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Sample records for aneuploid blastocysts identified

  1. Metabolomic profiling and genomic analysis of wheat aneuploid lines to identify genes controlling biochemical pathways in mature grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francki, Michael G; Hayton, Sarah; Gummer, Joel P A; Rawlinson, Catherine; Trengove, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly important tool in plant genomics to decipher the function of genes controlling biochemical pathways responsible for trait variation. Although theoretical models can integrate genes and metabolites for trait variation, biological networks require validation using appropriate experimental genetic systems. In this study, we applied an untargeted metabolite analysis to mature grain of wheat homoeologous group 3 ditelosomic lines, selected compounds that showed significant variation between wheat lines Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line, tracked the genes encoding enzymes of their biochemical pathway using the wheat genome survey sequence and determined the genetic components underlying metabolite variation. A total of 412 analytes were resolved in the wheat grain metabolome, and principal component analysis indicated significant differences in metabolite profiles between Chinese Spring and each ditelosomic lines. The grain metabolome identified 55 compounds positively matched against a mass spectral library where the majority showed significant differences between Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line. Trehalose and branched-chain amino acids were selected for detailed investigation, and it was expected that if genes encoding enzymes directly related to their biochemical pathways were located on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, then corresponding ditelosomic lines would have a significant reduction in metabolites compared with Chinese Spring. Although a proportion showed a reduction, some lines showed significant increases in metabolites, indicating that genes directly and indirectly involved in biosynthetic pathways likely regulate the metabolome. Therefore, this study demonstrated that wheat aneuploid lines are suitable experimental genetic system to validate metabolomics-genomics networks. PMID:26032167

  2. Karyomapping identifies second polar body DNA persisting to the blastocyst stage: implications for embryo biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolini, Christian S; Rogers, Shaun; Sage, Karen; Summers, Michael C; Capalbo, Antonio; Griffin, Darren K; Sarasa, Jonas; Wells, Dagan; Handyside, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Blastocyst biopsy is now widely used for both preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Although this approach yields good results, variable embryo quality and rates of development remain a challenge. Here, a case is reported in which a blastocyst was biopsied for PGS by array comparative genomic hybridization on day 6 after insemination, having hatched completely. In addition to a small trophectoderm sample, excluded cell fragments from the subzonal space from this embryo were also sampled. Unexpectedly, the array comparative genomic hybridization results from the fragments and trophectoderm sample were non-concordant: 47,XX,+19 and 46,XY, respectively. DNA fingerprinting by short tandem repeat and amelogenin analysis confirmed the sex chromosome difference but seemed to show that the two samples were related but non-identical. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and karyomapping identified that the origin of the DNA amplified from the fragments was that of the second polar body corresponding to the oocyte from which the biopsied embryo developed. The fact that polar body DNA can persist to the blastocyst stage provides evidence that excluded cell fragments should not be used for diagnostic purposes and should be avoided when performing embryo biopsies as there is a risk of diagnostic errors. PMID:26380865

  3. Blastocyst Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Method: Blastocyst transfer is usually performed 24 hours after aggregation when the morulae have become expanded blastocysts and on the same day as injection. A little time is given between injection and transfer to allow blastocysts to re-expand. **The Recipient** Careful selection of the recipient is most important as the pups are the end result of a lot of hard work. Two strains of mice are used:RB Swiss and (CBA*C57BL6/J)f1. RB Swiss are quiet and make excellent mothers ...

  4. Human embryonic stem cells as models for aneuploid chromosomal syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancotti, Juan-Carlos; Narwani, Kavita; Buehler, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Yanuka, Ofra; Clark, Amander; Hill, David; Benvenisty, Nissim; Lavon, Neta

    2010-09-01

    Syndromes caused by chromosomal aneuploidies are widely recognized genetic disorders in humans and often lead to spontaneous miscarriage. Preimplantation genetic screening is used to detect chromosomal aneuploidies in early embryos. Our aim was to derive aneuploid human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that may serve as models for human syndromes caused by aneuploidies. We have established 25 hESC lines from blastocysts diagnosed as aneuploid on day 3 of their in vitro development. The hESC lines exhibited morphology and expressed markers typical of hESCs. They demonstrated long-term proliferation capacity and pluripotent differentiation. Karyotype analysis revealed that two-third of the cell lines carry a normal euploid karyotype, while one-third remained aneuploid throughout the derivation, resulting in eight hESC lines carrying either trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), 16, 17, 21 (Down syndrome), X (Triple X syndrome), or monosomy X (Turner syndrome). On the basis of the level of single nucleotide polymorphism heterozygosity in the aneuploid chromosomes, we determined whether the aneuploidy originated from meiotic or mitotic chromosomal nondisjunction. Gene expression profiles of the trisomic cell lines suggested that all three chromosomes are actively transcribed. Our analysis allowed us to determine which tissues are most affected by the presence of a third copy of either chromosome 13, 16, 17 or 21 and highlighted the effects of trisomies on embryonic development. The results presented here suggest that aneuploid embryos can serve as an alternative source for either normal euploid or aneuploid hESC lines, which represent an invaluable tool to study developmental aspects of chromosomal abnormalities in humans. PMID:20641042

  5. Epigenetic Dysregulation Observed in Monosomy Blastocysts Further Compromises Developmental Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, Michelle M.; McCallie, Blair R.; Parks, Jason C.; Schoolcraft, William B.; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation regulate genomic imprinting and account for the distinct non-equivalence of the parental genomes in the embryo. Chromosomal aneuploidy, a major cause of infertility, distorts this highly regulated disparity by the presence or absence of chromosomes. The implantation potential of monosomy embryos is negligible compared to their trisomy counterparts, yet the cause for this is unknown. This study investigated the impact of chromosomal aneuploidy on strict epigenetically regulated domains, specifically imprinting control regions present on aneuploid chromosomes. Donated cryopreserved human IVF blastocysts of transferable quality, including trisomy 15, trisomy 11, monosomy 15, monosomy 11, and donor oocyte control blastocysts were examined individually for DNA methylation profiles by bisulfite mutagenesis and sequencing analysis of two maternally methylated imprinting control regions (ICRs), SNRPN (15q11.2) and KCNQ1OT1 (11p15.5), and one paternally methylated imprinting control region, H19 (11p15.5). Imprinted genes within the regions were also evaluated for transcript abundance by RT-qPCR. Overall, statistically significant hypermethylated and hypomethylated ICRs were found in both the trisomy and monosomy blastocysts compared to controls, restricted only to the chromosome affected by the aneuploidy. Increased expression was observed for maternally-expressed imprinted genes in trisomy blastocysts, while a decreased expression was observed for both maternally- and paternally-expressed imprinted genes in monosomy blastocysts. This epigenetic dysregulation and altered monoallelic expression observed at imprinting control regions in aneuploid IVF embryos supports euploid embryo transfer during infertility treatments, and may specifically highlight an explanation for the compromised implantation potential in monosomy embryos. PMID:27271036

  6. The mammalian blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Stephen R; de Barros, Flavia R O; Rossant, Janet; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2016-01-01

    The blastocyst is a mammalian invention that carries the embryo from cleavage to gastrulation. For such a simple structure, it exhibits remarkable diversity in its mode of formation, morphology, longevity, and intimacy with the uterine endometrium. This review explores this diversity in the light of the evolution of viviparity, comparing the three main groups of mammals: monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians. The principal drivers in blastocyst evolution were loss of yolk coupled with evolution of the placenta. An important outcome of blastocyst development is differentiation of two extraembryonic lineages (trophoblast and hypoblast) that contribute to the placenta. While in many species trophoblast segregation is often coupled with blastocyst formation, in marsupials and at least some Afrotherians, these events do not coincide. Thus, many questions regarding the conservation of molecular mechanisms controlling these events are of great interest but currently unresolved. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26799266

  7. Blastocyst Morphology Holds Clues Concerning The Chromosomal Status of The Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Savio Figueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo morphology has been proposed as an alternative marker of chromosomal status. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the chromosomal status on day 3 of embryo development and blastocyst morphology. Materials and Methods: A total of 596 embryos obtained from 106 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI followed by preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening (PGS were included in this retrospective study. We evaluated the relationship between blastocyst morphological features and embryonic chromosomal alteration. Results: Of the 564 embryos with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH results, 200 reached the blastocyst stage on day 5 of development. There was a significantly higher proportion of euploid embryos in those that achieved the blastocyst stage (59.0% compared to embryos that did not develop to blastocysts (41.2% on day 5 (P<0.001. Regarding blastocyst morphology, we observed that all embryos that had an abnormal inner cell mass (ICM were aneuploid. Embryos with morphologically normal ICM had a significantly higher euploidy rate (62.1%, P<0.001. As regards to the trophectoderm (TE morphology, an increased rate of euploidy was observed in embryos that had normal TE (65.8% compared to embryos with abnormal TE (37.5%, P<0.001. Finally, we observed a two-fold increase in the euploidy rate in high-quality blastocysts with both high-quality ICM and TE (70.4% compared to that found in low-quality blastocysts (31.0%, P<0.001. Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities do not impair embryo development as aneuploidy is frequently observed in embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. A high-quality blastocyst does not represent euploidy of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y. However, aneuploidy is associated with abnormalities in the ICM morphology. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether or not the transfer of blastocysts with low-quality ICM should be

  8. SNP microarray-based 24 chromosome aneuploidy screening demonstrates that cleavage-stage FISH poorly predicts aneuploidy in embryos that develop to morphologically normal blastocysts.

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    Northrop, L E; Treff, N R; Levy, B; Scott, R T

    2010-08-01

    Although selection of chromosomally normal embryos has the potential to improve outcomes for patients undergoing IVF, the clinical impact of aneuploidy screening by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been controversial. There are many putative explanations including sampling error due to mosaicism, negative impact of biopsy, a lack of comprehensive chromosome screening, the possibility of embryo self-correction and poor predictive value of the technology itself. Direct analysis of the negative predictive value of FISH-based aneuploidy screening for an embryo's reproductive potential has not been performed. Although previous studies have found that cleavage-stage FISH is poorly predictive of aneuploidy in morphologically normal blastocysts, putative explanations have not been investigated. The present study used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray-based 24 chromosome aneuploidy screening technology to re-evaluate morphologically normal blastocysts that were diagnosed as aneuploid by FISH at the cleavage stage. Mosaicism and preferential segregation of aneuploidy to the trophectoderm (TE) were evaluated by characterization of multiple sections of the blastocyst. SNP microarray technology also provided the first opportunity to evaluate self-correction mechanisms involving extrusion or duplication of aneuploid chromosomes resulting in uniparental disomy (UPD). Of all blastocysts evaluated (n = 50), 58% were euploid in all sections despite an aneuploid FISH result. Aneuploid blastocysts displayed no evidence of preferential segregation of abnormalities to the TE. In addition, extrusion or duplication of aneuploid chromosomes resulting in UPD did not occur. These findings support the conclusion that cleavage-stage FISH technology is poorly predictive of aneuploidy in morphologically normal blastocysts. PMID:20479065

  9. ET spontaneous hatched blastocyst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teplá, O.; Mrázek, M.; Mayer, Z.; Cibulková, E.; Králová, Alena; Strnadová, J.; Hulvert, J.

    Praha : BTO-N, 2009. s. 30. [XV.Symposium českých reprodukčních immunologů s mezinárodní účastí. 29.05.2009-31.05.2009, Žďár nad Sázavou] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : embryo transfer * blastocyst * hatching Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth

  10. Identifying MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from Parthenogenetic, Androgenetic and Fertilized Blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Shun Cui; Xing-Hui Shen; Shao-Chen Sun; Sun-Wha Cho; Young-Tae Heo; Yong-Kook Kang; Teruhiko Wakayama

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNA molecules that play a pivotal role m several cellular functions.In this study,miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles were examined by Illumina microarray in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from parthenogenetic,androgenetic,and fertilized blastocysts.The global analysis of miRNA-mRNA target pairs provided insight into the role of miRNAs in gene expression.Results showed that a total of 125 miRNAs and 2394 mRNAs were differentially expressed between androgenetic ESCs (aESCs) and fertilized ESCs (fESCs),a total of 42 miRNAs and 87 mRNAs were differentially expressed between parthenogenetic ESCs (pESCs) and fESCs,and a total of 99 miRNAs and 1788 mRNAs were differentially expressed between aESCs and pESCs.In addition,a total of 575,5 and 376 miRNA-mRNA target pairs were observed in aESCs vs.fESCs,pESCs vs.fESCs,and aESCs vs.pESCs,respectively.Furthermore,15 known imprinted genes and 16 putative uniparentally expressed miRNAs with high expression levels were confirmed by both microarray and real-time RT-PCR.Finally,transfection of miRNA inhibitors was performed to validate the regulatory relationship between putative maternally expressed miRNAs and target mRNAs.Inhibition of miR-880 increased the expression of Peg3,Dyrklb,and Prrg2 mRNA,inhibition of miR-363 increased the expression of Nfat5 and Soatl mRNA,and inhibition of miR-883b-5p increased Nfat5,Tacstd2,and Ppapdcl mRNA.These results warrant a functional study to fully understand the underlying regulation of genomic imprinting in early embryo development.

  11. 陆地棉非整倍体的诱发和鉴定%Induction of Aneuploids and Their Identification in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-zhen GUO; Bao-min HU; Cheng-xin YI; Bao-liang ZHOU; Tian-zhen ZHANG; Jia-ju PAN

    2002-01-01

    @@ Aneuploid lines have been playing an important role in crop genetic studies and breeding utilization. Unfortunately, only several genetic materials of aneuploid can be used in Upland cotton. So far, there are 16 monosomics identified in cotton. In order to fill the gap, we carried on the irradiation research of mature pollen grains with γ-rays at different dosages and further produced F1 generation.

  12. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Natachandra M Chimote; Nishad N Chimote; Nath, Nirmalendu M.; Bindu N Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET) has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT) is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT). Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles....

  13. Early cleavages influence the molecular and the metabolic pattern of individually cultured bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzotto, Marcella Pecora; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Chitwood, James Lee; Annes, Kelly; Soares, Carlos Alexandre; Ispada, Jéssica; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz Ávila; Ross, Pablo Juan

    2016-04-01

    Embryo morphokinetics suggests that the timing of the first embryonic cell divisions may predict the developmental potential of an embryo; however, correlations between embryonic morphokinetics and physiology are not clear. Here, we used RNA sequencing to determine the gene expression profile of in vitro-produced early- and late-dividing bovine embryos and their respective blastocysts, and compared these profiles to in vivo-produced blastocysts to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Principal component analysis revealed that fast- and slow-dividing embryos possess similar transcript abundance over the first cleavages. By the blastocyst stage, however, more DEGs were observed between the fast- and slow-dividing embryo groups, whereas blastocysts from the slow-dividing group were more similar to in vivo-produced blastocysts. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that the slow-dividing and in vivo-produced blastocysts shared biological processes related to groups of up- or down-regulated genes when compared to the fast-dividing blastocysts. Based on these DEG results, we characterized the relationship between developmental kinetics and energy metabolism of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Embryos from fast- and slow-dividing groups exhibited different pyruvate and lactate metabolism at 22 hr post-in vitro culture (hpc), glucose consumption at 96 hpc, and glutamate metabolism at 168 hpc. Glycogen storage was similar between cleavage-stage and morulae groups, but was higher in the blastocysts of the slow-dividing group. On the other hand, blastocysts of the fast-dividing group had a higher concentration of lipids. Taken together, these data identify transcriptomic and metabolic differences between embryos with different morphokinetics, suggesting that sorting embryos based on cleavage speed may select for different metabolic patterns. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 324-336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26822777

  14. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

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    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  15. Flow cytofluorometric evidence for the differential radioresponsiveness of aneuploid and diploid cervix tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    348 patients have been included in the study over a 54-month period. Data on these patients have shown that DNA aneuploid tumours are significantly more radioresponsive than diploid cervix tumours. Analysis of the data on 213 patients with a minimum follow-up time of 15 months has, however, failed to show an overall more favourable prognosis conferred by tumour DNA aneuploidy. Analysis of the relationship between clinical stage and disease state and tumour DNA ploidy, however, suggests that (1) aneuploid tumours metastasize to distant sites at an earlier stage of the disease than diploid tumours and (2) local recurrence rates for diploid tumours, in late stage disease, are double those for aneuploid tumours. Improved staining procedures, and instrument modification, has also shown that cervix tumour heterogeneity is of considerably greater frequency than at first appeared to be the case (approximately 75% of DNA aneuploid tumours show heterogeneity). (Auth.)

  16. Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Cockburn, Katie; Rossant, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian preimplantation development, which is the period extending from fertilization to implantation, results in the formation of a blastocyst with three distinct cell lineages. Only one of these lineages, the epiblast, contributes to the embryo itself, while the other two lineages, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm, become extra-embryonic tissues. Significant gains have been made in our understanding of the major events of mouse preimplantation development, and recent discoveri...

  17. A tetraploid intermediate precedes aneuploid formation in yeasts exposed to fluconazole.

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    Benjamin D Harrison

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, is generally diploid. However, 50% of isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLC, the most widely used antifungal, are aneuploid and some aneuploidies can confer FLC resistance. To ask if FLC exposure causes or only selects for aneuploidy, we analyzed diploid strains during exposure to FLC using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. FLC exposure caused a consistent deviation from normal cell cycle regulation: nuclear and spindle cycles initiated prior to bud emergence, leading to "trimeras," three connected cells composed of a mother, daughter, and granddaughter bud. Initially binucleate, trimeras underwent coordinated nuclear division yielding four daughter nuclei, two of which underwent mitotic collapse to form a tetraploid cell with extra spindle components. In subsequent cell cycles, the abnormal number of spindles resulted in unequal DNA segregation and viable aneuploid progeny. The process of aneuploid formation in C. albicans is highly reminiscent of early stages in human tumorigenesis in that aneuploidy arises through a tetraploid intermediate and subsequent unequal DNA segregation driven by multiple spindles coupled with a subsequent selective advantage conferred by at least some aneuploidies during growth under stress. Finally, trimera formation was detected in response to other azole antifungals, in related Candida species, and in an in vivo model for Candida infection, suggesting that aneuploids arise due to azole treatment of several pathogenic yeasts and that this can occur during the infection process.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Human Blastocoel Fluid and Blastocyst Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen;

    cells of the blastocyst are exposed. The ICM is the starting point for the development of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which posses the potential to develop into any cell type present in the adult human body [1,2]. This ability makes hESCs a potential source of cells for...... blastocoel fluid (1-8 nanoliters per blastocyst), has hampered an in-depth study of the human blastocyst proteome. However, recent developments in mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques allow the identification and characterization of thousands of proteins from low microgram levels of protein extracted......The human blastocyst consists of 100-200 cells that are organized in an outer layer of differentiated trophectoderm (TE) cells lining the blastocyst cavity into which the undifferentiated inner cell mass (ICM) protrudes. The cavity of the blastocyst is filled with blastocoel fluid to which all the...

  19. Association between blastocyst morphology and outcome of single-blastocyst transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Abbeel, Etienne; Balaban, Basak; Ziebe, Søren; Lundin, Kersti; Cuesta, Maria José Gómez; Klein, Bjarke Mirner; Helmgaard, Lisbeth; Arce, Joan-Carles

    2013-01-01

    prospectively collected in a large multicentre trial. A total of 618 intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients undergoing ovarian stimulation in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer on day 5 were included. In the simple logistic regression analysis, all...

  20. Blastocyst development potential of D3 low quality embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Jing-ran; Sun Zhen-yi; Yu Qi; Deng Cheng-yan; Zhou Yuan-zheng; He Fang-fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential of blastocyst development of D3 low quality embryos for blastocyst culturing and freezing.Methods:Two thousand one hundred and eighty embryos of 398 IVF/ICSI patients' were observed after D3 embryo transfer.The low-quality embryos were cultured by sequential micro-drops and continuously observed blastocyst formation from D3 to D6.Results:(1) A total of 1,546 low-quality embryos were collected,and 426 blastocysts formed in DS-D6.Total blastocyst formation rate (BFR) was 27.56%,of which embryos with grade 6 Ⅲ/Ⅳ were 40.87 % (318/778),5 Ⅰ /Ⅱ 28.85% (30/104),4Ⅰ/Ⅱ 8.88% (16/180),4Ⅲ/IV 19.72% (56/284),2-3 Ⅰ/Ⅱ 3% (6/200).(2) Embryos with more blastomeres had a higher blastocyst formation rate.The lower qualities of embryos resulted in lower blastocyst formation rate.Conclusions:Low-quality embryos still have the potential to develop into blastocysts.Therefore,they should not be discarded on D3.They should be continually cultured to D6 in order to reduce embryo wastage and get good clinical results.

