to reach and fertilize an oocyte. However, assisted reproductive techniques (ART, like IVF and ICSI, may allow sperms with abnormal genomic material to enter the oocyte with minimal effort. This article describes structure of sperm DNA and different mechanism involved in sperm chromatin anomalies and DNA damage. Furthermore, this study elaborates possible sperm selection methods that may improve the outcome of ART.

  5. Autocrine regulation of human sperm motility by tachykinins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Francisco M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the presence and function of tachykinins and the tachykinin-degrading enzymes neprilysin (NEP and neprilysin-2 (NEP2 in human spermatozoa. Methods Freshly ejaculated semen was collected from forty-eight normozoospermic human donors. We analyzed the expression of substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B, hemokinin-1, NEP and NEP2 in sperm cells by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry assays and evaluated the effects of the neprilysin and neprilysin-2 inhibitor phosphoramidon on sperm motility in the absence and presence of tachykinin receptor-selective antagonists. Sperm motility was measured using WHO procedures or computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA. Results The mRNAs of the genes that encode substance P/neurokinin A (TAC1, neurokinin B (TAC3, hemokinin-1 (TAC4, neprilysin (MME and neprilysin-2 (MMEL1 were expressed in human sperm. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that tachykinin and neprilysin proteins were present in spermatozoa and show specific and differential distributions. Phosphoramidon increased sperm progressive motility and its effects were reduced in the presence of the tachykinin receptor antagonists SR140333 (NK1 receptor-selective and SR48968 (NK2 receptor-selective but unmodified in the presence of SR142801 (NK3 receptor-selective. Conclusion These data show that tachykinins are present in human spermatozoa and participate in the regulation of sperm motility. Tachykinin activity is regulated, at least in part, by neprilysins.

  6. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

  7. Effect of antioxidants supplementation on human sperm parameters after freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghasemi Hamidabadi,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Antioxidant reduces oxidative stress during cryo-preservation. The aim of this study was to find out the effects of vitamin E and C on sperm parameters after cryo-preservation.Materials and Methods: Human semen samples were obtained from Vali-e-asr Hospital. The samples were divided in two groups (normal and oligospermia groups. Semen was pooled in liquid nitrogen after thawing, samples were centrifuged, then vitamin E and C were added to medium and the aliquots were incubated for 45 minutes in incubator Co2. In control group, no antioxidant was added to medium. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to WHO criteria. Data was analyzed by ANNOVA test.Results: There was a significant increase in the progressive motility and viability of sperm which was supplemented by vitamin E, with 1, 2 Mm (p<0.05 in the normal groups (the increase in the oligospermia group, after addition of vitamin E with 1, 2, Mm was not significant. Vitamin C did not have a significant effect on sperm parameters with 1, 2 Mm concentration.Conclusion: Supplementation of media with alpha-tocopherol is beneficial for sperm motility and viability rates after cryopreservation and it may be of clinical value in assisted conception procedures.Key words: Alpha-tocopherol, Ascorbic acid, Sperm motility, Sperm morphologyJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(63: 20-27 (Persian

  8. Age associated variations in human neutrophil and sperm functioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaveri Purandhar; Sriram Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the functional and biochemical variations in sperm and the neutrophil with the progression of age. Methods: Ninety healthy male subjects were selected in the age group 26-40 for the collection of semen and blood samples were collected. Basic semen analysis, hematogram, differential count serum analysis, seminal plasma and serum biochemistry was performed. Mitochondrial isolation from sperm and neutrophil was done to ascertain mitochondrial markers. Results: Our data shows a significant age-dependent reduction in the levels of mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in sperm and the neutrophil. The functional attributes of sperm and neutrophil did not show any specific trend.Conclusion:The decreasing trend of the mitochondrial antioxidants enzymes in the sperm and the neutrophil is an indicative of the reduction in the functioning of sperm and the neutrophil. The antioxidants enzymes of sperm and neutrophil shows similar declining trend with the progression of age suggesting its possible role as a prognostic marker for age related deformities and even in male fertility.

  9. Objective evaluation of the morphology of human epididymal sperm heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, C; Pérez-Sánchez, F; Schulze, H; Bergmann, M; Oberpenning, F; Yeung, C; Cooper, T G

    2000-04-01

    Spermatozoa were obtained from nine epididymal regions of six epididymides taken from five men undergoing castration for prostatic carcinoma (53-76 years) and from one man with testicular cancer (38 years). Spermatozoa were obtained by mincing tissue in phosphate-buffered saline, making air dried smears and staining with Hemacolor. The percentage of sperm heads categorised subjectively as normal (of uniform shape) or otherwise was calculated for each region. This confirmed that grossly swollen sperm heads (previously shown to be artefacts) were only present in proximal regions of the duct. A computer-aided sperm morphology analyser (Sperm Class Analyzer(R)) was used to provide objective measurements of sperm head area, perimeter, length and width of the uniform sperm heads and revealed that there was a gradual and statistically significant decline in sperm head size upon maturation, as occurs in other species. There was no significant difference between the morphometric parameters of spermatozoa obtained from the distal cauda epididymis and those obtained from the ejaculates of young normozoospermic patients. PMID:10762433

  10. The Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA(®)) and other sperm DNA fragmentation tests for evaluation of sperm nuclear DNA integrity as related to fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five years ago the pioneering paper in Science (240:1131) on the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and pregnancy outcome was featured as the cover issue showing a fluorescence photomicrograph of red and green stained sperm. The flow cytometry data showed a very significant difference in sperm DNA integrity between fertile and subfertile bulls and men. This study utilized heat (100°C, 5min) to denature DNA at sites of DNA strand breaks followed by staining with acridine orange (AO) and measurements of 5000 individual sperm of green double strand (ds) DNA and red single strand (ss) DNA fluorescence. Later, the heat protocol was changed to a low pH protocol to denature the DNA at sites of strand breaks; the heat and acid procedures produced the same results. SCSA data are very advantageously dual parameter with 1024 channels (degrees) of both red and green fluorescence. Hundreds of publications on the use of the SCSA test in animals and humans have validated the SCSA as a highly useful test for determining male breeding soundness. The SCSA test is a rapid, non-biased flow cytometer machine measurement providing robust statistical data with exceptional precision and repeatability. Many genotoxic experiments showed excellent dose response data with very low coefficient of variation that further validated the SCSA as being a highly powerful assay for sperm DNA integrity. Twelve years following the introduction of the SCSA test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) test (1993) for sperm was introduced as the only other flow cytometric assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. However, the TUNEL test can also be done by light microscopy with much less statistical robustness. The COMET (1998) and Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD; HALO) (2003) tests were introduced as light microscope tests that don't require a flow cytometer. Since these tests measure only 50-200 sperm per sample, they suffer from the lack of

  11. Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Jallouk

    Full Text Available Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001. However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p = 0.42 or vaginal epithelium (p = 0.48 at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥20 µM (p<0.001 and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥40 µM (p<0.001. Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy.

  12. Intra- and interboar variability in flow cytometric sperm sex sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Parlapan, Laura; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    To improve the efficiency of porcine sperm sex sorting using flow cytometry, the aims of the present study were to determine the relevance of inter- and intraboar variability in sperm sortability and to evaluate the significance of ejaculate semen characteristics in such variability. In addition, the variability among boars in the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to survive liquid storage at 15 °C to 17 °C was also evaluated. In total, 132 ejaculates collected from 67 boars of different breeds that were housed at an artificial insemination center were used in three experiments. X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm were simultaneously separated according to the Beltsville sperm-sorting technology using a high-speed flow cytometer. In the first experiment, interboar variability in the ability of the ejaculated spermatozoa to undergo the flow-based sex-sorting procedure was observed; the ejaculates of nearly 15% of the boars (n = 67) did not exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa peaks in the histogram, and the ejaculate sperm concentration demonstrated good predictive value for explaining this variation, as indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.88, P boars that showed poor sperm sortability (measured according to the presence or not a well-defined split together with sperm sortability parameters) in the first ejaculate (n = 3). In contrast, boars classified as having good sperm sortability in the first ejaculate (n = 5) maintained this condition in five ejaculates collected over the subsequent 5 months. In the third experiment, sex-sorted spermatozoa from boars with good sperm sortability (n = 5) remained viable and motile (above 70% in all boars) after 48 hours of storage at 15 °C to 17 °C, which may facilitate the commercial application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine artificial insemination programs. PMID:24930604

  13. Modelling a tethered mammalian sperm cell undergoing hyperactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, M.P.

    2012-09-01

    The beat patterns of mammalian sperm flagella can be categorised into two different types. The first involves symmetric waves propagating down the flagellum with a net linear propulsion of the sperm cell. The second, hyperactive, waveform is classified by vigorous asymmetric waves of higher amplitude, lower wavenumber and frequency propagating down the flagellum resulting in highly curved trajectories. The latter beat pattern is part of the capacitation process whereby sperm prepare for the prospective penetration of the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg. Hyperactivation is often observed to initiate as sperm escape from epithelial and ciliary bindings formed within the isthmic regions of the female oviducts, leading to a conjecture in the literature that this waveform is mechanically important for sperm escape. Hence, we explore the mechanical effects of hyperactivation on a tethered sperm, focussing on a Newtonian fluid. Using a resistive force theory model we demonstrate that hyperactivation can indeed generate forces that pull the sperm away from a tethering point and consequently a hyperactivated sperm cell bound to an epithelial surface need not always be pushed by its flagellum. More generally, directions of the forces generated by tethered flagella are insensitive to reductions in beat frequency and the detailed flagellar responses depend on the nature of the binding at the tethering point. Furthermore, waveform asymmetry and amplitude increases enhance the tendency for a tethered flagellum to start tugging on its binding. The same is generally predicted to be true for reductions in the wavenumber of the flagellum beat, but not universally so, emphasising the dynamical complexity of flagellar force generation. Finally, qualitative observations drawn from experimental data of human sperm bound to excised female reproductive tract are also presented and are found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Morphometric changes in goat sperm heads induced by cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Balasch, S; Mocé, E; Silvestre, M A; Gomez, E A; Vicente, J S

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on morphometric characteristics of the goat sperm head. To address this question, we evaluated the size of the sperm head in fresh control cells, post-cooling cells after equilibration with the glycerol preservation solution, and post-thawing cells. Assessment was by automated morphometric sperm head analysis (ASMA) using phase-contrast microscopy without staining. In the first experiment, ASMA was performed on heterospermic pooled samples (fresh, post-cooling after equilibration with the glycerol preservation solution and post-thawing): length, width, area and perimeter were measured. In the second experiment, sperm viability was assessed by Hoechst staining and head morphometry was carried out as before, simultaneously during the cryopreservation process, and the head size was identified for both live and dead spermatozoa. The data were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). The purpose of PCA is to derive a small number of linear combinations (principal components) from a set of variables (length, width, area and perimeter), that retain as much of the information in the original variables as possible. The main findings that have emerged from this study are that (i) a simple procedure has been developed for measuring spermatozoa heads without staining, which minimises the possibility that sperm head dimensions were influenced by procedural artefacts; (ii) the dimensions of goat sperm heads after cryopreservation in skimmed milk-glucose medium were smaller than in fresh sperm, but this was due to the equilibration phase with the cryoprotectant and not to the cryopreservation process itself; and (iii) dead spermatozoa showed smaller heads than live sperm, consequent upon the loss of membrane function. No differences were observed between post-cooling cells after equilibration with the glycerol preservation solution and post-thawing spermatozoa and only minor osmotic differences

  15. Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High level of semen reactive oxygen species is considered as an important factor in male infertility. Sesame has antioxidant properties, which could be effective on improvement of semen parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of sesame on sperm quality. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five infertile men entered this clinical trial. They were treated with a 3-months course of taking 0.5 mg/kg sesame. The pre intervention sperm analysis (sperm count, motile sperm percentage and normal morphology sperm percentage was compared with post treatment sperm analysis. Based on the post intervention seamen analysis, patients were advised to undergo either IVF or ICSI to assess their fertility status. Results: There was significant improvement in the sperm count (10.56 ± 5.25 vs. 22.71 ± 30.14 million per ml and motility (15.32 ± 13.58 vs. 23.32 ± 20.61 percent after treatment with sesame (P value: 0.04 and <0.0001 respectively, but there was no significant improvement in sperm morphology after the treatment (10.72 ± 6.66 vs. 13.20 ± 11.14 percent, P value: 0.10. Three patients (12% underwent IUI, which resulted in 1 successful pregnancy. Two patients (8% underwent ICSI, which was not successful; however 2 (8% patients had spontaneous pregnancy. Fortunately, all pregnancies led to live birth. Except 1 case of diarrhea, no other major side effect was reported. Conclusion: Sesame improved sperm count and motility, and can be prescribed as an effective and safe method for male factor infertility.

  16. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen

    OpenAIRE

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the pre...

  17. Lactate and Adenosine Triphosphate in the Extender Enhance the Cryosurvival of Rat Epididymal Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kikusato, Motoi; Toyama, Natsuki; Sugimura, Satoshi; Hoshino, Yumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Moisyadi, Stefan; Sato, Eimei

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the cryosurvival of rat epididymal sperm preserved in raffinose–modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate–egg yolk extender supplemented with various energy-yielding substrates (glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and ATP) and assessed the effect on sperm oxygen consumption. The incubation of sperm at 37 °C for 10 min in lactate-free extender decreased sperm motility and oxygen consumption before and after thawing compared with those of sperm in glucose- and pyruvate-free mediums. We then focuse...

  18. Effect of combined density gradient centrifugation on X- and Y- sperm separation and chromatin integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Esmaeilpour; Leila Elyasi; Soghra Bahmanpour; Alireza Ghannadi; Ahmad Monabbati; Farzaneh Dehghani; Marjaneh Kazerooni

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been claimed that by using different washing methods, the sperms can be separated according to size, motility, density, chromosomal content and surface markings and charge. These methods also reduce sperm chromatin deficiencies and screen the sperms before applying in assisted reproduction techniques. Objective: This study compared simple density gradient methods and a combined method with albumin density gradient and PureSperm separation (alb/PureSperm) for sex preselectio...

  19. Sperm midpiece apoptotic markers: impact on fertilizing potential in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarczyk-Desole, Joanna; Kotwicka, Małgorzata; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Murawski, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apoptotic markers present in human spermatozoa, namely phosphatidylserine translocation (PST) from the inner to the outer layer of the cytomembrane and the active form of caspase-3 (c3) versus the fertilizing potential of male gametes in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) models. A total of 116 male patients treated with their partners for infertility underwent basic semen analysis and an assessment of the presence of PST and the active c3 in sperm using flow cytometry. Forty patients underwent IVF, group A, while 76 patients underwent ICSI, group B. The fertilizing potential of the gametes was measured as the percentage of oocytes with pronuclei present after either procedure. PST and active c3 were identified in vital gametes, mainly in the midpiece area. Concentration, motility, morphology, and viability of spermatozoa strongly negatively correlated with both markers. In group A, a negative correlation between both markers and the success rate of conventional IVF was observed (r = -0.4, p = 0.04 for PST; r = -0.4, p = 0.02 for active c3, respectively). In group B, the success rate of ICSI did not correlate with either marker (r = -0.2, p = 0.85 for PST and r = 0.1, p = 0.51 for active c3). The two apoptotic markers localized in the sperm midpiece area may affect their function not only by decreasing basic andrologic parameters but also by reducing the probability of conception. Therefore, analysis of PST and active c3 in the sperm of patients undergoing infertility treatment should be recommended. PMID:26791536

  20. Protease in sturgeon sperm and the effect of protease inhibitors on sperm motility and velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alavi, S.M.H.; Postlerová, Pavla; Hatef, A.; Pšenička, M.; Pěknicová, Jana; Inaba, K.; Ciereszko, A.; Linhart, O.

    october, č. 40 (2014), s. 1393-1398. ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosome * AGB * Electron microscopy * Sperm motility * TPCK Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.622, year: 2014

  1. Surgical sperm recovery for intracytoplasmic sperm injection: which method is to be preferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaye, H

    1999-09-01

    Different methods for recovering epididymal or testicular spermatozoa have been described and each has its drawbacks and advantages. Percutaneous aspiration of the testis may be the method of choice in cases of irreparable obstructive azoospermia. Using a 21-gauge needle, spermatozoa may be recovered in 96 % of patients. More patients undergoing fine-needle aspiration experienced less pain than expected as compared with those undergoing open biopsy. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) is the preferred method in patients with an incomplete work-up because, if indicated, a vasoepididymostomy can be performed concomitantly with a full scrotal exploration. In azoospermic patients with testicular failure, the sperm recovery rate, i.e. the chance of finding at least one spermatozoon, is around 50% after multiple open biopsies. However, the fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are significantly lower than in men with normal spermatogenesis, and complete fertilization failure may occur more frequently. Although the combination of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and ICSI may be the sole treatment available for infertility because of non-obstructive azoospermia, the overall success rate is limited and ongoing pregnancies are obtained in fine-needle aspiration are not useful in these patients. Of 14 patients with primary testicular failure as proven by histopathology, only in one case (7.1%) were spermatozoa recovered by multiple aspirations, while in nine cases (64.3%) spermatozoa were recovered by open biopsy. Although the pregnancy rates reported after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa from patients with primary testicular failure are relatively low, the recovery of testicular spermatozoa by open biopsy followed by cryopreservation may be the method of choice by which to prevent repeat surgery and pointless ovarian stimulation in the female partner. PMID:10573025

  2. The Relationship between Some Ions and Acrosome Reactionof Human Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春年; 谢文英; 徐胜; 王一飞

    1994-01-01

    The acrosome reaction of sperm was induced by calcium ionophore A 23187. The relationship between some ions and acrosome reaction by removing Na+ from the medium,or by adding antagonist of K+, TEA chloride, or antagonist of Ca++, verapamiI, or antagonist of Na+-h+-ATPase, acetyl strophanthidin is studied The results show that Na+,K+, Ca++ and Na+ pump are necessary for acrosome reaction of human sperm. The Ca++ might not enter the sperms through the channel of Ca++.

  3. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting. PMID:26929990

  4. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L;

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human...... sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca(2+) increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate...

  5. Role of Abnormal Sperm Morphology in Predicting Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtaie, Samuel A; Gerkowicz, Sabrina A; Kohn, Taylor P; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of strict morphology for predicting successful pregnancy has been controversial, nevertheless remains an essential component of semen analysis. Patients with teratozoospermia (abnormal strict morphology) have traditionally been counseled to undergo assisted reproduction. However, recent studies suggest that patients with abnormal sperm morphology alone should not be precluded from attempting natural conception before undergoing assisted reproduction. The goal of this review is to provide an update on the evaluation of sperm morphology for prognosis in assisted reproductive techniques such as intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Additionally, we propose a logical approach to the evaluation of a patient with teratozoospermia seeking fertility treatment. PMID:27469478

  6. When 'sperm' becomes 'donor': transitions in parents' views of the sperm donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Astrid; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Daniels, Ken R; Dierickx, Kris; Rober, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Little is known about recipients' views of their sperm donor. This study aimed to examine the possible transitions or consistencies in donor sperm recipients' (DSRs') view on the sperm donor over time. A longitudinal qualitative study of 19 Belgian heterosexual DSRs was undertaken. Interviews took place with both partners of the couple during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5-2 years after birth, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Recipients who intended to disclose exhibited a transition in their awareness of the donor from being of minimal importance to one who was increasingly seen as part of their family narrative. This was partly triggered by the offspring's life, remarks about resemblance and the socio-cultural context. The perceived position of the donor changed for most recipients from a threatening rival to a 'distractor'. This change was supported by the emerging father-child bond and the confidence that stemmed from it. These observations were applicable to those recipients who intended to disclose their donor conception; for those recipients who intended not to disclose, little or no transition was observed. This study describes and analyses the transitions and consistencies in recipients' views of the donor over different stages of the family life-cycle (pregnancy, birth, toddler stage) and could help the fertility clinics tailor their counselling to the specific stages of parenthood. PMID:24851674

  7. Standardisation of a novel sperm banking kit - NextGen(®) - to preserve sperm parameters during shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A; Sharma, R; Singh, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, R

    2016-08-01

    Many male patients diagnosed with cancer are within their reproductive years. These men are advised to freeze their spermatozoa prior to the start of cancer treatment. Very often, sperm banking facilities may not be readily available and patients may be required to travel to distant sperm bank centres. Our objective was to design and standardise a remote home shipping sperm kit that allows patients to collect a semen sample at home and ship it overnight to a sperm bank. A total of 21 semen samples and two transport media (refrigeration media and human tubal fluid) and five different combinations of ice packs were tested for maintaining desired shipping temperature. Ten semen samples were assessed for pre- and post-shipment changes in sperm motility, membrane integrity, total motile spermatozoa and recovery of motile spermatozoa. Even though motility, membrane integrity and total motile spermatozoa declined both in samples examined under simulated shipped conditions and in overnight-shipped samples, the observed motility and total motile spermatozoa were adequate for use with assisted reproductive techniques. Using refrigeration media, cooling sleeve and ice packs, adequate sperm motility can be maintained utilising NextGen(®) kit and these spermatozoa can be used for procreation utilising ART techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26564753

  8. Seminal plasma arising from the whole boar sperm-rich fraction increases the stability of sperm membrane after thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M A; Ravagnani, G M; Leal, D F; Martins, S M M K; Muro, B B D; Meirelles, F V; Papa, F O; Dell'aqua, J A; Alvarenga, M A; Moretti, A S; De Andrade, A F C

    2016-05-01

    Boar spermatozoa arising from the sperm-rich ejaculate fraction are reported to have a more stable plasma membrane and are more resistant to cold shock and premature acrosome reaction than spermatozoa from the whole ejaculate. Furthermore, seminal plasma (SP) can increase the cryotolerance of boar spermatozoa, and in other domestic species, it has the ability to reverse cryopreservation damage. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of boar SP arising from the whole sperm-rich ejaculate fraction (SP-SRF) on the integrity, stability, and peroxidation of sperm membranes after thawing. Each ejaculate ( = 24) was divided among 4 treatments: control (CT), centrifuged and suspended in autologous SP-SRF (CS), centrifuged with withdrawn SP-SRF (CW), and post-thawed SP arising from the whole sperm-rich fraction addition to CW (CWSP). After thawing, all treatments were incubated for 5, 60, and 120 min and were analyzed for membrane integrity, fluidity, and peroxidation by flow cytometer. The absence of SP-SRF increased the lipid disorder ( 0.05) or membrane integrity ( > 0.05). However, the increase in lipid disorder by withdrawal of SP-SRF was reversed by SP-SRF addition ( 0.05) and lipid peroxidation ( > 0.05) were unchanged. In conclusion, despite the centrifugation effects, the addition of SP arising from the whole sperm-rich fraction to post-thawed boar semen decreased sperm lipid disorder without an influence of the sperm membrane integrity and peroxidation. PMID:27285688

  9. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

    2007-08-01

    Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size. PMID:17460159

  10. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses. PMID:22924335

  11. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ cf sperm fore-and-aft acrosome reaction in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Dong-Fa; Shen, Li-ping; Shen, Jian-Ming; Wu, Qiong

    2008-01-01

    The acrosome reaction process of sperm in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus ( Miers ) consists of four consecutive stages: (1) swelling of the apical cap; (2) eversion of the acrosomal vesicle; (3) forward elongation of the perforatorium and reversal of the acrosomal vesicle membrane; and (4) shedding of the acrosomal vesicle membrane and formation of the acrosomal filament. In the present study, Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM) was used to image spermatozoa stained with Flu...