  1. Cytogenetics of semi-fertile triploid and aneuploid intergeneric vine cacti hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Mizrahi, Y

    2005-01-01

    Crosses between the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus, as the female parent, and the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus, as the male parent, yielded triploid and aneuploid hybrids. The fruits of these hybrids combined the attractive appearance of Hylocereus fruits with the delicious taste of S. megalanthus fruits. The aim of this work was to assess the fertility and breeding potential of the triploid and aneuploid hybrids with a view to developing an improved vine cactus crop. Pollen mother cells at metaphase I revealed univalents, bivalents, trivalents, and occasionally quadrivalents. Chromosome distribution at anaphase I revealed different classes of chromosome segregation as well as lagging chromosomes. At metaphase II, parallel and tripolar spindles were observed. The occurrence of triads was frequent, whereas dyads were rarely observed. Pollen stainability varied among the clones studied ranging from 9.8% to 18.6%. The diameters of the stained pollen grains varied widely, probably as a result of the number of chromosomes. Despite the allotriploid origin of our hybrids, functional female and male gametes were produced in considerable proportions, most likely as a result of balanced chromosome segregation. The triploid and aneuploid clones studied yielded viable seeds whose number per fruit was strongly dependent on the pollen donor. PMID:15618308

  2. Parthenogenic blastocysts derived from cumulus-free in vitro matured human oocytes.

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    Sohyun L McElroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of oocytes are classified as immature and discarded following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures. These oocytes are obtained from gonadotropin-stimulated patients, and are routinely removed from the cumulus cells which normally would mature the oocytes. Given the ready access to these human oocytes, they represent a potential resource for both clinical and basic science application. However culture conditions for the maturation of cumulus-free oocytes have not been optimized. We aimed to improve maturation conditions for cumulus-free oocytes via culture with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors identified by single cell analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Immature human oocytes were matured in vitro via supplementation with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors that were selected based on expression of ligands in the cumulus cells and their corresponding receptors in oocytes. Matured oocytes were artificially activated to assess developmental competence. Gene expression profiles of parthenotes were compared to IVF/ICSI embryos at morula and blastocyst stages. Following incubation in medium supplemented with ovarian factors (BDNF, IGF-I, estradiol, GDNF, FGF2 and leptin, a greater percentage of oocytes demonstrated nuclear maturation and subsequently, underwent parthenogenesis relative to control. Similarly, cytoplasmic maturation was also improved as indicated by development to blastocyst stage. Parthenogenic blastocysts exhibited mRNA expression profiles similar to those of blastocysts obtained after IVF/ICSI with the exception for MKLP2 and PEG1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human cumulus-free oocytes from hormone-stimulated cycles are capable of developing to blastocysts when cultured with ovarian factor supplementation. Our improved IVM culture conditions may be used for obtaining mature oocytes for clinical purposes and/or for derivation of embryonic stem cells following parthenogenesis or nuclear

  3. Effect of genistein on mouse blastocyst development in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-hsiung CHAN; Hsiang-yu LU; Nion-heng SHIAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the cytotoxic effects of genistein, an isoflavone compound, on early postimplantation embryonic development in vitro. Methods: Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without genistein (25 or 50 μmol/L) or daidzein (50 μmol/L) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth was investigated by dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and apoptotic or necrotic cells were visualized by Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Implantation and postimplantation development of embryos were measured by in vitro development analysis. Results: TUNEL staining and Annexin-V/PI staining. showed that genistein dose-dependently increased apoptosis in mouse blastocysts, while daidzein, another soy isoflavone, had no such effect. The pretreatment of the blastocysts with genistein caused fewer cells than the control group and this effect was primary in the inner cell mass. The genistein-pretreated blastocysts showed normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro, but significantly fewer genistein-pretreated embryos reached the later stages of embryonic development versus the controls, with many of the former embryos dying at relatively early stages of development. In addition, genistein treatment de-creased the development of morulas into blastocysts, and dietary genistein was found to induce cell apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation in an animal assay model of embryogenesis. Conclusions: Our results collectively indicate that genistein treatment of mouse blastocysts induces apoptosis, decreases cell numbers, retards early postimplantation blastocyst development, and increases early-stage blastocyst death in vitro, while dietary genistein appears to negatively affect mouse embryonic development in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. These novel findings provide important new insights into the effect of genistein

  4. Proteomic analysis of human blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst and can differentiate into any cell type in the human body. These cells hold a great potential for regenerative medicine, but to obtain enough cells needed for medical treatment, culture is required on a...... blastocoel fluid, which is in contact with all the cells in the blastocyst, including hESCs. Fifty-three surplus human blastocysts were donated after informed consent, and blastocoel fluid was isolated by micromanipulation. Using highly sensitive nano-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass...

  5. Choline inhibition of amino acid transport in preimplantation mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of 70 mM choline chloride to Brinster's medium (140 mM Na+) inhibited uptake of ∼ 1 μM [3H]glycine, leucine, lysine and alanine in blastocysts by about 50% each during a five-minute incubation period at 370C, whereas 70 mM LiCl, sodium acetate and NaCl or 140 mM mannitol had no effect. They attribute the apparent linear relationship between Gly transport in blastocysts and the square of the [Na+], observed when choline was substituted for Na+ in Brinster's medium, to concomitant, concentration-dependent enhancement and inhibition of transport by Na+ and choline, respectively. As expected, Gly uptake and the [Na+] were linearly related up to 116 mM Na+, when Na+ was replaced with Li+. The rates of Na+-independent Gly and Ala uptake were + or choline replaced Na+. Therefore, neither Li+ nor choline appears to substitute for Na+ in supporting Na+-dependent transport in blastocysts. Na+-independent Leu uptake was 20 times faster than Gly or Ala uptake and appeared to be inhibited by choline in blastocysts since it was about 37% slower when choline instead of Li+ was substituted for Na+. In contrast to blastocysts, choline had no effect on amino acid transport in cleavage-stage mouse embryos. The unexpected sensitivity of transport to choline in blastocysts underscores the importance of testing the effects of this substance when it is used to replace Na+ in new transport studies

  6. Emodin induces embryonic toxicity in mouse blastocysts through apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), a major constituent of rhubarb, has a wide range of therapeutic applications. Previous studies have established that emodin inhibits cell proliferation and induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. However, its side-effects, particularly those on embryonic development, have not been well characterized as yet. In the current study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of emodin on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation by embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 25–75 μM emodin exhibited significantly increased apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rate of blastocysts pretreated with emodin was lower than that of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 25–75 μM emodin was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. With the aid of an in vivo mouse model, we showed that consumption of drinking water containing emodin led to apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, and inhibited early embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Our findings support a degree of selective inhibition of retinoic acid receptors in blastocysts treated with emodin. In addition, emodin appears to induce injury in mouse blastocysts through intrinsic apoptotic signaling processes to impair sequent embryonic development. These results collectively indicate that emodin has the potential to induce embryonic cytotoxicity.

  7. Prospects for using aneuploids and their derivatives for wheat protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for using the aneuploid technique in studies related to protein improvement in wheat are considered. Chromosomal location of gene(s) governing specific proteins or enzymes, separated by electrophoresis or electrofocusing, can be ascertained using ditelosomics where one arm of a homologous chromosome pair is absent. Reliable quantitative information on chromosomal effects on protein or specific amino-acid content can be obtained only from inter-varietal substitution lines in which a pair of the donor variety chromosomes substitutes for a pair of the recipient variety. Addition or substitution of certain rye chromosomes in wheat is reported to increase lysine of protein conten. Efficiency of mutation experiments, aimed to recover mutants with altered protein characteristics, can be greatly enhanced by treating the monosomic for the dhromosome that is known to carry the gene(s) having such influence. (author)

  8. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the Go stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs

  9. The fate of chrysotile-induced multipolar mitosis and aneuploid population in cultured lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Araujo Cortez

    Full Text Available Chrysotile is one of the six types of asbestos, and it is the only one that can still be commercialized in many countries. Exposure to other types of asbestos has been associated with serious diseases, such as lung carcinomas and pleural mesotheliomas. The association of chrysotile exposure with disease is controversial. However, in vitro studies show the mutagenic potential of chrysotile, which can induce DNA and cell damage. The present work aimed to analyze alterations in lung small cell carcinoma cultures after 48 h of chrysotile exposure, followed by 2, 4 and 8 days of recovery in fiber-free culture medium. Some alterations, such as aneuploid cell formation, increased number of cells in G2/M phase and cells in multipolar mitosis were observed even after 8 days of recovery. The presence of chrysotile fibers in the cell cultures was detected and cell morphology was observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. After 4 and 8 days of recovery, only a few chrysotile fragments were present in some cells, and the cellular morphology was similar to that of control cells. Cells transfected with the GFP-tagged α-tubulin plasmid were treated with chrysotile for 24 or 48 h and cells in multipolar mitosis were observed by time-lapse microscopy. Fates of these cells were established: retention in metaphase, cell death, progression through M phase generating more than two daughter cells or cell fusion during telophase or cytokinesis. Some of them were related to the formation of aneuploid cells and cells with abnormal number of centrosomes.

  10. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation. PMID:21949351

  11. Animal Experimentation: In Vivo Hatching Phenomenon of Mouse Blastocysts During Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shau-Ping; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Tsai, Yuan-Jang

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the blastocyst zona shedding process within the murine uterine cornus in vivo is due to a global lytic process caused by uterine proteolytic enzyme, or is triggered by the blastocyst hatching process as observed in vitro.

  12. Derivation and transcriptional profiling analysis of pluripotent stem cell lines from rat blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunliang Li; Ying Yang; Junjie Gu; Yu Ma; Ying Jin

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocyst-stage embryos. Their unique properties of self-renewal and pluripotency make them an attractive tool for basic research and a potential cell resource for therapy. ES cells of mouse and human have been successfully generated and applied in a wide range of research. However, no genuine ES cell lines have been obtained from rat to date. In this study, we identified pluripotent cells in early rat embryos using specific antibodies against markers of pluripotent stem cells. Subsequently, by modifying the culture medium for rat blastocysts, we derived pluripotent rat ES-llke cell lines, which expressed pluripotency markers and formed embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro. Importantly, these rat ES-like cells were able to produce teratomas. Both EBs and teratomas contained tissues from all three embryonic germ layers, in addition, from the rat ES-like cells, we derived a rat primitive endoderm (PrE) cell line. Furthermore, we conducted transcriptional profiling of the rat ES-like cells and identified the unique molecular signature of the rat pluripotent stem cells. Our analysis demonstrates that multiple signaling pathways, including the BMP, Activin and roTOR pathways, may be involved in keeping the rat ES-like cells in an undifferentiated state. The cell lines and information obtained in this study will accelerate our understanding of the molecular regulation underlying pluripotency and guide us in the appropriate manipulation of ES cells from a particular species.

  13. Dihydrolipoic Acid Induces Cytotoxicity in Mouse Blastocysts through Apoptosis Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available α-Lipoic acid (LA is a thiol with antioxidant properties that protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. LA is absorbed from the diet, taken up by cells and tissues, and subsequently reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA. In view of the recent application of DHLA as a hydrophilic nanomaterial preparation, determination of its biosafety profile is essential. In the current study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of DHLA on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, in vivo implantation by embryo transfer, and early embryonic development in an animal model. Blastocysts treated with 50 μM DHLA exhibited significantly increased apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with DHLA were lower than that of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 50 μM DHLA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Data obtained using an in vivo mouse model further disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 100 μM DHLA led to decreased early embryo development, specifically, inhibition of development to the blastocyst stage. However, it appears that concentrations of DHLA lower than 50 μM do not exert a hazardous effect on embryonic development. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro and in vivo exposure to concentrations of DHLA higher than 50 μM DHLA induces apoptosis and retards early pre- and post-implantation development, and support the potential of DHLA to induce embryonic cytotoxicity.

  14. Apoptosis of transgenic cloned and recloned bovine blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojie Sun; Rong Li; Yunping Dai; Haiping Wang; Lili Wang; Ying Liu; Fangrong Ding; Hengxi Wei; Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in preimplantation embryonic development. Investigating mechanisms of apoptosis can provide useful information for obtaining high-quality embryos and help to improve cloning efficiency. Here, we investigated the incidence of blastomere apoptosis in transgenic blastocysts generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and recloning using a terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Transgenic recloned embryos were the second generation SCNT embryos derived from the somatic cells of a transgenic SCNT calf. The blastocyst rate of transgenic SCNT embryos was lower than that of nontransgenic SCNT embryos. The incidence of apoptosis in transgenic SCNT embryos was higher than that of nontrans-genie SCNT embryos. The blastocyst rate and the incidence of apoptosis in transgenic recloned embryos were similar to nontransgenic SCNT embryos. The process of donor cell transfection and drug selection may decrease the developmental capacity of transgenic SCNT embryos. Serial cloning did not influence the developmental capacity of transgenic recloned embryos.

  15. High efficiency production and genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Brassica aneuploids and homozygous plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zaiyun; (李再云); M.; Ceccarelli; S.; Minelli; A.; Contento; LIU; Yan; (刘; 焰); P.; G.; Cionini

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric hybridizations have been widely used in plant genetics and breeding to construct stocks for genetic analysis and to introduce into crops the desirable traits and genes from their relatives. The intergeneric crosses between Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss., B. carinata A. Braun and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz were made and the plants produced were subjected to genomic in situ hybridization analysis. The mixoploids from the cross with B. juncea were divided into three groups. The partially fertile mixoploids in the first group (2n = 36-42) mainly contained the somatic cells and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with the 36 chromosomes of B. juncea and additional chromosomes of O. violaceus. The mixoploids (2n = 30-36) in the second and third groups were morphologically quite similar to the mother plants B. juncea and showed nearly normal fertility. The plants in the second group produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 36) with their chromosomes paired and segregated normally, but 1-4 pairs of the O. violaceus chromosomes were included in some PMCs. The plants in the third group produced only PMCs with the 36 B. juncea chromosomes, which were paired and segregated normally. The mixoploids (2n = 29-34) from the cross with B. carinata produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 34) with normal chromosome pairing and segregation, but some plants had some PMCs with 1-3 pairs of chromosomes from O. violaceus and other plants had only PMCs with the B. carinata chromosomes. The Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with complete or partial chromosome complements of Brassica parents and various numbers of O. violaceus chromosomes were derived from these progeny plants. The results in this study provided the molecular cytogenetic evidence for the separation of parental genomes which was previously proposed to occur in the hybridizations of these two genera.

  16. Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2014-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreate...

  17. Utility of FT-IR imaging spectroscopy in estimating differences between the quality of bovine blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecheć, A.; Opiela, J.; Lipiec, E.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether the FT-IR spectroscopy and Focal Plane Array (FPA) imaging can be successfully applied to estimate the quality of bovine blastocysts (on the basis of the concentration of nucleic acids and amides). The FT-IR spectra of inner cell mass from blastocysts of three different culture systems were examined. The spectral changes between blastocysts were analyzed in DNA (spectral range of 1240-950 cm-1) and protein amides (1800-1400 cm-1). Blastocyst 1 (BL1-HA) was developed from the fertilized oocyte cultured with low concentration of hialuronian (HA), Blastocyst 2 and 3 were developed from the oocytes cultured in standard conditions. Cleavage stage blastocyst 2 (BL2-SOF) has been cultured in SOF medium while blastocyst 3 (BL3-VERO) was cultured in co-culture with VERO cells. The multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis - HCA and Principal Component Analysis - PCA) of single cells spectra showed high similarity of cells forming the inner cell mass within single blastocyst. The main variance between the three examined blastocysts was related to amides bands. Differences in the intensities of the amides' peaks between the bovine blastocysts derived from different culture systems indicated that specific proteins reflecting the appearance of a new phenotype were produced. However, for the three blastocysts, the α-helix typical peak was twice more intensive than the β-sheet typical peak suggesting that the differentiation processes had been started. Taking into account the quantitative and qualitative composition of the protein into examined blastocysts, it can be assumed, that the quality of the BL1-HA turned out much more similar to BL3-VERO than to BL2-SOF. FT-IR spectroscopy can be successfully applied in reproductive biology research for quality estimation of oocytes and embryos at varied stages of their development. Moreover this technique proved to be particularly useful when the quantity of the

  18. The outcomes of human blastocyst cryopreservation: vitrification using cryoloop versus slow-freezing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zheng-yi; He Fang-fang; Yu Qi; Deng Cheng-yan; Liu Mei-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of vitrification using cryoloop with slow-freezing method for human blastocyst cryopreservation.Methods: In IVF-ET cycles, supernumerary embryos were cultured to Day 5 or Day 6, blastocysts were cryopreserved by vitrification using cryoloops or slow-freezing method, then blastocyst survival rate and pregnant rate were compared.Results: 115 vitrified blastocysts from 39 cycles were warmed, 104(90.4%) blastocysts survived. After the transfer of 74 blastocysts in 38 cycles, 28(73.7%) women got clinically pregnant, 2(7.1%) of them suffered from miscarriage, 2 healthy babies were born in 2 deliveries, and the other 24 pregnancies are ongoing. As to slow-freezing method, 87 blastocysts from 21 cycles were thawed, 37(42.5%)of them survived, 28 blastocysts were transferred in 15 cycles, 6(40%) women got clinically pregnant, 1 of them miscarried, 3 healthy babies were born in 2 deliveries, and the other 3 pregnancies are ongoing.Conclusion: The survival rate and pregnant rate of vitrification using cryoloop are superior to traditional slow-freezing method, and the transfer cancel rate is lower than that of slow-freezing method. The miscarriage rate is similar in two methods.

  19. No evidence of association between blastocyst aneuploidy and morphokinetic assessment in a selected population of poor-prognosis patients: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, L; Capalbo, A; Stoppa, M; Romano, S; Maggiulli, R; Albricci, L; Scarica, C; Farcomeni, A; Vajta, G; Ubaldi, F M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies involving a limited number of patients have indicated a correlation between aneuploidy and various morphokinetic parameters during preimplantation development. The results among different groups, however, have been inconsistent in identifying the parameters that are able to predict chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aneuploidy of human blastocysts was detectable by specific morphokinetic parameters in patients at increased risk of aneuploidy because of advanced maternal age, history of unsuccessful IVF treatments, or both. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted using 455 blastocysts from 138 patients. Morphokinetic features of preimplantation development were detected in a timelapse incubator. Blastocysts were subjected to trophectodermal biopsy and comprehensive chromosomal screening. Analyses were conducted by means of logistic mixed-effects models, with a subject-specific intercept. No statistical correlation between 16 commonly detected morphokinetic characteristics of in-vitro embryo development and aneuploidy was found. Results suggest that morphokinetic characteristics cannot be used to select euploid blastocysts in poor-prognosis patients regarded as candidates for pre-implantation genetic screening. PMID:25458852

  20. Single blastocyst transfer after ICSI from ejaculate spermatozoa, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Staffan; Waldenström, Urban; Engström, Ann-Britt; Hellberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.

  1. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2 activity in mouse blastocyst by fibronectin-integrin interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fibronectin, a major extracellular matrix, plays an important role in embryo implantation by mediating embryo adhesion and outgrowth. In this work, mouse blastocysts produced pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9, pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 64 ku matrix metalloproteinase-2 when they were co-cultured with fibronectin. In contrast, mouse blastocysts did not produce these proteinases without fibronectin. Focal adhesion kinase is a fundamental molecule of integrin signaling pathway and its antisense oligodeoxynucleiotide inhibited blastocyst matrix metalloproteinases expression induced by fibronectin. The results indicated that fibronectin triggered matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2 expression in mouse blastocyst through its integrin receptors and subsequent signaling pathway, which enhanced the synchronization of blastocyst invasiveness and uterine receptivity and ensured the accuracy of events relative to implantation in timing and spatiality.

  2. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Chie; SAKAGUCHI, Yosuke; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshioka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addit...

  3. IGF-Ⅱ and IGFBP-1 reversely regulate blastocyst implantation in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-Ⅱ and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, members of IGF family, are important in the cyclic development of endometrium and the blastocyst implantation. In the present study, the indirect immunofluorescence showed that IGF-Ⅱ and IGFBP-1 were specifically expressed at the maternal-fetal interface. In a co-culture system, IGF-Ⅱ significantly enhanced the attachment and outgrowth of the blastocyst on monolayer of uterine epithelial cells, while IGFBP-1 did not affect the blastocyst attachment, but markedly inhibited the blastocyst outgrowth. The results of zymography showed that IGF-Ⅱ enhanced the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, while IGFBP-1 did not affect the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, the equilibrium between the invasion of trophoblast and the inhibition of deciduas may be regulated by the interaction between the IGF-Ⅱ-expressing invading cytotrophoblast and maternal deciduas-derived IGFBP-1.

  4. Developmental competence and ultrastructural changes of heat-stressed mouse early blastocysts produced in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi WANG

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouse early blastocysts were exposed to temperatures of 39℃ and 41℃ for 2 h, respectively, to determine their developmental competence and ultrastructural changes. The results showed that heat stress at 41℃ for 2 h, significantly reduced the percentages of expanded and hatched blastocysts, but not at 39℃ for 2 h. The average cell numbers in expanded blastocysts, which developed from early blastocysts heat-stressed at temperatures of 39℃ and 41℃, were significantly reduced. The average cell numbers in hatched blastocysts subjected to heat stress were no different from those in the control group cultured at 37℃. The mitochondria of the early blastocysts heat-stressed at 39℃ for 2 h, were slightly swollen, but they had recovered after culturing at 37℃ for 2 h. However, the mitochondria in the blastocysts heat stressed at 41℃ for 2 h were severely swollen, and their number increased. The ribosomes shed from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the number of secondary lysosomes in the plasma increased. The integrity of desmosomes was disrupted. The space between the nuclear envelope and the perivitelline membrane enlarged. The fibre fraction and the particulate fraction of nucleoli were separated. The heterochromatin in nucleoli was also increased in its quantity. There were some lamellar-shape structures and heterogeneous dense materials exhibiting in the cytoplasm. The ultrastructural changes induced by heat shock at 41℃ for 2 h were not reversible. In conclusion, the damage of heat stress to mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes and cell nucleus, may be one of the most important factors that inhibit the normal development of mouse early blastocysts [Current Zoology 55(1: 61–66, 2009].