  12. Collective dynamics of sperm in viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    Collective dynamics in biology is an interesting subject for physicists, in part because of its close relations to emergent behaviors in condensed matter, such as phase separation and criticality. However, the emergence of order is often less drastic in systems composed of the living cells, sometimes due to the natural variability among individual organisms. Here, using bull sperm as a model system, we demonstrate that the cells migrate collectively in viscoelastic fluids, exhibiting behavior similar to ``flocking''. This collectiveness is greatly reduced in similarly viscous Newtonian fluids, suggesting that the cell-cell interaction is primarily a result of the elastic property or the memory effect of the fluids, instead of pure hydrodynamic interactions. Unlike bacterial swarming, this collectiveness does not require a change in phenotype of the cells; therefore, it is a better model system for physicists. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.

  13. Andrology laboratory review: Evaluation of sperm concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Althouse, Gary C; Aurich, Christine; Chenoweth, Peter J; Eilts, Bruce E; Love, Charles C; Luvoni, Gaia C; Mitchell, Jere R; Peter, Augustine T; Pugh, David G; Waberski, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    This article is the result of the work of the andrology task-force of the Association of Applied Animal Andrology, American College of Theriogenologists, European College of Animal Reproduction, Society for Theriogenology, and National Association of Animal Breeders. It is intended to serve as a comprehensive reference on methods to evaluate sperm concentration and to contribute to the adoption of best practices in veterinary andrology laboratories. The information covered in the article includes sample preparation and the use of manual counts, spectrophotometers, computer-assisted semen analysis, NucleoCounter, and flow cytometry. Emphasis is given to the principles of the methods and equipment, performing the evaluation, and common mistakes and/or pitfalls. In addition, the precision and accuracy of the different methods are also discussed. PMID:27045626

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  15. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; DÁVILA-RODRÍGUEZ, MARTHA I.; Johnston, Stephen D; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Key Concepts The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage. Alkaline treatment may break the sugar–phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites wi...

  16. 精子脂质过氧化反应与致炎细胞因子%Sperm lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Martinez; F.Proverbio; M.I.Camejo

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To investigate if interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are able to stimulate the level of lipid peroxidation of sperm membranes, either alone or in the presence of leukocytes. Methods: Semen samples from normozoospermic donors were prepared by density gradient. The sperms were exposed to the indicated cytokines, at physiological and infection-inflammation concentrations, in the absence or presence of leukocytes. Lipid peroxidation of the sperm membranes was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxialkenals (HAE) formation. Results: TNF-α, IL-8 and IFN-γ increased the level of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation when tested at physiological concentrations. At infectioninflammation concentrations, only IL-8 was able to produce a higher effect. When assayed in the presence of leucocytes,IL-8 and TNF-α showed a higher effect at infection-inflammation concentrations than at physiological concentrations.Finally, IL-8 showed a higher effect in the presence of leukocytes than in their absence at both physiological and infection-inflammation concentrations. TNF-α also showed a higher effect when assayed in the presence of leukocytes than in their absence, but only at infection-inflammation concentrations. There was no effect of IL-6 or IL- 10 in any of the tested conditions. Conclusion: Several pro-inflammatory cytokines at physiological concentrations increase the level of lipid peroxidation of sperm membranes, which could be important for the sperm fecundation process. However, infection-inflammation concentrations of some cytokines, such as IL-8 and TNF-α, either alone or in the presence of leukocytes, could drive the lipid peroxidation of the spermatozoa plasma membrane to levels that can affect the sperm fertility capacity.

  17. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters. PMID:26506651

  18. EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE BACTERIOLOGICAL CULTURE BEFORE AND AFTER SPERM WASHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANGGuang-Lun; ZHANGXi-Wei; WUGuo-Hua

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether sperm washing can remove microorganisms from human semen. 20 ejaculates were cultured for detecting the existenoe of any possible aerobic and anaerobic becteria. Samples collected were divided into two groups: spocial

  19. Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-10

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm.

  20. Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm

  1. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in process data apparently are available. PMID:24274405

  2. AWARE Sonar and Sperm Whale Tagging (DE9906, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AWARE sonar and sperm whale tagging cruise primarily focuses on whales in the continental shelf areas, with the following objectives: 1) Develop a better...

  3. AWARE Sonar and Sperm Whale Tagging (DE0007, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AWARE sonar and sperm whale tagging cruise primarily focuses on whales in the continental shelf areas, with the following objectives: 1) Develop a better...

  4. Impact of sperm DNA chromatin in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Dimitrios; Miller, David; Griffin, Darren K; Tempest, Helen G

    2016-02-01

    The paternal contribution to fertilization and embryogenesis is frequently overlooked as the spermatozoon is often considered to be a silent vessel whose only function is to safely deliver the paternal genome to the maternal oocyte. In this article, we hope to demonstrate that this perception is far from the truth. Typically, infertile men have been unable to conceive naturally (or through regular IVF), and therefore, a perturbation of the genetic integrity of sperm heads in infertile males has been under-considered. The advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) however has led to very successful treatment of male factor infertility and subsequent widespread use in IVF clinics worldwide. Until recently, little concern has been raised about the genetic quality of sperm in ICSI patients or the impact genetic aberrations could have on fertility and embryogenesis. This review highlights the importance of chromatin packaging in the sperm nucleus as essential for the establishment and maintenance of a viable pregnancy. PMID:26678492

  5. Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure

    CERN Document Server

    Coppola, Gianluca; Wilding, Martin; Ferraro, Pietro; Esposito, Giusy; Di Matteo, Loredana; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dale, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). In this paper, we have studied whether Digital Holographic (DH) microscopy may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique to high power digitally enhanced Nomarski microscope. The main advantage of DH is that a high resolution 3-D quantitative sample imaging may be obtained thorugh numerical refocusing at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DH can furnish useful information on the dimensions and structure of human spermatozoo, that cannot be revealed by conventional phase contrast microscopy. In fact, in this paper DH has been used to evaluate volume and indicate precise location of vacuoles, thus suggesting its use as ...

  6. Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (micro-TESE as a Sperm Acquisition Method for Men with Nonobstructive Azoospermia Seeking Fertility: Operative and Laboratory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rare foci of sperm production may be found in up to 60% of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA. Sperm production, if present, is minimal for sperm appearance in the ejaculate. Given that there are no treatment options to restore fertility, sperm retrieval is the only alternative to find testicular sperm than then can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF. Among sperm acquisition methods, micro-TESE has higher success rates at obtaining sperm compared with testicular sperm extraction and testicular sperm aspiration. Materials and Methods This video describes the operative aspects of micro-TESE, performed on an outpatient basis, in a man with NOA and history of cryptorchidism in whom orchidopexy was performed at age 6. The concept of micro-TESE is to identify areas of sperm production within the testes with the aid of optical magnification (15-25X and based on the size and appearance of the seminiferous tubules (ST. Conclusion Micro-TESE allowed the identification and extraction of sperm-containing STs with minimum tissue excision and marked reduction in time processing of testicular specimens for sperm injection.

  7. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    sperm concentration were examined over two reproductive seasons. Activation time, spermatocrit, and sperm concentration were significantly higher in 2003 than in 2004. Spermatocrit and sperm concentration showed a significant positive relationship (r2=0.79). During the 2004 reproductive season, a...

  8. Mass sperm motility is associated with fertility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    David, Ingrid; Kohnke, Philippa; Lagriffoul, Gilles; Praud, Olivier; Plouarboué, Franck; Degond, Pierre; Druart, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The study was to focus on the relationship between wave motion (mass sperm motility, measured by a mass sperm motility score, manually assessed by artificial insemination (AI) center operators) and fertility in male sheep. A dataset of 711,562 artificial inseminations performed in seven breeds by five French AI centers during the 2001–2005 time period was used for the analysis. Factors influencing the outcome of the insemination, which is a binary response observed at lambing of either succes...

  9. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis,; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca2+ increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover,...

  10. Barriers to Male Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA in Sperm Development

    OpenAIRE

    DeLuca, Steven Z.; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    Across the eukaryotic phylogeny, offspring usually inherit their mitochondrial genome from only one of two parents: in animals, the female. While mechanisms that eliminate paternally derived mitochondria from the zygote have been sought, the developmental stage at which paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA is restricted is unknown in most animals. Here, we show that mature Drosophila sperm lack mitochondrial DNA, and we uncover two processes that eliminate mitochondrial DNA during sperm...

  11. MILT DILUTION EFFECTIVENESS ON PIKEPERCH (SANDER LUCIOPERCA) SPERM DNA INACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. KORBULY; A. GROZEA; ADA CEAN; I. BĂNĂŢEAN - DUNEA; N. PĂCALĂ; A. VĂLEAN

    2013-01-01

    Percid fishes, including pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) have recently become the subject of intense research. In order to obtain gynogenetic all female pikeperch populations, normal pikeperch eggs are fertilized with inactivated sperm. Because pikeperch semen has a high viscosity, milt has to be diluted in an immobilizing solution before DNA inactivation. The aim of this study was to assess milt diluting solutions effectiveness in order to inactivate sperm DNA with UV irradiation, to produce m...

  12. Surgical recovery of sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomoto Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) opened a new era in the field of assisted reproduction and revolutionized the assisted reproductive technology protocols for couples with male factor infertility.Fertilisation and pregnancies can be achieved with spermatozoa recovered not only from the ejaculate but also from the seminiferous tubules.The most common methods for retrieving testicular sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are testicular sperm aspiration (TESA:needle/fine needle aspiration)and open testicular biopsy (testicular sperm extraction:TESE).The optimal technique for sperm extraction should be minimally invasive and avoid destruction of testicular function,without compromising the chance to retrieve adequate numbers of spermatozoa to perform ICSI.Microdissection TESE (micro-TESE),performed with an operative microscope,is widely considered to be the best method for sperm retrieval in NOA,as larger and opaque tubules,presumably with active spermatogenesis,can be directly identified,resulting in higher spermatozoa retrieval rates with minimal tissue loss and low postoperative complications.Micro-TESE,in combination with ICSI,is applicable in all cases of NOA,including Klinefelter syndrome (KS).The outcomes of surgical sperm retrieval,primarily in NOA patients with elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (NOA including KS patients),are reviewed along with the phenotypic features.The predictive factors for surgical sperm retrieval and outcomes of treatment were analysed.Finally,the shortand long-term complications in micro-TESE in both 46XY males with NOA and KS patients are considered.

  13. Sperm-associated retroviruses in the mouse epididymis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiessling, A A; Crowell, R C; Connell, R S

    1987-01-01

    Sperm adsorbed with retrovirus particles were recovered from the epididymis of apparently normal male mice. Epididymal semen from all four mouse strains examined was positive for retrovirus (10(5) to 10(8) particles per microgram of protein) indicating that epididymal fluids and sperm may be important vehicles for murine retrovirus spread. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the banding patterns of electrophoretically separated epididymal viral proteins from the four strains of males were more ...

  14. Sperm performance in conspecific and heterospecific female fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily R A; Stensrud, Even; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Hogner, Silje; Johannessen, Lars Erik; Laskemoen, Terje; Eybert, Marie-Christine; Slagsvold, Tore; Lifjeld, Jan T; Johnsen, Arild

    2016-03-01

    Divergent sexual selection within allopatric populations may result in divergent sexual phenotypes, which can act as reproductive barriers between populations upon secondary contact. This hypothesis has been most tested on traits involved in precopulatory sexual selection, with less work focusing on traits that act after copulation and before fertilization (i.e., postcopulatory prezygotic traits), particularly in internally fertilizing vertebrates. However, postcopulatory sexual selection within species can also drive trait divergence, resulting in reduced performance of heterospecific sperm within the female reproductive tract. Such incompatibilities, arising as a by-product of divergent postcopulatory sexual selection in allopatry, can represent reproductive barriers, analogous to species-assortative mating preferences. Here, we tested for postcopulatory prezygotic reproductive barriers between three pairs of taxa with diverged sperm phenotypes and moderate-to-high opportunity for postcopulatory sexual selection (barn swallows Hirundo rustica versus sand martins Riparia riparia, two subspecies of bluethroats, Luscinia svecica svecica versus L. s. namnetum, and great tits Parus major versus blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus). We tested sperm swimming performance in fluid from the outer reproductive tract of females, because the greatest reduction in sperm number in birds occurs as sperm swim across the vagina. Contrary to our expectations, sperm swam equally well in fluid from conspecific and heterospecific females, suggesting that postcopulatory prezygotic barriers do not act between these taxon pairs, at this stage between copulation and fertilization. We therefore suggest that divergence in sperm phenotypes in allopatry is insufficient to cause widespread postcopulatory prezygotic barriers in the form of impaired sperm swimming performance in passerine birds. PMID:26855769

  15. The function of roll in foraging behaviour of sperm whales

    OpenAIRE

    Hartvig, Eva Christel

    2011-01-01

    Though direct experiments to test echolocation in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) remain impossible, the indirect evidence is overwhelming that one function of their clicks is echolocation used during foraging, as has been shown for other toothed whales. In this thesis, the aim was to test: 1) the hypothesis by Fristrup and Harbison (2002) that the sperm whale might be using downwelling light during the day to spot prey or prey patches as silhouettes against the lighter s...

  16. Sperm Nuclear Transfer and Transgenic Production in the Fish Medaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongming Liu, Ling Liu, Qiwei Wei, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm nuclear transfer or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is a powerful assisted reproductive technology (ART for treating human male infertility. Controversial reports of increased birth defects have raised concerns about the ART's safety. The cause for birth defects, however, has remained elusive for analysis in human because of the sample size, male infertility genetics, physiological heterogeneity and associated procedures such as embryo manipulations. Animal models are required to evaluate factors leading to the increased birth defects. Here we report the establishment of medakafish model for ICSI and transgenic production. This small laboratory fish has high fecundity and easy embryology. We show that ICSI produced a 5% high percentage of fertile animals that exhibited both paternal and maternal contribution as evidenced by the pigmentation marker. Furthermore, when sperm were pre-incubated with a plasmid ubiquitously expressing RFP and subjected to ICSI, 50% of sperm nuclear transplants showed germline transmission. We conclude that medaka is an excellent model for ICSI to evaluate birth defects and that sperm nuclear transfer can mediate stable gene transfer at high efficiency. Although more demanding for experimentation, sperm-mediated transgenesis should be particularly applicable for aquaculture species with a lengthy generation time and/or a large adult body size.

  17. Guaifenesin and increased sperm motility: a preliminary case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Means

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gary Means1, Cristóbal S Berry-Cabán2, Kurt Hammermeuller11Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Research, Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC, USABackground: A review of the literature and an extensive Medline search revealed that this is the first case report of the use of guaifenesin to increase sperm motility.Case: A 32-year-old male presented for an infertility evaluation. He reported an inability to conceive with his wife after 18 months of unprotected intercourse. A semen analysis was performed that included spermatozoa count, liquefaction, morphology, motility, viscosity and volume. Initial results of the semen analysis demonstrated low sperm count and motility. The provider offered treatment with guaifenesin 600 mg extended release tablets twice daily. Two months after guaifenesin therapy the semen analysis was repeated that demonstrated marked improvement in both total sperm count and motility.Conclusion: Evidence for the effectiveness of guaifenesin is almost entirely anecdotal. Given the mechanism of action of guaifenesin, it is not clear from this case why the patient demonstrated such a large improvement in both sperm count and motility. Additional studies of the effects of guaifenesin on male fertility could yield information of the medication's effect on men with normal or decreased total sperm counts.Keywords: sperm motility, guaifenesin, infertility, male pregnancy

  18. Transfer of 60Co from midwater squid to sperm whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperm whales are notable squid-eaters. They feed mainly on medium to large-sized cephalopods at midwater levels and defecate near the surface. This suggests the existence of an upward transport of 60Co by sperm whales from the mesopelagic zone (150-1,200m). To elucidate this squid-whale route for this artificial radionuclide, 60Co content was determined in squid and in predator whales captured by commercial whaling. In the Cephalopoda livers 60Co levels of 30-500 mBq kg-1 wet were found and in the viscera of Odontoceti (toothed whales) 15-40 mBq kg-1 wet. About 0.3% of 60Co ingested was estimated to be retained in a 23-year-old male sperm whale. In the livers of Bryde's whales, 60Co levels of 40-80 mBq kg-1 wet were detected, but not in euphausiids and sardines, their possible prey. The level of Co in sperm whales was nearly the same as in Bryde's whales. Specific radioactivity 60Co/59Co in mBq μg-1 was several times higher in sperm whale (1.1-1.6) than in cephalopods (0.19-0.77). Eating prey with a high content of 60Co in the 1960's may have contributed to the present body burden in sperm whales with a long-life span. However, the origin of 60Co in Bryde's whales is unknown. (author)

  19. Sperm chemotaxis promotes individual fertilization success in sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Yasmeen H; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Zimmer, Richard K; Stocker, Roman; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive success fundamentally shapes an organism's ecology and evolution, and gamete traits mediate fertilization, which is a critical juncture in reproduction. Individual male fertilization success is dependent on the ability of sperm from one male to outcompete the sperm of other males when searching for a conspecific egg. Sperm chemotaxis, the ability of sperm to navigate towards eggs using chemical signals, has been studied for over a century, but such studies have long assumed that this phenomenon improves individual male fitness without explicit evidence to support this claim. Here, we assessed fertilization changes in the presence of a chemoattractant-digesting peptidase and used a microfluidic device coupled with a fertilization assay to determine the effect of sperm chemotaxis on individual male fertilization success in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus We show that removing chemoattractant from the gametic environment decreases fertilization success. We further found that individual male differences in chemotaxis to a well-defined gradient of attractant correlate with individual male differences in fertilization success. These results demonstrate that sperm chemotaxis is an important contributor to individual reproductive success. PMID:26994183

  20. A new method for multiple sperm cells tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Yoones; Teyfouri, Niloufar; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Golabbakhsh, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis or quality assessment of human sperm cell is great important for clinical applications of male infertility. Sperm tracking is quite complex due to cell collision, occlusion and missed detection. The aim of this study is simultaneous tracking of multiple human sperm cells. In the first step in this research, the frame difference algorithm is used for background subtraction. There are some limitations to select an appropriate threshold value since the output accuracy is strongly dependent on the selected threshold value. To eliminate this dependency, we propose an improved non-linear diffusion filtering in the time domain. Non-linear diffusion filtering is a smoothing and noise removing approach that can preserve edges in images. Many sperms that move with different speeds in different directions eventually coincide. For multiple tracking over time, an optimal matching strategy is introduced that is based on the optimization of a new cost function. A Hungarian search method is utilized to obtain the best matching for all possible candidates. The results show nearly 3.24% frame based error in dataset of videos that contain more than 1 and less than 10 sperm cells. Hence the accuracy rate was 96.76%. These results indicate the validity of the proposed algorithm to perform multiple sperms tracking. PMID:24696807

  1. Rogue sperm indicate sexually antagonistic coevolution in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E Ellis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense reproductive competition often continues long after animals finish mating. In many species, sperm from one male compete with those from others to find and fertilize oocytes. Since this competition occurs inside the female reproductive tract, she often influences the outcome through physical or chemical factors, leading to cryptic female choice. Finally, traits that help males compete with each other are sometimes harmful to females, and female countermeasures may thwart the interests of males, which can lead to an arms race between the sexes known as sexually antagonistic coevolution. New studies from Caenorhabditis nematodes suggest that males compete with each other by producing sperm that migrate aggressively and that these sperm may be more likely to win access to oocytes. However, one byproduct of this competition appears to be an increased probability that these sperm will go astray, invading the ovary, prematurely activating oocytes, and sometimes crossing basement membranes and leaving the gonad altogether. These harmful effects are sometimes observed in crosses between animals of the same species but are most easily detected in interspecies crosses, leading to dramatically lowered fitness, presumably because the competitiveness of the sperm and the associated female countermeasures are not precisely matched. This mismatch is most obvious in crosses involving individuals from androdioecious species (which have both hermaphrodites and males, as predicted by the lower levels of sperm competition these species experience. These results suggest a striking example of sexually antagonistic coevolution and dramatically expand the value of nematodes as a laboratory system for studying postcopulatory interactions.

  2. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  3. A one-step rectification of sperm cell targeting ensures the success of double fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilei Huang; Yan Ju; Xiangfeng Wang; Quan Zhang; Sodmergen

    2015-01-01

    Successful fertilization in animals depends on competition among millions of sperm cells, whereas double fertilization in flowering plants usually involves just one pollen tube releasing two immobile sperm cells. It is largely a mystery how the plant sperm cells fuse efficiently with their female targets within an embryo sac. We show that the initial positioning of sperm cells upon discharge from the pollen tube is usually inopportune for gamete fusions and that adjustment of sperm cell targeting occurs through release and re-adhesion of one sperm cell, while the other connected sperm cell remains in stagnation. This enables proper adhesion of each sperm cell to a female gamete and coordinates the gamete fusions. Our findings reveal inner embryo sac dynamics that ensure the reproductive success of flowering plants and suggest a requirement for sperm cell differentiation as the basis of double fertilization.

  4. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus: implications for genome resource banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian A.E.; Mokdad, A.; Trippel, E.A.;

    2013-01-01

    extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks’ balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA...... fresh sperm. Sperm frozen with sucrose had higher motility than sperm frozen with BSMIS + glycine, and sperm frozen with DMSO had higher motility than sperm frozen with methanol. Freezing rates were evaluated for BSMIS + glycine, HBSS, and sucrose; all diluents were frozen with DMSO. The effect of....../min such that sperm frozen with sucrose had the highest motility.Male-to-male variability was evaluated by using sucrose + DMSO and a freezing rate of 10◦C/min. For these males, the sperm motility recovery index ranged from 6.67% to 79.27%, and the sperm velocity recovery index ranged from 21.37% to 57...

  5. Effects of Aging on Spermatogenesis, Sperm Maturation and Fertility in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-ju CHEN; Wei-jie ZHU; Jing LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of aging on spermatogenesis in testis, sperm maturation in epididymis, and fertility in mice.Methods Testicular specimens, caput epididymal sperm and cauda epididymal sperm were obtained from Kuming mice (18-month aged group, n=15; 6-month young group as control, n=15). The testicular histological examinations and quantitative evaluations on spermatogenesis were performed. Sperm parameters including sperm density, sperm viability, sperm motility, and normal morphological rate were assessed. The fertilization rate and embryo development were measured by in vitro fertilization and embryo culture.Results The histological changes of testes in aged mice were mainly seminiferous tubule atrophy and hypospermatogenesis. In aged testes, a significant decline was found in the numbers of round spermatids and elongated spermatids per Sertoli cell (P<0.01). Sperm density, sperm motility and normal morphological rate in caput epididymis and cauda epididymis in aged mice significantly decreased (P<0. 05). The fertilization rate and embryo development of aged group were lower than those in the control(P< 0.01).Conclusions Spermatogenesis and sperm functions could be maintained in the aging male. However, aging affects spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, which leads to lower the quality of sperm, including sperm fertilizing capacity. The development of embryo from aging sperm would have more abnormalities.

  6. First production of larvae using cryopreserved sperm: Effects of preservation temperature and cryopreservation on European eel sperm fertilization capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asturiano, J.F.; Sørensen, Sune Riis; Perez, L.;

    2016-01-01

    have been described, but until recently fertilization trials were not feasible. This study evaluated the effect of cold storage of diluted sperm prior to fertilizations and tested whether a previously defined protocol for European eel sperm cryopreservation can be successfully applied in fertilization....... Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few...... larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success...

  7. Identification and purification of a sperm surface protein with a potential role in sperm-egg membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primakoff, P; Hyatt, H; Tredick-Kline, J

    1987-01-01

    Sperm-egg plasma membrane fusion during fertilization was studied using guinea pig gametes and mAbs to sperm surface antigens. The mAb, PH-30, strongly inhibited sperm-egg fusion in a concentration-dependent fashion. When zona-free eggs were inseminated with acrosome-reacted sperm preincubated in saturating (140 micrograms/ml) PH-30 mAb, the percent of eggs showing fusion was reduced 75%. The average number of sperm fused per egg was also reduced by 75%. In contrast a control mAb, PH-1, preincubated with sperm at 400 micrograms/ml, caused no inhibition. The PH-30 and PH-1 mAbs apparently recognize the same antigen but bind to two different determinants. Both mAbs immunoprecipitated the same two 125I-labeled polypeptides with Mr 60,000 (60 kD) and Mr 44,000 (44 kD). Boiling a detergent extract of sperm severely reduced the binding of PH-30 but had essentially no effect on the binding of PH-1, indicating that the two mAbs recognize different epitopes. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that PH-30 mAb binding was restricted to the sperm posterior head surface and was absent from the equatorial region. The PH-30 and PH-1 mAbs did not bind to sperm from the testis, the caput, or the corpus epididymis. PH-30 mAb binding was first detectable on sperm from the proximal cauda epididymis, i.e., sperm at the developmental stage where fertilization competence appears. After purification by mAb affinity chromatography, the PH-30 protein retained antigenic activity, binding both the PH-30 and PH-1 mAbs. The purified protein showed two polypeptide bands of 60 and 44 kD on reducing SDS PAGE. The two polypeptides migrated further (to approximately 49 kD and approximately 33 kD) on nonreducing SDS PAGE, showing that they do not contain interchain disulfide bonds, but probably have intrachain disulfides. 44 kD appears not to be a proteolytic fragment of 60 kD because V8 protease digestion patterns did not reveal related peptide patterns from the 44- and 60-kD bands. In the absence of

  8. Comparison between intracytoplasmic sperm injection and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Jang, Jung Mi; Oh, Hwa Soon; Lee, Yong Jun; Lee, Won Don; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) technique compared with conventional ICSI and previous ICSI attempts in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT) patients. Methods The sperms were selected under high magnification (6,600×) and used to induce fertilization in previous ICSI patients by IMSI. These results were compared with previous conventional ICSI cycles in patients with OAT infertility. Results...

  9. Retinoic acid-treated pluripotent stem cells undergoing neurogenesis present increased aneuploidy and micronuclei formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C Sartore

    Full Text Available The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC cells, embryonic stem (ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal

  10. Delta opioid receptor on equine sperm cells: subcellular localization and involvement in sperm motility analyzed by computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalandra Giovanni M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides act not only in the control of nociceptive pathways, indeed several reports demonstrate the effects of opiates on sperm cell motility and morphology suggesting the importance of these receptors in the modulation of reproduction in mammals. In this study we investigated the expression of delta opioid receptors on equine spermatozoa by western blot/indirect immunofluorescence and its relationship with sperm cell physiology. Methods We analyzed viability, motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial activity in the presence of naltrindole and DPDPE by means of a computer assisted sperm analyzer and a fluorescent confocal microscope. The evaluation of viability, capacitation and acrosome reaction was carried out by the double CTC/Hoechst staining, whereas mitochondrial activity was assessed by means of MitoTracker Orange dye. Results We showed that in equine sperm cells, delta opioid receptor is expressed as a doublet of 65 and 50 kDa molecular mass and is localized in the mid piece of tail; we also demonstrated that naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, could be utilized in modulating several physiological parameters of the equine spermatozoon in a dose-dependent way. We also found that low concentrations of the antagonist increase sperm motility whereas high concentrations show the opposite effect. Moreover low concentrations hamper capacitation, acrosome reaction and viability even if the percentage of cells with active mitochondria seems to be increased; the opposite effect is exerted at high concentrations. We have also observed that the delta opioid receptor agonist DPDPE is scarcely involved in affecting the same parameters at the employed concentrations. Conclusions The results described in this paper add new important details in the comprehension of the mammalian sperm physiology and suggest new insights for improving reproduction and for

  11. Evaluation of CD52 positive sperms in subfertile human semen samples: Is there any relationship with main semen parameters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Aboutorabi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that the correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, but we did not observe any relation with other semen parameters, such as sperm normal morphology, sperm concentration, and semen viscosity.

  12. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM)....... sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which...

  13. Sperm structure and sperm transfer in Pseudopythina subsinuata (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse

    2009-01-01

    -thick paraspermatozoa have a terminally placed irregularly cork-screw-shaped acrosome and a bundle of ca. 16 flagella emerging from behind the nucleus. The role of the paraspermatozoa is obscure. Euspermatozoa are transferred to the seminal receptacles of the females and attach with the tip of the acrosome to the...... elongate cells. Most females contain one to three "sperm trees", structures consisting of a short stem and numerous branches. They are firmly implanted in the abfrontal part of the gill filament and protrude into the posterior part of the suprabranchial (brooding) chamber. Implantation of the trees causes...

  14. What use is an infertile sperm? A comparative study of sperm-heteromorphic Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Freckleton, Robert P; Snook, Rhonda R

    2007-01-01

    evolutionary significance of parasperm remains unknown. Here we measured several male and female morphological, behavioral, and life-history traits in 13 obscura group species to test competing hypotheses of parasperm function using comparative methods. We found that parasperm size was unrelated to female...... reproductive tract morphology but was negatively related to our two indices of sperm competition, suggesting that postcopulatory sexual selection may indeed have shaped the evolution of parasperm. We also found abundant coevolution between male and female reproductive traits. Some of these relationships have...

  15. Effect of sperm concentration on characteristics and fertilization capacity of rooster sperm frozen in the presence of the antioxidants catalase and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbeli, Morteza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study conducted was to determine the influence of different levels of sperm concentration, including catalase (CAT) and vitamin E (VitE) in rooster semen extender on postthawed quality and fertility of rooster semen. Semen was collected twice a week from six roosters (Arian) and diluted according to experimental treatments consisting of sperm suspensions containing different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) without antioxidant supplementation as control (Con) groups (Con200, Con400, and Con600, respectively), sperm suspensions containing different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) supplemented with 5-μg/mL VitE (VitE200, VitE400, and VitE600, respectively) and different sperm concentrations (200, 400, and 600 × 106 sperm/mL) supplementation with 100 IU/mL CAT (CAT200, CAT400, and CAT600, respectively). After thawing; sperm motility, membrane integrity, and mitochondrial function were assessed. Fertility and hatchability rates were determined by using 100 artificially inseminated hens. The percentage of total motility (TM) and activity of mitochondria decreased (P  0.05) on fertility and hatchability rates. In conclusion, although adding VitE and CAT in extender with different levels of sperm concentration improved postthawed quality of rooster semen, but adding VitE and CAT in the extender have no effect on fertility rate. PMID:27444422

  16. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Sperm Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between cigarette smoking and sperm densityin men of reproductive age. Methods We enrolled 224 male employees of a modern petrochemicalplant in Nanjing,China. These men had no prior history of infertility or other reproductive diseases.Epidemiologic data, including information on smoking and other occupational and lifestyle exposures wereobtained by a questionnaire interview. Semen specimens were collected from each participant and analyzedaccording to the WHO guidelines. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of smokingon sperm density. Results Approximately 67% of the subjects had ever smoked cigarettes. Differ-ent measurements of smoking behavior were each associated with decrensed sperm density. There was asignificant dose-response trend between the tertiles of total smoking amount in pack-years and sperm den-sity. As compared to men who never smoked, current smokers had a significant reduction in sperm densi-ty (-13.3×106/ml; 95% CI,-24. 1,-2.5) ,while ex-snokers had only a small decrement inspern density (-2.6× 106/al; 95 % CI,-18. 7 ,13. 5). Starting smoking at less than 20 yearsof age was associated with significant reduction in sperm density (-14.8×106/md; 95% CI ,- 27. 4, - 2.2). Starting smoking at 20 years or older was associated with a slightly snaller de-crease (-10.1×106/ml; 95% CI,-21.7,1.4). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associ-ated with decreased sperm density ,showing an evident dose-response trend in this population.

  17. Evaluation of human sperm DNA alterations: comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reactive oxygen species would be able to generate base oxidation and strand breaks at the sperm DNA. These alterations could impair the embryo development or the differentiation of any of the embryonic cellular progenies if the fertilization takes place. The aim of the study was to develop the method of single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay, with slight modifications, in order to investigate the effects on human sperm DNA caused by the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or the exposure to ionizing radiation. Motile spermatozoa from samples of normozoospermic donors were exposed to increasing concentrations of H2O2 (17,6 μM to 140,8 μM) or UV radiation (15 W for 1 h). Then, the sperm cells, included in 1% agarose gels, were electrophoresed under alkaline conditions (20 V for 5 min). The sperm DNA was stained with the silver method. The total length of sperm DNA migration for each treatment group was assessed using a microscope. The statistical analysis of the mean results among the different treatments was performed by the ANOVA test followed by the Dunn' test or by the Student t-test when only one treatment was applied. The results of the comet assays showed significant dose-dependent increases in sperm DNA migration for spermatozoa treated with H2O2 respect to controls (p 2O2 treatment, the UV radiation would cause the cross-linking of the nucleotides, which could explain the observed results. The comet assay appears to be a sensitive method to assess potential damages in human sperm DNA. (author)

  18. Recombinant hamster oviductin is biologically active and exerts positive effects on sperm functions and sperm-oocyte binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1 in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 μg/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function.

  19. Environmental toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation as detected by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA[reg])

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies over the past two decades have clearly shown that reproductive toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation. This DNA fragmentation can usually be detected prior to observing alterations of metaphase chromosomes in embryos. Thus, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA)-detected DNA damage is viewed as the molecular precursor to later gross chromosome damage observed under the light microscope. SCSA measurements of animal or human sperm consist of first obtaining a fresh or flash frozen neat semen sample in LN2 or dry ice. Samples are then sent to a SCSA diagnostic laboratory where the samples are thawed, diluted to ∼1-2 x 106 sperm/ml, treated for 30 s with a pH 1.2 detergent buffer and then stained with acridine orange (AO). The low pH partially denatures DNA at the sites of DNA strand breaks and the AO-ssDNA fluoresces red while the AO-dsDNA fluoresces green. Flow cytometry measurements of 5000 sperm/sample provide statistically robust data on the ratio of red to green sperm, the extent of the DNA fragmentation and the standard deviations of measures. Numerous experiments on rodents treated with reproductive toxicants clearly showed that SCSA measures are highly dose responsive and have a very low CV. Different agents that act on germ cells at various stages of development usually showed sperm DNA fragmentation when that germ cell fraction arrived in the epididymis or ejaculate. Some of these treated samples were capable of successful in vitro fertilization but with frequent embryo failure. A 2-year longitudinal study of men living a valley town with a reported abnormal level of infertility and spontaneous miscarriages and also a seasonal atmospheric smog pollution, showed, for the first time, that SCSA measurements of human sperm DNA fragmentation were detectable and correlated with dosage of air pollution while the classical semen measures were not correlated. Also, young men spraying pesticides without protective gear are at an increased risk for elevated

  20. Quantification of mammalian sperm morphology by slit-scan flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The head shapes of mammalian sperm have been measured by slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM). In this approach, the distribution of fluorescence along acriflavine stained mammalian sperm is recorded and used as a measure of head shape. Fluorescence profiles were measured for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice exposed to testicular x-irradiation from 0 to 900 rads. The profiles for sperm from nonirradiated animals were characteristic of each species and were reproducible from sperm to sperm. Some of the fluorescence profiles for sperm from the irradiated mice differed significantly from the profiles usually measured for sperm from exposed mice. An algorithm was developed to determine the frequency of these sperm. The estimated frequencies of atypical profiles correlated well (r . 0.99) with the frequencies of abnormally shaped sperm determined by microscopic scoring. The maximum SSFCM sensitivity (minimum detectable dose . 199 rad) was not as high as that for the visual assay (minimum detectable dose . 116 rad). However, only 100 profiles were measured by SSFCM at each dose while at least 500 sperm were scored visually at each dose. The sensitivity of the SSFCM assay should be increased substantially by measuring more profiles. The objective nature of SSFCM couple with the high correlation with results from the visually based assay of morphology suggests the use of SSFCM to measure frequencies of misshapen sperm when testing for mutagens or monitoring for effects of environmental contaminants

  1. Effects of mechanical stresses on sperm function and fertilization rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Qiu, Zhuo Lin; Li, Ke; Li, Liu; Chan, Carol Pui Shan; Chan, Si Mei; Li, Tian-Chiu; Quan, Song

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether any of the observed changes in mouse sperm function tests secondary to mechanical stresses (centrifugation and pipetting) correlate with sperm fertilization ability. Chinese Kunming mice were used as sperm and oocyte donors. Sperm samples were allocated evenly into centrifugation, pipette, and control groups. Sperm plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), baseline and stimulated intracellular ROS, and sperm fertilization ability were measured by hypo-osmotic swelling, flow cytometry, and fertilization tests. Parallel studies were conducted and all tests were repeated six times. Our results showed that after centrifugation, the progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility and PMI decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In addition, the MMP level decreased significantly in viable sperm when the centrifugation condition reached 1,400 g × 15 minutes (p < 0.05). When pipetting was performed two or more times, progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05); when it was performed four or more times, sperm membrane integrity and intracellular basal ROS level of viable sperm was also significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, various mechanical stresses seem to affect sperm function, however this does not appear to alter fertilization rate. Laboratory handling steps should be minimized to avoid unnecessary mechanical stresses being applied to sperm samples. PMID:26889695

  2. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Melissah; Albrecht, Tomáš; Cramer, Emily R A; Johnsen, Arild; Laskemoen, Terje; Weir, Jason T; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2015-04-01

    Rapid diversification of sexual traits is frequently attributed to sexual selection, though explicit tests of this hypothesis remain limited. Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size and shape, and studies report a correlation between sperm morphology (sperm length and shape) and sperm competition risk or female reproductive tract morphology. However, whether postcopulatory processes (e.g., sperm competition and cryptic female choice) influence the speed of evolutionary diversification in sperm form is unknown. Using passerine birds, we quantified evolutionary rates of sperm length divergence among lineages (i.e., species pairs) and determined whether these rates varied with the level of sperm competition (estimated as relative testes mass). We found that relative testes mass was significantly and positively associated with more rapid phenotypic divergence in sperm midpiece and flagellum lengths, as well as total sperm length. In contrast, there was no association between relative testes mass and rates of evolutionary divergence in sperm head size, and models suggested that head length is evolutionarily constrained. Our results are the first to show an association between the strength of sperm competition and the speed of sperm evolution, and suggest that postcopulatory sexual selection promotes rapid evolutionary diversification of sperm morphology. PMID:25655075

  3. Papillomavirus DNA in sperm from infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gennari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are causative agents of sexually transmitted disease that affect both men and women (6, 7.The genus includes more than 150 types divided in according to different tropism for skin surfaces and paved mucosal epithelia. Although HPV infection has a very high incidence in both sexes, HPV infection in men is often neglected because of its transitory nature and its lack of clinical relevance.The HPV infection in males was found to be borne by the anal region, perineum, scrotum, urethra and glans. The persistence of the virus in these sites of infection has been linked both to male infertility and to the development of neoplasia in genital areas and not. In addition, several studies have documented the presence of HPV in the semen but with conflicting results regarding the location of the virus in the various components of semen (5, 9,10. The objective of this study was to highlight the presence of HPV DNA in the sperm of patients waiting for a Medically Assisted Procreation and to evaluate if there is a correlation between the semen parameters (motility, concentration and morphology of spermatozoa and HPV infection.