  5. GLUT8 is a glucose transporter responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the blastocyst

    OpenAIRE

    Carayannopoulos, Mary O.; Chi, Maggie M.-Y.; Cui, Ying; Pingsterhaus, Joyce M.; McKnight, Robert A.; Mueckler, Mike; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian preimplantation blastocysts exhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake despite the absence of the only known insulin-regulated transporter, GLUT4. We describe a previously unidentified member of the mammalian facilitative GLUT superfamily that exhibits ≈20–25% identity with other murine facilitative GLUTs. Insulin induces a change in the intracellular localization of this protein, which translates into increased glucose uptake into the blastocyst, a process th...

  6. Generation of cardiomyocytes from new human embrionic stem cell lines derived from poor-quanlity blastocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Raya Chamorro, ??ngel; Aran, Bego??a; Consiglio, Antonella; Barri, Pere N.; Veiga, Anna; Izpis??a Belmonte, J. C.; Rodr??guez Piz??, Ignasi

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells represent a potential source for cell replacement therapy of many degenerative diseases. Most frequently, hES cell lines are derived from surplus embryos from assisted reproduction cycles, independent of their quality or morphology. Here, we show that hES cell lines can be obtained from poor-quality blastocysts with the same efficiency as that obtained from good- or intermediate-quality blastocysts. Furthermore, we show that the self-renewal, pluripotency, and...

  7. Developmental competence and ultrastructural changes of heat-stressed mouse early blastocysts produced in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingping QU; Wenru TIAN; Tao LI; Zhongling JIANG; Shansong GAO; Zhongjie TIAN; Mingzhi WANG

    2009-01-01

    Mouse early blastocysts were exposed to temporatures of 39℃ and 41℃ for 2 h,respectively,to determine their developmental competence and uhrastructural changes. The results showed that heat stress at 41 ℃ for 2 h,significantly reduced the percentages of expanded and hatched blastocysts,but not at 39℃ for 2 h. The average cell numbers in expanded blastocysts,which developed from early blastocysts heat-stressed at temperatures of 39℃ and 41 ℃,were significantly reduced. The average cell numbers in hatched blastocysts subjected to heat stress were no different from those in the control group cultured at 37℃ . The mitochondria of the early blastocysts heat-stressed at 39T℃ for 2 h,were slightly swollen,but they had recovered after culturing at 37℃ for 2 h. However,the mitochondria in the blastocysts heat stressed at 41 ℃ for 2 h were severely swollen,and their number increased. The ribosomes shed from the rough endoplasmic reticulum,and the number of secondary lysosomes in the plasma increased. The integrity of desmosomes was disrupted. The space between the nuclear envelope and the perivitelline membrane enlarged. The fibre fraction and the particulate fraction of nucleoli were separated. The heterochromatin in nucleoli was also increased in its quantity. There were some lamellar-shape structures and heterogeneous dense materials exhibiting in the cytoplasm. The ultrastructural changes induced by heat shock at 41 ℃ for 2 h were not reversible. In conclusion,the damage of heat stress to mitochondria,lysosomes,ribosomes and cell nucleus,may be one of the most important factors that inhibit the normal development of mouse early blastocysts.

  8. 人胚胎移植后剩余胚胎继续体外培养潜能的研究%Potential development to blastocyst of the surplus embryos from human embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛侠; 赵皖秋; 张四林; 秦臻; 师娟子

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the developmental potential of the surplus embryos from human embryo transfer during IVF - ET cycles. Methods All embryos with non - pronucleus (0PN), a single pronudeus (1PN), a number of pronucleus (≥3PN) and 2 pronudeus delaying development in cleavage stage (2PN) were cultured into blastula by the sequential method. Results ① 314 Surplus embryos were collected and formed 152 blastulas(48.41% ) after the sequential culture, among which 53 (34.87%) were high-quality blastula. ② The embryo grade on Day 3 was related to blastocyst rate. The higher embryo grade, the higher blastula formation (54.39%, 52.39%, 49.61% and 21.62% ); ③ Blastocyst formation rates of embryos in 1PN embryos,0PN embryos and D3 from blastocyst embryos classified Ⅲ had higher rates of blastula formation than D3 from blastocyst embryos classified beyond Ⅲ ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Embryos of level Ⅲ and above in D3 are still opportunities for blastocyst formation. The 0PN, 1PN embryo cleavage embryos developed from the D3 can continue to develop in high - quality, until after the formation of blastocysts, and then a pre- implantation genetic diagnosis. If the karyotype is aneuploid karyotype, then it should be frozen or transplanted first. The measures above can improve the oocyte retrieval in patients with accumulation of a single pregnancy, which can also provide resources for embryonic stem cell research.%目的 探讨IVF新鲜周期中D3可用胚胎移植和冷冻后剩余胚胎继续培养的价值.方法 通过囊胚序贯培养法将无原核(0PN)、单个原核(1PN)、多个原核(≥3PN)和卵裂期发育延缓的2原核(2PN)废弃胚胎培养至囊胚期.结果 ① 314枚剩余胚胎于D5~D7形成152枚囊胚(48.41%),其中53枚为优质囊胚(34.87%); ② 胚胎级别越高,囊胚形成率越高(54.39%、52.39%、49.61%和21.62%); ③ 0PN和1PN卵裂发育而来的D3优质胚胎、2PN卵裂发育来的D3评分为Ⅲ级

  9. The pig blastocyst: its ultrastructure and the uptake of protein macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroband, H W; Taverne, N; vd Bogaard, M

    1984-01-01

    Between days 8 and 11 of pregnancy spherical blastocysts from 0.3 to 10 mm in diameter were flushed from the uterine horns of Dutch Landrace pigs. A description of their ultrastructure is given, and the uptake of horseradish peroxidase and ferritin is demonstrated. The ultrastructure of the trophoblast was similar at all ages studied. The trophoblast which has many apical microvilli is able to take up and digest the macromolecules which were offered in the in vitro incubation medium. The hypoblast consists of flattened cells. In blastocysts 2 mm and larger, compact cells bearing microvilli are found below the embryoblast. Cell organelles indicating protein synthesis are found within hypoblast cells of such blastocysts. In the embryoblast, local concentrations of cell organelles are visible, indicating that differentiation has started. After the disappearance of Rauber's layer, which takes place when the blastocyst reaches a diameter of about 2 mm, superficial embryoblast cells develop short microvilli. The cells do not absorb ferritin or peroxidase but are dependent on the trophoblast for their food requirements. All cell layers in the blastocyst contain mitochondria that have characteristics of those found in steroid-producing cells. The significance of the uptake and digestion of macromolecules by trophoblast cells, the synthesis of protein by hypoblast cells and the possible synthesis of steroids is discussed with respect to the relationship between the cell layers of the blastocyst and in the context of concepto-maternal relationships. PMID:6705037

  10. Total Cell Number and its Allocation to Trophectoderm and Inner Cell Mass in In Vitro Obtained Cats' Blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, M; Wojtasik, B; Niżański, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental kinetics of cats' blastocysts in connection with their morphology and blastomeres allocation to trophoblast or embryoblast cells. We examined gross blastocyst morphology and the total number of blastomeres together with its allocation to inner cell mass (ICM) or trophectoderm (TE) cells in pre-implantation feline embryos obtained from 6th to 9th day of in vitro culture. From all the investigated embryos, 61.8% developed to early blastocyst, 37.4% to full and 7.6% to hatching blastocyst stage. The total cell number (TCN) varied form 58 cells in early day 6 to 245 in hatching day 8 blastocyst, with the mean 84.9 cells in early, 156.7 in full, and 204.4 in hatching ones. Day 8 blastocyst had the highest number of total cells, together with the highest mean number of ICM regardless of its morphological assessment. Early blastocyst (apart from day 6) had the highest number of arrested cells, while dead cells were the highest in full day 9 blastocyst. More data about the relationship between blastocyst development and morphology would facilitate the selection of optimal blastocysts for further procedures. PMID:26991408

  11. Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of the Human Blastocyst by Single-Cell Gene-Expression Analysis Informs Induction of Naive Pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durruthy-Durruthy, Jens; Wossidlo, Mark; Pai, Sunil; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kang, Gugene; Omberg, Larsson; Chen, Bertha; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Reijo Pera, Renee; Sebastiano, Vittorio

    2016-07-11

    Human preimplantation embryo development involves complex cellular and molecular events that lead to the establishment of three cell lineages in the blastocyst: trophectoderm, primitive endoderm, and epiblast. Owing to limited resources of biological specimens, our understanding of how the earliest lineage commitments are regulated remains narrow. Here, we examined gene expression in 241 individual cells from early and late human blastocysts to delineate dynamic gene-expression changes. We distinguished all three lineages and further developed a 3D model of the inner cell mass and trophectoderm in which individual cells were mapped into distinct expression domains. We identified in silico precursors of the epiblast and primitive endoderm lineages and revealed a role for MCRS1, TET1, and THAP11 in epiblast formation and their ability to induce naive pluripotency in vitro. Our results highlight the potential of single-cell gene-expression analysis in human preimplantation development to instruct human stem cell biology. PMID:27404362

  12. Occurrence of multipolar mitoses and association with Aurora-A/-B kinases and p53 mutations in aneuploid esophageal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münch Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases and loss of p53 function are implicated in the carcinogenesis of aneuploid esophageal cancers. Their association with occurrence of multipolar mitoses in the two main histotypes of aneuploid esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the occurrence of multipolar mitoses, Aurora-A/-B gene copy numbers and expression/activation as well as p53 alterations in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cell lines. Results A control esophageal epithelial cell line (EPC-hTERT had normal Aurora-A and -B gene copy numbers and expression, was p53 wild type and displayed bipolar mitoses. In contrast, both ESCC (OE21, Kyse-410 and BAC (OE33, OE19 cell lines were aneuploid and displayed elevated gene copy numbers of Aurora-A (chromosome 20 polysomy: OE21, OE33, OE19; gene amplification: Kyse-410 and Aurora-B (chromosome 17 polysomy: OE21, Kyse-410. Aurora-B gene copy numbers were not elevated in OE19 and OE33 cells despite chromosome 17 polysomy. Aurora-A expression and activity (Aurora-A/phosphoT288 was not directly linked to gene copy numbers and was highest in Kyse-410 and OE33 cells. Aurora-B expression and activity (Aurora-B/phosphoT232 was higher in OE21 and Kyse-410 than in OE33 and OE19 cells. The mitotic index was highest in OE21, followed by OE33 > OE19 > Kyse-410 and EPC-hTERT cells. Multipolar mitoses occurred with high frequency in OE33 (13.8 ± 4.2%, followed by OE21 (7.7 ± 5.0% and Kyse-410 (6.3 ± 2.0% cells. Single multipolar mitoses occurred in OE19 (1.0 ± 1.0% cells. Distinct p53 mutations and p53 protein expression patterns were found in all esophageal cancer cell lines, but complete functional p53 inactivation occurred in OE21 and OE33 only. Conclusions High Aurora-A expression alone is not associated with overt multipolar mitoses in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cells, as specifically shown here for OE21 and OE33 cells, respectively

  13. Effect of clinically-related factors on in vitro blastocyst development after equine ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Ho; Velez, Isabel C; Macías-García, Beatriz; Riera, Fernando L; Ballard, Catherine S; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-15

    Equine intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is being used clinically for foal production, but little information is available on factors affecting the efficiency of this procedure. We examined factors that may influence blastocyst development when ICSI is performed clinically, i.e., on oocytes recovered from live mares by transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration (TVA), using sperm from the stallion of the client's choice. In a clinical setting, there may be a delay from the time of TVA to isolation of oocytes from the aspirated fluid. In a preliminary study, oocytes from fluid held for 1.5 h at ambient temperature (26°C-33°C) yielded 32% blastocysts; however, in experiment 1, fluid held at 32 °C for 2 h after aspiration yielded 16% blastocysts versus 23% for aspirates processed immediately. Performing TVA/ICSI throughout the year would increase production from valuable mares, but efficiency during the nonbreeding season is unknown. In addition, to reduce the possibility of infection after TVA, administration of antibiotics to the mare before TVA is indicated; however, these could affect oocyte quality. In experiment 2, follicle numbers at the time of TVA were significantly higher in December to January than for the same mares during the breeding season. Oocyte recovery rates on TVA were 60% to 66% and the blastocyst rate was 18%. An equivalent blastocyst rate (18%) was achieved after administration of ampicillin and gentamicin to mares before TVA. In experiment 3, we verified that stallion differences exist in rates of cleavage after ICSI with motile sperm. In sperm from a low-performing stallion, density-gradient centrifugation followed by swim-up was associated with significantly higher rates of cleavage (45% vs. 18%) and blastocyst development (14% vs. 0%) than those for density gradient alone. In experiment 4, parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine yielded 40% blastocysts. Frozen-thawed sperm that were immotile

  14. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen, and the expression of ESC markers was as expected for alkaline phosphatase, octamer-binding transcription factor 4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3, stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, and there was absence of expression of negative markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Expression of genes specific for different embryonic germ layers was detected from the embryoid bodies (EBs) of both hESC lines, suggesting their differentiation potential in vitro. However, in vivo, only hPES-1 formed teratoma consisting of all three embryonic germ layers (hPES-2 did not). Interestingly, after continuous proliferation for more than 100 passages, hPES-1 cells still maintained a normal 46 XX karyotype; hPES-2 displayed abnormalities such as chromosome translocation after long term passages. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) results demonstrated that the hPES lines were genetic matches with the egg donors, and gene imprinting data confirmed the parthenogenetic origin of these ES cells. Genome-wide SNP analysis showed a pattern typical of parthenogenesis. All of these results demonstrated the feasibility to isolate and establish human parthenogenetic ESC lines, which provides an important tool for studying epigenetic effects in ESCs as well as for future therapeutic interventions in a clinical setting.

  15. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. PMID:26643604

  16. Clinical outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst and cleavage-stage embryo transfers in ethnic Chinese ART patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Guo; Cao Shan; Wu Xun; Zhang Jun; Cui Ji; Heng Boon; Ling Xiu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study sought to evaluate the outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers in patients undergoing ART treatment within an ethnic Chinese population. Study design We compared the clinical results of embryo transfer on the 3rd (cleavage stage) or 5th (blastocyst stage) day after oocyte retrieval, including clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates and multiple pregnancy rates. Results Our data showed that blastocyst transf...

  17. Tumor environmental factors glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis induce mitotic chromosomal instability--an implication in aneuploid human tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Dai

    Full Text Available Mitotic chromosomal instability (CIN plays important roles in tumor progression, but what causes CIN is incompletely understood. In general, tumor CIN arises from abnormal mitosis, which is caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic factors. While intrinsic factors such as mitotic checkpoint genes have been intensively studied, the impact of tumor microenvironmental factors on tumor CIN is largely unknown. We investigate if glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis--two tumor microenvironmental factors--could induce cancer cell CIN. We show that glucose deprivation with lactic acidosis significantly increases CIN in 4T1, MCF-7 and HCT116 scored by micronuclei, or aneuploidy, or abnormal mitosis, potentially via damaging DNA, up-regulating mitotic checkpoint genes, and/or amplifying centrosome. Of note, the feature of CIN induced by glucose deprivation with lactic acidosis is similar to that of aneuploid human tumors. We conclude that tumor environmental factors glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis can induce tumor CIN and propose that they are potentially responsible for human tumor aneuploidy.

  18. An Epigenetic Modifier Results in Improved In Vitro Blastocyst production after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan; Villemoes, Klaus; Pedersen, Anette Møjbæk; Purup, Stig; Vajta, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    significantly improve blastocyst yield compared to the control (46.4 ± 4.6% vs 17.7 ± 4.9% for treated and untreated embryos, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas similar cleavage rate and total cell number per blastocyst were observed. In order to assess if the improvement is cell line specific, three cell lines...... were tested, and for all cell lines an enhancement in blastocyst development compared to their corresponding control was observed. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer in the pig can significantly improve the in vitro blastocyst production...

  19. Good quality blastocyst from non-/mono-pronuclear zygote may be used for transfer during IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bao-Li; Hao, Hao-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wei, Duo; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2016-04-01

    Although healthy infants have developed from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes, the transfer of embryos from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes is not recommended because there are no proper selection criteria. In the present study, we discuss how to select non- and mono-pronuclear embryos with the highest developmental potential at 19-20 hours post-insemination. We found that the percentage of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution in non-pronuclear zygotes was slightly higher than in mono-pronuclear zygotes. Non- and mono-pronuclear embryos that were at the 4-cell stage on D2 and/or at the 6- to 8-cell stage on D3 had higher incidence rates of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitutions. We also found higher incidences of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution on D6 than on D5. The results suggest that if high quality non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes develop to the 4-cell stage on D2 and the 6-to 8- cell stages on D3, along with high quality D6 blastocysts, the incidence of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution is higher. PMID:26901373

  20. Effect of fibronectin and leu- kaemia inhibitory factor on matrix metalloproteinases in mouse blastocyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to detect the effects of fibronectin (FN) and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on matrix metallopoteinases (MMPs) of mouse blastocysts. The experiments comprised four groups: first, blastocysts grew on the dishes with FN-coated; the second, without FN-coated; the third group, without FN coated, but with 20 ng/mL LIF added to culture medium; and the fourth group, with both FN-coated and 20 ng/mL LIF added. Using MMP-2 and MMP-9 primers respectively, the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by RT-PCR and cloning identification. The results showed that in the first group, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were produced after 12 and 24 h culturing; in the third group, there were both MMP-2 and MMP-9 bands when blastocysts were cultured for 24 h; and in the fourth group, MMP-2 and MMP-9 bands appeared when blasto-cysts were cultured for 6, 12 and 24 h. But in the second group no MMP-2 or MMP-9 band appeared. These results show that FN may initiate the transcription of MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes to mRNA through signal transduction path-way mediated by integrin receptor and LIF may promote the expression of MMPs mRNA, which guaranteed the accuracy of embryo implantation by associating the invasive blasto-cysts with the receptive endometrium.

  1. Clinical outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst and cleavage-stage embryo transfers in ethnic Chinese ART patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Guo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study sought to evaluate the outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers in patients undergoing ART treatment within an ethnic Chinese population. Study design We compared the clinical results of embryo transfer on the 3rd (cleavage stage or 5th (blastocyst stage day after oocyte retrieval, including clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates and multiple pregnancy rates. Results Our data showed that blastocyst transfer on day 5 did not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate (41.07% vs 47.08%, p>0.05 and implantation rate (31.8% vs 31.2%, p>0.05 in patients under 35 years of age, in comparison with day 3 cleavage stage embryo transfer. In patients older than 35 years of age, the clinical pregnancy rate after blastocyst transfer was slightly decreased compared with cleavage stage embryo transfer (33.33% vs 42.31%, p>0.05. Unexpectedly, It was found that vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer resulted in significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (56.8% and implantation rate (47% compared with fresh blastocyst transfer in controlled stimulation cycles (41.07% and 31.8%, respectively. For patients under 35 years of age, the cumulative clinical pregnancy rate combining fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles were significantly higher compared to just cleavage-stage embryo transfer (70.1% versus 51.8%, p Conclusions In an ethnic Chinese patient population, fresh blastocyst transfer does not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate. However, subsequent vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a non-controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle dramatically improves clinical outcomes. Therefore, blastocyst culture in tandem with vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer is recommended as a favourable and promising protocol in human ART treatment, particularly for ethnic Chinese patients.

  2. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  3. Generation of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts: effects of different activation methods and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Hruda Nanda; Singhal, Dinesh Kumar; Saugandhika, Shrabani; Dubey, Amit; Mukherjee, Ayan; Singhal, Raxita; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Bhanja, Subrata Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different activation methods and culture media on the in vitro development of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts. Calcium (Ca2+) ionophore, ethanol or a combination of the two, used as activating reagents, and embryo development medium (EDM), modified Charles Rosenkrans (mCR2a) medium and research vitro cleave (RVCL) medium were used to evaluate the developmental competence of goat blastocysts. Quantitative expression of apoptosis, stress and developmental competence-related genes were analysed in different stages of embryos. In RVCL medium, the cleavage rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (79.61 ± 0.86) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in ethanol (74.90 ± 1.51) or in the combination of both Ca2+ ionophore and ethanol. In mCR2a or EDM, hatched blastocyst production rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (8.33 ± 1.44) was significantly higher than in ethanol (6.46 ± 0.11) or in the combined treatment (6.70 ± 0.24). In ethanol, the cleavage, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst production rates in RVCL medium (74.90 ± 1.51, 18.30 ± 1.52 and 8.24 ± 0.15, respectively) were significantly higher than in EDM (67.81 ± 3.21, 14.59 ± 0.27 and 5.59 ± 0.42) or mCR2a medium (65.09 ± 1.57, 15.36 ± 0.52 and 6.46 ± 0.11). The expression of BAX, Oct-4 and GlUT1 transcripts increased gradually from 2-cell stage to blastocyst-stage embryos, whereas the transcript levels of Bcl-2 and MnSOD were significantly lower in blastocysts. In addition, different activation methods and culture media had little effect on the pattern of variation and relative abundance of the above genes in different stages of parthenogenetic activated goat embryos. In conclusion, Ca2+ ionophore as the activating agent, and RVCL as the culture medium are better than other tested options for development of parthenogenetic activated goat blastocysts. PMID:24405529

  4. Functional challenge affects aquaporin mRNA abundance in mouse blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2005-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of channel proteins that facilitate diffusion of water across cell membranes. Three members of the AQP family have been detected in the mouse blastocyst: AQP 3 and 8 are located in the basolateral domain and AQP 9 predominantly in the apical domain of the tropho...... in vivo developed blastocysts. We found that in vitro culture resulted in lower levels of AQP 8, 9, and 11 compared to in vivo development. These experiments show that mouse embryos are capable of regulating AQP mRNA abundances in response to environmental alterations....