  4. Descriptive analysis of sperm head morphometry in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica): optimum sampling procedure and staining methods using Sperm-Class Analyzer ®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteso, M C; Rodríguez, E; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Pradiee, J; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-04-01

    Sperm morphology has been identified as one characteristic which can be useful in prediction of fertility in a species. The development of computer automated sperm morphometry analysis allows for objective analysis of sperm head dimensions. The aim of the current study was to develop an optimum sampling procedure to characterize the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) sperm head morphometrically. Fresh semen from 11 males was collected using transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of accessory sex glands and electroejaculation and prepared on slides for morphometric analysis to evaluate technical variation and standardize automated sperm morphometry analysis procedures by Sperm-Class Analyzer(®). Three staining methods (Diff-Quik(®), Hemacolor(®), Spermblue(®)), number of sperm cells necessary to sample and repeatability of the staining technique were assessed. There were significant differences in size of sperm head depending on stain used. Hemacolor(®) was stain most suitable for sperm head morphometry evaluation (length=8.42 μm; width=4.21 μm; area=29.37 μm(2); perimeter=21.93 μm; elongation=0.33; elipticity=2.01; regularity=0.95; rugosity=0.77). Morphometric values obtained from samples of 50, 100, 150, 175 and 200 sperm heads were compared. The most efficient method of analyzing sperm morphometry was to evaluate 100 sperm cells at 60× objective magnification. Thus, this study has allowed for description of optimal sample processing to determine morphometric parameters of sperm heads (size and shape) in Iberian ibex by Sperm-Class Analyzer(®) and provides a basis for future studies on the relationship with freezability and fertility in this species. PMID:25721563

  5. Involvement of complexin 2 in docking, locking and unlocking of different SNARE complexes during sperm capacitation and induced acrosomal exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Shiue J Tsai

    Full Text Available Acrosomal exocytosis (AE is an intracellular multipoint fusion reaction of the sperm plasma membrane (PM with the outer acrosomal membrane (OAM. This unique exocytotic event enables the penetration of the sperm through the zona pellucida of the oocyte. We previously observed a stable docking of OAM to the PM brought about by the formation of the trans-SNARE complex (syntaxin 1B, SNAP 23 and VAMP 3. By using electron microscopy, immunochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques in combination with functional studies and proteomic approaches, we here demonstrate that calcium ionophore-induced AE results in the formation of unilamellar hybrid membrane vesicles containing a mixture of components originating from the two fused membranes. These mixed vesicles (MV do not contain the earlier reported trimeric SNARE complex but instead possess a novel trimeric SNARE complex that contained syntaxin 3, SNAP 23 and VAMP 2, with an additional SNARE interacting protein, complexin 2. Our data indicate that the earlier reported raft and capacitation-dependent docking phenomenon between the PM and OAM allows a specific rearrangement of molecules between the two docked membranes and is involved in (1 recruiting SNAREs and complexin 2 in the newly formed lipid-ordered microdomains, (2 the assembly of a fusion-driving SNARE complex which executes Ca(2+-dependent AE, (3 the disassembly of the earlier reported docking SNARE complex, (4 the recruitment of secondary zona binding proteins at the zona interacting sperm surface. The possibility to study separate and dynamic interactions between SNARE proteins, complexin and Ca(2+ which are all involved in AE make sperm an ideal model for studying exocytosis.

  6. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Terry

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition. The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Results Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Conclusion Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results.

  7. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure

  8. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, I.T.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1982-09-01

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure.

  9. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I T; Gledhill, B L; Lake, S; Wyrobek, A J

    1982-09-01

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure. PMID:6184000

  10. High sperm chromatin stability in semen with high viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Sánchez, A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of high semen viscosity on sperm chromatin stability. Semen samples obtained from men with normal and high viscosity were studied. Sperm chromatin stability was tested by exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) only and SDS together with a zinc-chelating agent, disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (SDS+EDTA). After SDS incubation, stable sperm was 61.36 +/- 3.0 and 54.71 +/- 3.42% for normal and high semen viscosity, respectively (P:NS), and after SDS+EDTA, it was further reduced to 12.48 +/- 0.99% in semen samples with normal consistency and in a less magnitude in semen samples with high viscosity (25.6 +/- 5.2). Comparing values obtained in SDS+EDTA, a high sperm stability was observed in samples with hyperviscosity (p hyperviscosity is associated with a high sperm chromatin stability in situations when a zinc-chelating agent is present. PMID:8122934

  11. Relationship between pregnancy, embryo development, and sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wdowiak

    2016-09-01

    Intensity level regarding fragmentation of sperm DNA and its growth rate affected the time of embryo development in the ICSI procedure. The most significant prognostic factor for achieving pregnancy was intensification of sperm DNA fragmentation after 12 h.

  12. SWFSC/MMTD: Sperm Whale Abundance and Population Structure (SWAPS) 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1997 Sperm Whale Abundance and Population Structures (SWAPS) line-transect survey was designed to census sperm whales near the end of their breeding season in...

  13. Glycopolymer induction of mouse sperm acrosomal exocytosis shows highly cooperative self-antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolis, Maria T; Huang, He; Sampson, Nicole S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying inducers of sperm acrosomal exocytosis (AE) to understand sperm functionality is important for both mechanistic and clinical studies in mammalian fertilization. Epifluorescence microscopy methods, while reproducible, are laborious and incompatible for high throughput screening. Flow cytometry methods are ideal for quantitative measurements on large numbers of samples, yet typically rely on the use of lectins that can interfere with physiologic AE-inducers. Here, we present an optimized triple stain flow cytometric method that is suitable for high-throughput screening of AE activation by glycopolymers. SYTO-17 and propidium iodide (PI) were used to differentiate cells based on their membrane integrity or viability, and membrane impermeable soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) was used to monitor acrosome exocytosis. The SBTI/PI/SYTO-17 combination provides a positive screen for viability and AE of live sperm cells with minimal noise or false positives. A scattering gate enables the use of samples that may be contaminated with non-cellular aggregates, e.g., cryopreservation agents. This assay format enabled detailed analysis of glycopolymer dose response curves. We found that fucose polymer has a narrow effective dose range (EC50 = 1.6 μM; IC50 = 13.5 μM); whereas mannose polymer and β-N-acetylglucosamine polymer have broader effective dose ranges (EC50 = 1.2 μM and 3.4 μM, respectively). These results highlight the importance of testing inducers over a large concentration range in small increments for accurate comparison. PMID:27150629

  14. The role of complement component C3b and its receptors in sperm-oocyte interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. J.; Abbott, A F; Jack, R M

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that human sperm that have undergone the acrosome reaction express a unique tissue-specific variant of the complement component 3 (C3)-binding molecule membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) and that damaged or dead sperm activate the alternative pathway of complement and bind C3 catabolites. In this study we provide evidence that MCP on sperm that have undergone the acrosome reaction specifically binds dimeric C3b and that human sperm acrosomal proteases released d...

  15. Why mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection: metabolic rate constrains the evolution of sperm size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomendio, Montserrat; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-10-22

    The hypothesis that sperm competition should favour increases in sperm size, because it results in faster swimming speeds, has received support from studies on many taxa, but remains contentious for mammals. We suggest that this may be because mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection, owing to major differences in body size, which are associated with differences in mass-specific metabolic rate. Recent evidence suggests that cellular metabolic rate also scales with body size, so that small mammals have cells that process energy and resources from the environment at a faster rate. We develop the 'metabolic rate constraint hypothesis' which proposes that low mass-specific metabolic rate among large mammals may limit their ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size, while this constraint does not exist among small mammals. Here we show that among rodents, which have high mass-specific metabolic rates, sperm size increases under sperm competition, reaching the longest sperm sizes found in eutherian mammals. By contrast, mammalian lineages with large body sizes have small sperm, and while metabolic rate (corrected for body size) influences sperm size, sperm competition levels do not. When all eutherian mammals are analysed jointly, our results suggest that as mass-specific metabolic rate increases, so does maximum sperm size. In addition, species with low mass-specific metabolic rates produce uniformly small sperm, while species with high mass-specific metabolic rates produce a wide range of sperm sizes. These findings support the hypothesis that mass-specific metabolic rates determine the budget available for sperm production: at high levels, sperm size increases in response to sexual selection, while low levels constrain the ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size. Thus, adaptive and costly traits, such as sperm size, may only evolve under sexual selection when metabolic rate does not constrain cellular

  16. Cross-species fertilization: the hamster egg receptor, Juno, binds the human sperm ligand, Izumo1

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Enrica; Wright, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization is the culminating event in sexual reproduction and requires the recognition and fusion of the haploid sperm and egg to form a new diploid organism. Specificity in these recognition events is one reason why sperm and eggs from different species are not normally compatible. One notable exception is the unusual ability of zona-free eggs from the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) to recognize and fuse with human sperm, a phenomenon that has been exploited to assess sperm...

  17. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Hwa Park; Do Rim Kim; Ha Young Kim; Seong Kyu Park; Mun Seog Chang

    2014-01-01

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluoro...

  18. Methods for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on human sperm production.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrobek, A J

    1983-01-01

    Sperm tests provide a direct and effective way of identifying chemical agents that induce spermatogenic damage in man. Four human sperm tests are available: sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology) and the Y-body test. These sperm tests have numerous advantages over other approaches for assessing spermatogenic damage, and they have already been used to assess the effects of at least 85 different occupational, environmental, and drug-related chemical exposures. When carefully contr...

  19. Why mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection: metabolic rate constrains the evolution of sperm size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomendio, Montserrat; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that sperm competition should favour increases in sperm size, because it results in faster swimming speeds, has received support from studies on many taxa, but remains contentious for mammals. We suggest that this may be because mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection, owing to major differences in body size, which are associated with differences in mass-specific metabolic rate. Recent evidence suggests that cellular metabolic rate also scales with body size, so that small mammals have cells that process energy and resources from the environment at a faster rate. We develop the ‘metabolic rate constraint hypothesis’ which proposes that low mass-specific metabolic rate among large mammals may limit their ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size, while this constraint does not exist among small mammals. Here we show that among rodents, which have high mass-specific metabolic rates, sperm size increases under sperm competition, reaching the longest sperm sizes found in eutherian mammals. By contrast, mammalian lineages with large body sizes have small sperm, and while metabolic rate (corrected for body size) influences sperm size, sperm competition levels do not. When all eutherian mammals are analysed jointly, our results suggest that as mass-specific metabolic rate increases, so does maximum sperm size. In addition, species with low mass-specific metabolic rates produce uniformly small sperm, while species with high mass-specific metabolic rates produce a wide range of sperm sizes. These findings support the hypothesis that mass-specific metabolic rates determine the budget available for sperm production: at high levels, sperm size increases in response to sexual selection, while low levels constrain the ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size. Thus, adaptive and costly traits, such as sperm size, may only evolve under sexual selection when metabolic rate does not constrain cellular

  20. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted wi...

  1. Study on the Vesiculation during Mouse Sperm Acrosome Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家豪; 周作民; 胡志刚; 王黎熔; 林敏; 张适

    1994-01-01

    The location of the mono-membrane and the bi-membrane vesicles of mouse sperm was identified using Con A in conjugation with the colloidal gold. The observation showed that both mono-membrane vesicfes and outer layer of the hi-membrane vesicles come from the outer acrosome membrane. The inner membrane layer of the bi-member vesicles and residual membrane distributed among the vesicles are really the ptasmatemma. It is suggested that the outer acrosome membrane did not fuse with the pfasmafemma during mouse sperm acrosome reaction and that both the mono-membrane and the bi-membrane vesicles of mouse sperm were formed due to winding of the outer acrosome membrane.

  2. Sperm whale clicks: Directionality and source level revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.;

    2000-01-01

    In sperm whales ~Physeter catodon L. 1758! the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey @in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 ~1972!, pp. 397–417# ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex....... A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not supported by published data for sperm whale clicks ~source levels of 180 dB re 1 mPa and little, if any...... implicates sonar as a possible function of the clicks. Thus, previously published properties of sperm whale clicks underestimate the capabilities of the sound generator and therefore cannot falsify the Norris and Harvey theory....

  3. Proteomics and the genetics of sperm chromatin condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Oliva; Judit Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis involves extremely marked cellular, genetic and chromatin changes resulting in the generation of the highly specialized sperm cell. Proteomics allows the identification of the proteins that compose the spermatogenic cells and the study of their function. The recent developments in mass spectrometry (MS) have markedly increased the throughput to identify and to study the sperm proteins. Catalogs of thousands of testis and spermatozoan proteins in human and different model species are becoming available, setting up the basis for subsequent research, diagnostic applications and possibly the future development of specific treatments. The present review intends to summarize the key genetic and chromatin changes at the different stages of spermatogenesis and in the mature sperm cell and to comment on the presently available proteomic studies.

  4. Does seminal fluid viscosity influence sperm chromatin integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, K; Padwal, V; Balaiah, D

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to investigate whether viscosity alters sperm chromatin integrity. Semen samples were obtained from 269 men attending the infertility clinic. The viscosity was measured quantitatively by needle and syringe method and the viscosity ratio was calculated against distilled water. The chromatin integrity was evaluated by in vitro decondensation test using 1% SDS and 6 mM EDTA. According to the viscosity ratios the samples were divided into 2 groups: I, normal (ratio 9, n = 30) viscosity. Chromatin integrity was significantly lower in the group with higher viscosity. Significant decrease in sperm count and motility were seen in group II as compared to group I. Thus, hyperviscosity of seminal fluid alters the sperm chromatin integrity. PMID:11028927

  5. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-ichi; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1+/− male mice. Healthy Prm1+/− offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1+/− mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles. PMID:27250771

  6. Effect of methoxychlor on antioxidant system of goat epididymal sperm in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bindu Gangadharan; M. Arul Murugan; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system of goat epididymal sperm. Methods:Epididymis of adult goat was obtained from local slaughter houses and sperm were collected by chopping the epididymis in modified Ringer's phosphate solution (RPS). After several washings, the sperm samples were dispersed in RPS and incubated with methoxychlor (1 μnol/L, 10 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L) and methoxychlor + vitamin C (100μmol/L each) for 3 h at 32℃. After incubation, the sperm motility and viability were assessed. An aliquot of sperm sample was homogenized, centrifuged and used for the assay of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation. Results: In methoxychlor-incubated sperm and in sperm co-incubated with methoxychlor and vitamin C, the sperm motility and viability showed no significant changes as compared to the corresponding controls. In methoxychlor-incubated sperm the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased while lipid peroxidation was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of sperm with methoxychlor and vitamin C showed no changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase and in the level of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion: Methoxychlor induced oxidative stress in epididymal sperm of goats by decreasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Co-incubation of sperm with methoxychlor and vitamin C, a natural antioxidant, reversed the effect of methoxychlor.

  7. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Garcia-Olivares

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cooling of pig sperm to −7 °C (no freezing damaged sperm function and structure; in contrast, cooling to either −3 °C or −5 °C did not change pig sperm survival after freeze-thawing.

  8. Current understanding ofI sperm-storage tubule (SST) function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most mammals, birds do not need to synchronize copulation with ovulation. Hens are endowed with tubular structures, the sperm-storage tubules (SST), in their oviducts which the sperm enter and survive for weeks after mating or artificial insemination. Sperm are slowly but continually releas...

  9. Use of spin labels to evaluate effects of cold shock and osmolality on sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstedt, R.H.; Keith, A.D.; Snipes, W.; Amann, R.P.; Arruda, D.; Griel, L.C. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Spin labels were used to evaluate the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C and osmolality on the integrity of sperm membranes. In vitro incubation of rabbit sperm with 0.5 mM BHT prior to artificial insemination did not alter the fertilizing ability of the sperm. Sperm from 6 species were ranked in terms of susceptibility to membrane damage caused by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. The integrity of bull and ram sperm membranes was destroyed by the rapid cooling; BHT protected membranes of these spermatozoa from cold-induced lysis. Boar sperm membranes were porous after rapid cooling and BHT did not prevent this membrane damage. Membranes of rabbit and rooster sperm were not damaged by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. Stallion sperm could not be analyzed because their membranes were altered by addition of reagents necessary to use the technique. The responses of bull, ram and rabbit sperm membranes to hyper- and hypo-osmotic conditions were determined. Hypotonic treatment (less than 200 mOsm) resulted in a 50 percent expansion of the volume of the aqueous compartment of sperm while hypertonic (700 mOsm) conditions compressed the volume of the aqueous compartment to 25 to 30 percent of the volume measured at 300 mOsm. Bull sperm, but not rabbit or ram sperm, responded as ''perfect osmometers'' between 300 and 700 mOsm.

  10. Heritability, evolvability, phenotypic plasticity and temporal variation in sperm-competition success of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, R; Reinhardt, K

    2016-05-01

    Sperm-competition success (SCS) is seen as centrally important for evolutionary change: superior fathers sire superior sons and thereby inherit the traits that make them superior. Additional hypotheses, that phenotypic plasticity in SCS and sperm ageing explain variation in paternity, are less considered. Even though various alleles have individually been shown to be correlated with variation in SCS, few studies have addressed the heritability, or evolvability, of overall SCS. Those studies that have addressed found low or no heritability and have not examined evolvability. They have further not excluded phenotypic plasticity, and temporal effects on SCS, despite their known dramatic effects on sperm function. In Drosophila melanogaster, we found that both standard components of sperm competition, sperm defence and sperm offence, showed nonsignificant heritability across several offspring cohorts. Instead, our analysis revealed, for the first time, the existence of phenotypic plasticity in SCS across an extreme environment (5% CO2 ), and an influence of sperm ageing. Evolvability of SCS was substantial for sperm defence but weak for sperm offence. Our results suggest that the paradigm of explaining evolution by sperm competition is more complex and will benefit from further experimental work on the heritability or evolvability of SCS, measuring phenotypic plasticity, and separating the effects of sperm competition and sperm ageing. PMID:26990919

  11. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultras...

  12. Seminal fluid enhances sperm viability in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2008-01-01

    in life, although they may live and produce fertilized eggs for several decades. The mating biology and life history of these ants therefore suggests that the major function of seminal fluid is to maximize sperm viability during copulation, sperm transfer, and initial sperm storage. We tested this...