  5. IGF-1/IGFBP-1 increases blastocyst formation and total blastocyst cell number in mouse embryo culture and facilitates the establishment of a stem-cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Teng-Tsao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis occurs frequently for blastocysts cultured in vitro, where conditions are suboptimal to those found in the natural environment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays an important role in preventing apoptosis in the early development of the embryo, as well as in the progressive regulation of organ development. We hypothesize that IGF-1 and its dephosphorylated binding protein (IGFBP-1 may be able to improve embryo culture with an associated reduced cell death, and that the resultant increase in the total cell number of the embryo could increase the chances of establishing an embryonic stem-cell line. Results In vivo fertilized zygotes were cultured in medium containing supplementary IGF-1, or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The stages of the resultant embryos were evaluated at noon on day five post-hCG injection. The extent of apoptosis and necrosis was evaluated using Annexin V and propidium iodine staining under fluorescent microscopy. The establishment of embryonic stem-cell lines was performed using the hatching blastocysts that were cultured in the presence of IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The results show that the rate of blastocyst formation in a tissue-culture system in the presence of IGF-1 was 88.7% and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 it was 94.6%, respectively, and that it was significantly greater than the figure for the control group (81.9%. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 also resulted in a higher hatching rate than was the case for the control group (68.8% vs. 48.6% respectively. IGF-1 also increased the number of Annexin V-free and propidium iodine-free blastocysts in culture (86.8% vs. 75.9% respectively. Total cell number of blastocyst in culture was increased by 18.9% for those examples cultured with dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1. For subsequent stem-cell culture, the chances of the successful establishment of a stem-cell line was increased for the IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 groups (IGF-1 vs. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 vs. control: 45.8% vs. 59.6% vs. 27

  6. A prospective randomized comparison of sequential versus monoculture systems for in-vitro human blastocyst development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.H. Pieters; M.A. Hassan; P.H. Jeucken; M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Extending the period of in-vitro culture to the blastocyst stage may improve implantation rates in IVF treatment. Recognition of the dynamic nature of early embryo metabolism has led to the development of commercially available sequential culture systems. Ho

  7. Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandaele Leen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.

  8. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...

  9. Global gene expression of the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of the bovine blastocyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Manabu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first distinct differentiation event in mammals occurs at the blastocyst stage when totipotent blastomeres differentiate into either pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM or multipotent trophectoderm (TE. Here we determined, for the first time, global gene expression patterns in the ICM and TE isolated from bovine blastocysts. The ICM and TE were isolated from blastocysts harvested at day 8 after insemination by magnetic activated cell sorting, and cDNA sequenced using the SOLiD 4.0 system. Results A total of 870 genes were differentially expressed between ICM and TE. Several genes characteristic of ICM (for example, NANOG, SOX2, and STAT3 and TE (ELF5, GATA3, and KRT18 in mouse and human showed similar patterns in bovine. Other genes, however, showed differences in expression between ICM and TE that deviates from the expected based on mouse and human. Conclusion Analysis of gene expression indicated that differentiation of blastomeres of the morula-stage embryo into the ICM and TE of the blastocyst is accompanied by differences between the two cell lineages in expression of genes controlling metabolic processes, endocytosis, hatching from the zona pellucida, paracrine and endocrine signaling with the mother, and genes supporting the changes in cellular architecture, stemness, and hematopoiesis necessary for development of the trophoblast.

  10. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Mullerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, E Scott

    2011-12-02

    Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79) and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+\\/- SD) age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45) yrs, and mean (+\\/- SD) terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +\\/- 4056 pmol\\/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65) was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44) was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61), suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol\\/l; p = 0.029). Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  11. The spatiotemporal hormonal orchestration of human folliculogenesis, early embryogenesis and blastocyst implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Vadakkadath Meethal, Sivan

    2016-07-15

    The early reproductive events starting with folliculogenesis and ending with blastocyst implantation into the uterine endometrium are regulated by a complex interplay among endocrine, paracrine and autocrine factors. This review examines the spatiotemporal integration of these maternal and embryonic signals that are required for successful reproduction. In coordination with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) hormones, an intraovarian HPG-like axis regulates folliculogenesis, follicular quiescence, ovulation, follicular atresia, and corpus luteal functions. Upon conception and passage of the zygote through the fallopian tube, the contribution of maternal hormones in the form of paracrine secretions from the endosalpinx to embryonic development declines, with autocrine and paracrine signaling becoming increasingly important as instructional signals for the differentiation of the early zygote/morula into a blastocyst. These maternal and embryonic signals include activin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) that are crucial for the synthesis and secretion of the 'pregnancy' hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG in turn signals pre-implantation embryonic cell division and sex steroid production required for stem cell differentiation, and subsequent blastulation, gastrulation, cavitation and blastocyst formation. Upon reaching the uterus, blastocyst hatching occurs under the influence of decreased activin signaling, while the attachment and invasion of the trophoblast into the endometrium appears to be driven by a decrease in activin signaling, and by increased GnRH1 and hCG signaling that allows for tissue remodeling and the controlled invasion of the blastocyst into the uterine endometrium. This review demonstrates the importance of integrative endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling for successful human reproduction. PMID:27045358

  12. Comparing thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates from cryopreserved zygotes, embryos and blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Pavone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Most in vitro fertilization (IVF programs employ embryo cryopreservation to enhance pregnancies from a single ovarian stimulation. More embryos are created, some of which are not transferred to the uterus immediately, generating a need for improved cryopreservation protocols. One protocol may involve growing embryos to a further stage of development, allowing only embryos with proven developmental capabilities to be cryopreserved. Here we examined thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates of embryos cryopreserved at different stages. Aims : We examined thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates of embryos cryopreserved at the zygote, day 3 (D3 embryos or blastocyst stage. Settings and Design : This is a retrospective study from a single academic IVF program. Patients and Methods :0 A retrospective study of all patients who had frozen embryos transferred to their uteri from year 2002 to 2008 at a single academic IVF program was conducted. Statistical Analysis Used : Analysis of variance followed by Fisher′s Exact Test was performed to compare the survival after thaw, implantation and live birth rates between the three groups. Results : One thousand nine hundred and ninety-one zygotes, 2880 D3 embryos and 503 blastocysts were frozen using a slow freeze technique, thawed and transferred. Significantly more D3 embryos and blastocysts survived the thawing process compared to zygotes and significantly higher implantation rate per number of thawed blastocysts was achieved than that for zygotes. Live birth rates were similar between the three groups. Conclusions : Growing embryos to blastocyst stage prior to cryopreservation is associated with fewer frozen embryos but does not appear compromise patients′ chance of achieving pregnancy

  13. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 μM cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 μg/ml estradiol-17β. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P < 0.05), and in 2006 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in pregnancy and lambing rates between embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes. PMID:23458093

  14. X-linked gene transcription patterns in female and male in vivo, in vitro and cloned porcine individual blastocysts.

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    Chi-Hun Park

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF, and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process

  15. Effects of lead on the male mouse as investigated by in vitro fertilization and blastocyst culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, L.; Sjoeblom, P.; Wide, M.

    1987-02-01

    Long-term exposure of male mice to inorganic lead (lead chloride, 1 g/liter) in the drinking water reduces their fertility. The cause of this reduction, expressed as a decrease in the number of mated females showing inplantations, was investigated, using an in vivo fertilization method. It was found that spermatozoa from lead-exposed males had a significantly lower ability to fertilize mouse eggs than those from unexposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males, were examined. No morphologically abnormal embryos were found. However, when cultured in vitro over the implantation period, blastocysts of the group mated with lead-exposed males showed an increased frequency of delayed hatching from the zona pellucida or an inability to hatch. Among blastocysts from this group a decreased frequency of inner cell mass development was also found.

  16. Monochorionic triamniotic triplets following conventional in vitro fertilization and blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunath, Sumana; Makam, Adinarayana; Vinekar, Sriprada; Biliangady, Reeta H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF) is on the decline with a reduction in number of embryos transferred. But the risk of monozygotic splitting persists. The risk of monozygotic twinning in women undergoing IVF is reported to be twice that of natural conception, and monochorionic triplets are even rarer at 100 times more than natural conception. We report a case of monochorionic triamniotic (MCTA) triplets following conventional IVF and blastocyst transfer without zona manipulation. This report highlights the possibility of zygotic splitting in IVF in young couples with no family history, in centers with good experience with blastocyst transfer. MCTA triplets carry a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity and need multidisciplinary care. Prevention and prediction of zygotic splitting ought to be realized with better reporting and identification of possible risk factors. PMID:25838751

  17. Monochorionic triamniotic triplets following conventional in vitro fertilization and blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Gurunath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF is on the decline with a reduction in number of embryos transferred. But the risk of monozygotic splitting persists. The risk of monozygotic twinning in women undergoing IVF is reported to be twice that of natural conception, and monochorionic triplets are even rarer at 100 times more than natural conception. We report a case of monochorionic triamniotic (MCTA triplets following conventional IVF and blastocyst transfer without zona manipulation. This report highlights the possibility of zygotic splitting in IVF in young couples with no family history, in centers with good experience with blastocyst transfer. MCTA triplets carry a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity and need multidisciplinary care. Prevention and prediction of zygotic splitting ought to be realized with better reporting and identification of possible risk factors.

  18. Blastocyst Injection of Wild Type Embryonic Stem Cells Induces Global Corrections in Mdx Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Stillwell, Elizabeth; Vitale, Joseph; Zhao, Qingshi; Beck, Amanda; Schneider, Joel; Khadim, Farah; Elson, Genie; Altaf, Aneela; Yehia, Ghassan; Dong, Jia-hui; Liu, Jing; Mark, Willie; Bhaumik, Mantu; Grange, Robert; Fraidenraich, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable neuromuscular degenerative disease, caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Mdx mice recapitulate DMD features. Here we show that injection of wild-type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mdx blastocysts produces mice with improved pathology and function. A small fraction of WT ESCs incorporates into the mdx mouse nonuniformly to upregulate protein levels of dystrophin in the skeletal muscle. The chimeric muscle shows reduced regenerat...

  19. Human embryonic stem cells derived from abnormal blastocyst donated by Marfan syndrome patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC line was derived from abnormal blastocyst donated by Marfan syndrome patient after preimpantation genetic diagnosis (PGD treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that the hESC line carried the heterozygous deletion mutation, c.3536delA, of FBN1 gene. Characteristic tests proved that the hESC line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. A prospective randomized comparison of sequential versus monoculture systems for in-vitro human blastocyst development

    OpenAIRE

    Macklon, Nick; Pieters, M.H.; Hassan, M. A.; Jeucken, P.H.; Eijkemans, René; Fauser, Bart

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Extending the period of in-vitro culture to the blastocyst stage may improve implantation rates in IVF treatment. Recognition of the dynamic nature of early embryo metabolism has led to the development of commercially available sequential culture systems. However, their improved efficacy over monoculture systems remains to be demonstrated in prospective studies. METHODS: Embryos obtained from 158 women undergoing IVF treatment were randomized by sealed envelopes to cul...

  1. Uncoupled embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues compromise blastocyst development after somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Degrelle, Severine; Jaffrézic, Florence; Campion, Evelyne; Le Cao, Kim-Anh; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Richard, Christophe; Rodde, Nathalie; Fleurot, Renaud; Everts, Robin E.; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Heyman, Yvan; Vignon, Xavier; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, Xiuchun C.; Lewin, Harris A

    2012-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the most efficient cell reprogramming technique available, especially when working with bovine species. Although SCNT blastocysts performed equally well or better than controls in the weeks following embryo transfer at Day 7, elongation and gastrulation defects were observed prior to implantation. To understand the developmental implications of embryonic/extra-embryonic interactions, the morphological and molecular features of elongating and gastrulatin...

  2. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ermanno Greco; Sara Bono; Alessandra Ruberti; Anna Maria Lobascio; Pierfrancesco Greco; Anil Biricik; Letizia Spizzichino; Alessia Greco; Jan Tesarik; Maria Giulia Minasi; Francesco Fiorentino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good progn...

  3. Vitrification of day 7 hatching blastocyst using hemistraw resulting in a full term delivery: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Lad; Neha Lad

    2016-01-01

    This is probably the first report of a successful delivery following transfer of a vitrified-warmed day 7 slow growing hatching blastocyst using hemistraw-vitriplug as an embryo carrier system. Case Report: A 26 years old Indian woman underwent controlled ovarian stimulation using short antagonist protocol and on day 11 after hCG administration, sixteen mature oocytes obtained were fertilized by ICSI procedure. On day 5, after transfer of two expanded blastocysts, three supernumerary embryos ...

  4. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of porcine cloned and in vitro fertilized blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-hua; LI Zi-cong; OUYANG Zhi-ping; YU Bo; SHI Jun-song; LIU De-wu; WU Zhen-fang

    2015-01-01

    Somatic nuclear transfer technology has become increasingly promising in biomedicine and agriculture. Whereas the approach remains inefifcient and underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous. Although cloned embryos have similar in vitro developmental capacity as in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos before implantation, they appeared to have much lower ful-term developmental efifciency in pig and cattle, and thus it would be reasonable to postulate that profound distinction at the molecular level should exist between them. Herein, RNA sequencing technique was used to screen differential y expressed genes in cloned and IVF blastocysts, and in total 628 differential y expressed transcripts were obtained, among which, 280 transcripts are up-regulated and 348 transcripts are down-regulated in cloned blastocysts. Moreover, one statistical y signiifcant pathway associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein processing was enriched, and some ER-stress markers such as ATF4, ATF6, PDIA3, HSPA1B, HSP40 and HSP90 between cloned and IVF blastocysts were suggested. Additional y, some developmental y important genes such as lipid metabolism related genes (MGLL, DDHD2 and FADS2) and epigenetic modiifcation genes (DNMT1, KDM5C and MBD3L5) were found differential y expressed be-tween cloned and IVF embryos.

  5. Production of transgenic7blastocyst of sheep by somatic cell cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Five samples from primary cultures of five sheep ovarian granulosa cells were transfeeted by pEGFP N1 DNA. Five transgenic positive cell lines, each from one of the five samples above, were used as donor nuclei for somatic nucleus transfer. A total of 352 in vitro matured and enucle ated sheep oocytes were fused electrically with transgenic granulosa cells and 329 reconstructed embryos were ob tained after activation by Ionomycin/6-DMAP, and these embryos were cultured in SOFaaBSA medium for 7 d. The result shows that 312 embryos (94.8%) had gone through cleavage and among them 63 (19.1%) had developed to the blastocyst stage. Expression of GFP gene was detected in various stages of early embryonic development by sampling randomly. Blastocyst rates given by the four cells treated with 0.5% FCS starvation was 19.6% (55/280) and it had not shown difference significantly (P>0.05) with the result ob tained with another cell line that had not gone through se rum starvation (16.3%, 8/49). This experiment indicates that sheep transgenic embryos up to the blastocyst stage can be produced effectively by the combination of gene transfection in somatic cells in culture and somatic cell cloning.

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole.

  7. Melatonin promotes the in vitro development of pronuclear embryos and increases the efficiency of blastocyst implantation in murine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Tan, DunXian; Reiter, Russel J; Liu, GuoShi

    2013-10-01

    When a defect occurs in the in vitro development of a pronuclear embryo, the interruption of the subsequent implantation limits the success of assisted conception. This common problem remains to be solved. In this study, we observed that melatonin at its physiological concentration (10(-7)  m) significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine pronuclear embryos. This was indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate, and blastocyst cell number with melatonin treatment. In addition, when these blastocysts were implanted into female recipient mice, the pregnancy rates (95.0% versus control 67.8%), litter sizes (4.1 pups/litter versus control 2.7 pups/litter), and postnatal survival rates of offspring (96.84% versus control 81.24%) were significantly improved compared with their non-melatonin-treated counterparts. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment upregulates gene expression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the anti-apoptotic factor bcl-2 while downregulating the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and caspase-3. Due to these changes, melatonin treatment reduces ROS production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improves the quality of blastocysts. The implantation of blastocysts with higher quality leads to more healthy offspring and increased pup survival. PMID:23772689

  8. Effect of Retinoic Acid on Apoptosis and Expression of Fas Proteins in Mouse Blastocysts Cultured In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan'e XIONG; Duanlian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Mouse blastocysts were exposed to doses of 0,1 and 10μmol/L retinoic acid (RA) for 24h and the cytotoxic effect of RA on the mouse blastocysts in vitro was observed. FITC-labeled terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL-FITC) assay was employed to stain apoptotic cells and immunohistochemical S-P staining method was used to detect the expression of Fas protein in mouse blastocysts in vitro. The results showed that RA could induce apoptosis and increase the expression of Fas proteins of trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells in blastocysts. Compared with the findings for the control blastocysts, exposure to RA (10μmol/L) resulted in a more significant apoptosis and higher expression level of Fas proteins (P<0.01). It was concluded that RA could induce apoptosis, which may result in a significant reduction in the average number of total cells and the trophectoderm/inner cell mass in blastocysts and an increased expression of Fas protein, suggesting that RA had a cytotoxic effect on the growth and development of early embryos in mice.

  9. Metabolic induction and early responses of mouse blastocyst developmental programming following maternal low protein diet affecting life-long health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Eckert

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD, is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5, notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery.

  10. Comparison between Cleavage Stage versus Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfer in an Egyptian Cohort Undergoing in vitro Fertilization: A Possible Role for Laser Assisted Hatching

    OpenAIRE

    Hendawy, Sherif F.; Raafat, TA

    2011-01-01

    Background Extended in vitro embryo culture and blastocyst transfer have emerged as essential components of the advanced reproductive technology armamentarium, permitting selection of more advanced embryos considered best suited for transfer. Aim of study The aim of this study was to compare between cleavage stage and blastocyst stage embryo transfer in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and to assess the role of assisted hatching technique in patients undergoing blastocyst...