  13. Microfluidic assessment of swimming media for motility-based sperm selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Lise; Nosrati, Reza; Vollmer, Marion; Zini, Armand; Sinton, David

    2015-07-01

    Selection medium is important in sperm isolation for assisted reproductive technologies. Contrary to the naturally occurring human cervical mucus which has a high viscosity, most current practices for motility based sperm selection use a low viscosity medium. In this study, we used a microfluidic device to assess the effects of high viscosity media made with hyaluronic acid (HA) and methyl cellulose (MC) on bovine and human sperm motility and viability (sperm transferred directly from cryoprotectant). The microfluidic penetration test, viability, and motility were compared for sperm swimming in both HA and MC media with about 20cp viscosity (measured at 20 °C). Our resulted indicate that MC medium resulted in a significantly higher number of viable bovine sperm penetrating the medium as compared to HA. Furthermore, MC resulted in the selection of a sperm subpopulation with a 274% increase in sperm viability in comparison to the raw semen, while HA increased viability by only 133%. In addition to viability, bovine sperm motility parameters were significantly higher in the MC medium as compared with HA. Experiments with human sperm swimming in MC indicate that sperm swim slower and straighter at higher viscosities. In conclusion, the results indicate that in a micro-confined environment representative of the in vivo environment, MC is a preferred high viscosity medium to ensure the highest concentration of motile and viable sperm. PMID:26339314

  14. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  15. Inbreeding depression of sperm traits in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opatová, Pavlína; Ihle, M.; Albrechtová, Jana; Tomášek, Oldřich; Kempenaers, B.; Forstmeier, W.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2016), s. 295-304. ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gamete performance * genetic quality * sperm abnormality * sperm morphology * sperm velocity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2014

  16. Changes of sperm quality and hormone receptors in the rat testis after exposure to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudmamud-Thanoi, Sutisa; Sueudom, Wanvipa; Tangsrisakda, Nareelak; Thanoi, Samur

    2016-10-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is known to damage neurons and induce psychosis. It can also induce apoptosis in seminiferous tubules and affect sperm quality. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of a rat model of METH addiction on sperm quality and expression of progesterone receptors (PR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in the testis. Sperm quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm morphology and sperm concentration were examined. Protein and gene expressions PR, ERα and ERβ were studied using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The percentages of normal sperm motility and normal sperm morphology were significantly decreased in animals receiving METH, especially in escalating dose (ED METH) and escalating dose-binge (ED-binge METH) groups when compared with control. In addition, sperm concentrations in ED METH and ED-binge METH groups were numerically decreased. PR, ERα and ERβ immunoreactive cells were significantly decreased in spermatogonia, spermatogenic cells and especially in Sertoli cells in all METH-treated groups. Furthermore, messenger RNA expression of PR, ERα and ERβ were also significantly decreased in all METH-treated animals. These results indicate that METH can induce abnormal sperm quality. These changes of sperm quality may relate to the reduction of PR, ERα and ERβ expressions in male germ cells and Sertoli cells which are essential for spermatogenesis and development of sperm. PMID:26864947

  17. The Mg2+ transporter CNNM4 regulates sperm Ca2+ homeostasis and is essential for reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Haruhiko; Funato, Yosuke; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Ikawa, Masahito; Miki, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+) influx triggers sperm capacitation; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that CNNM4, a Mg(2+) transporter, is required for Ca(2+) influx during capacitation. We find that Cnnm4-deficient male mice are almost infertile because of sperm dysfunction. Motion analyses show that hyperactivation, a qualitative change in the mode of sperm motility during capacitation, is abrogated in Cnnm4-deficient sperm. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of flagellar proteins, a hallmark of capacitation, is excessively augmented. These seemingly paradoxical phenotypes of Cnnm4-deficient sperm are very similar to those of sperm lacking a functional cation channel of sperm (CatSper) channel, which plays an essential role in Ca(2+) influx during sperm capacitation. Ca(2+) imaging analyses demonstrate that Ca(2+) influx is perturbed in Cnnm4-deficient sperm, and forced Ca(2+) entry into these sperm normalizes the level of tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, we confirm the importance of CNNM4 in sperm by generating germ-cell-specific Cnnm4-deficient mice. These results suggest a new role of CNNM4 in sperm Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:27006114

  18. Automated Analysis of Human Sperm Number and Concentration (Oligospermia) Using Otsu Threshold Method and Labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susrama, I. G.; Purnama, K. E.; Purnomo, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Oligospermia is a male fertility issue defined as a low sperm concentration in the ejaculate. Normally the sperm concentration is 20-120 million/ml, while Oligospermia patients has sperm concentration less than 20 million/ml. Sperm test done in the fertility laboratory to determine oligospermia by checking fresh sperm according to WHO standards in 2010 [9]. The sperm seen in a microscope using a Neubauer improved counting chamber and manually count the number of sperm. In order to be counted automatically, this research made an automation system to analyse and count the sperm concentration called Automated Analysis of Sperm Concentration Counters (A2SC2) using Otsu threshold segmentation process and morphology. Data sperm used is the fresh sperm directly in the analysis in the laboratory from 10 people. The test results using A2SC2 method obtained an accuracy of 91%. Thus in this study, A2SC2 can be used to calculate the amount and concentration of sperm automatically

  19. Cervical insemination versus intra-uterine insemination of donor sperm for subfertility (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, D.E.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Marjoribanks, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insemination with donor sperm is an option for couples for whom in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been unsuccessful, couples with azoospermia and for single women or same sex couples.Insemination of sperm can be done via cervical (CI) or intra-u

  20. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Lifjeld

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  1. Development of antifertility vaccine using sperm specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Bandivdekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm proteins are known to be associated with normal fertilization as auto- or iso-antibodies to these proteins may cause infertility. Therefore, sperm proteins have been considered to be the potential candidate for the development of antifertility vaccine. Some of the sperm proteins proved to be promising antigens for contraceptive vaccine includes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4, protein hyaluronidase (PH-20, and Eppin. Immunization with LDH-C4 reduced fertility in female baboons but not in female cynomolgus macaques. Active immunization with PH-20 resulted in 100 per cent inhibition of fertility in male guinea pigs but it induced autoimmune orchitis. Immunization with Eppin elicited high antibody titres in 78 per cent of immunized monkeys and induced infertility but the immunopathological effect of immunization was not examined. Human sperm antigen (80kDa HSA is a sperm specific, highly immunogenic and conserved sperm protein. Active immunization with 80kDa HSA induced immunological infertility in male and female rats. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of 80kDa HSA (Peptide NT and its peptides (Peptides 1, 2, 3 and 4 obtained by enzymatic digestion did not show homology with any of the known proteins in gene bank. Peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 were found to mimic immunobiological activity of native protein. Passive administration of antibodies to peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 induced infertility in male and female rats and peptide 1 was found to be most effective in suppressing fertility. Active immunization with keyhole limpet haemocynin (KLH conjugated synthetic peptide 1 impaired fertility in all the male rabbits and six of the seven male marmosets. The fertility was restored following decline in antibody titre. All these findings on 80kDA HAS suggest that the synthetic Peptide-1 of 80kDa HSA is the promising candidate for development of male contraceptive vaccine.

  2. Comparison of permeating and nonpermeating cryoprotectants for mouse sperm cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztein, J M; Noble, K; Farley, J S; Mobraaten, L E

    2001-02-01

    Mouse sperm has proven to be more difficult to cryopreserve than sperm of other mammalian species. Published reports show that only three cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), alone or combined, have been studied: glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), as permeating agents, and raffinose, as a nonpermeating agent. To date, the most consistent results for mouse sperm cryopreservation have been achieved by use of raffinose/skim milk as cryoprotectant with rapid cooling at 20 degrees C per minute. In this study, we compared the cryoprotection provided by permeating (glycerol, formamide, propanediol, DMSO, adonitol) or nonpermeating (lactose, raffinose, sucrose, trehalose, d-mannitol) compounds for freezing mouse sperm. Different solutions were made using 3% skim milk solution as the buffer or extender in which all different cryoprotectant agents were dissolved at a concentration of 0.3 M, with a final osmolality of approx. 400 mOsm. Sperm samples from CB6F1 (hybrid) and C57BL/6J (inbred) mice collected directly into each CPA were frozen/thawed under identical conditions. After thawing and CPA elimination (centrifugation) raffinose (59%), trehalose (61%), and sucrose (61%) sustained the best motility (P = Membrane integrity was analyzed and showed that the simple exposure (prefreeze) to sugars was less harmful than the exposure to glycols. Coincidentally, sperm frozen in trehalose (41%), raffinose (40.5%), and sucrose (37.5%) were the samples less injured among all different postthawed CPA tested. The in vitro fertilization results demonstrated that hybrid mouse spermatozoa frozen with sugars (lactose 80%, raffinose 80%, trehalose 79% of two-cell embryos production) were more fertile than those frozen with glycols (glycerol 11%). PMID:11336487

  3. Development of antifertility vaccine using sperm specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandivdekar, A H

    2014-11-01

    Sperm proteins are known to be associated with normal fertilization as auto- or iso-antibodies to these proteins may cause infertility. Therefore, sperm proteins have been considered to be the potential candidate for the development of antifertility vaccine. Some of the sperm proteins proved to be promising antigens for contraceptive vaccine includes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4), protein hyaluronidase (PH-20), and Eppin. Immunization with LDH-C4 reduced fertility in female baboons but not in female cynomolgus macaques. Active immunization with PH-20 resulted in 100 per cent inhibition of fertility in male guinea pigs but it induced autoimmune orchitis. Immunization with Eppin elicited high antibody titres in 78 per cent of immunized monkeys and induced infertility but the immunopathological effect of immunization was not examined. Human sperm antigen (80 kDa HSA) is a sperm specific, highly immunogenic and conserved sperm protein. Active immunization with 80 kDa HSA induced immunological infertility in male and female rats. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of 80 kDa HSA (Peptide NT) and its peptides (Peptides 1, 2, 3 and 4) obtained by enzymatic digestion did not show homology with any of the known proteins in gene bank. Peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 were found to mimic immunobiological activity of native protein. Passive administration of antibodies to peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 induced infertility in male and female rats and peptide 1 was found to be most effective in suppressing fertility. Active immunization with keyhole limpet haemocynin (KLH) conjugated synthetic peptide 1 impaired fertility in all the male rabbits and six of the seven male marmosets. The fertility was restored following decline in antibody titre. All these findings on 80 kDA HAS suggest that the synthetic Peptide-1 of 80 kDa HSA is the promising candidate for development of male contraceptive vaccine. PMID:25673547

  4. Study of sperm cell phosphorylating systems using nucleotide photoaffinity probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major thrust of the research presented in this thesis was to identify specific nucleotide binding proteins and phosphoproteins of rat caput and cauda sperm. Also, the differences in these proteins between caput and cauda sperm were investigated as well as determination of the membrane sidedness of the proteins and their location in either the head or tail/mid-piece region. In addition, the effects of small molecular weight modifers such as cGMP, cAMP and Ca2+ on the detection of binding proteins and phosphorylated proteins was studied. The technique used to identify and locate nucleotide binding proteins was photoaffinity labeling using the proven 8-azidopurine nucleotide analogs of cAMP, ATP and GTP in radioactive form. The first study presented involved the use of [32P]8-N 3cAMP which showed that both caput and cauda sperm contained both type I and type II regulatory subunits (R/sub I/ and R/sub II/, respectively) of the cAMP dependent kinases and that the great majority of the regulatory subunits were located in the tail/mid-piece section and not in the sperm head. The second phase of this study involved the use of [γ32P]8-azidoadensosine triphosphate ([γ32P]8-N3ATP) and (γ32P)8-azidoguanosine triphosphate ([γ32P]8-N3GTP) to photolable specific ATP and GTP binding proteins and to phosphorylate specific phosphoproteins. Again, this was done on caput versus cauda sperm and the location of the majority of the photolabeled or phosphorylated proteins was shown to be in the tail/mid-piece fraction. In addition, considerable differences were found in both the phosphorylated and photolabeled proteins of caput versus cauda sperm

  5. Fertilizing capacity of frozen epididymal sperm collected from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M I M; Padilha, L C; Souza, F F; Lopes, M D

    2009-07-01

    The collection of epididymal sperm may be a valuable tool for canine reproduction especially since it can enable collection of cells after death of a valuable dog. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the viability of epididymal sperm after freeze-thawing. Epididymides were obtained from four adult dogs by elective orchiectomy. The caudal portion of the epididymides and part of the deferential ducts were squeezed by means of an anatomic clamp into a Petri dish containing either 0.9% saline solution (Group 1) or Ringer solution without lactate (Group 2). Samples were centrifuged at 800 x g for 10 min, the supernatant was removed and the pellet was diluted in one step with a Tris/citric acid/OEP (Orvus Es Paste) extender containing 7% glycerol and subjected to semen freezing. Oocytes were obtained from canine ovaries, after ovariohysterectomy. Only oocytes that were approximately 100 mum in diameter, with a dark ooplasm surrounded by three- or four-well formed cumulus cell layers were used for sperm testing. Frozen semen samples were thawed in a water bath at 70 degrees C for 8 s and analysed at room temperature for sperm motility and velocity. Oocytes were incubated with spermatozoa in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO(2) at 38 degrees C for 18 h. Morphological and functional characteristics of spermatozoa were similar in both groups. However, the percentage of sperm cells bound to oocytes was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. This result suggests that the Ringer solution without lactate was a more suitable medium for collecting epididymal canine sperm than 0.9% saline. PMID:19754600

  6. Evaluation of sperm chromatin structure in boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszewska Dorota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to evaluate sperm chromatin structure in the semen of insemination boars. Preparations of semen were stained with acridine orange, aniline blue, and chromomycin A3. Abnormal protamination occurred more frequently in young individuals whose sexual development was not yet complete, but may also be an individual trait. This possibility is important to factor into the decision regarding further exploitation of insemination boars. Thus a precise assessment of abnormalities in the protamination process would seem to be expedient as a tool supplementing morphological and molecular evaluation of semen. Disruptions in nucleoprotein structure can be treated as indicators of the biological value of sperm cells.

  7. Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Spyridis, Panagiotis; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Carrier, David R.; Pataky, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk,” that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of the t...

  8. Triple touch sperm immobilization vs. single touch sperm immobilization in ICSI - a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velaers An

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although different techniques for sperm immobilization have been described, their value has not been assessed in an adequately powered randomized study. The aim of this study was to compare two types of sperm immobilization methods prior to ICSI and to test the hypothesis that triple touch immobilization (TTIm would lead to a higher (5% -65% up to 70% fertilization rate (FR than single touch immobilization (STIm. Methods A total of 3056 metaphase II (MII oocytes, from 290 patients, were randomly assigned to the STIm group (n = 1528 oocytes; 145 cycles or to the TTIm group (n = 1528 oocytes; 138 cycles. A total of 1478 oocytes (STIm group and 1476 oocytes (TTIm group were used in the statistical analysis. The primary outcome variable was FR. Secondary outcome variables included: number of good quality embryos (GQE on day 2 and day 3, implantation rate (IR and implantation with foetal heart beat rate (FHB. Statistical analysis was done using the Fisher Exact test with a significance level of 0.05. Results The results showed no differences in FR between both groups. The proportion of good quality embryos on day 3, was significantly higher in the STIm group (37.5% compared to the TTIm group (31.8%; p = 0.02. Conclusions In this RCT, the hypothesis that the post-ICSI FR would be higher after TTIm than after STIm was not confirmed and the number of good quality embryos on day 3 was significantly lower in the TTIm group than in the STIm group. These data suggest that more ‘aggressive’ TTIm technique has no advantages compared to the STIm technique.

  9. Polyandry in the medfly - shifts in paternity mediated by sperm stratification and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, a highly invasive agricultural pest species, polyandry, associated with sperm precedence, is a recurrent behaviour in the wild. The absence of tools for the unambiguous discrimination between competing sperm from different males in the complex female reproductive tract has strongly limited the understanding of mechanisms controlling sperm dynamics and use. RESULTS: Here we use transgenic medfly lines expressing green or red fluorescent proteins in the spermatozoa, which can be easily observed and unambiguously differentiated within the female fertilization chamber. In twice-mated females, one day after the second mating, sperm from the first male appeared to be homogeneously distributed all over the distal portion of each alveolus within the fertilization chamber, whereas sperm from the second male were clearly concentrated in the central portion of each alveolus. This distinct stratified sperm distribution was not maintained over time, as green and red sperm appeared homogeneously mixed seven days after the second mating. This dynamic sperm storage pattern is mirrored by the paternal contribution in the progeny of twice-mated females. CONCLUSIONS: Polyandrous medfly females, unlike Drosophila, conserve sperm from two different mates to fertilize their eggs. From an evolutionary point of view, the storage of sperm in a stratified pattern by medfly females may initially favour the fresher ejaculate from the second male. However, as the second male’s sperm gradually becomes depleted, the sperm from the first male becomes increasingly available for fertilization. The accumulation of sperm from different males will increase the overall genetic variability of the offspring and will ultimately affect the effective population size. From an applicative point of view, the dynamics of sperm storage and their temporal use by a polyandrous female may have an impact on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT

  10. Effects of L-Carnitine and Pentoxifylline on Carbohydrate Distribution of Mouse Testicular Sperm Membrane

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    Elham Aliabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The glycoconjugate content of sperms indicates their physiological and fertility properties. Lectin reactivity is indicative of intact, capacitated, and acrosome-reacted sperms. In the epididymis, sperms experience maturation, glycoconjugate modification, and simultaneously, higher L-carnitine (LC concentrations. The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of LC and Pentoxifylline (PF on the integrity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction of sperms by studying their lectin reactivity.Methods: Mouse testicular sperm samples were divided into three parts. Each sample was added Ham’s F10 (control or media containing 1.76 mM LC or PF. At 30 and 90 minutes after incubation, sperm motility was assessed. Peanut agglutinin (PNA, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, and Concanavalin A (Con A were used to detect non-acrosome-reacted, non-capacitated, and acrosome-reacted sperms, respectively and the frequency was evaluated by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA. Results: Sperm motility increased after 30 and 90 minutes of incubation in the LC- and PF-treated cultures (P=0.001. LC administration created a significant increase in the percentage of the non-acrosome-reacted sperms compared to the control sperms after 30 and 90 minutes (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively. The frequency of the non-capacitated sperms in the LC-treated group increased compared to the control sperms after 30 minutes significantly (P=0.01. Conclusion: Although the administration of LC and PF enhanced sperm motility, LC also impacted glycoconjugates on the sperm surface. Glycoconjugates are involved in the interaction between the sperm and the zona pellucida and subsequently fertilization, thereby probably influencing the male fertility state.

  11. Morphology and head morphometric characters of sperm in Thai native crossbred stallions

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    Laikul Aree

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the semen quality parameters use to determine fertility is the percentage of sperm that express normal morphology. Sperm head morphometry is also correlated with fertility. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate the sperm morphology and normal sperm head morphometry of Thai native crossbred stallions, and 2 to compare our results with the characteristics of proven fertile sperm from purebred stallions. Methods Semen samples were collected monthly from nine stallions, of which five were Thai native crossbred (T and four were purebred of proven fertility (F: F1 was a Standard-bred; F2 was a Warm-blood; F3 and F4 were Thoroughbreds. All the animals were aged between 5 and 12 years. Sperm morphological examination was performed using formaldehyde-fixed samples under phase-contrast microscopy (1000×. Normal sperm head morphometry characteristics were measured by Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (Hamilton Thorne, USA. after applying the Harris' haematoxylin staining technique. Results The percentages of morphologically normal and abnormal sperm varied among individual stallions in both the T and F groups. The mean percentage of morphologically normal sperm was not significantly different (P > 0.05 between T and F stallions (mean ± SE, 49.7 ± 1.3 and 48.1 ± 2.8, respectively. A comparison between the T and F sperm heads revealed that all the dimensional parameters were significantly different (P Conclusion We found variability in the percentage of morphologically normal and abnormal sperm, as well as in sperm head dimensions among Thai native crossbred stallions, and these results were similar to those of purebred stallions. Our findings demonstrate that the heads of the T sperm specimens were larger and rounder than that of the F sperm. Perimeter, shape factor 1 and shape factor 3 could be used as parameters for the identification of individual T stallions based on a sperm sample.

  12. Correlation between chemical composition of seminal plasma and sperm motility characteristics of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

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    M. Mehdi Taati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the relationships between chemicalscompositions of seminal plasma with sperm motility traits in Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782. There were significant positive correlations between sperm movment duration and Ca+2 of semen.Also, a significant positive relationship was found between percentage of motile spermatozoa and Ca+2 ofsemen. On the other hand, Na+, Cl- and pH correlated negatively with sperm movment duration.Understanding of such correlations can be useful to evaluation of sperm quality and make media(extender for dilution of semen and improving sperm motility parameters of Prussian carp.

  13. In vitro study on sperm competition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Vojtech; Hulak, Martin; Kohlmann, Klaus; Vandeputte, Marc; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Linhart, Otomar

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition occurs when sperm from different males compete for fertilization. The aim of this in vitro fertilization study was to compare the competitive success of five males using heterosperm with an equal number of sperm from each male and four different sperm/egg ratios (5,000, 10,000, 20,000 and 100,000 spermatozoa per egg) in order to better understand variations of competitive fertilization. The roles of sperm motility and velocity were studied. Fertilization and hatching rates o...

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the sperm transmission and oviposition response in Helicoverpa armigera (L. Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmission of sperm by unirradiated and irradiated cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was studied by live dissection of the female immediately after the initiation of mating. In cotton bollworm the sperm transfer was a rather complex process. In fact, the unirradiated male failed to transfer sperm in about 19% of their matings. After being irradiated with 250 Gy and 400 Gy, the aberrations of sperm transmission were about 21% and 50% respectively. The failure of spermatophore 'cap' location was an important reason of sperm transmission aberrations. When female mated to high-dose-irradiated males, its oviposition response appeared abnormal

  15. A scanning electron microscopic study of impala (Aepyceros melampus sperm from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Ackerman

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Since knowledge of sperm morphological characteristics can play an important role in semen evaluation and fertilisation, baseline data on sperm ultrastructure are required. Live spermatozoa were collected from the cauda epididymis from 64 impala rams in the Kruger National Park and 5082 spermatozoa from 40 of these impala were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The mean length of impala sperm was 59.23 @ 2.7 um. The morphology of normal sperm as well as the occurrence of abnormalities were documented. The morphology of impala sperm were compared with those of other mammals. New findings on appendages of the cytoplasmic droplet are described and interpreted.

  16. Corn earworms: quality of sperm in sterile males released for population suppression on St. Croix Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randomly selected radiosterilized male Heliothis zea (Boddie) released on the island of St. Croix were examined in the laboratory and found to have sperm of poor viability and quality. Sperm from native males was more viable and fragmented less than sperm from the laboratory-reared males during storage in the spermatheca whether the males were crossed with laboratory or native females. None of 65 laboratory-reared females found remating in the field contained a normal appearing quantity of unfragmented sperm or normal motility. Thus, both sperm quantity and quality influenced remating in the corn earworm female

  17. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect on...... sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion...

  18. Coevolutionary Feedbacks between Female Mating Interval and Male Allocation to Competing Sperm Traits Can Drive Evolution of Costly Polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2016-03-01

    Complex coevolutionary feedbacks between female mating interval and male sperm traits have been hypothesized to explain the evolution and persistence of costly polyandry. Such feedbacks could potentially arise because polyandry creates sperm competition and consequent selection on male allocation to sperm traits, while the emerging sperm traits could create female sperm limitation and, hence, impose selection for increased polyandry. However, the hypothesis that costly polyandry could coevolve with male sperm dynamics has not been tested. We built a genetically explicit individual-based model to simulate simultaneous evolution of female mating interval and male allocation to sperm number versus longevity, where these two sperm traits trade off. We show that evolution of competing sperm traits under polyandry can indeed cause female sperm limitation and, hence, promote further evolution and persistence of costly polyandry, particularly when sperm are costly relative to the degree of female sperm limitation. These feedbacks were stronger, and greater polyandry evolved, when postcopulatory competition for paternity followed a loaded rather than fair raffle and when sperm traits had realistically low heritability. We therefore demonstrate that the evolution of allocation to sperm traits driven by sperm competition can prevent males from overcoming female sperm limitation, thereby driving ongoing evolution of costly polyandry. PMID:26913946

  19. Sperm surface protein PH-20 is bifunctional: one activity is a hyaluronidase and a second, distinct activity is required in secondary sperm-zona binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, G R; Primakoff, P; Myles, D G

    1996-07-01

    In previous studies, we have found that the sperm membrane protein PH-20 acts during two different stages of fertilization. On acrosome-intact sperm, PH-20 has a hyaluronidase activity that is required for sperm penetration through the cumulus cell layer that surrounds the oocyte. On acrosome-reacted sperm, PH-20 has a required function in sperm-zona binding (secondary binding). Because hyaluronic acid (HA) has been detected in the zona pellucida, secondary sperm-zona adhesion could depend on repetitive binding and hydrolysis of HA by PH-20 acting as a hyaluronidase. Alternatively, PH-20 may be bifunctional and have a second, different activity required for secondary binding. To distinguish between these two possibilities, in this study we used reagents that inhibit either PH-20's function in sperm-zona binding or its hyaluronidase activity. We found that an anti-PH-20 monoclonal antibody that inhibited sperm-zona binding (approximately 90%) had no effect on hyaluronidase activity. Conversely, apigenin, a hyaluronidase inhibitor, blocked PH-20 hyaluronidase activity 93% without inhibiting sperm-zona binding. Similarly, another anti-PH-20 monoclonal antibody that inhibited hyaluronidase activity 95% only partially inhibited sperm-zona binding (approximately 45%). We also extensively pretreated oocytes with hyaluronidase to remove all accessible HA on or in the zona pellucida and found little or no effect on secondary sperm-zona binding. Our results suggest that PH-20 is bifunctional and has two activities: a hyaluronidase activity and a second, separate activity required for secondary sperm-zona binding. PMID:8793062

  20. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  1. Effects of sperm competition on genetic variation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss progeny using microsattelite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Moradyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the variation of spermatozoa traits among three male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss was used to examine how the relative influences of sperm density and duration of sperm motility account for sperm competition success. Sperm competition trial was conducted to study the fertilization ability of sperms from three male rainbow trout. The proportions of larvae sired by different males were quantified using DNA microsatellite analysis. Larvae sired by male number 2 dominated the offsprings this male sired 56% and 48% of the offspring checked in the paternity test using OMM1036 and Ocl8 loci respectively. Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting revealed that duration of sperm motility was conducive to sperm competition success. There was no significant relationship between fertilization success and either relative sperm count or duration of sperm motility sperm count showed an inverse relationship with competition success (P95% when sufficient numbers (107 of spermatozoa per egg were used. Therefore, the fertilization success did not depend on whether sperm from one, or from a mixture of more males were used.

  2. Axicon-based annular laser trap for studies on sperm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bing; Vinson, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Esener, Sadik C.; Berns, Michael W.

    2005-08-01

    As a powerful and noninvasive tool, laser trapping has been widely applied for the confinement and physiological study of biological cells and organelles. Researchers have used the single spot laser trap to hold individual sperm and quantitatively evaluated the motile force generated by a sperm. Early studies revealed the relationship between sperm motility and swimming behavior and helped the investigations in medical aspects of sperm activity. As sperm chemotaxis draws more and more interest in fertilization research, the studies on sperm-egg communication may help to explain male or female infertility and provide exciting new approaches to contraception. However, single spot laser trapping can only be used to investigate an individual target, which has limits in efficiency and throughput. To study the chemotactic response of sperm to eggs and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap with a diameter of several hundred microns is designed, simulated with ray tracing tool, and implemented. An axicon transforms the wavefront such that the laser beam is incident on the microscope objective from all directions while filling the back aperture completely for high efficiency trapping. A trapping experiment with microspheres is carried out to evaluate the system performance. The power requirement for annular sperm trapping is determined experimentally and compared with theoretical calculations. With a chemo-attractant located in the center and sperm approaching from all directions, the annular laser trapping could serve as a speed bump for sperm so that motility characterization and fertility sorting can be performed efficiently.

  3. HSP90 expression correlation with the freezing resistance of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Wei; Zan, Lin-Sen; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Jia, Yong-Hong; Ma, Guo-Ji

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing-thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen-thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P HSP90 could probably lead to the higher motility and freezing resistance of sperm found after freezing-thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm. PMID:23506739

  4. Prospective approaches to avoid flock fertility problems: predictive assessment of sperm function traits in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A M

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses why it is important to evaluate males as individuals and how advances made in understanding and measurement of sperm function can be used to improve reproductive efficiency in poultry. Commercial turkey breeding relies on pooling semen from multiple toms. It generally is assumed that sperm in good quality semen from all toms are equally fecund. (Fecund is defined, for males, as an individual whose semen contains a majority of sperm with the potential of producing fertilized eggs, which includes success at all steps in the fertilization process: sperm movement, storage in the hens' sperm storage tubules, binding and penetrating the perivitelline layer, and fertilization.) However, when DNA fingerprinting was used to determine paternity efficiency after pooling ejaculates from seven or more toms, it was found that 18 of 26 males produced very few, or no, offspring. In addition, the traditional measures of poultry semen quality: semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, and subjective motility assessment, were poor predictors of paternity. In recent years, a concentrated effort has been made to develop and evaluate methods that quantify sperm function in poultry. Methods to measure some of these traits are reviewed: sperm motility, sperm storage in the hen, and sperm binding and penetration of the ovum. Data supporting use of these tools for managing flock fertility from the male perspective are explored. PMID:10090272

  5. Sperm characteristics and heterologous in vitro fertilisation capacity of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) epididymal sperm, frozen in the presence of the enzymatic antioxidant catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saucedo, J; Paramio, M T; Fierro, R; Izquierdo, D; Catalá, M G; Coloma, M A; Toledano-Díaz, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of catalase (CAT) on frozen/thawed ibex epididymal sperm recovered post mortem, and to detect any harmful effect this might have on sperm fertilisation capacity. Epididymal spermatozoa were diluted using a Tris-citric acid-glucose medium (TCG) composed of 3.8% Tris (w/v), 2.2% citric acid (w/v), 0.6% glucose (w/v), 5% glycerol (v/v), and 6% egg yolk (v/v). Sperm masses from the right epididymis were diluted with TCG medium, while those from the left were diluted with TCG medium supplemented with 200IU/mL CAT. Heterologous in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was used to assess the fertilisation capacity of this sperm. The addition of CAT to the extender did not improve frozen/thawed sperm variables. Moreover, a reduced fertilisation capacity was detected: sperm diluted with TCG provided 25.5% 2PN zygotes, while just 13.2% was recorded for that diluted with TCG-CAT (PTCG sperm than with the TCG-CAT sperm (16.7% vs. 7.6%). The use of 200IU/mL CAT as an additive cannot, therefore, be recommended for the preservation of ibex epididymal sperm. Other antioxidants should, however, be tested in both this and related wild mountain ungulates. PMID:24699464

  6. Motility and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm: Effect of post-thaw storage time and different sperm-to-egg ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Karim; Shabani, Nariman; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Noori, Elnaz

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to test the effect of post-thaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of Caspian brown trout (n=7). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 100,000:1, 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of cryopreserved Caspian brown semen. Quality was assessed by measuring sperm motility parameters and fertilization rates at the eyed and hatching stages. The percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were not affected by 60 min of storage, whereas a decrease in straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP) and linearity (LIN) were found in cryopreserved semen. Thus, the cryopreserved sperm of Caspian brown trout could be stored up to 60 min without loss of the percentage of sperm motility. The fertilization rate was not affected by 60 min of post-thaw storage and was over 70% for sperm-to-egg ratios of both 300,000 and 600,000:1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the high post-thaw fertilization ability of Caspian brown trout semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1. This procedure after scaling up can be recommended for routine Caspian brown trout sperm cryopreservation. PMID:26255243

  7. Dynamics of the induced acrosome reaction in boar sperm evaluated by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Anders; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Christensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the dynamics of the in vitro induced acrosome reaction (AR) in boar sperm in response to medium composition, incubation time and ionophore concentration. The AR is a prerequisite for normal sperm fertilizing capability and can be studied in vitro following induction...... information on sperm viability and acrosomal status. The ionophore induced AR was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, but could be easily induced in boar sperm without capacitation. Capacitation-associated plasma membrane phospholipid scrambling was assessed and a medium specific ability to induce these membrane...... changes was observed. Both sperm viability and the induced AR were significantly affected by sperm capacitation, incubation time and ionophore concentration. The results lead to suggestions for an optimized AR induction protocol that takes both sperm viability and the effectiveness of AR induction...

  8. Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid can protect the sperm of other males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    #  1. Many internally-fertilizing animals produce seminal fluid which is transferred along with sperm during mating. Seminal fluid typically contains a diverse range of chemicals that coordinate sperm storage, moderate sperm motility, provide advantages in sexual selection and influence female...... physiology. # 2. Seminal fluid is well-studied in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which it has been suggested to 'incapacitate' the sperm of rival males (e.g. by killing them) and thereby provide an advantage in sperm competition. This hypothesis has been tested several times over many years, but...... different male. This study therefore provides strong evidence that seminal fluid does not kill rival sperm, and instead can actually protect them. This study also tested whether chemicals in the female reproductive tract harm sperm as in another Drosophila species, but found no evidence of this. # 3. These...

  9. Effects of γ-rays irradiation on the ultrastructure of sperm of male anoplophora nobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructure of natural sperm and irradiated sperm of male Anoplophora nobilis were observed with transmission electron microscopy. The sperm of Anoplophora nobilis includes both sections of head and tail. The nucleus is of the main structure of the sperm head; the tail consists of mitochondrial derivatives and microtubules system. A 9 + 9 + 2 axonemal pattern composes 9 accessory microtubules, 9 double microtubules and 2 centriolar microtubules. The conglutination of two or more sperms was observed after Anoplophora nobilis was irradiated under the dose of 80 and 120Gy. Some accessory bodies were connecting to form a curving line and the conglutination of mitochondrial derivatives appeared too. The organelles in unconglutinated sperms arranged dispersedly, mitochondrial derivatives and accessory bodies along the both sides of axoneme deformed. No conspicuous differences were found in the ultrastructure of sperms between insects irradiated by the dose of 80 and that of 120Gy. (authors)

  10. Cooperation of Sperm in Two Dimensions: Synchronization, Attraction and Aggregation through Hydrodynamic Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yingzi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Sperm swimming at low Reynolds number have strong hydrodynamic interactions when their concentration is high in vivo or near substrates in vitro. The beating tails not only propel the sperm through a fluid, but also create flow fields through which sperm interact with each other. We study the hydrodynamic interaction and cooperation of sperm embedded in a two-dimensional fluid by using a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method, multi-particle collision dynamics (MPC). We analyze the sperm behavior by investigating the relationship between the beating-phase difference and the relative sperm position, as well as the energy consumption. Two effects of hydrodynamic interaction are found, synchronization and attraction. With these hydrodynamic effects, a multi-sperm system shows swarm behavior with a power-law dependence of the average cluster size on the width of the distribution of beating frequencies.

  11. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob;

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV...... according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive...... HPV array. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization were performed with HPV-6, HPV-16 and -18, and HPV-31-specific probes. The prevalence of HPV-positive sperm donors was 16.0% and in 66.7% of these individuals high-risk types of HPV were detected. In 5.3% of sperm...

  12. Fully effective contraception in male and female guinea pigs immunized with the sperm protein PH-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primakoff, P; Lathrop, W; Woolman, L; Cowan, A; Myles, D

    1988-10-01

    Immunization of male and female animals with extracts of whole sperm cells is known to cause infertility. Also, men and women who spontaneously produce antisperm antibodies are infertile but otherwise healthy. Although the critical sperm antigens are unknown, these observations have led to the proposal that sperm proteins might be useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine. The guinea pig sperm surface protein PH-20 is essential in sperm adhesion to the extracellular coat (zona pellucida) of the egg, a necessary initial step in fertilization. Here, we report that 100% effective contraception was obtained in male and female guinea pigs immunized with PH-20. Antisera from immunized females had high titres, specifically recognized PH-20 in sperm extracts, and blocked sperm adhesion to the egg zona pellucida in vitro. The contraceptive effect was long-lasting and reversible: immunized females, mated at intervals of six to fifteen months after immunization, progressively regained fertility. PMID:3419530

  13. Effect of Neem Oil on Sperm Mitochondrial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that neem oil has some effect on motility of sperm. Motility of sperm depends on mitochondrial activity present in mid-piece of sperm. In the present study, the mitochondrial activity of sperm was evaluated after treating semen with the different quantities of neem oil. The mitochondrial activity was also evaluated after subjecting the semen samples for different incubation periods keeping the quantity of semen as well as that of neem oil same. Tests were done on thirty normozoospermic semen samples with motile score more than 75%. It was found that as the quantity of neem oil increases, the mitochondrial activity decreases significantly (P < 0.001. Similar results were found, when same quantity of neem oil was treated with same quantity of semen, but incubating for different time durations. The mitochondrial activity decreases significantly (P < 0.001 from one minute to twenty minutes. So, it indicates that as the contact period between neem oil and semen increases the mitochondrial activity decreases significantly.

  14. Effect of ingested sperm on fecundity in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The intragastric administration of homologous strain epididymal sperm to adult virgin NZBW (Rt 1) female rats was shown to induce short-to long-term infertility. Infertility was associated with an early rise of genital secretory fluid IgA antisperm antibody preceding mating.

  15. Secular variations in sperm quality: fact or science fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Multigner

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The debate concerning the possible degradation in human sperm quality began in the 1970s, was revived at the beginning of the 1990s and has continued to mobilize the scientific community ever since. After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992 showing a decline in human semen quality over the last 50 years, several groups investigated the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who had provided semen at the same center for 10 to 20 years. A significant decrease in sperm concentration was reported in some studies, but not in others. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of reports suggesting that physical and chemical factors introduced and spread by human activity in the environment may have contributed to sperm decline. At the end of the 20th century the debate on declining semen quality is not closed. The lack of certainty and the serious consequences that such a decline would have on the fertility of human populations make this an important public health issue at the start of the 21st century. For this reason, intensive research should be developed in both fundamental and epidemiological domains, particularly in South America, where industrial and agricultural pollution pose a serious threat to the population.

  16. Secular variations in sperm quality: fact or science fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Multigner Luc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The debate concerning the possible degradation in human sperm quality began in the 1970s, was revived at the beginning of the 1990s and has continued to mobilize the scientific community ever since. After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992 showing a decline in human semen quality over the last 50 years, several groups investigated the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who had provided semen at the same center for 10 to 20 years. A significant decrease in sperm concentration was reported in some studies, but not in others. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of reports suggesting that physical and chemical factors introduced and spread by human activity in the environment may have contributed to sperm decline. At the end of the 20th century the debate on declining semen quality is not closed. The lack of certainty and the serious consequences that such a decline would have on the fertility of human populations make this an important public health issue at the start of the 21st century. For this reason, intensive research should be developed in both fundamental and epidemiological domains, particularly in South America, where industrial and agricultural pollution pose a serious threat to the population.

  17. 51. Mutagenicity Study of Cyclophoshpamide on Human Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Whether Cyclophoshpamide(CP) has mutagenicity on germ cell or not is paid close attention to. This paper studied the mutagenicity of CP on germ cell by adopting human sperm chromosome and micronuclus in two-cell embryo. Semen samples obtained from healthy male were liquefied、dealed with Ca2+, and exposed to four

  18. Secular variations in sperm quality: fact or science fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multigner, Luc; Oliva, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    The debate concerning the possible degradation in human sperm quality began in the 1970s, was revived at the beginning of the 1990s and has continued to mobilize the scientific community ever since. After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992) showing a decline in human semen quality over the last 50 years, several groups investigated the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who had provided semen at the same center for 10 to 20 years. A significant decrease in sperm concentration was reported in some studies, but not in others. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of reports suggesting that physical and chemical factors introduced and spread by human activity in the environment may have contributed to sperm decline. At the end of the 20th century the debate on declining semen quality is not closed. The lack of certainty and the serious consequences that such a decline would have on the fertility of human populations make this an important public health issue at the start of the 21st century. For this reason, intensive research should be developed in both fundamental and epidemiological domains, particularly in South America, where industrial and agricultural pollution pose a serious threat to the population. PMID:11923881

  19. Reproduction and sperm structure in Galeommatidae (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse; Lützen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    brood chamber as masses of agglutinated and non-encapsulated spermatozoa. The smallest specimens are males, but change into the female sex and there is a strong indication that some of the species are alternate hermaphrodites. Dwarf males occur in one species (Galeomma layardi). The sperm of all 18...

  20. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  1. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6 and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards.

  2. Mirror-symmetry breakings in human sperm rheotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Norbert; Bukatin, Anton; Kukhtevich, Igor; Dunkel, Joern; Kantsler, Vasily

    Rheotaxis, the directed response to fluid velocity gradients, has been shown to facilitate stable upstream-swimming of mammalian sperm cells along solid surfaces, suggesting a robust mechanism for long-distance navigation during fertilization. However, the dynamics by which a human sperm orients itself w.r.t. ambient flows is poorly understood. Here, we combine microfluidic experiments with mathematical modeling and 3D flagellar beat reconstruction to quantify the response of individual sperm cells in time-varying flow fields. Single-cell tracking reveals two kinematically distinct swimming states that entail opposite turning behaviors under flow reversal. We constrain an effective 2D model for the turning dynamics through systematic large-scale parameter scans, and find good quantitative agreement with experiments. We present comprehensive 3D data demonstrating the rolling dynamics of freely swimming sperm cells around their longitudinal axis. Contrary to current beliefs, this analysis uncovers ambidextrous flagellar waveforms and shows that the cell's turning direction is is not defined by the rolling direction. Instead, the different rheotactic turning behaviors are linked to a broken mirror-symmetry in the midpiece section, likely arising from a buckling instability.

  3. Selection of X chromosome of buffaloes sperm with Percoll gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stella

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the selection of X chromosome of buffaloes sperm with Percoll gradients. The stock solution of Percoll was prepared in the proportion of 1:11 (1 part of Percoll:11 parts of a solution containing KCl 1M, NaH2PO4 0.1M, NaCl 1.5M and sodium HEPES 23.8 g/ml. In order to prepare 9 different gradients were added to the stocked Percoll the A solution (glicine-yolk extender in the following proportions: 90, 80, 72, 65, 57, 49, 34 and 25%. A sample of 0.7 ml of the fresh semen was deposited at 2 ml of Percoll 80% for the sperm wash. The precipitate was put in tube with 0.7 ml of each gradient. Then, the precipitated was washed in TES solution by centrifugation (500xg for 10 minutes, and collected again and diluted in TES solution to be freeze. The presence of the F body in the spermatozoa was observed in 58.7 ± 5.4% of the control group and in 41.2 ± 5.4% of the treated group (p<0.01. This result showed an increment of 17.55 of male sperm in the Percoll’s group. The reduction of the centrifugation force did not improve the percentage of X sperm.

  4. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulev Assen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF, offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  5. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  6. Effects of the Czech Propolis on Sperm Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Miklikova, Michaela; Stachova, Lenka; Grundmanova, Martina; Tuma, Zdenek; Vetvicka, Vaclav; Zech, Nicolas; Kralickova, Milena; Kuncova, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product that honeybees collect from various plants. It is known for its beneficial pharmacological effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of propolis on human sperm motility, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and membrane potential. Semen samples from 10 normozoospermic donors were processed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Propolis effects on the sperm motility and mitochondrial activity parameters were tested in the fresh ejaculate and purified spermatozoa. Propolis preserved progressive motility of spermatozoa in the native semen samples. Oxygen consumption determined in purified permeabilized spermatozoa by high-resolution respirometry in the presence of adenosine diphosphate and substrates of complex I and complex II (state OXPHOSI+II) was significantly increased in the propolis-treated samples. Propolis also increased uncoupled respiration in the presence of rotenone (state ETSII) and complex IV activity, but it did not influence state LEAK induced by oligomycin. Mitochondrial membrane potential was not affected by propolis. This study demonstrates that propolis maintains sperm motility in the native ejaculates and increases activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes II and IV without affecting mitochondrial membrane potential. The data suggest that propolis improves the total mitochondrial respiratory efficiency in the human spermatozoa in vitro thereby having potential to improve sperm motility. PMID:25104965

  7. Sperm Motility Requires Wnt/GSK3 Stabilization of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Edward M; Ploper, Diego

    2015-11-23

    Inhibition of GSK3 by Wnt signaling stabilizes many cellular proteins, but proof that this effect is independent of β-catenin-mediated transcription is lacking. Koch, Acebron, and colleagues (2015) now demonstrate that transcriptionally silent mammalian sperm require Wnt signaling via exosomes to prevent protein degradation during their lengthy travels through the epididymis. PMID:26609954

  8. Post-Translational Modifications of Histones in Human Sperm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Jana; Stixová, Lenka; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lochmanová, G.; Zdráhal, Z.; Sehnalová, Petra; Dabravolski, S.; Hejatko, J.; Bártová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 10 (2015), s. 2195-2209. ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : HUMAN SPERM * HISTONES * PROTAMINE P2 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  9. Association between chronic pain and the sperm motion characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf;

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones play an important role in pain in many chronic pain conditions. Relationship between chronic pain and sperm quality has not been investigated thoroughly and may provide an insight to better understanding, management and treatment of cases where chronic pain and male sub-fertility co-...