  11. Morphokinetics of cloned mouse embryos treated with epigenetic drugs and blastocyst prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Anna; Piqué, Laia; Santaló, Josep; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Time-lapse monitoring of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos may help to predict developmental success and increase birth and embryonic stem cells (ESC) derivation rates. Here, the development of ICSI fertilized embryos and of SCNT embryos, non-treated or treated with either psammaplin A (PsA) or vitamin C (VitC), was monitored, and the ESC derivation rates from the resulting blastocysts were determined. Blastocyst rates were similar among PsA-treated and VitC-treated SCNT embryos and ICSI embryos, but lower for non-treated SCNT embryos. ESC derivation rates were higher in treated SCNT embryos than in non-treated or ICSI embryos. Time-lapse microscopy analysis showed that non-treated SCNT embryos had a delayed development from the second division until compaction, lower number of blastomeres at compaction and longer compaction and cavitation durations compared with ICSI ones. Treatment of SCNT embryos with PsA further increased this delay whereas treatment with VitC slightly reduced it, suggesting that both treatments act through different mechanisms, not necessarily related to their epigenetic effects. Despite these differences, the time of completion of the third division, alone or combined with the duration of compaction and/or the presence of fragmentation, had a strong predictive value for blastocyst formation in all groups. In contrast, we failed to predict ESC derivation success from embryo morphokinetics. Time-lapse technology allows the selection of SCNT embryos with higher developmental potential and could help to increase cloning outcomes. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to find reliable markers for full-term development and ESC derivation success. PMID:26621919

  12. Ganglioside GD1a promotes oocyte maturation, furthers preimplantation development, and increases blastocyst quality in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Jin-Woo; PARK, Hyo-Jin; CHAE, Sung-Kyu; AHN, Jae-Hyun; DO, Geon-Yeop; CHOO, Young-Kug; PARK, Joung Jun; JUNG, Bae Dong; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae; KOO, Deog-Bon

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides are key lipid molecules required for the regulation of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell signaling, including signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has long been considered a potential regulator of meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation in mammalian oocytes. However, there is no report on the direct effect of ganglioside GD1a in porcine oocyte maturation. In this study, we first investigated a functional link between GD1a and meiotic maturation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine embryos. Moreover, we confirmed the effect of exogenous GD1a treatment on blastocyst development, quality, and fertilization rate in early embryonic development. First, we observed that the protein level of ST3GAL2, a GD1a synthesizing enzyme, significantly increased (P < 0.01) in cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) during IVM progress. The proportion of arrested germinal vesicles (GV) increased in oocytes treated with EGF+GD1a (41.6 ± 1.5%) at the IVM I stage. Upon completion of meiotic maturation, the proportion of metaphase II (M II) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EGF+GD1a (89.9 ± 3.6%) treated group. After IVF, the percentage of penetrated oocytes was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EGF+GD1a (89.1 ± 2.3%) treated group than in the control group. Furthermore, exogenous GD1a treatment improved the developmental competence and quality of blastocysts during preimplantation embryo development stage. These results suggest that ganglioside GD1a may play an important role in IVM mechanisms of porcine maturation capacity. Furthermore, our findings will be helpful for better promoting the embryo development and blastocyst quality in pigs. PMID:26860251

  13. Mouse embryo motion and embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage using mechanical vibration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yuka; Matsuura, Koji

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of mechanical stimuli on mouse embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage to evaluate physical factors affecting embryonic development. Shear stress (SS) applied to embryos using two mechanical vibration systems (MVSs) was calculated by observing microscopic images of moving embryos during mechanical vibration (MV). The MVSs did not induce any motion of the medium and the diffusion rate using MVSs was the same as that under static conditions. Three days of culture using MVS did not improve embryonic development. MVS transmitted MV power more efficiently to embryos than other systems and resulted in a significant decrease in development to the morula or blastocyst stage after 2 days. Comparison of the results of embryo culture using dynamic culture systems demonstrated that macroscopic diffusion of secreted materials contributes to improved development of mouse embryos to the blastocyst stage. These results also suggest that the threshold of SS and MV to induce negative effects for mouse embryos at stages earlier than the blastocyst may be lower than that for the blastocyst, and that mouse embryos are more sensitive to physical and chemical stimuli than human or pig embryos because of their thinner zona pellucida. PMID:23697534

  14. Effect of Hyaluronan on Developmental Competence and Quality of Oocytes and Obtained Blastocysts from In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Opiela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronan (HA during IVM on meiotic maturation, embryonic development, and the quality of oocytes, granulosa cells (GC, and obtained blastocysts. COCs were matured in vitro in control medium and medium with additional 0.035% or 0.07% of exogenous HA. The meiotic maturity did not differ between the analysed groups. The best rate and the highest quality of obtained blastocysts were observed when 0.07% HA was used. A highly significant difference (P<0.001 was noted in the mean number of apoptotic nuclei per blastocyst and in the DCI between the 0.07% HA and the control blastocysts (P<0.01. Our results suggest that addition of 0.035% HA and 0.07% HA to oocyte maturation media does not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and DNA fragmentation. However, the addition of 0.07% HA during IVM decreases the level of blastocysts DNA fragmentation. Finally, our results suggest that it may be risky to increase the HA concentration during IVM above 0.07% as we found significantly higher Bax mRNA expression levels in GC cultured with 0.07% HA. The final concentration of HA being supplemented to oocyte maturation media is critical for the success of the IVP procedure.

  15. Development of In Vitro Derived Sheep Embryos to the Blastocyst Stage

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLER, Sema; PABUÇÇUOĞLU, Serhat; ALKAN, Serhat; ÖZDAŞ, Özen Banu

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to mature and fertilize primary sheep oocytes in vitro and to develop them to the blastocyst stage. Ovaries from slaughtered Kıvırcık ewes were used. The ovaries were transported to the laboratory in a vacuum flask in which 30-35 °C PBS (phosphate buffered saline) was included. The cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected by rupturing and washing the follicle wall with oocyte washing medium. They were then selected under a stereo microscope and maturated ...

  16. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear transfer bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian;

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... families, consisting of 112 blastocysts reconstructed from five different primary granulosa cell cultures, were examined. Overall, the mean chromosome complement within embryos was 86.9 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM) diploid, 2.6 +/- 0.5% triploid, 10.0 +/- 3.1% tetraploid, and 0.5 +/- 0.2% pentaploid or greater......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  17. Blastocyst recovery and multifactorial gene expression analysis in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribal, Romy; Guenther, Anja; Rübensam, Kathrin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2016-09-15

    The expression of specific developmentally important genes in preimplantation embryos is an accepted marker for unraveling the influence of single factors in studies that are mostly related to artificial reproduction techniques. Such studies, however, often reveal high levels of heterogeneity between single embryos, independently of the influence of factors of interest. A possible explanation for this variation could be the large variety of physiological and environmental factors to which early embryos are exposed and their ability to react to them. Here, we investigated several potentially important parameters of development at the same time, in blastocysts of the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) generated in vivo after natural mating. The optimal time for flushing fully developed blastocysts was between 123 and 126 hours after mating. The abundance of POU5F1 (P = 0.042), BAX (P sire. In addition, the identity of the father had a significant influence on POU5F1 (P = 0.049) and STAT3 (P < 0.001) mRNA abundances. These data report that the expression of specific genes in early embryos reflects the entire heterogeneity of their surroundings and that it is a plastic reaction toward a multifactorial environment. PMID:27264741

  18. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  19. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kawamura

    Full Text Available Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for

  20. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

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    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  1. Linolenic acid improves oocyte developmental competence and decreases apoptosis of in vitro-produced blastocysts in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshkini, Arash; Khadem, Ali Akbar; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Alamouti, Ali Asadi; Soleimani, Masoud; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2016-08-01

    The effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on developmental competence of oocytes in goats were evaluated in this study. Initially, the level of ALA in small and large antral follicles was determined to be in a range of 0.018-0.028 mg/ml (64.6-100.6 μM, respectively). In vitro maturation was performed in the presence of various concentrations (10, 50, 100, or 200 μM) of ALA. Cumulus expansion, meiotic maturation, levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH), embryonic cleavage, blastocyst formation following parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF), number of total and apoptotic cells in blastocyst, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes in blastocyst cells were determined. Compared with the control, no improvement was observed in cumulus expansion in ALA-treated groups. At 50 μM concentration, ALA increased meiotic maturation rate but had no effect on GSH level. When oocytes treated with 50 μM ALA were subsequently used for PA or IVF, a higher rate of blastocyst formation was observed, and these embryos had a higher total cell number and a lower apoptotic cell number. Expression analyses of genes in blastocysts revealed lesser transcript abundances for Bax gene, and higher transcript abundances for Bcl-2 gene in 50 μM ALA group. Expression of p53 gene was also less observed in ALA-treated blastocysts. Our results show that ALA treatment at 50 μM during in vitro maturation (IVM) had a beneficial effect on maturation of goat oocytes and this, in turn, stimulated embryonic development and regulated apoptotic gene expression. PMID:26584822

  2. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian;

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...

  3. DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas: Role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence Aneuploidía del ADN en adenomas colónicos: Papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcántara Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aneuploidy has been observed in 6-27% of lesions known to be precursors of colorectal cancer, such as adenomas or ulcerative colitis. It has been suggested that aneuploidy may predispose to malignancy in these cases. However, its role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence has not been definitely established. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of aneuploidy in colon adenomas, as well as to study its possible role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Material and methods: the study was performed on a series of 57 large bowel adenomas measuring 10 mm or more, collected from 54 consecutive patients. All specimens were obtained either by endoscopic or by surgical resection. There were 49 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, two with high-grade dysplasia, two intramucous carcinomas, and four microinvasive carcinomas. A flow cytometric DNA analysis was performed in fresh specimens following Vindelov´s method. Results: aneuploid DNA was detected in five out of 49 low-grade dysplasia adenomas (10%, in all four high-grade dysplasia adenomas or intramucous carcinomas (100%, and in three out of four microinvasive carcinomas (75%. The association between aneuploidy and high-grade dysplasia adenomas, intramucous, or microinvasive carcinoma was statistically significant (p Introducción: en patología benigna de intestino grueso precursora del cáncer colorrectal, como adenomas o colitis ulcerosa, se ha observado aneuploidía en el 6-27% de los casos y se ha sugerido que su presencia predispone al desarrollo de malignidad. Sin embargo, su papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma no se ha demostrado de forma concluyente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue valorar la incidencia de aneuploidía en adenomas colónicos, con y sin signos de malignidad, y estudiar su posible papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma. Material y métodos: el estudio se realizó en una serie de 57 adenomas de intestino grueso, de 10 o más mil

  4. Effect of Ca Ionophore On Blastocyst Production Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Caprine Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharche, S D; Pathak, J; Agarwal, S; Kushwah, B; Sikarwar, Aks

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of calcium ionophore activation on blastocyst production following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in in vitro-matured Caprine oocytes. A total of 470 in vitro-matured oocytes were selected and randomly divided in to three groups. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered by slicing the Caprine ovaries were matured in TCM199 supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) + 10% follicular fluid + FSH (5 μg/ml) + LH (10 μg/ml) + estradiol (1 μg/ml) + EGF (10 ng/ml) + BSA (3 mg/ml) for 27 h in humidified atmosphere at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in CO2 incubator. After 27 h of culture, selected COCs (n = 470) were separated from cumulus cells by treating with 0.1% hyaluronidase enzyme and passing repeatedly through a fine pipette and randomly divided into three groups. In group 1, (n = 168) matured oocytes were injected with injection micropipette without sperm as control. In group 2, (n = 152) capacitated spermatozoa were injected into cytoplasm of in vitro-matured oocytes through injection micropipette. In group 3, (n = 150) capacitated spermatozoa were injected into cytoplasm of in vitro-matured oocytes through injection micropipette and then activated with 5 μm Ca ionophore for 5 min. The oocytes of all groups were then culture in RVCL media for embryo development. The cleavage rate was observed after 48-72 h of injection. The cleavage rate and blastocyst production in group 1, 2 and 3 were 0.00 and 0.00, 18.42 and 3.57 and 61.33% and 16.30%, respectively. The result indicated that mechanical activation failed to induce cleavage in in vitro-matured Caprine oocytes, whereas chemical activation of intracytoplasmic sperm-injected in vitro-matured Caprine oocytes showed significantly higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production as compare to non-activated oocytes. PMID:27170442

  5. Ultrastructure of IVM-IVF bovine blastocysts vitrified after equilibration in glycerol 1,2-propanediol using 2-step and 16-step procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, M; Fujikawa, S; Nagai, T

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between survival rates and ultrastructural appearance, using the freeze-replica technique, of bovine blastocysts after vitrification. In experiment 1, blastocysts obtained from in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized (IVM-IVF) bovine oocytes were either equilibrated in a stepwise manner in a vitrification solution (VS; 22.5% glycerol + 22.5% 1,2-propanediol) using 16 steps for 18 min in total (the 16-step method) or equilibrated with 10% glycerol + 20% 1,2-propanediol for 10 min and then exposed to VS (the 2-step method). The blastocysts were then vitrified by plunging them into liquid nitrogen. All samples were subsequently thawed in a water bath at 37 degrees C and cultured in vitro with a monolayer of cumulus cells. The survival rate obtained for blastocysts equilibrated by the 16-step method was 83.3% (25/30). In contrast, no blastocysts survived by the 2-step method (0/30). In experiment 2, freeze-replica observations were carried out on blastocysts vitrified by the 16-step method and the 2-step method. In all the blastocysts, no ice crystals were observed in the cytoplasm, blastocoelic cavity, or extracellular areas, which confirmed the occurrence of complete vitrification. Little ultrastructural change was observed in the plasma membrane of the blastocysts equilibrated by the 16-step method. In contrast, small vesicles and distinct intramembrane particle (IMP) aggregation were frequently observed in the plasma membranes of blastocysts equilibrated by the 2-step method. These results indicate that the successful cryopreservation of blastocysts following the 16-step equilibration requires not only complete vitrification, but also minimization of ultrastructural damage to the plasma membrane. PMID:7988150

  6. Neuroanatomical localization and quantification of amyloid precursor protein mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brains of normal, aneuploid, and lesioned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloid precursor protein mRNA was localized in frozen sections from normal and experimentally lesioned adult mouse brain and from normal and aneuploid fetal mouse brain by in situ hybridization with a 35S-labeled mouse cDNA probe. The highest levels of hybridization in adult brain were associated with neurons, primarily in telencephalic structures. The dense labeling associated with hippocampal pyramidal cells was reduced significantly when the cells were eliminated by injection of the neurotoxin ibotenic acid but was not affected when electrolytic lesions were placed in the medial septum. Since the gene encoding amyloid precursor protein has been localized to mouse chromosome 16, the authors also examined the expression of this gene in the brains of mouse embryos with trisomy 16 and trisomy 19 at 15 days of gestation. RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed a marked increase in amyloid precursor protein mRNA in the trisomy 16 mouse head and brain when compared with euploid littermates or with trisomy 19 mice

  7. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  8. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  9. Rat Blastocysts from Nuclear Injection and Time-Lagged Enucleation and Their Commitment to Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hiromasa; Goto, Teppei; Takizawa, Akiko; Sanbo, Makoto; Jacob, Howard J; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Hochi, Shinichi; Hirabayashi, Masumi

    2016-04-01

    Pronucleus-like vesicle formation following premature chromosome condensation (PCC) of the donor cell nucleus is the key event for successful generation of cloned rodents by nuclear transplantation (NT). However in rat cloning, this change is difficult to induce in enucleated recipient oocytes because of their inability to maintain maturation-promoting factor levels. In this study, intact oocytes retrieved from nuclear-visualized H2B-tdTomato knock-in rats were injected with Venus-labeled cell nuclei. Because the incidence of PCC under MG-132 treatment significantly increased with the culture period (0%, 10.8%, 36.8%, and 87.5% at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h postinjection, respectively), the metaphase plate of the oocyte was removed 1-2 h after the nuclear injection. The NT-derived rat zygotes (n = 748) were activated with ionomycin/cycloheximide and transferred into temporal host mothers, resulting in the harvest of three blastocysts (0.4%) with Venus fluorescence. Two blastocysts were examined for their potential to commit to NT-derived embryonic stem cells (ntESCs). One ntESC line was established successfully and found to be competent in terms of karyotype, stem cell marker expression, and pluripotency. In conclusion, time-lagged enucleation of visualized oocyte nuclei allows the PCC incidence of donor nuclei and generation of NT blastocysts, and the blastocysts can commit to germline-competent ntESCs. PMID:26990947

  10. Analysis of Marker Expression in Porcine Cell Lines Derived from Blastocysts Produced In Vitro and In Vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacková, I.; Nováková, Z.; Krylov, V.; Okada, K.; Kott, T.; Fulka, H.; Motlík, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2011), s. 594-603. ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI101A166; GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Blastocyst * In vivo and in vitro * Pig * Stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.459, year: 2011

  11. Blastocyst injection of wild type embryonic stem cells induces global corrections in mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Stillwell

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an incurable neuromuscular degenerative disease, caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Mdx mice recapitulate DMD features. Here we show that injection of wild-type (WT embryonic stem cells (ESCs into mdx blastocysts produces mice with improved pathology and function. A small fraction of WT ESCs incorporates into the mdx mouse nonuniformly to upregulate protein levels of dystrophin in the skeletal muscle. The chimeric muscle shows reduced regeneration and restores dystrobrevin, a dystrophin-related protein, in areas with high and with low dystrophin content. WT ESC injection increases the amount of fat in the chimeras to reach WT levels. ESC injection without dystrophin does not prevent the appearance of phenotypes in the skeletal muscle or in the fat. Thus, dystrophin supplied by the ESCs reverses disease in mdx mice globally in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. High-Resolution Flow Cytometry: a Suitable Tool for Monitoring Aneuploid Prostate Cancer Cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; Ehemann, Volker; Wiessler, Manfred; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Didinger, Bernd; Mueller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents. Temozolomide (TMZ) as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising. Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Considerations to improve this unsatisfying situation resulted in the realization of higher local TMZ concentrations, sufficient to kill cells regardless of intrinsic cellular sensitivity and cell DNA-index. Therefore, we reformulated the TMZ by ligation to a peptide-based carrier system called TMZ-BioShuttle for intervention. The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP), connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ. The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP. This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer. The next step was to syllogize a qualified method monitoring cell toxic effects in a high sensitivity under consideration of the ploidy status. The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their different DNA

  13. High-Resolution Flow Cytometry: a Suitable Tool for Monitoring Aneuploid Prostate Cancer Cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Volker Ehemann, Manfred Wiessler, Ruediger Pipkorn, Bernd Didinger, Gabriele Mueller, Waldemar Waldeck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents. Temozolomide (TMZ as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising. Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Considerations to improve this unsatisfying situation resulted in the realization of higher local TMZ concentrations, sufficient to kill cells regardless of intrinsic cellular sensitivity and cell DNA-index. Therefore, we reformulated the TMZ by ligation to a peptide-based carrier system called TMZ-BioShuttle for intervention. The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP, connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ. The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP. This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer. The next step was to syllogize a qualified method monitoring cell toxic effects in a high sensitivity under consideration of the ploidy status. The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their

  14. Conserved roles of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signaling in the regulation of inner cell mass development in bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizawa, Hiroki; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Odagiri, Haruka; Kohri, Nanami; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Nagano, Masashi; Takahashi, Masashi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    A common process during preimplantation mammalian development is blastocyst formation, which utilizes signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), yet the mechanisms through which FGFR2 signaling affect preimplantation development in bovine embryos remain incompletely understood. Here, we used RNA-interference to investigate the in vitro development, the frequency of blastomere apoptosis, and the mRNA expression of developmental marker genes in FGF receptor 2-knockdown (FGFR2-KD) bovine embryos. A reduction in FGFR2 mRNA did not affect preimplantation development or the frequency of apoptotic blastomeres, but did enhanced proliferation of the inner cell mass in blastocysts (P cattle. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 516-525, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060901

  15. Oct4 is required for lineage priming in the developing inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bin, Gloryn Chia; Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Kurowski, Agata; Leitch, Harry; Lou, Xinghua; Mansfield, William; Etienne-Dumeau, Charles; Grabole, Nils; Mulas, Carla; Niwa, Hitoshi; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nichols, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Oct4 is required in vitro for establishment and maintenance of embryonic stem cells and for reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency. In vivo, it prevents the ectopic differentiation of early embryos into trophoblast. Here, we further explore the role of Oct4 in blastocyst formation and specification of epiblast versus primitive endoderm lineages using conditional genetic deletion. Experiments involving mouse embryos deficient for both maternal and zygotic Oct4 sug...

  16. The primitive endoderm lineage of the mouse blastocyst: Sequential transcription factor activation and regulation of differentiation by Sox17

    OpenAIRE

    Artus, Jérôme; Piliszek, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Cells of the primitive endoderm (PrE) and the pluripotent epiblast (EPI), the two lineages specified within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst stage embryo, are segregated into adjacent tissue layers by the end of the preimplantation period. The PrE layer which emerges as a polarized epithelium adjacent to the blastocoel, with a basement membrane separating it from the EPI, has two derivatives, the visceral and parietal endoderm. In this study we have investigated the localizat...