  10. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (P<0.05). However, from the three monosaccharides tested, glucose provided the best sperm quality after freezing-thawing. With respect to the disaccharides studied, samples frozen with the extender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (P<0.05) in the samples cryopreserved with the trehalose extender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. PMID:22771077

  11. A simulation study of sperm motility hydrodynamics near fish eggs and spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Kenta; Cosson, Jacky; Gaffney, Eamonn A

    2016-01-21

    For teleost fish fertilisation, sperm must proceed through a small opening on the egg surface, referred to as the micropyle. In this paper, we have used boundary element simulations to explore whether the hydrodynamic attraction between sperm and a fish egg can be a sperm guidance cue. Hydrodynamical egg-sperm interactions alone do not increase the chances of an egg encounter, nor do they induce surface swimming for virtual turbot fish sperm across smooth spheres with a diameter of 1mm, which is representative of a turbot fish egg. When a repulsive surface force between the virtual turbot sperm and the egg is introduced, as motivated by surface charge and van-der-Waals interactions for instance, we find that extended surface swimming of the virtual sperm across a model turbot egg occurs, but ultimately the sperm escapes from the egg. This is due to the small exit angle of the scattering associated with the initial sperm-egg interaction at the egg surface, leading to a weak drift away from the egg, in combination with a weak hydrodynamical attraction between both gametes, though the latter is not sufficient to prevent eventual escape. The resulting transience is not observed experimentally but is a detailed quantitative difference between theory and observation in that stable surface swimming is predicted for eggs with radii larger than about 1.8mm. Regardless, the extended sperm swimming trajectory across the egg constitutes a two-dimensional search for the micropyle and thus the egg is consistently predicted to provide a guidance cue for sperm once they are sufficiently close. In addition, the observation that the virtual turbot sperm swims stably next to a flat plane given repulsive surface interactions, but does not swim stably adjacent to a turbot-sized egg, which is extremely large by sperm-lengthscales, also highlights that the stability of sperm swimming near a boundary is very sensitive to geometry. PMID:26542943

  12. Evaluation of CD52 positive sperms in subfertile human semen samples: Is there any relationship with main semen parameters?

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanak Aboutorabi; Fatemeh Mazani; Laleh Rafiee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sperm maturation and sperm membrane integration are the most important elements in male fertility. CD52 is one of the antigens. CD52 is a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored that express on lymphocytes and epididymal cells. This antigen bind to sperm membrane during transition sperm from epididymal duct as well as its relationship with semenogelins in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to obtain any association between the percentage of CD52 positive sperms wi...

  13. Sperm velocity and longevity trade off each other and influence fertilization in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, D R

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical prediction that fast sperm should be more effective at fertilizing eggs has never been documented empirically. Interspecific comparisons suggest an inverse relationship between sperm velocity and sperm longevity but this trade-off has never been demonstrated within a species. Here I investigate how sperm velocity and sperm longevity influence the patterns of fertilization in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. In the laboratory I examined 11 male female pairs of sea urchins ...

  14. Characterization of sperm surface protein patterns of ejaculated and capacitated boar sperm, with the detection of ZP binding candidates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zigo, Michal; Jonáková, Věra; Šulc, Miroslav; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, oct (2013), s. 322-328. ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Sperm surface protein * Zona pellucida-binding receptors * PKDREJ protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2013

  15. The Effect of Orally Administered L-carnitine on Testis Tissue Sperm Parameters and Daily Sperm Production in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate body and testis weight, testis tissue,counts, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, aswell as the testicular spermatid number (TSN per gram of testis, and daily sperm production(DSP in L-carnitine treated mice.Materials and Methods: In the present study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age of 4weeks were administered L-carnitine by gavage for two weeks. The experimental groupsreceived 1mg L-carnitine/100 μl deionized water and 10 mg L-carnitine/100 μl deionizedwater, respectively. The control group did not receive L-carnitine. All samples were assessedaccording to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Sperm morphology wasassessed with papanicula staining. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed using anilinebluestaining.The left testes were fixed in Bouins solution for histological examination and the end sliceswere stained with hematoxilin and eosin (H&E. The right testis was homogenized, andTSN and DSP were calculated with an improved neubauer haemocytometer and respectiveformula.Results: Administration of L-carnitine induced significant reduction in body weight (p<0.05and an increase in tchromatine quality (p<0.05. Amongst the other parameters no significantdifferences were observed in all groups.Conclusion: These results show that oral administration of L-carnitine to mice with normalspermatogenesis does not have any significant effect on the reproductive systems.Thus, L-carnitine seems to be ineffective in normospermic animals.

  16. D-penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination by reducing the disulphide bonds of a copper-binding sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-05-01

    Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrode's capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN. Oxidative stress is also an unlikely mechanism of sperm association, as PEN was significantly more effective in ameliorating agglutination than the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and catalase. Only the reducing agents cysteine and dl-dithiothreitol displayed similar levels of non-agglutinated spermatozoa at 0 h compared with PEN but were less effective after 3 h of incubation (37 °C). The addition of 10 µM Cu(2+) to 250 µM PEN + TALP caused a rapid reversion of the motile sperm population from a non-agglutinated state to an agglutinated state. Other heavy metals (cobalt, iron, manganese and zinc) did not provoke such a strong response. Together, these results indicate that PEN prevents sperm association by the reduction of disulphide bonds on a sperm membrane protein that binds copper. ADAM proteins are possible candidates, as targeted inhibition of the metalloproteinase domain significantly increased the percentage of motile, non-agglutinated spermatozoa (52.0% ± 7.8) compared with TALP alone (10.6% ± 6.1).Reproduction (2016) 151 1-10. PMID:26860122

  17. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): a preliminary study using mtDNA sequence analysis with evidence of random distribution of MitoTracker-stained sperm mitochondria in fertilized eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Mayu; Shimizu, Michiyo; Sano, Natsumi; Komaru, Akira

    2008-03-01

    In many bivalve species, paternal and maternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from sperm and eggs is transmitted to the offspring. This phenomenon is known as doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). In these species, sperm mtDNA (M type) is inherited by the male gonad of the offspring. Egg mtDNA (F type) is inherited by both male and female somatic cells and female gonadal cells. In Mytilidae, sperm mitochondria are distributed in the cytoplasm of differentiating male germ cells because they are transmitted to the male gonad. In the present study, we investigated maternal inheritance of mtDNA in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Sequence analysis of two mitochondrial non-coding regions revealed an identical sequence pattern in the gametes and adductor muscle samples taken from six males and five females. To observe whether sperm mitochondria were specifically located in the cytoplasm of differentiating germ cells, their distribution was recorded in C. gigas fertilized eggs by vital staining with MitoTracker Green. Although the 1D blastomere was identified in the cytoplasm of differentiating germ cells, sperm mitochondria were located at the 1D blastomere in only 32% of eggs during the 8-cell stage. Thus, in C. gigas, sperm mitochondria do not specifically locate in the germ cell region at the 1D blastomere. We suggest that the distribution of sperm mitochondria is not associated with germ cell formation in C. gigas. Furthermore, as evidenced by the mtDNA sequences of two non-coding regions, we conclude that mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited in this species. PMID:18393561

  18. Quantification of mammalian sperm morphology by slit-scan flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The head shapes of mammalian sperm were measured by slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM). Fluorescence profiles were measured for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice exposed to testicular x-irradiation from 0 to 900 rads. Some of the fluorescence profiles for sperm from the irradiated mice differed significantly from the profiles usually measured for sperm from unexposed mice. An algorithm was developed to determine the frequency of these sperm. The estimated frequencies of atypical profiles correlated well with the frequencies of abnormally shaped sperm determined by microscopic scoring. The maximum SSFCM sensitivity was not as high as that for the visual assay. However, only 100 profiles were measured by SSFCM at each dose while at least 500 sperm were scored visually at each dose. The sensitivity of the SSFCM assay should be increased substantially by measuring more profiles. The objective nature of SSFCM coupled with the high correlation with results from the visually based assay of morphology suggests the use of SSFCM to measure frequencies of misshapen sperm when testing for mutagens or monitoring for effects of environmental contaminants

  19. A nonsemen copulatory fluid influences the outcome of sperm competition in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finseth, F R; Iacovelli, S R; Harrison, R G; Adkins-Regan, E K

    2013-09-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful and widespread evolutionary force that drives the divergence of behavioural, physiological and morphological traits. Elucidating the mechanisms governing differential fertilization success is a fundamental question of sperm competition. Both sperm and nonsperm ejaculate components can influence sperm competition outcomes. Here, we investigate the role of a nonsemen copulatory fluid in sperm competition. Male Japanese quail possess a gland that makes meringue-like foam. Males produce and store foam independent of sperm and seminal fluid, yet transfer foam to females during copulation. We tested whether foam influenced the outcome of sperm competition by varying foam state and mating order in competitive matings. We found that the presence of foam from one male decreased the relative fertilization success of a rival, and that foam from a given male increased the probability he obtained any fertilizations. Mating order also affected competitive success. Males mated first fertilized proportionally more eggs in a clutch and had more matings with any fertilizations than subsequent males. We conclude that the function of foam in sperm competition is mediated through the positive interaction of foam with a male's sperm, and we speculate whether the benefit is achieved through improving sperm storage, fertilizing efficiency or retention. Our results suggest males can evolve complex strategies to gain fertilizations at the expense of rivals as foam, a copulatory fluid not required for fertilization, nevertheless, has important effects on reproductive performance under competition. PMID:23890178

  20. Unravelling anisogamy: egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on morphology in free-swimming sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-13

    Gamete dimorphism (anisogamy) defines the sexes in most multicellular organisms. Theoretical explanations for its maintenance usually emphasize the size-related selection pressures of sperm competition and zygote survival, assuming that fertilization of all eggs precludes selection for phenotypes that enhance fertility. In external fertilizers, however, fertilization is often incomplete due to sperm limitation, and the risk of polyspermy weakens the advantage of high sperm numbers that is predicted to limit sperm size, allowing alternative selection pressures to target free-swimming sperm. We asked whether egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on the free-swimming sperm of Galeolaria caespitosa, a marine tubeworm with external fertilization, by comparing relationships between sperm morphology and male fertility across manipulations of egg size and sperm density. Our results suggest that selection pressures exerted by these factors may aid the maintenance of anisogamy in external fertilizers by limiting the adaptive value of larger sperm in the absence of competition. In doing so, our study offers a more complete explanation for the stability of anisogamy across the range of sperm environments typical of this mating system and identifies new potential for the sexes to coevolve via mutual selection pressures exerted by gametes at fertilization. PMID:27412273

  1. Transport, Distribution and Elimination of Mammalian Sperm Following Natural Mating and Insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölle, S

    2015-09-01

    The integrity of transport, distribution and elimination of sperm in the female genital tract plays a pivotal role for successful reproduction in mammals. At coitus, millions or billions of sperm are deposited either into the anterior vagina (human, primates), the cervix (most mammalian species) or the uterus (pig). In most species, the first anatomical barrier is the cervix, where spermatozoa with poor morphology and motility are filtered out by sticking to the cervical mucus. The second anatomical barrier is the uterotubal junction (UTJ) with its tortuous and narrow lumen. Finally, only a few thousand sperm enter the oviduct and less than 100 sperm reach the site of fertilization. As soon as the sperm enter the oviduct, they form a sperm reservoir enabling them to stay vital and maintain fertilizing capacity for 3-4 days (cow, horse) up to several months (bats). After ovulation, mammalian sperm show hyperactivation which allows them to detach from the tubal epithelium and migrate to the site of fertilization. This review will focus on recent insights of sperm transport, sperm storage and sperm-oviduct interaction in mammals which have been gained by live cell imaging in cows and mice under near in vivo conditions. Detailed knowledge of the biology of spermatozoa within the female genital tract creates the basis for new therapeutic concepts for male subfertility and infertility - an essential prerequisite to increase success rates in assisted reproduction. PMID:26382022

  2. Fertility Assessment in Sorraia Stallions by Sperm-Fish and Fkbp6 Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjöllerström, H J; do Mar Oom, M; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-06-01

    The Sorraia, a critically endangered indigenous Iberian horse breed, is characterized by low genetic variability, high rate of inbreeding, bad sperm quality and subfertility. Here, we studied 11 phenotypically normal but subfertile Sorraia stallions by karyotyping, sex chromosome sperm-FISH and molecular analysis of FKBP6 - a susceptibility locus for impaired acrosome reaction (IAR). The stallions had normal sperm concentration (>300 million cells/ml), but the numbers of progressively motile sperm (21%) and morphologically normal sperm (28%) were invariably low. All stallions had a normal 64,XY karyotype. The majority of sperm (89%) had normal haploid sex chromosome content, although 11% of sperm carried various sex chromosome aneuploidies. No correlation was found between the percentage of sperm sex chromosome abnormalities and inbreeding, sperm morphology or stallion age. Direct sequencing of FKBP6 exon 4 for SNPs g.11040315G>A and g.11040379C>A revealed that none of the stallions had the susceptibility genotype (A/A-A/A) for IAR. Instead, all animals had a G/G-A/A genotype - a testimony of low genetic variability. The findings ruled out chromosomal abnormalities and genetic predisposition for IAR as contributing factors for subfertility. However, low fertility of the Sorraia stallions could be partly attributed to relatively higher rate of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the sperm. PMID:27020485

  3. Combined Effect of Trolox and EDTA on Frozen-Thawed Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Keshtgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The freezing and thawing process not only is associated with serious damage to sperm such as damage to the plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane but also changes the membrane permeability to some ions including calcium. Also, the generation of oxygen free radicals is increased during the freezing-thawing process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of the effects of Trolox as an antioxidant and edetic acid (EDTA as a calcium chelator on frozen-thawed (FT sperm and compare these effects with those on fresh sperm. This study was done on these men of 25 healthy men, who referred to Shiraz Infertility Centerbetween2012 and2013. Normal samples were transferred to the ReproductivePhysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz. The samples were divided into two groups randomly: fresh and FT sperm groups. Each group was divided into five subgroups: control group, the solvent group (0.1%dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], Trolox group (200μM, EDTA group (1.1mM, and Trolox+EDTA group. The percentages of motility, viability, and acrosome-reacted sperm were tested. The percentages of motility and viability in the FT sperm were lower than those in the fresh sperm. The progressive motility of the FT sperm was improved nonsignificantly with Trolox+EDTA. However, the effect of Trolox+EDTA on the progressive motility of the FT sperm was much more than that on the fresh sperm. The fewest acrosome-reacted sperm were observed in the EDTA-containingFT sperm. Antioxidant supplementation or omission of extracellular calcium may partly improve motility and also reduce acrosomal damage in FT sperm.

  4. In vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in sperm of the phyllostomid bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Guerrero, Alma; González-Díaz, Francisco; Medrano, Alfredo; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-04-01

    Sperm capacitation occurs during the passage of sperm through the female reproductive tract. Once the sperm binds to the pellucid zone, the acrosome reaction to enable penetration of the oocyte is completed. In this study, sperm of Artibeus jamaicensis bat was used to evaluate both capacitation status and the acrosome reaction under in vitro conditions, incubating sperm at 32 and 37°C with and without progesterone. Sperm was incubated at different times to assess sperm cells' functionality in terms of capacitation and acrosome reaction, using the chlortetracycline staining, lectin fluoresceinisocyanate conjugate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA), and transmission electron microscopy. Sperm cells that presented uniform fluorescence throughout the head and mid-piece were classified as non-capacitated. Subsequently, sperm cells, which were observed with fluorescence only in the anterior portion of the head and mid-piece, were classified as capacitated. Sperm cells with no fluorescence in the head, but fluorescence in the mid-piece, were categorized as sperm cells that have carried out the acrosome reaction. During the acrosome reaction, sperm cells showed changes in their morphology, so it was not possible to distinguish the plasma and acrosomal membranes. Around the entire head, it was not possible to distinguish the fusion points between these membranes that made it possible for the acrosomal reaction to take place and thus to release the enzymes necessary to penetrate the pellucid zone. In conclusion, under appropriate in vitro conditions and by supplementing the culture medium with progesterone, A. jamaicensis bat sperm cells are able to be capacitated in a period from 6 to 8 h and to carry out the acrosome reaction. PMID:26744028

  5. Apical blebs on sperm-storage tubule epithelial cell microvilli: their release and interaction with resident sperm in the turkey hen oviduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Located at the anterior end of the turkey hen vagina are numerous discrete tubular invaginations of the surface epithelium, collectively referred to as the sperm-storage tubules (SSTs). Following mating or artificial insemination, sperm ascend the vagina, enter the SSTs, and ove...

  6. Isolating Sperm from Cell Mixtures Using Magnetic Beads Coupled with an Anti-PH-20 Antibody for Forensic DNA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Chun; Wang, Le; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Bo-Wei; Zhang, Er-Li; Ye, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal swabs taken in rape cases usually contain epithelial cells from the victim and sperm from the assailant and forensic DNA analysis requires separation of sperm from these cell mixtures. PH-20, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored hyaluronidase located on the head of sperm, has important functions in fertilization. Here we describe a newly developed method for sperm isolation using anti-PH-20 antibody-coupled immunomagnetic beads (anti-PH-20 IMBs). Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the IMBs recognized the head of sperm specifically and exhibited a great capacity to capture sperm cells. However, we found it necessary to incubate the IMB–sperm complex with DNase I before sperm lysis in order to remove any female DNA completely. We compared the sensitivity of anti-PH-20 IMBs in sperm and epithelial cell discrimination to those coated with a different anti-sperm antibody (anti-SP-10, anti-ADAM2 or anti-JLP). Only the anti-PH-20 IMBs succeeded in isolating sperm from cell mixtures at a sperm/epithelial cell ratio of 103:105. Further, our method exhibited greater power and better stability for sperm isolation compared to the traditional differential lysis strategy. Taken together, the anti-PH-20 IMB method described here could be effective for the isolation of sperm needed to obtain a single-sourced DNA profile as an aid to identifying the perpetrator in sexual assault cases. PMID:27442128

  7. Laboratory processing and intracytoplasmic sperm injection using epididymal and testicular spermatozoa: what can be done to improve outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wana Popal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two main reasons why sperm may be absent from semen. Obstructive azoospermia is the result of a blockage in the male reproductive tract; in this case, sperm are produced in the testicle but are trapped in the epididymis. Non-obstructive azoospermia is the result of severely impaired or non-existent sperm production. There are three different sperm-harvesting procedures that obstructive azoospermic males can undergo, namely MESA (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration, PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration, and TESA (testicular sperm aspiration. These three procedures are performed by fine-gauge needle aspiration of epididymal fluid that is examined by an embryologist. Additionally, one technique, called TESE (testicular sperm extraction, is offered for males with non-obstructive azoospermia. In this procedure, a urologist extracts a piece of tissue from the testis. Then, an embryologist minces the tissue and uses a microscope to locate sperm. Finding sperm in the testicular tissue can be a laborious 2- to 3-hour process depending on the degree of sperm production and the etiology of testicular failure. Sperm are freed from within the seminiferous tubules and then dissected from the surrounding testicular tissue. It is specifically these situations that require advanced reproductive techniques, such as ICSI, to establish a pregnancy. This review describes eight different lab processing techniques that an embryologist can use to harvest sperm. Additionally, sperm cryopreservation, which allows patients to undergo multiple ICSI cycles without the need for additional surgeries, will also be discussed.

  8. AB071. The molecular mechanism of acrosome formation and globozoospermia

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Yaoting

    2015-01-01

    Objective The acrosome is a specialized organelle that covers the anterior part of the sperm nucleus and plays an essential role in the process of fertilization. The present study is to review the molecular mechanism of acrosome formation and explore its relationship with globozoospermia Methods We reviewed the published papers from PubMed, and also report some research progress of acrosome formation in our laboratory. Results Acrosome formation can be divided into four stages: Golgi-phase, c...

  9. Gastrointestinal leiomyosarcoma in a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Angelique; Dark, Michael; Kondo, Hirotaka; Rotstein, David S; Kiupel, Matti; Walsh, Michael T; Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Gordon, Nadia; Conway, Julia A

    2013-09-01

    An adult male pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) was stranded within a tidal pool on Fernandina Beach on the north Florida Atlantic coast (USA) and expired soon after discovery. Necropsy findings included a small intestinal mass markedly expanding the intestinal wall and partially obstructing the lumen. This finding likely led to the malnutrition and ultimately the stranding of this whale. The differential diagnoses for the mass based on gross evaluation included a duodenal adenocarcinoma, leiomyoma/sarcoma, gastrointestinal stroma tumor, and benign/malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, previously referred to as neurofibromas or schwannomas. The mass was presumptively diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma via routine histopathology and confirmed by immunoreactivity for desmin and smooth actin (SMA). KIT, a gene name for CD 117, was negative, excluding a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Leiomyosarcomas have been reported within numerous wild and domestic species, although this is the first reported case of any neoplasm in a pygmy sperm whale (K. breviceps). PMID:24063105

  10. Barriers to male transmission of mitochondrial DNA in sperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Steven Z; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2012-03-13

    Across the eukaryotic phylogeny, offspring usually inherit their mitochondrial genome from only one of two parents: in animals, the female. Although mechanisms that eliminate paternally derived mitochondria from the zygote have been sought, the developmental stage at which paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA is restricted is unknown in most animals. Here, we show that the mitochondria of mature Drosophila sperm lack DNA, and we uncover two processes that eliminate mitochondrial DNA during spermatogenesis. Visualization of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids revealed their abrupt disappearance from developing spermatids in a process requiring the mitochondrial nuclease, Endonuclease G. In Endonuclease G mutants, persisting nucleoids are swept out of spermatids by a cellular remodeling process that trims and shapes spermatid tails. Our results show that mitochondrial DNA is eliminated during spermatogenesis, thereby removing the capacity of sperm to transmit the mitochondrial genome to the next generation. PMID:22421049

  11. Microfluidic ratchets: from bacterial separation to sperm guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, Carlos; Berdakin, Ivan; Marconi, Veronica; Guidobaldi, Alejandro; Giojalas, Laura; Silhanek, Alejandro; Jeyaram, Yogesh; Moshchalkov, Victor; Venken, Lyn; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that a suitably built asymmetric microdevice can be used to separate and select self-propelled microorganisms. The efficiency of this rectification effect depends on the detailed dynamics of the individual microorganism. In the case of run-and-tumble bacteria we show that the distribution of run lengths and the partial preservation of run orientation memory through a tumble are important factors when computing the rectification efficiency. In addition, we show that this ratchet effect can be used to separate or concentrate sperm cells. Using a simple phenomenological model we optimize the geometry of the confining habitat in order to accumulate the cells. Both swimming strategy and swimmer size should be taken into account to optimize the design of a micro-patterned architecture for a device that can be used for effective physical bacterial separation or sperm guidance. We acknowledge support from UNC, MINCyT and CONICET, Argentina, and FWO and KUL, Belgium.

  12. Analysis of Change in Sperm Quality of Chinese Fertile Men druing 1981-1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树成; 王弘毅; 王介东

    1999-01-01

    By literature search,114 papers for fertile male sperm quality including 256 set data were collected from 9292 persons and 11 726 assays involving 39 cities and counties.Results of analysis showed a decrease in mean concentration of sperm from 103.02×106/ml(1983)to 83. 84×106/ml(1996),sperm motility was decreasedfrom 75.11%(1982)to 67.27%(1996)and percentage of sperm with normal morphology was reduced from 85.02%(1983)to 77.89%(1996),thus showing the definite negative correlation and being statistically significant(P0.05).It is interesting to note that although Chinese sperm quality is better,it declines significantly faster than that of western countries at the same period.It is possible that the decline of sperm quality is due to problem of environmental quality.The authors suggest the emphasis of basic research in relevant fields.

  13. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P 60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection. PMID:26268795

  14. Cooperation of sperm in two dimensions: Synchronization, attraction, and aggregation through hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingzi; Elgeti, Jens; Gompper, Gerhard

    2008-12-01

    Sperm swimming at low Reynolds number have strong hydrodynamic interactions when their concentration is high in vivo or near substrates in vitro. The beating tails not only propel the sperm through a fluid, but also create flow fields through which sperm interact with each other. We study the hydrodynamic interaction and cooperation of sperm embedded in a two-dimensional fluid by using a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method, multiparticle collision dynamics. We analyze the sperm behavior by investigating the relationship between the beating-phase difference and the relative sperm position, as well as the energy consumption. Two effects of hydrodynamic interaction are found, synchronization and attraction. With these hydrodynamic effects, a multisperm system shows swarm behavior with a power-law dependence of the average cluster size on the width of the distribution of beating frequencies.

  15. Multiple needle-pass percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration as first-line treatment in azoospermic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C F S; Ohl, D A; Hiner, M R;

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) has been known for decades as a simple, minimally invasive approach to sperm retrieval in azoospermic men. Because of lower reported sperm retrieval rates (SRR) when compared with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), many centers now....../31 OA men had spermatozoa found for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a subsequent therapeutic TESA. In nine NOA men in whom a TESA produced no spermatozoa, only one had spermatozoa found with mTESE. Overall complication rates of TESA and mTESE were 3% (7/267) and 21% (3/14), respectively. TESA...... provides reasonable SRR and is a safe procedure. Successful prognostic TESA indicates future success with therapeutic TESA. Men with a failed TESA have a limited chance of sperm retrieval using mTESE. Approaching azoospermic men with an initial prognostic TESA followed by either therapeutic TESA and/or m...

  16. Sperm DNA damage in male infertility: etiologies, assays, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Ryan T.; Ohl, Dana A; Sigman, Mark; Smith, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Current means of evaluation of male factor infertility remains routine semen analysis including seminal volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. However, approximately 15% of patients with male factor infertility have a normal semen analysis and a definitive diagnosis of male infertility often cannot be m...

  17. Progress of sperm Izumo relocation during spontaneous acrosome reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Šebková, N.; Veselá, K.; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    Montréal : Society for the Study of Reproduction, 2013 - (Suarez, S.). s. 167-168 [SSR 46th Annual Meeteing. Reproduction Health: Nano to Global. 22.07.2013-26.07.2013, Montréal] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Izumo * Acrosome reaction * Sperm capacitation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. Sexual selection, germline mutation rate and sperm competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller AP

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of sexual selection arises because females obtain viability benefits for their offspring from their mate choice. Females choosing extra-pair fertilization generally favor males with exaggerated secondary sexual characters, and extra-pair paternity increases the variance in male reproductive success. Furthermore, females are assumed to benefit from 'good genes' from extra-pair sires. How additive genetic variance in such viability genes is maintained despite strong directional selection remains an evolutionary enigma. We propose that sexual selection is associated with elevated mutation rates, changing the balance between mutation and selection, thereby increasing variance in fitness and hence the benefits to be obtained from good genes sexual selection. Two hypotheses may account for such elevated mutation: (1 Increased sperm production associated with sperm competition may increase mutation rate. (2 Mutator alleles increase mutation rates that are revealed by the expression of condition-dependent secondary sexual characters used by choosy females during their mate choice. M Petrie has independently developed the idea that mutator alleles may account for the maintenance of genetic variation in viability despite strong directional selection. Results A comparative study of birds revealed a positive correlation between mutation rate at minisatellite loci and extra-pair paternity, but not between mutation rate and relative testes mass which is a measure of relative sperm production. Minisatellite mutation rates were not related to longevity, suggesting a meiotic rather than a mitotic origin of mutations. Conclusion We found evidence of increased mutation rate in species with more intense sexual selection. Increased mutation was not associated with increased sperm production, and we suggest that species with intense sexual selection may maintain elevated mutation rates because sexual selection continuously

  19. Effect of saffron on rat sperm chromatin integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mardani; Ahmad Vaez; Shahnaz Razavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, relation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) ROS concentration and semen quality was indicated. Saffron has traditionally been not only considered as a food additive but also as a medicinal herb, which has a good antioxidant properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection potency of saffron and vitamin E on sperm chromatin integrity. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats divided equally into saffron (100 mg/kg), vitamin E (10...

  20. Role of Ion Channels in the Sperm Acrosome Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Carmen; Treviño, Claudia L; Mata-Martínez, Esperanza; Chávez, Julio C; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Baker, Mark; Darszon, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The acrosome reaction (AR) is a unique exocytotic process where the acrosome, a single membrane-delimited specialized organelle, overlying the nucleus in the sperm head of many species, fuses with the overlying plasma membrane. This reaction, triggered by physiological inducers from the female gamete, its vicinity, or other stimuli, discharges the acrosomal content modifying the plasma membrane, incorporating the inner acrosomal membrane, and exposing it to the extracellular medium. The AR is essential for sperm-egg coat penetration, fusion with the eggs' plasma membrane, and fertilization. As in most exocytotic processes Ca(2+) is crucial for the AR, as well as intracellular pH and membrane potential changes. Thus, among the required processes needed for this reaction, ion permeability changes involving channels are pivotal. In spite of the key role ion channels play in the AR, their identity and regulation is not fully understood. Though molecular and pharmacological evidence indicates that various ionic channels participate during the AR, such as store-operated Ca(2+) channels and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, whole cell patch clamp recordings have failed to detect some of them until now. Since sperm display a very high resistance and a minute cytoplasmic volume, very few channels are needed to achieve large membrane potential and concentration changes. Functional detection of few channels in the morphologically complex and tiny sperm poses technical problems, especially when their conductance is very small, as in the case of SOCs. Single channel recordings and novel fluorescence microscopy strategies will help to define the participation of ionic channels in the intertwined signaling network that orchestrates the AR. PMID:27194349

  1. Fluorescent analysis of boar sperm capacitation process in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Pěknicová, Jana

    Portland : Society for the Study of Reproduction, 2011 - ( Perreault Darney, S.; Robaire, B.; Murphy, B.). s. 10-10 [44th Annual Meeting Society for the Study of Reproduction : Reproduction and the World's Future.. 31.07.2011-04.08.2011, Portland] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : capacitation * boar sperm * fluorescent microscopy * flow cytometry * acrosomal reaction Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  2. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS IN INFERTILE MALES WITH SPERM ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Önalan Etem; Hüseyin Yüce; Deniz Erol; Şükriye Derya Deveci; Gülay Güleç Ceylan; Halit Elyas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In a half of all childless partnerships the infertility is caused by the male. Chromosomal abnormalities are more prevalent in infertile men compared to fertile men. Chromosomal abnormalities are known to be associated with spermatogenetic failure. Present study investigates the frequency and types of both major chromosomal abnormalities by using standard cytogenetic methods in infertile men with sperm anomalies.Materials and Methods: A total of 214 infertile males (138 were azoosp...

  3. Sperm competition in tropical versus temperate zone birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Kleven, O.; Kreisinger, J.; Laskemoen, T.; Omotoriogun, T. C.; Ottosson, U.; Reif, J.; Sedláček, O.; Hořák, D.; Robertson, R. J.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 1752 (2013), s. 20122434. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : clutch size * extra-pair paternity * life history * post-copulatory sexual selection * sperm phenotype Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.292, year: 2013

  4. Sperm whales (Physeter catodon) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, L.A.; Fritts, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of the sperm whale, Physeter catodon, was documented in the Gulf of Mexico during 1979 to 1981 using regular aerial surveys and opportunistic sightings from ships. Most sightings were in the western Gulf of Mexico in deep waters near the edge of the continental shelf. A total of 47 adults and 12 young animals was sighted in groups containing from one to 14 animals.

  5. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 107 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 104 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [3H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  6. Ordered tandem arrangement of chromosomes in the sperm heads of monotreme mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, J M; Meyne, J; Graves, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A very old unanswered question in classical cytology is whether chromosomes are arranged randomly in sperm or whether they occupy specific positions. Even with modern methods of chromosome painting, it is difficult to resolve this question for the very condensed and almost spherical sperm head of most mammals. We have taken advantage of the unusual fibrillar sperm head of monotreme mammals (echidna and platypus) to examine the position of chromosome landmarks in a two-dimensional array. We us...

  7. A functional assessment of the sperm membrane: a multi-species approach

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Craig

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed A functional sperm membrane is essential for many of the processes which lead to the fertilisation of an oocyte, but this membrane is susceptible to oxidative damage with increasing duration of storage in liquid semen or during the cryopreservation process. The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of storage temperature, catalase supplementation and sperm number on the membrane function of liquid stored bull semen, sperm membrane protein profil...

  8. Low Diversity in the Mitogenome of Sperm Whales Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Alana; Steel, Debbie; Slikas, Beth; Hoekzema, Kendra; Carraher, Colm; Parks, Matthew; Cronn, Richard; Baker, C. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Large population sizes and global distributions generally associate with high mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) diversity. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is an exception, showing low CR diversity relative to other cetaceans; however, diversity levels throughout the remainder of the sperm whale mitogenome are unknown. We sequenced 20 mitogenomes from 17 sperm whales representative of worldwide diversity using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies (Illumina GAIIx, Roche 45...

  9. Dual roles for ubiquitination in the processing of sperm organelles after fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar, Connie; Sampuda, Katherine M; Boyd, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background The process of fertilization involves a cell fusion event between the sperm and oocyte. Although sperm contain mitochondria when they fuse with the oocyte, paternal mitochondrial genomes do not persist in offspring and, thus, mitochondrial inheritance is maternal in most animals. Recent evidence suggests that paternal mitochondria may be eliminated via autophagy after fertilization. In C. elegans, sperm-specific organelles called membraneous organelles (MO) cluster together with pa...

  10. Is paternal mitochondrial DNA transferred to the offspring following intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    OpenAIRE

    Houshmand, Massoud; Holme, Elisabeth; Hanson, Charles; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Hamberger, Lars

    1997-01-01

    During intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) the whole sperm, including head, midpiece and tail, is injected into the middle area of the oocyte. To find out what happens to the sperm mitochondria after ICSI, we checked the first six children born after ICSI treatment for occurrence of paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The difference between maternal and paternal mtDNA in the investigated couples in our study was confined to single-base pair substitutions and we had to rely on restriction ...

  11. Sperm morphological and morphometric evaluation in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu)

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Patrícia C.; Erika A.A. Santos; Ana L.P. Souza; Gabriela L. Lima; Felipe F.P.C. Barros; De Oliveira, Moacir F; Alexandre R. Silva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different staining methods for the evaluation of sperm morphology by light microscopy and also to describe the morphometry of the entire sperm in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu). Semen from 10 males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, and concentration. Semen smears were prepared through three different staining methods: Bengal rose, brome-phenol blue, and eosin-nigrosin. Smears were evaluated under light microsco...

  12. Selection of functional human sperm with higher DNA integrity and fewer reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Waseem; Velasco, Vanessa; Kingsley, James L.; Shoukat, Muhammad S.; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M.; Mutter, George L.; Tüzel, Erkan; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Fertilization and reproduction are central to the survival and propagation of a species. Couples who cannot reproduce naturally have to undergo in vitro clinical procedures. An integral part of these clinical procedures includes isolation of healthy sperm from raw semen. Existing sperm sorting methods are not efficient and isolate sperm having high DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species, and suffer from multiple manual steps and variations between embryologists. Inspired by in vivo nat...

  13. A study of the antioxidant effect of alpha lipoic acids on sperm quality

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Fatimah Ibrahim; Khairul Osman; Srijit Das; Abas Mazni Othman; Norzaiti Abdul Majid; Mohd Padzil Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assisted reproductive techniques are useful in helping infertile couples achieve successful conception. Initial studies have shown that sperm cryopreservation, one step in assisted reproduction, causes a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to, among other things, free radical activities. The aim of the present study was to minimize this oxidative attack by adding an antioxidant into the sperm microenvironment. Alpha lipoic acids were selected for this purp...

  14. Birth defects in infants conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an alternative interpretation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinczuk, J.J.; Bower, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that liveborn infants conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection are at an increased risk of having a major birth defect. DESIGN: Reclassification of the birth defects reported in infants born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in Belgium and comparison with prevalence estimated in Western Australian population by means of same classification system. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 420 liveborn infants who were conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in...

  15. Enzymatic digestion improves testicular sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Modarresi; Marjan Sabbaghian; Abdolhossein Shahverdi; Hani Hosseinifar; Ali Asghar Akhlaghi; Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), vital spermatozoa from the tissue is obtained from testes by enzymatic treatment besides the mechanical treatment. Objective: To increase the sperm recovery success of testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with enzymatic digestion if no sperm is obtained from testis tissue by mechanical method. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 150 men who presented with clinical and laboratory data indicating NOA by means o...

  16. Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Lampic, C; Akerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflict...

  17. Successful treatment of severe oligozoospermia with sperm washing and intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, G M

    1997-01-01

    During the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1995, 258 patients, in whom motile sperm counts for insemination (postwash, processed) were 10.0 million motile sperm or less were seen in the andrology unit for sperm washing and intrauterine insemination (IUI). No significant female factors were noted on history; all female partners had patent Fallopian tubes and were ovulatory spontaneously or were treated by the referring gynecologist with clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ovulation induction in both anovulatory or ovulatory women. Of the total of 258 patients, 15 achieved a pregnancy in 284 cycles of IUI in which the inseminating motile-count was IUI in this group was 0.61 (+/-0.29) million sperm, with a range of 0.19-0.95 million motile sperm. The initial motile count was 2.97 (3.2) million sperm, with a range of 0.2-12.81 million sperm. With inseminating motile counts of 1.0-10.0 million motile sperm, there were 83 pregnancies after 467 cycles of IUI, resulting in a monthly f of 17.8%. The mean (+/-SD) motile count for IUI in this group was 4.9 (+/-2.7) million motile sperm with a range of 1.0-9.9 million motile sperm. The initial sperm count in this group was 10.9 million (+/-7.1), with a range of 1.1-23.7 million motile sperm. These data suggest that acceptable pregnancy rates can be achieved with IUI, even in severely oligozoospermic specimens. Intrauterine insemination is less invasive and less costly than other assisted reproductive techniques. These data are supportive of IUI prior to attempting other more invasive and potentially costly reproductive technologies. PMID:9283959

  18. Sperm whale behaviour indicates the use of echolocation click buzzes "creaks" in prey capture.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Tyack, Peter L

    2004-01-01

    During foraging dives, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) produce long series of regular clicks at 0.5-2 s intervals interspersed with rapid-click buzzes called "creaks". Sound, depth and orientation recording Dtags were attached to 23 whales in the Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Mexico to test whether the behaviour of diving sperm whales supports the hypothesis that creaks are produced during prey capture. Sperm whales spent most of their bottom time within one or two depth bands, apparently fe...

  19. Studies on P1, P2 Protamine mRNA in Sperms of Human,Rat and Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小芳; 陈晖; 费仁仁; 陈松; 曹坚

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence of the protamine Mrna in sperms of human,rat and mouse Methods By means of RT-PCR technique, protamine cDNA fragments were obtained from total RNA of the mature sperms of human, rat and mouse respectively.Results mRNA of protamine gene was found in the mature sperm of human, rat and mouse. The protamine cDNA with an abnormal head obtained by PT-TCR in rat sperm was much less tn number than that in the normal rat sperm.Conclusion mRNA in the sperms might represent the condition of corresponding gene expression during spermatogenesis.

  20. The effect of extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Henky; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong; Nimrat, Subuntith

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We focused on freezing of common carp sperm utilizing a practical and inexpensive protocol for aquaculture. Sperm were diluted 1:1 in one of six extenders (common carp sperm extenders; CCSE 1-CCSE 6) containing three types of cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO, methanol; MET and propylene glycol; PG) at a final concentration of 10%, and frozen at a rate of 10°C/min from an initial temperature 25 to -40°C before storage in liquid nitrogen. The results demonstrated that sperm diluted with CCSE 2 and DMSO had the best post-thaw motility (94.5 ± 3.3%), similar to that of the control (98.6 ± 0.7%; P>0.05). Duration of sperm motility from a treatment with CCSE 2 and DMSO (97 ± 20.8s) was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control (73.3 ± 12.9s). A second experiment studied the effects of various cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility, based on using CCSE 2 and DMSO in all treatments. Sperm were frozen using different cryopreservation methods: direct immersion into liquid nitrogen, controlled-rate programmable freezer, or exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor at different heights and time. Sperm frozen at a height of 2 cm above liquid nirogen surface for 10 min gave the highest post-thaw sperm motility (91.7 ± 7.8%) and longest duration of post-thaw sperm motility (105.7 ± 23.1s). Sperm frozen 2 cm above liquid nitrogen surface for 10 min produced the highest fertilization and hatching rate of about 73.6 ± 6.5% and 62.8 ± 5.9%, respectively, not significant different (P>0.05) from those of fresh sperm (75.6 ± 7.5% and 66.5 ± 4.8%, respectively). This study reports superior performance of the combination of CCSE 2 and DMSO for freezing common carp sperm that resulted in high