  17. Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Nanette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-vitro fertilization (IVF with blastocyst as opposed to cleavage stage embryos has been advocated to improve success rates. Limited information exists on which to predict which patients undergoing blastocyst embryo transfer (BET will achieve pregnancy. This study's objective was to evaluate the predictive value of patient and cycle characteristics for clinical pregnancy following fresh BET. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study from 2003–2007 at an academic assisted reproductive program. 114 women with infertility underwent fresh IVF with embryo transfer. We studied patients undergoing transfer of embryos at the blastocyst stage of development. Our main outcome of interest was clinical pregnancy. Clinical pregnancy and its associations with patient characteristics (age, body mass index, FSH, ethnicity and cycle parameters (thickness of endometrial stripe, number eggs, available cleaving embryos, number blastocysts available, transferred, and cryopreserved, and embryo quality were examined using Student's T test and Mann-Whitney-U tests as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to determine independent predictors of CP following BET. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were used to determine the optimal thickness of endometrial stripe for predicting clinical pregnancy. Results Patients achieving clinical pregnancy demonstrated a thicker endometrial stripe and were younger preceding embryo transfer. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.054–6.617, thickness of endometrial stripe, (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.006–1.396 and age (OR 0.879, 95% CI 0.789–0.980 predicted clinical pregnancy. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, endometrial stripe ≥ 9.4 mm demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% for predicting clinical pregnancy following BET. Conclusion In a cohort of patients undergoing fresh BET, thicker endometrial stripe, Caucasian

  18. Introduction: Examining the many potential reasons why euploid blastocysts do not always result in viable pregnancies: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, David R

    2016-03-01

    The environment of the oocyte and embryo includes the metabolic effects of aging, lifestyle issues, psychological stress, nutritional supplements/replacements, cellular energy levels, endocrine and paracrine factors, the cumulus, exogenous gonadotropins and adjunctive medications, culture media, and the in vitro fertilization laboratory's conditions and manipulations. These complex factors, which will be examined in the following series of reviews, explain in part why not all euploid blastocysts result in viable pregnancies. PMID:26730497

  19. Effect of the bovine oviductal fluid on in vitro fertilization, development and gene expression of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; García-Roselló, E; Pericuesta, E; Pérez-Cerezales, S; Gutierrez-Adán, A; Coy, P; Silvestre, M A

    2013-04-01

    Oviductal microenvironment generally provides better conditions for early embryo development than the conventional in vitro system. In an attempt to simulate the oviduct conditions or the main potentially influencing factors, the effect was studied of a bovine oviductal fluid (bOF) treatment applied prior to IVF on (i) IVF parameters, (ii) cleavage rate, (iii) blastocyst yield and (iv) blastocyst quality. Embryo quality was assessed by morphological embryo quality and relative transcript abundance of several developmental genes in bovine blastocysts. Furthermore, to study the effect of bOF without the male effect and zona-sperm interaction, artificially activated metaphase II oocytes were also treated with bOF. In vitro-matured bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were treated or untreated with bOF for 30 min and then washed prior to IVF or activation. Subsequently, in vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetic embryos were in vitro cultured for 7 to 8 days. The bOF treatment had no effect on fertilization parameters, cleavage, blastocyst rates both on parthenogenetic and IVF bovine embryos and neither on morphological quality of IVF blastocysts. G6PD and SOD2 genes from IVF blastocysts showed significant changes in their expression after a bOF treatment. Significant differences were found for the expression of SCL2A1, GPX1, BAX, AKR1B1 and PLAC8 genes between excellent or good blastocysts (Grade 1) and fair blastocysts (Grade 2). To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of bOF oocyte treatment on fertilization parameters, development and quality of bovine embryos. PMID:22908847

  20. Tight junction protein ZO-2 expression and relative function of ZO-1 and ZO-2 during mouse blastocyst formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apicolateral tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells are multiprotein complexes regulating membrane polarity and paracellular transport and also contribute to signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation and gene expression. ZO-2 and other ZO family members form a sub-membranous scaffold for binding TJ constituents. We investigated ZO-2 contribution to TJ biogenesis and function during trophectoderm epithelium differentiation in mouse preimplantation embryos. Our data indicate that ZO-2 is expressed from maternal and embryonic genomes with maternal ZO-2 protein associated with nuclei in zygotes and particularly early cleavage stages. Embryonic ZO-2 assembled at outer blastomere apicolateral junctional sites from the late 16-cell stage. Junctional ZO-2 first co-localised with E-cadherin in a transient complex comprising adherens junction and TJ constituents before segregating to TJs after their separation from the blastocyst stage (32-cell onwards). ZO-2 siRNA microinjection into zygotes or 2-cell embryos resulted in specific knockdown of ZO-2 mRNA and protein within blastocysts. Embryos lacking ZO-2 protein at trophectoderm TJs exhibited delayed blastocoel cavity formation but underwent normal cell proliferation and outgrowth morphogenesis. Quantitative analysis of trophectoderm TJs in ZO-2-deficient embryos revealed increased assembly of ZO-1 but not occludin, indicating ZO protein redundancy as a compensatory mechanism contributing to the mild phenotype observed. In contrast, ZO-1 knockdown, or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 knockdown, generated a more severe inhibition of blastocoel formation indicating distinct roles for ZO proteins in blastocyst morphogenesis

  1. Both the folate cycle and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase contribute methyl groups for DNA methylation in mouse blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Denomme, Michelle M; White, Carlee R; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lee, Martin B; Greene, Nicholas D E; Mann, Mellissa R W; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2015-03-01

    The embryonic pattern of global DNA methylation is first established in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is produced in most cells through the folate cycle, but only a few cell types generate SAM from betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) via betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), which is expressed in the mouse ICM. Here, mean ICM cell numbers decreased from 18-19 in controls to 11-13 when the folate cycle was inhibited by the antifolate methotrexate and to 12-14 when BHMT expression was knocked down by antisense morpholinos. Inhibiting both pathways, however, much more severely affected ICM development (7-8 cells). Total SAM levels in mouse blastocysts decreased significantly only when both pathways were inhibited (from 3.1 to 1.6 pmol/100 blastocysts). DNA methylation, detected as 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) immunofluorescence in isolated ICMs, was minimally affected by inhibition of either pathway alone but decreased by at least 45-55% when both BHMT and the folate cycle were inhibited simultaneously. Effects on cell numbers and 5-MeC levels in the ICM were completely rescued by methionine (immediate SAM precursor) or SAM. Both the folate cycle and betaine/BHMT appear to contribute to a methyl pool required for normal ICM development and establishing initial embryonic DNA methylation. PMID:25466894

  2. The impact of food intake and social habits on embryo quality and the likelihood of blastocyst formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Halpern, Gabriela; Setti, Amanda S; Figueira, Rita Cássia S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of patients' lifestyle factors and eating habits on embryo development. A total of 2659 embryos recovered from 269 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included. The frequency of intake of food items and social habits were registered and its influences on embryo development evaluated. The consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruits positively influenced the embryo quality at the cleavage stage. The quality of the embryo at the cleavage stage was also negatively correlated with the consumption of alcoholic drinks and smoking habits. The consumption of fruits influenced the likelihood of blastocyst formation, which was also positively affected by the consumption of fish. Being on a weight-loss diet and consumption of red meat had a negative influence on the likelihood of blastocyst formation. The likelihood of blastocyst formation was also negatively influenced by the consumption of alcoholic drinks and by smoking habits. The consumption of red meat and body mass index had a negative effect on the implantation rate and the likelihood of pregnancy. In addition, being on a weight-loss diet had a negative influence on implantation rate. Our evidence suggests a possible relationship between environmental factors and ovary biology. PMID:25982093

  3. Developmental stage on day-5 and fragmentation rate on day-3 can influence the implantation potential of top-quality blastocysts in IVF cycles with single embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroey Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In IVF-ICSI cycles with single embryo transfer (SET, embryo selection for transfer is of crucial importance. The present study aimed to define which embryo parameters might be related to the implantation potential of advanced blastocysts. Methods Overall, in 203 cycles with SET, developmental characteristics of 93 implanted (group A and 110 non-implanted (group B advanced blastocysts of good quality were compared. The following developmental parameters were assessed in the two groups: normal fertilization, developmental stage on day 5, number of blastomeres on day 2 and on day 3, fragmentation rate on day 3, compaction on day 4 and cleavage pattern on day 2 and day 3. Results Expanded blastocysts compared to full blastocysts have higher implantation potential (56.5% vs. 29.3%, p 10–50% fragments on day 3 showed a significant lower implantation (29.7% than those with ≤ 10%fragments (49.4%, P = 0.03. All the other parameters analysed were comparable for the two groups. Conclusion Developmental stage on day 5 and fragmentation rate on day 3 were related to the implantation potential of advanced blastocysts and should also be taken into account in the selection of the best advanced blastocyst for transfer.

  4. Influencia de la estimulación ovárica durante un tratamiento de fecundación in vitro en la incidencia de aneuploidías embrionarias

    OpenAIRE

    Labarta Demur, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    La baja fecundidad humana podría deberse a la alta incidencia de anomalías cromosómicas embrionarias que justifica que hasta un 70% de las concepciones espontáneas no lleguen a término. La elevada tasa de aneuploidías observada en tratamientos de Fecundación in vitro (FIV) podría ser inherente a la especie humana o estar relacionada con los procedimientos derivados de la técnica, como las condiciones de cultivo in vitro o la estimulación ovárica (EO). Se ha especulado que esta última pudiera ...

  5. Daily supplementation with ghrelin improves in vitro bovine blastocysts formation rate and alters gene expression related to embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovolou, Eleni; Periquesta, Eva; Messinis, Ioannis E; Tsiligianni, Theodora; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Amiridis, Georgios S

    2014-03-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide having regulatory role in the reproductive system functionality, acting mainly at central level. Because the expression of ghrelin system (ghrelin and its receptor) has been detected in the bovine ovary, the objectives of the present study were to investigate whether ghrelin can affect the developmental potential of in vitro-produced embryos, and to test their quality in terms of relative abundance of various genes related to metabolism, apoptosis and oxidation. In the first experiment, in vitro-produced zygotes were cultured in the absence (control [C]) and in the presence of three concentrations of acylated ghrelin (200 pg/mL [Ghr200], 800 pg/mL [Ghr800]; and 2000 pg/mL [Ghr2000]); blastocyst formation rates were examined on Days 7, 8, and 9. In the second experiment, only the 800 pg/mL dose of ghrelin was used. Zygotes were produced as in experiment 1 and 24 hours post insemination they were divided into 4 groups; in two groups (C; without ghrelin; Ghr800 with ghrelin), embryos were cultured without medium replacement; in the remaining two groups (Control N and GhrN), the culture medium was daily renewed. A pool of Day-7 blastocysts were snap frozen for relative mRNA abundance of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation, and apoptosis. In experiment 3, embryos were produced as in experiment 2, but in the absence of serum (semi-defined culture medium). In experiment 1, no differences were detected between C, Ghr200, and Ghr2000, although fewer blastocysts were produced in group Ghr800 compared with C. In experiment 2, the lowest blastocysts yield was found in Ghr800, whereas daily renewal of ghrelin (Ghr800N) resulted to increased blastocysts formation rate, which on Day 7 was the highest among groups (P quality than controls. Our results imply a specific role of ghrelin in early embryonic development; however, the specific mode of its action needs further investigation. PMID:24332928

  6. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  7. Elective single blastocyst transfer is more suitable for normal responders than for high responders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ke-liang; ZHAO Hai-bin; LIU Hui; ZHONG Wan-xia; YU Guan-ling; CHEN Zi-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Embryo quality and receptivity of the endometrium are two factors that determine the results of in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).There is no consensus of the optimal transfer strategy for normal responders or high responders.The current study aimed to find the optimal transfer strategy for different subgroups of patients.Methods From April 2010 to December 2010,patients who meet the following criteria were included in this study; primary infertility,female age ≤35 years,FSH level on female cycle day 2-3 ≤12 mlU/ml,at least six good quality embryos available on day three.The clinical outcomes using different transfer strategies between normal responders and high responders were reviewed and compared.Results For the normal responders,the clinical pregnancy rate of day three double-embryo transfer (DET) was comparable to that of day five elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT),64.04% vs.60.33% (P>0.05).For the high responders,the clinical pregnancy rate of day five eSBT was significantly lower than that of day three DET,43.35% vs.57.21% (P<0.05).For the high responders,the rates of clinical pregnancy and implantation in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles were notably higher than in eSBT cycles (64.56% vs.43.35% and 62.11% vs.43.35% respectively) (P<0.05).Conclusions For normal responders,eSBT might be an applicable strategy to reduce multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining acceptable overall pregnancy rates.And in order to reduce multiple pregnancies and increase the chance of pregnancy of high responders,FET may be a preferable strategy.

  8. Oct4 is required for lineage priming in the developing inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bin, Gloryn Chia; Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Kurowski, Agata; Leitch, Harry; Lou, Xinghua; Mansfield, William; Etienne-Dumeau, Charles; Grabole, Nils; Mulas, Carla; Niwa, Hitoshi; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nichols, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    The transcription factor Oct4 is required in vitro for establishment and maintenance of embryonic stem cells and for reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency. In vivo, it prevents the ectopic differentiation of early embryos into trophoblast. Here, we further explore the role of Oct4 in blastocyst formation and specification of epiblast versus primitive endoderm lineages using conditional genetic deletion. Experiments involving mouse embryos deficient for both maternal and zygotic Oct4 suggest that it is dispensable for zygote formation, early cleavage and activation of Nanog expression. Nanog protein is significantly elevated in the presumptive inner cell mass of Oct4 null embryos, suggesting an unexpected role for Oct4 in attenuating the level of Nanog, which might be significant for priming differentiation during epiblast maturation. Induced deletion of Oct4 during the morula to blastocyst transition disrupts the ability of inner cell mass cells to adopt lineage-specific identity and acquire the molecular profile characteristic of either epiblast or primitive endoderm. Sox17, a marker of primitive endoderm, is not detected following prolonged culture of such embryos, but can be rescued by provision of exogenous FGF4. Interestingly, functional primitive endoderm can be rescued in Oct4-deficient embryos in embryonic stem cell complementation assays, but only if the host embryos are at the pre-blastocyst stage. We conclude that cell fate decisions within the inner cell mass are dependent upon Oct4 and that Oct4 is not cell-autonomously required for the differentiation of primitive endoderm derivatives, as long as an appropriate developmental environment is established. PMID:24504341

  9. Embryonic stem cells derived from in vivo or in vitro-generated murine blastocysts display similar transcriptome and differentiation potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodel K Simbulan

    Full Text Available The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART such as in vitro fertilization (IVF has resulted in the birth of more than 5 million children. While children conceived by these technologies are generally healthy, there is conflicting evidence suggesting an increase in adult-onset complications like glucose intolerance and high blood pressure in IVF children. Animal models indicate similar potential risks. It remains unclear what molecular mechanisms may be operating during in vitro culture to predispose the embryo to these diseases. One of the limitations faced by investigators is the paucity of the material in the preimplantation embryo to test for molecular analysis. To address this problem, we generated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC from blastocysts conceived after natural mating (mESCFB or after IVF, using optimal (KSOM + 5% O2; mESCKAA and suboptimal (Whitten's Medium, + 20% O2, mESCWM conditions. All three groups of embryos showed similar behavior during both derivation and differentiation into their respective mESC lines. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of microarray data showed that blastocyst culture does not affect the transcriptome of derived mESCs. Transcriptomic changes previously observed in the inner cell mass (ICM of embryos derived in the same conditions were not present in mESCs, regardless of method of conception or culture medium, suggesting that mESC do not fully maintain a memory of the events occurring prior to their derivation. We conclude that the fertilization method or culture media used to generate blastocysts does not affect differentiation potential, morphology and transcriptome of mESCs.

  10. Effects of oocyte quality, semen donor and embryo co-culture system on the efficiency of blastocyst production in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katska-Ksiazkiewicz, L; Opiela, J; Ryńska, B

    2007-09-15

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the selection of immature oocytes by a combination of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) morphology and staining with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) would be helpful in selecting developmentally competent oocytes, and thereby increase the efficiency of blastocyst production from ovarian oocytes of FSH-primed, adult goats. In a second experiment the interaction between oocyte quality and semen donor was assessed. In a third experiment the usefulness of Vero cells for co-culture with goat embryos was investigated. In the pool of morphologically normal COCs recovered from ovaries following slicing (21.9+/-11.0), the mean rate of COCs classified as BCB+ was 85.6%, and the BCB- was approximately 11%. Oocytes classified as grade 1 and BCB+ exhibited the highest developmental competence (Pgrade 1 BCB- and grade 2 BCB+ or BCB-. There were no significant differences in developmental competence in grade 2 oocytes, regardless of BCB coloration. No significant differences in embryo cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among three bucks were observed when morphologically normal, BCB+ oocytes were used. For all tested bucks, differences in embryo production efficiency were related only to the oocyte quality. Similar blastocyst rates were developed from embryos co-cultured with goat oviduct epithelial cells (34.3%) and with Vero cells (33.3%). These results show that the most important criterion for selection of COCs before maturation is the visual assessment of morphological features. Staining with BCB of COCs recovered from adult goats does not enhance efficiency of selection of developmentally competent oocytes for IVF. PMID:17651793

  11. Intactness of zona pellucida does not affect the secretion of a trypsin-like protease from mouse blastocyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, S.; Lee, E; Chung, Y.; Yoon, B. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, D

    2000-01-01

    Assisted hatching (AH), which is known to improve the hatching potential of mammalian embryos, has been used to increase the pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilization cycles. However, the effect of AH on a trypsin-like protease, which is known to be associated with the hatching process, has not been studied. In this study, we evaluate whether the intactness of zona pellucida affects the secretion of a trypsin-like protease from mouse blastocyst. Four- to 8-cell stage mouse embryos were collect...

  12. Analysis of the effects of blue light on morphofunctional status of in vitro cultured blastocysts from mice carrying gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharova, N Yu; Mezhevikina, L M; Smirnov, A A; Vikhlyantseva, E F

    2014-05-01

    We studied the effect of blue light (440-490 nm) on the development of late blastocysts of mice carrying the gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Exposure to blue light for 20 min reduced adhesive properties of blastocysts and their capacity to form primary colonies consisting of the cells of inner cell mass, trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm. The negative effects of blue light manifested in morphological changes in the primary colonies and impairment of differentiation and migration of cells of the trophoblast and extraembryonic endoderm. The problems of cell-cell interaction and inductive influences of the inner cell mass on other cell subpopulations are discussed. EGFP blastocysts were proposed as the model for evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of blue light as the major negative factor of visible light used in in vitro experiments on mammalian embryos. PMID:24913583

  13. RNA-Seq analysis uncovers transcriptomic variations between morphologically similar in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driver Ashley M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A valuable tool for both research and industry, in vitro fertilization (IVF has applications range from gamete selection and preservation of traits to cloning. Although IVF has achieved worldwide use, with approximately 339,685 bovine embryos transferred in 2010 alone, there are still continuing difficulties with efficiency. It is rare to have more than 40% of fertilized in vitro cattle oocytes reach blastocyst stage by day 8 of culture, and pregnancy rates are reported as less than 45% for in vitro produced embryos. To investigate potential influences in-vitro fertilization (IVF has on embryonic development, this study compares in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts at a similar stage and quality grade (expanded, excellent quality to determine the degree of transcriptomic variation beyond morphology using RNA-Seq. Results A total of 26,906,451 and 38,184,547 fragments were sequenced for in vitro and in vivo embryo pools, respectively. We detected expression for a total of 17,634 genes, with 793 genes showing differential expression between the two embryo populations with false discovery rate (FDR Conclusions Thus, our results support that IVF may influence at the transcriptomic level and that morphology is limited in full characterization of bovine preimplantation embryos.

  14. Doble aneuploidía en un niño Colombiano: síndrome de Down–Klinefelter, con fenotipo de síndrome de Down = Double aneuploidy in a Colombian child: Down-Klinefelter syndrome with Down syndrome phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachajoa Londoño, Harry

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La ocurrencia de una doble aneuploidía en una misma persona es un evento relativamente raro. Se presenta el caso de un niño de siete meses de edad, de padres no consanguíneos con características clínicas de síndrome de Down y cariotipo 48XXY.

  15. The effect of anandamide on uterine nitric oxide synthase activity depends on the presence of the blastocyst.

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    Micaela S Sordelli

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot(-1 h(-1 compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03 and 5 (0.35±0.02 of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01. This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA, an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and type 2 (CB2, and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04 and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06 inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05. While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02, a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01. Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These

  16. Establishment of bovine trophoblast stem-like cells from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos using two inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianghua; Han, Xuejie; Uyunbilig, Borjigin; Zhang, Manling; Duo, Shuguang; Zuo, Yongchun; Zhao, Yuhang; Yun, Ting; Tai, Dapeng; Wang, Chen; Li, Jinhua; Li, Xueling; Li, Rongfeng

    2014-07-01

    The trophoblast (TR) is the first to differentiate during mammalian embryogenesis and play a pivotal role in the development of the placenta. We used a dual inhibitor system (PD0325901 and CHIR99021) with mixed feeders to successfully obtain bovine trophoblast stem-like (bTS) cells, which were similar in phenotype to mouse trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). The bTS cells that were generated using this system continually proliferated, displayed a normal diploid karyotype, and had no signs of altered morphology or differentiation even after 150 passages. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers, such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, and TR lineage markers such as CDX2, as determined by both immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Additionally, these cells generated dome-like structures, formed teratomas when injected into NOD-SCID mice, and differentiated into placenta TR cells in vitro. The microarray analysis of bTS cells showed high expression levels of many TR markers, such as TEAD4, EOMES, GATA3, ETS2, TFAP2A, ELF5, SMARCA4 (BRG1), CDH3, MASH2, HSD17B1, CYP11A1, PPARG, ID2, GCM1, HAND1, TDK, PAG, IFN-τ, and THAP11. The expression of many pluripotency markers, such as OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and GDF3, was lower in bTS cells compared with in vitro-produced blastocysts; however, compared with bovine fetal fibroblasts, the expression of these pluripotency markers was elevated in bTS cells. The DNA methylation status of the promoter regions of OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 was investigated, which were significantly higher in bTS cells (OCT4 23.90%, NANOG 74.40%, and SOX2 8.50%) compared with blastocysts (OCT4 8.90%, NANOG 34.4%, and SOX2 3.80%). In contrast, two promoter regions of CDX2 were hypomethylated in bTS cells (13.80% and 3.90%) compared with blastocysts (18.80% and 9.10%). The TSC lines that were established in this study may be used either for basic

  17. Developmental potency of mouse primitive ectoderm cells,embryonic ectoderm cells,embryonic ectoderm cells and primordial germ cells after blastocyst injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenSanbing

    1990-01-01

    Developmental potency of primitive and embryonic ectoderm cells from 4.50-day to 6.25-day post-coitum (p.c.) mouse embryos and primordial germ cells from 12.50-day p.c.male genital ridges of fetal mice were studied by direct introducing them into 3.50-day p.c.blastocysts.Sixteen (61.5) overt chimaeras out of 26(50%) offsprings were obtained after transfer of 52 blastocysts injected with 4.50-day primitive ectoderm cells;four (16.0%) overt chimaeras were obtained out of 25 (51.0%) offsprings with 4.75-day primitive ectoderm cells from 49 transferred blastocysts.However,no overt chimaera was obtained with either 5.25-day or 6.25-day embryonic ectoderm cells or 12.50-day male primordial germ cells.GPI analysis of mid-gestation conceptuses developed from injected blastocysts showedthat 5.25-day embryonic ectoderm cells could only contributed to yolk sac of conceptus.Results suggested that implantation acts as a trigger for the determination of primitive ectoderm cells,and their developmental potency becomes limited within a short period of time in normal development.

  18. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  19. The Rate Of Inner Cell Mass Of Blastocysts Which Obtain From Mouse Two Cell Embryos Cultured In Absence And Presence Of Recombinant Human Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to investigate the rate of inner cell mass of blastocyst which obtain from culture of mouse two cell embryos in presence and absence of recombinant of human leukemia inhibitory factor. Materials and Methods: ICR female mice that were between 6-8 weeks old received intra peritoneal injection of 7.5 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropine for super ovulation, this was followed by intra peritoneal administration of 7.5 of hCG 46-48 hours later. The mice were then mated to mature ICR male mice and were checked for vaginal plug 20 hours later. Female mice were killed by cervical dislocation 48-50 hours after hCG administration and after washing and flushing of the oviduct from the proximal end of the oviduct, two cell embryos were selected and collected by 100 microscopy. All two cell embryos were randomly divided in 4 groups (Groups A, B C and D and culture in special media. Groups A: KSOM+AA, Groups B: KSOM+AA 500 IU/ml LIF. Groups C: KSOM+AA 1000 IU/ml LIF. Groups D: KSOM+AA 1500 IU/ml LIF media until 120 hours in Co2 incubator .After that time all blastocysts collected and the number of ICM was assessed by differential staining technology. Results: The rates of ICM of blastocysts which obtain from groups A, B, C and D were 19 2.6, 28 4.4, 24 2.1, 26 2.2 respectively. This data indicated that the rate of ICM in groups B, C and D was statistically higher than group A (P=0.02 and also there was not statistically different between three groups of B, C and D. Conclusion: Briefly leukemia inhibitory factor can improve the rate of ICM of blastocyst and we suggest that this factor is better added to blastocyst culture medium.

  20. 人废弃胚胎体外培养成囊胚的实验室结局%Laboratory outcomes of discarded embryos cultured into blastocysts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 吕玉珍; 赵芳

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Some reports have showed that the discarded embryos can be used to establish the human embryonic stem cell lines, after freezing and thawing, the transplantation of embryos that hysteretic in morphological development still hasmedical value.OBJECTIVE: To study the potential of discarded embryos cultured into blastocyst in vitro.METHODS: Totally 404 discarded embryos were collected from the patients treated with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer(IVF_ET) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and then preformed with blastocyst sequential training.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ①The 404 discarded embryos formed 65 blastocyst, the total blastocyst formation rate was16.1%. ②There was no relation between the blastocyst formation and the patient's etiology, age, fertilization methods (P > 0.05).③The blastocyst in embryos derived from the ≥ 3 pronuclear (PN) embryos (6-8) cell group had the highest formation rate(P 0.05).③胚胎来源于≥三原核(3PN)的(6~8)细胞组的囊胚形成率最高(P 8细胞囊胚率反而下降、与<3细胞组的结果相近.④Ⅰ,Ⅱ胚胎形成囊胚速度快,形成率显著高于Ⅲ,Ⅳ胚胎(P < 0.05).⑤有囊胚形成患者的临床妊娠率显著高于无囊胚形成患者(P < 0.05).提示囊胚形成与患者病因分类、年龄、受精方式无相关性.优质胚胎与(6~8)细胞的胚胎囊胚形成率高,多原核胚胎形成囊胚的价值应引起关注.废弃胚胎再利用能预测临床结局,为人类胚胎干细胞提供有利资源.

  1. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    5 after oocyte retrieval. Biopsy was performed only if the blastocyst had a fully expanded blastocoel, a TE consisting of many small cells and an inner cell mass consisting of several tightly packed cells. A non-contact laser was used to create an opening in the zona pellucida permitting TE to...... herniate through the hole. After 4-5 hours of continued culture 5-10 herniating TE cells were aspirated into a biopsy pipette and dissected free of the blastocyst mass using a laser (ZilosTM, Hamilton Thorne Research, wavelength 1480 nm). Biopsied embryos were cultured overnight prior to re-assessment and...... transfer early on day 6 after oocyte retrieval. Immediately following biopsy, cells were lysed and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out directly on the cell lysate using Superscript® III First Strand Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) thus avoiding introducing RNA amplification steps. As part of the...

  2. A combined treatment of ionomycin with ethanol improves blastocyst development of bovine oocytes harvested from stored ovaries and microinjected with spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, H; Shimoda, M; M. Hirabayashi; Hochi, S

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of the presence of sperm-borne oocyte-activating factors, activation of bovine oocytes with exogenous activation stimuli is required for further development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The current study was designed to develop a new activation regimen for improving the blastocyst yield after ICSI of bovine oocytes harvested from ovaries stored at 10 to 12 degrees C for 24 h. After ICSI, oocytes were treated with 5 mu M ionomycin for 5 min, 7% ethanol for 5 or 10 ...

  3. Effects of bovine serum proteins in culture medium on post-warming survival of bovine blastocysts developed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohboshi, S; Etoh, T; Sakamoto, K; Fujihara, N; Yoshida, T; Tomogane, H

    1997-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the factors affecting the survival of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro after cryopreservation by vitrification. Zygotes were obtained by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes. Embryos used in this study were developed in vitro at Day 7 and 8 (Day 0 = insemination day) in modified synthetic oviduct fluid medium supplemented with calf serum or BSA. Embryos were cryopreserved in a two-step protocol consisting of exposure to 10% ethylene glycol for 5 min, followed by the original vitrification solution (designated as VS) consisting of 40% (v/v) ethylene glycol, 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol and 0.5 M sucrose in phosphate-buffered saline for 1 min. After warming, embryos were cultured in modified TCM-199 for an in vitro survival assay. The highest survival rate was obtained from the warmed embryos developed at Day 7 in medium supplemented with BSA (82.6%), and there were significant differences between results with calf scrum and BSA treatment (42.4 and 70.7%, respectively; P < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the cell numbers of embryos among the treatments. These results suggest that the survival of embryos developed in medium with BSA is superior to that of embryos developed in medium containing calf serum, although the cell numbers of the embryos developed under both media were similar. PMID:16728072

  4. Laser-assisted blastocyst dissection and subsequent cultivation of embryonic stem cells in a serum/cell free culture system: applications and preliminary results in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate embryonic stem cell (ESC harvesting methods with an emphasis on derivation of ESC lines without feeder cells or sera. Using a murine model, laser-assisted blastocyst dissection was performed and compared to conventional immunosurgery to assess a novel laser application for inner cell mass (ICM isolation. Methods Intact blastocysts or isolated ICMs generated in a standard mouse strain were plated in medium with or without serum to compare ESC harvesting efficiency. ESC derivation was also undertaken in a feeder cell-free culture system. Results Although ICM growth and dissociation was comparable irrespective of the media components, an enhanced ESC harvest was observed in our serum-free medium (p Conclusion Achieving successful techniques for human ESC research is fundamentally dependent on preliminary work using experimental animals. In this study, all experimentally developed ESC lines manifested similar features to ESCs obtained from intact blastocysts in standard culture. Cell/sera free murine ESC harvest and propagation are feasible procedures for an embryology laboratory and await refinements for translation to human medical research.

  5. Protective effects of resveratrol on ethanol-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells and disruption of embryonic development in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have established that ethanol induces apoptosis, but the precise molecular mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we show that 0.3-1.0% (w/v) ethanol induces apoptosis in mouse blastocysts and that resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, ethanol-treated blastocysts show normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro but a reduced ability to reach the later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented ethanol-induced disruption of embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro cell-based assay, we further found that ethanol increases the production of reactive oxygen species in ESC-B5 embryonic stem cells, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis. These changes were blocked by pretreatment with resveratrol. Based on these results, we propose a model for the protective effect of resveratrol on ethanol-induced cell injury in blastocysts and ESC-B5 cells

  6. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Maeda, Kosuke; Koriyama, Miyu; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Miura, Hiromi; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF). PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green) fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group). The above seven transposons (without pTrans) were transfected concomitantly (control group). Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested) of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes. PMID:27589724

  7. Comparative pluripotency analysis of mouse embryonic stem cells derived from wild-type and infertile hermaphrodite somatic cell nuclear transfer blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yong; YAO RuQiang; YU Yang; LI ZanDong; WANG Liu; ALICE Jouneau; ZHOU Qi; TONG Man; ZHAO ChunLi; DING ChenHui; HAO Jie; LV Zhuo; DAI XiangPeng; HAI Tang; LI XueMei

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning, whereby embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from patient-specific cloned blastocysts via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), holds great promise for treating many human diseases using regenerative medicine. Teratoma formation and germline transmission have been used to confirm the pluripotency of mouse stem cells, but human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have not been proven to be fully pluripotent owing to the ethical impossibility of testing for germ line transmission, which would be the strongest evidence for full pluripotency. Therefore, formation of differentiated cells from the three somatic germ layers within a teratoma is taken as the best indicator of pluripotency in hESC lines. The possibility that these lines lack full multi- or pluripotency has not yet been evaluated.In this study, we established 16 mouse ESC lines, including 3 genetically defective nuclear transfer-ESC (ntESC) lines derived from SCNT blastocysts of infertile hermaphrodite F1 mice and 13 ntESC lines derived from SCNT blastocysts of normal F1 mice. We found that the defective ntESCs expressed all in vitro markers of pluripotency and could form teratomas that included derivatives from all three germ layers, but could not be transmitted via the germ line, in contrast with normal ntESCs. Our results indicate that teratoma formation assays with hESCs might be an insufficient standard to assess full pluripotency, although they do define multipotency to some degree. More rigorous standards are required to assess the safety of hESCs for therapeutic cloning.

  8. Citrinin induces apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and inhibition of survival signals in embryonic stem cells, and causes developmental injury in blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    The mycotoxin CTN (citrinin), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, has cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN is known to cause cell injury, including apoptosis, but the precise regulatory mechanisms of CTN action, particularly in stem cells and embryos, are currently unclear. In the present paper, I report that CTN has cytotoxic effects on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts, and is associated with defects in their subsequent development, both in vitro and in vivo. Experiments in embryonic stem cells (ESC-B5) showed that CTN induces apoptosis via ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of MMP (mitochondrial membrane potential), induction of cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase 3. In this model, CTN triggers cell death via inactivation of the HSP90 [a 90 kDa isoform of the HSP (heat-shock protein) family proteins]/multichaperone complex and subsequent degradation of Ras and Raf-1, further inhibiting anti-apoptotic processes, such as the Ras-->ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signal transduction pathway. In addition, CTN causes early developmental injury in mouse ESCs and blastocysts in vitro. Lastly, using an in vivo mouse model, I show that consumption of drinking water containing 10 muM CTN results in blastocyst apoptosis and early embryonic developmental injury. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that CTN induces ROS and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic processes, inhibits Ras-->ERK survival signalling via inactivation of the HSP90/multichaperone complex, and causes developmental injury in vivo. PMID:17331071

  9. A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. Study Design: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. Results: Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0% compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33% (P < 0.01.Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies.

  10. Comparison of BALB/c and B6-albino mouse strain blastocysts as hosts for the injection of C57BL6/N-derived C2 embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantar, Tuija M; Wiler, Rhonda; Rairdan, Xin Y

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells from a C57BL/6N (B6N) background injected into B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J (B6-albino) recipient blastocysts are commonly used for generating genetically modified mouse models. To understand the influence of the recipient blastocyst strain on germline transmission, BALB/cAnNTac and B6-albino germline transmission rates were compared using the C57BL6/N-derived C2 ES cell line. A total of 92 ES cell clones from 27 constructs were injected. We compared blastocyst yield, birth rate, chimera formation rate, and high-percentage (>50 %) male chimera formation rate. For germline transmission, we analyzed 24 clones from 19 constructs, which generated high-percentage male chimeras from both donor strains. B6-albino hosts resulted in higher mean blastocyst yields per donor than did BALB/c ones (3.6 vs. 2.5). However, BALB/c hosts resulted in a higher birth rate than B6-albino ones (36 vs. 27 %), a higher chimera formation rate (50 vs. 42 %), a higher high-percentage male chimera rate (10 vs. 8 %), and a higher germline transmission rate (65 vs. 49 %), respectively. Our data suggest that BALB/c is a suitable blastocyst host strain for C2 ES cells and has an advantage over the B6-albino strain for receiving the injection of C2 ES cells. PMID:26852382

  11. Role of cumulus cells during vitrification and fertilization of mature bovine oocytes: Effects on survival, fertilization, and blastocyst development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Escribano, N; Smits, K; Piepers, S; Van den Abbeel, E; Woelders, H; Van Soom, A

    2016-07-15

    This study was designed to determine the role of cumulus cells during vitrification of bovine oocytes. Mature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with many layers of cumulus cells, corona radiata oocytes (CRs), with a few layers of cumulus cells, and denuded oocytes (DOs) without cumulus cells were vitrified in 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethyl sulfoxide, and 0.5-M sucrose. Oocytes that survived the vitrification process were fertilized. Denuded oocytes were fertilized with or without supplementation of intact COCs (DOsCOCs). First, survival and embryo development rates were studied. Higher survival rates were obtained for DOs and DOsCOCs (94% and 95%, respectively) compared with COCs (82.7%, P < 0.05). Corona radiata oocytes showed similar survival rates when compared with DOs. The cleavage and blastocyst rates of vitrified DOs were compromised because cumulus cells were not present during the fertilization (34% and 2.7%, respectively). However, the situation could be reverted when DOs were supplemented with intact COCs (DOsCOCs; 62.7% and 12.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Vitrified CRs showed similar cleavage and blastocyst rate (49.3% and 7.7%, respectively) compared with COCs (54.8% and 4.9%, respectively). In the second experiment, the penetration rate was analyzed. Removing cumulus cells before fertilization reduced the fertilization of vitrified DOs compared with COCs (24.3% vs. 52.8%, P < 0.05). The supplementation of DOs with intact COCs (DOsCOCs) improved the fertilization rate though (49.6%, P < 0.05). No differences in the fertilization rate were found between CRs and COCs. In the third experiment, parthenogenetic activation was examined. Interestingly, the CRs group showed higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (76.8% and 29.6%, respectively) than the COCs (39.1% and 7.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oocytes from vitrified CRs had the same odds to become a blastocyst as fresh oocytes (1.1 vs. 1.5, respectively). In conclusion, our data

  12. In vitro production of multigene transgenic blastocysts via sperm-mediated gene transfer allows rapid screening of constructs to be used in xenotransplantation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiolu, A; Manzini, S; de Cecco, M; Bacci, M L; Forni, M; Galeati, G; Cerrito, M G; Busnelli, M; Lavitrano, M; Giovannoni, R

    2010-01-01

    Multigene transgenic pigs would be of benefit for large animal models and in particular for xenotransplantation, where extensive genetic manipulation of donor pigs is required to make them suitable for organ grafting to humans. We have previously produced multitransgenic pigs via sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) using integrative constructs expressing 3 different reporter genes. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using 3 integrative constructs carrying 3 different human genes involved in the modulation of inflammatory responses. We developed an in vitro fertilization system to demonstrate that SMGT can be used to efficiently produce multigene transgenic embryos through a 1-step genetic modification using multiple integrative constructs each carrying a different human gene involved in the modulation of inflammatory processes (hHO1, hCD39, and hCD73). The results suggest that this system allowed an effective preliminary test of transgenesis optimization, greatly reducing the number of animals used in the experiments and fulfilling important ethical issues. We performed 5 in vitro fertilization experiments using sperm cells preincubated with all 3 integrative constructs. A total of 1,498 oocytes were fertilized to obtain 775 embryos, among which 340 further developed into blastocysts. We did not observe any toxicity related to the transgenesis procedure that affected normal embryo development. We observed 68.5% transgenesis efficiency. Blastocysts were 48% single, 31% double, and 21% triple transgenic. PMID:20692428

  13. A randomized assessor-blind trial comparing highly purified hMG and recombinant FSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devroey, Paul; Pellicer, Antonio; Nyboe Andersen, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of highly purified menotropin (hphMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) for controlled ovarian stimulation in a GnRH antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer. DESIGN: Randomized, open-label, assessor-blind, parallel groups, multicenter...

  14. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with digitonin and Xenopus egg extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan;

    2011-01-01

    Pre-treating donor cells before somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, ‘cloning’) may improve the efficiency of the technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early development of cloned embryos produced with porcine fibroblasts pre-treated with a permeabilizing agent and extract from...... Xenopus laevis eggs. In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor cells in handmade cloning (HMC). Controls were produced by HMC with non-treated donor cells. The...... blastocyst rate for reconstructed embryos increased significantly when digitonin-permeabilized, extract-treated cells were used after 5 days of culture after re-sealing. In Experiment 2, fetal and adult fibroblasts were treated with digitonin alone before re-sealing the cell membranes, then cultured for 3 or...

  15. Generation of liver-specific TGF-α/c-Myc-overexpressing porcine induced pluripotent stem-like cells and blastocyst formation using nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Joohyeong; Hussein, Kamal Hany; Hong, Seok-Ho; Yang, Se-Ran; Lee, Eunsong; Woo, Heung-Myong

    2016-05-01

    Transgenic porcine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are attractive cell sources for the development of genetically engineered pig models, because they can be expanded without senescence and have the potential for multiple gene manipulation. They are also useful cell sources for disease modeling and treatment. However, the generation of transgenic porcine iPS cells is rare, and their embryonic development after nuclear transfer (NT) has not yet been reported. We report here the generation of liver-specific oncogenes (TGF-α/c-Myc)-overexpressing porcine iPS (T/M iPS)-like cells. They expressed stem cell characteristics and were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells that express oncogenes. We also confirmed that NT embryos derived from T/M iPS-like cells successfully developed blastocysts in vitro. As an initial approach toward porcine transgenic iPS cell generation and their developmental competence after NT, this study provides foundations for the efficient generation of genetically modified porcine iPS cells and animal models. PMID:26725870

  16. Highly Efficient In Vitro Production of Bovine Blastocyst in Cell-Free Sequential Synthetic Oviductal Fluid vs. TCM199 Vero Cell Co-Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Morteza Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to establish a cell-free sequential culture system that cansupport high levels of in vitro embryo development and blastocyst formation from bovine zygotes.To this end, this investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of glucose, serum and EDTAon bovine zygote in vitro development.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were derived from oocytes matured, andfertilized in vitro and cultured in synthetic oviductal fluid sequential medium in a two-steps manner;SOF 1 for the first 3 days and SOF 2 for the second 5-6 days of in vitro embryo development. Inorder to evaluate the effect of different modifications of the basic medium on embryo development,glucose was added to the second phase (SOF A, serum was added to the first phase (SOF C andEDTA alone (SOF D or in combination with serum (SOF E was added into the first phase of invitro embryo culture. The results of each composition were compared with each other and with theresults of embryo development in TCM199 vero cell co-culture system.Results: Glucose addition to the second phase of embryo culture, improved the developmentalcompetency; however, the differences were not significant. Serum addition to the first phase ofembryo culture, significantly improved the developmental competency of embryos beyond thecleavage stage, compared to all the treatment and TCM199 co-culture groups. EDTA supplementationof culture medium, either alone or in combination with serum, significantly inhibits the embryodevelopment beyond the morula stage.Conclusion: The results indicated that culture of bovine presumptive zygotes in two steps cell-freeculture system, can support embryo development, and addition of serum throughout the culture andglucose to the second step significantly increased overall developmental competency compared toTCM199 co-culture system.

  17. The Genomic Landscape of Renal Oncocytoma Identifies a Metabolic Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpy Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytomas are predominantly benign neoplasms possessing pathogenic mitochondrial mutations and accumulation of respiration-defective mitochondria, characteristics of unknown significance. Using exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified two main subtypes of renal oncocytoma. Type 1 is diploid with CCND1 rearrangements, whereas type 2 is aneuploid with recurrent loss of chromosome 1, X or Y, and/or 14 and 21, which may proceed to more aggressive eosinophilic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC. Oncocytomas activate 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Tp53 (p53 and display disruption of Golgi and autophagy/lysosome trafficking, events attributed to defective mitochondrial function. This suggests that the genetic defects in mitochondria activate a metabolic checkpoint, producing autophagy impairment and mitochondrial accumulation that limit tumor progression, revealing a novel tumor-suppressive mechanism for mitochondrial inhibition with metformin. Alleviation of this metabolic checkpoint in type 2 by p53 mutations may allow progression to eosinophilic ChRCC, indicating that they represent higher risk.

  18. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9. ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN-SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  19. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  20. Identifying Unknown Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Winona C.; Dayhoff, Margaret O.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss ways to identify a protein, both when its amino acid sequence is known and, particularly, prior to the determination of the complete sequence. If a similar sequence is in the Protein Sequence Database, an unknown may be identified on the basis of partial or ambiguous sequence data, or on the basis of amino acid composition. Identification in the early stages of structural determination can save time and scarce resources by preventing duplicate effort or by suggesting ...

  1. Comparison of the First Trimester Miscarriage Rate between Cleavage Stage Embryo and Blastocyst%囊胚和卵裂期胚胎的早期胚胎流产率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明媚; 罗璐; 李涛; 张瑞晓; 贾梦希; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the first trimester miscarriage rates between the cleavage stage embryo transfer and blastocyst transfer.Methods:First trimester miscarriage rates of 1 673in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles for tubal factor or male factor were retrospectively analyzed.Among them,932 cycles were the fresh embryo transfer and 741 cycles were frozen-thawed embryo transfer.Results:Logistic analysis showed that either fresh embryo transfer group or frozen embryo transfer group,the first trimester miscarriage rate in the blastocyst transfer was lower than that in the cleavage stage embryo transfer,and the miscarriage risk was increased with advanced patient's age.Conclusion:Blastocyst transfer showed a lower first trimester miscarriage rate compared with the cleavage stage embryo transfer,age is still closely related to the first trimester miscarriage.%目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中囊胚培养是否能够筛选出更加具有发育潜能的胚胎,降低胚胎的早期流产率.方法:回顾性分析因单纯输卵管因素或/及男性因素接受囊胚期与第3日卵裂期胚胎移植获得妊娠后患者的流产率.总周期数1 673个,其中新鲜胚胎移植周期(fresh embryo transfer)932个(囊胚移植139个周期,卵裂期胚胎移植793个周期),冻融胚胎移植周期(frozen-thawed embryo transfer)741个(囊胚移植211个周期,卵裂期胚胎移植530个周期).结果:Logistic回归分析表明无论新鲜胚胎移植组还是冻融胚胎移植组,囊胚期胚胎受孕后的早期胚胎流产率均低于第3日的卵裂期胚胎,并且囊胚移植和卵裂期胚胎移植的流产率均与妇女年龄呈正相关.结论:无论新鲜胚胎移植组还是冻融胚胎移植组,囊胚移植均比第3日卵裂期胚胎移植流产风险降低.年龄仍是影响移植后妊娠早期流产的重要因素.

  2. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  3. 人类辅助生殖技术中DAY3胚胎质量与囊胚形成相关性分析%Correlation analysis of the quality of the 3th embryo with the blastocyst formation during human ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡煜; 刘吉; 李宝山; 于洪君; 宫立国

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlation of the quality of the 3th embryo with the blastocyst formation during human ART. Methods: In this study, All 130 patients accorded with our study standard. The 3th surplus embryos after transferred were cultured to the 6th days for the blastocyst formation. We tried to find the relationship among the patient's age, the 3th day embryo quality score and cell number with blastocyst formation. Result; The patient's age was not related with blastocyst formation. The remarkable result was the positive correlation beween blastulation rate with the day 3 embryo cell number or with the day3 embryo quality score. The blastocyst formation rate of the good quality embryo ( I - II ) was significantly higher than that of the poor quality embryo ( ID -IV ). The blastocyst formation rate of the ≥6 cells embryos in the 3th days was higher than that of the ≤5 cells embryos. By comprehensive analysis about the correlation of the blastocyst formation with day3 embryo cell numbe, the day3 embryo quality score and culture time, the result showed that the ≥6 cells I - IIdegree embryos had the highest blastocyst formation rate, the blastocyst formation rate of the≥6 cells III - IV degree embryos was higher. The blastocyst formation rate of the ≤5 cells embryos was lower than the ≥6 cells embryos. In all four groups embryos, the blastocyst formation rates in the 6th day were higher than in the 5th day. Conclusion; The day3 embryo cell number, quality score and culture time were important factors for the blastocyst formation, in which the 3th day embryo cell number was the most important. The culture to the 6th day brought some chance to blastocyst for surplus embryos which quality score was lower or developed slower. This culture progress effectually selected and saved the embryos which had potentiality to form the bastula.%目的 探讨人类辅助生殖技术中,day3胚胎质量与囊胚形成的相关性.方法

  4. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 26 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  5. Identifying Fiscal Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    De Graeve, Ferre; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Fiscal theorists warn about the risk of future inflation as a consequence of current fiscal imbalances in the US. Because actual inflation remains historically low and data on inflation expectations do not corroborate such risks, warnings for fiscal inflation are often ignored in policy and academic circles. This paper shows that a canonical NK- DSGE model enables identifying an anticipated component of inflation expectations that is closely related to fiscal policy. Estimation results sugges...

  6. On identified predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  7. Identifying Phronotypes in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. AndrewKozel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Refinements in the methods of diagnosis for psychiatric disorders are critically needed. These new methods should be based on objectively measured brain characteristics that provide clinically useful information. Studying the brain with respect to psychiatric disorders, however, faces numerous challenges. Utilizing techniques learned in other areas of medicine to deal with symptoms that lead to complex disorders can provide insight into improving diagnostic models in psychiatry. Specifically, many areas of medicine use objective measures of an organ’s function or characteristic to guide clinical management of particular subjective complaints. In psychiatry, an objectively measured brain characteristic that provides clinically useful information is proposed to be that person’s “phronotype.” Important requirements to developing phronotypes are discussed. Identifying phronotypes in psychiatry will require a specific investigative approach that must be grounded in rigorous scientific methodology. Successfully developing such markers will have a profound impact on clinical care, clinical research, basic science research, and most importantly the lives of those suffering from these illnesses.

  8. Integrative Functional Genomics Analysis of Sustained Polyploidy Phenotypes in Breast Cancer Cells Identifies an Oncogenic Profile for GINS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha K. Rantala

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy is among the most obvious differences between normal and cancer cells. However, mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of aneuploid cell growth are diverse and incompletely understood. Functional genomics analyses have shown that aneuploidy in cancer cells is correlated with diffuse gene expression signatures and aneuploidy can arise by a variety of mechanisms, including cytokinesis failures, DNA endoreplication, and possibly through polyploid intermediate states. To identify molecular processes contributing to development of aneuploidy, we used a cell spot microarray technique to identify genes inducing polyploidy and/or allowing maintenance of polyploid cell growth in breast cancer cells. Of 5760 human genes screened, 177 were found to induce severe DNA content alterations on prolonged transient silencing. Association with response to DNA damage stimulus and DNA repair was found to be the most enriched cellular processes among the candidate genes. Functional validation analysis of these genes highlighted GINS2 as the highest ranking candidate inducing polyploidy, accumulation of endogenous DNA damage, and impairing cell proliferation on inhibition. The cell growth inhibition and induction of polyploidy by suppression of GINS2 was verified in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis of published gene expression and DNA copy number studies of clinical breast tumors suggested GINS2 to be associated with the aggressive characteristics of a subgroup of breast cancers in vivo. In addition, nuclear GINS2 protein levels distinguished actively proliferating cancer cells suggesting potential use of GINS2 staining as a biomarker of cell proliferation as well as a potential therapeutic target.

  9. Knock-in fibroblasts and transgenic blastocysts for expression of human FGF2 in the bovine β-casein gene locus using CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Yeong Ji; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Jiwoo; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Hong-Gu; Park, Se Pill; Kang, Man-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Many transgenic domestic animals have been developed to produce therapeutic proteins in the mammary gland, and this approach is one of the most important methods for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, expression and secretion of a protein varies because transgenes are integrated at random sites in the genome. In addition, distal enhancers are very important for transcriptional gene regulation and tissue-specific gene expression. Development of a vector system regulated accurately in the genome is needed to improve production of therapeutic proteins. The objective of this study was to develop a knock-in system for expression of human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the bovine β-casein gene locus. The F2A sequence was fused to the human FGF2 gene and inserted into exon 3 of the β-casein gene. We detected expression of human FGF2 mRNA in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells by RT-PCR and human FGF2 protein in the culture media using western blot analysis when the knock-in vector was introduced. We transfected the knock-in vector into bovine ear fibroblasts and produced knock-in fibroblasts using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. Moreover, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was more efficient than conventional methods. In addition, we produced knock-in blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the knock-in fibroblasts. Our knock-in fibroblasts may help to create cloned embryos for development of transgenic dairy cattle expressing human FGF2 protein in the mammary gland via the expression system of the bovine β-casein gene. PMID:26197710

  10. Digital Identifier Systems: Comparative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Khedmatgozar; Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi; Payam Hanafizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS). The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other syste...

  11. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  12. 小鼠囊胚细胞凋亡和半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3表达与维甲酸的诱导作用%Induction effect of retinoic acid on cell apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression in mouse blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊彦娥; 张端莲

    2011-01-01

    背景:细胞凋亡是维甲酸导致早期胚胎异常发育的原因之一,而半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3 介导的细胞凋亡是细胞凋亡的主要途径.目的:观察维甲酸对体外培养小鼠囊胚细胞凋亡的影响,以及对囊胚细胞中半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3 表达的改变.方法:获取妊娠3.5 d 小鼠囊胚,分别在含0,1 和10 μmol/L 维甲酸的M199 培养基中培养24 h,用带有荧光标记的原位末端标记法观察维甲酸对小鼠囊胚细胞凋亡的效应;并用免疫组织化学S-P 法检测维甲酸对小鼠囊胚半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3 的表达.结果与结论:所有组均观察到囊胚细胞凋亡和半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3 表达,高剂量维甲酸组中囊胚细胞凋亡荧光值,半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3 表达的平均吸光度值和阳性面积率均显著升高(P < 0.01).结果提示维甲酸可促进体外培养小鼠囊胚细胞凋亡和及半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶3 表达,证实了维甲酸对小鼠胚胎的发育的细胞毒性作用.%BACKGROUND:One of the reasons for abnormal development of embryos is the apoptosis induced by retinoic acid, and Caspase-3mediated apoptosis is the main pathway for apoptosis in mouse blastocysts.OBJECTIVE:To observe apoptosis in mouse blastocyst induced by retinoic acid, and to detected expression of Caspase-3 in mouse blastocysts.METHODS:Mouse 3.5 days blastocysts were exposed to doses of 0, 1 and 10 μmol/L retinoic acid for 24 hours. Effects of retinoic acid on mouse blastocysts apoptosis was observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and the expression of Caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemical S-P staining.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:stocysts apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression could be found in all groups, which was significantly higher in the high dosage group than that in the control and low dosage group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that retinoic acid can promote

  13. Digital Identifier Systems: Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khedmatgozar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS. The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other systems. To achieve the research objective, researchers have considered two major steps: first, identifying main criteria for distinguishing digital identifier based on literature review and focus group interview; and second, performing a comparative evaluation on common identifier systems in the world. Findings of first step demonstrated seven main criteria in three domains for distinguishing digital identifier systems: identifier uniqueness and persistency in the identifier features domain, digital identification, digital uniqueness, digital persistency and digital actionability in the digital coverage domain, and globality in the comprehensiveness of scope domain. In the second step, results of the comparative evaluation on common identifier systems indicated that six identifier systems, included, DOI, Handle, UCI, URN, ARK and PURL, are appropriate choices for using as a digital identifier system. Also, according to these results, three identification systems Including NBN, MARIAM and ISNI were identified as suitable choices for digital identification in certain specialized fields. According to many benefits of using these identifiers in important applied fields, such as, digital content chains and networks integration, digital right management, cross referencing, digital libraries and citation analysis, results of this study can help digital environment experts to diagnose digital identifier and their effective use in applied fields.

  14. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan;

    2007-01-01

    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  15. New Criteria to Identify Spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jensen; M Krishna

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest.

  16. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Bazrgar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results: Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%, while 2(6.7% were diploid, and 2(6.7% were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5% were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5% were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05; however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion: Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells.

  17. Author Identifiers in Scholarly Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Bibliometric and usage-based analyses and tools highlight the value of information about scholarship contained within the network of authors, articles and usage data. Less progress has been made on populating and using the author side of this network than the article side, in part because of the difficulty of unambiguously identifying authors. I briefly review a sample of author identifier schemes, and consider use in scholarly repositories. I then describe preliminary work at arXiv to implement public author identifiers, services based on them, and plans to make this information useful beyond the boundaries of arXiv.

  18. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  19. Algorithms to identify failure pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Bhuwan Krishna Som

    2013-01-01

    This project report was written for ?Algorithms to Identify Failure Pattern? at NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), IME (Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering) and IDI (Department of Computer Science).In software application, there are three types of failure pattern: point pattern, block pattern and stripe pattern. The purpose of the report is to prepare an algorithm that identifies the pattern in a software application. Only theoretical ...

  20. Single-Cell Profiling of Epigenetic Modifiers Identifies PRDM14 as an Inducer of Cell Fate in the Mammalian Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Burton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell plasticity or potency is necessary for the formation of multiple cell types. The mechanisms underlying this plasticity are largely unknown. Preimplantation mouse embryos undergo drastic changes in cellular potency, starting with the totipotent zygote through to the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM and differentiated trophectoderm in the blastocyst. Here, we set out to identify and functionally characterize chromatin modifiers that define the transitions of potency and cell fate in the mouse embryo. Using a quantitative microfluidics approach in single cells, we show that developmental transitions are marked by distinctive combinatorial profiles of epigenetic modifiers. Pluripotent cells of the ICM are distinct from their differentiated trophectoderm counterparts. We show that PRDM14 is heterogeneously expressed in 4-cell-stage embryos. Forced expression of PRDM14 at the 2-cell stage leads to increased H3R26me2 and can induce a pluripotent ICM fate. Our results shed light on the epigenetic networks that govern cellular potency and identity in vivo.

  1. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated and...... computational complexity. We attribute this mainly to the stochastic search strategy used, and to parsimony (sparsity and identifiability), which is an explicit part of the model. We propose two extensions to the basic i.i.d. linear framework: non-linear dependence on observed variables, called SNIM (Sparse Non-linear...

  2. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  3. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated and......-linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling) and allowing for correlations between latent variables, called CSLIM (Correlated SLIM), for the temporal and/or spatial data. The source code and scripts are available from http://cogsys.imm.dtu.dk/ slim/. © 2011 Ricardo Henao and Ole Winther....

  4. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  5. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  6. Identifying, Assisting the Disturbed Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia L.; Schaefer, William

    1986-01-01

    Educators are in an excellent position to identify seriously troubled young people. Major causes of adolescent problems are discussed, including drugs, parental failure, and biochemical disturbances. Educators can best intervene by becoming aware of support services within their own school and community. (TE)

  7. Identifying Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify t

  8. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter;

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  9. Can Persistent Identifiers Be Cool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bazzanella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fast growth of scientific and non-scientific digital data, as well as the proliferation of new types of digital content, has led – among many other things – to a lot of innovative work on the concept of the identifier. Digital identifiers have become the key to preserving and accessing content, just as physical identifier tags have been the key to accessing paper-based content and other physical entities for millennia. Two main schools of thought have emerged: on the one hand, librarians and public repositories have pushed the concept of the Persistent Identifier (PI as a way to guarantee long term identification and (sometimes access; on the other hand, the extraordinary success of the web has led several researchers and web experts to push the concept of the Cool URI as the universal mechanism for identifying and accessing digital content. Both views have their pros and cons, but so far (with only a few exceptions the two visions have developed in parallel, sometimes with a subtle underlying hostility.In this paper, we present the evolution of the Entity Name System (ENS, an open service-based platform developed as part of the OKKAM EU co-funded project, which can reconcile these two approaches. The new system, called ENS2.0, is currently under development and will enable data creators and curators to combine the technical strengths and opportunities of the (Semantic Web vision with the organizational, economical and social requirements legitimately raised by the PI community and stakeholders.

  10. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  11. Identifying the Poorest Older Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Johathan; Johnson, David; Marchand, Joseph; Smeeding, Timothy; Boyle Torrey, B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Public policies generally target a subset of the population defined as poor or needy, but rarely are people poor or needy in the same way. This is particularly true among older adults, as they have fewer options to compensate for financial decisions made earlier in life. This study investigates poverty among this group in order to identify who among them is financially worst off. Methods: We use 20 years of data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey to examine the income and consum...

  12. Identifying Emotion from Natural Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Liqing; Li, Shun; Zhang, Wan; Zhang, Zhan; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Emotion identification from gait aims to automatically determine persons affective state, it has attracted a great deal of interests and offered immense potential value in action tendency, health care, psychological detection and human-computer(robot) interaction.In this paper, we propose a new method of identifying emotion from natural walking, and analyze the relevance between the traits of walking and affective states. After obtaining the pure acceleration data of wrist and ankle, we set a...

  13. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  14. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim Grechkin; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Su-In Lee

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each ...

  15. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grechkin, Maxim; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each ...

  16. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed—having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341

  17. [Gifted children! How to identify].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, O; Bléandonu, G

    2012-03-01

    Recognizing the intellectually gifted child allows one to anticipate the onset of behavioral disorders and to respond to them so as to improve quality of life for these children and their family. Certain signs can draw attention to this phenomenon. The decisive criterion has always been IQ. The notion of intelligence should be broadened and researchers have adventured beyond the purely intellectual competencies, which value most prominently the educational sphere. In addition, the modeling of high potential is currently renewing the approach to this question. This article takes this complexity into account and presents the main criteria used for identifying intellectually gifted children. PMID:22325457

  18. Comprehensive analysis of karyotypic mosaicism between trophectoderm and inner cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D S; Cinnioglu, C; Ross, R; Filby, A; Gemelos, G; Hill, M; Ryan, A; Smotrich, D; Rabinowitz, M; Murray, M J

    2010-12-01

    Aneuploidy has been well-documented in blastocyst embryos, but prior studies have been limited in scale and/or lack mechanistic data. We previously reported preclinical validation of microarray 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic screening in a 24-h protocol. The method diagnoses chromosome copy number, structural chromosome aberrations, parental source of aneuploidy and distinguishes certain meiotic from mitotic errors. In this study, our objective was to examine aneuploidy in human blastocysts and determine correspondence of karyotypes between trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM). We disaggregated 51 blastocysts from 17 couples into ICM and one or two TE fractions. The average maternal age was 31. Next, we ran 24-chromosome microarray molecular karyotyping on all of the samples, and then performed a retrospective analysis of the data. The average per-chromosome confidence was 99.95%. Approximately 80% of blastocysts were euploid. The majority of aneuploid embryos were simple aneuploid, i.e. one or two whole-chromosome imbalances. Structural chromosome aberrations, which are common in cleavage stage embryos, occurred in only three blastocysts (5.8%). All TE biopsies derived from the same embryos were concordant. Forty-nine of 51 (96.1%) ICM samples were concordant with TE biopsies derived from the same embryos. Discordance between TE and ICM occurred only in the two embryos with structural chromosome aberration. We conclude that TE karyotype is an excellent predictor of ICM karyotype. Discordance between TE and ICM occurred only in embryos with structural chromosome aberrations. PMID:20643877

  19. Genetic basis for dosage sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M Henry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy, the relative excess or deficiency of specific chromosome types, results in gene dosage imbalance. Plants can produce viable and fertile aneuploid individuals, while most animal aneuploids are inviable or developmentally abnormal. The swarms of aneuploid progeny produced by Arabidopsis triploids constitute an excellent model to investigate the mechanisms governing dosage sensitivity and aneuploid syndromes. Indeed, genotype alters the frequency of aneuploid types within these swarms. Recombinant inbred lines that were derived from a triploid hybrid segregated into diploid and tetraploid individuals. In these recombinant inbred lines, a single locus, which we call SENSITIVE TO DOSAGE IMBALANCE (SDI, exhibited segregation distortion in the tetraploid subpopulation only. Recent progress in quantitative genotyping now allows molecular karyotyping and genetic analysis of aneuploid populations. In this study, we investigated the causes of the ploidy-specific distortion at SDI. Allele frequency was distorted in the aneuploid swarms produced by the triploid hybrid. We developed a simple quantitative measure for aneuploidy lethality and using this measure demonstrated that distortion was greatest in the aneuploids facing the strongest viability selection. When triploids were crossed to euploids, the progeny, which lack severe aneuploids, exhibited no distortion at SDI. Genetic characterization of SDI in the aneuploid swarm identified a mechanism governing aneuploid survival, perhaps by buffering the effects of dosage imbalance. As such, SDI could increase the likelihood of retaining genomic rearrangements such as segmental duplications. Additionally, in species where triploids are fertile, aneuploid survival would facilitate gene flow between diploid and tetraploid populations via a triploid bridge and prevent polyploid speciation. Our results demonstrate that positional cloning of loci affecting traits in populations containing ploidy and

  20. Can tests identify creative people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    It is always a popular pursuit by academic administrators to assess the creativity or innovative qualities of scientists in order to evaluate their research capabilities. Of course, traditionally such evaluations have been fraught with subjectivity (i.e., innovative scientists are commonly thought to be weird, under 40 years old, independent, risk-taking, etc.), and thus such evaluations have not been highly valued. In recent years, through testing, the American Chemical Society (ACS) has attempted to give respectability to the art of predicting the creativity of a scientist. ACS, which draws its members from both industrial and academic laboratories, held a symposium on the subject of evaluating the creativity of scientists. The proceedings were published by ACS as ‘Innovation and U.S. Research: Problems and Recommendations’ (W. N. Smith and C.F. Larson, eds., 1980). In the proceedings, as reported in the July 1982 Chemtec (all quotes here are from the Chemtec article), A. Nisson was able to identify only the following two-part characteristic of an innovative person: (1) a low threshold to ‘a state of discomfort with some aspect of the order of things, the status quo,’ and (2) ‘an extraordinarily high level of mental stamina enabling him or her to persist until the state of discomfort is removed.’

  1. 不同促精子活动剂对水牛卵母细胞体外受精及随后胚胎发育的影响%The effect of sperm-motility enhancing agents on the in vitro fertilization of Bubalus bubalis oocytes and their subsequent development to blastocyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Rahman SESAY; 石德顺

    2005-01-01

    decrease (12.5% vs 2.6%, P<0.05) in the proportion of cleaved embryos that developed to blastocyst after sperm treatment with trypsin. The treatment of spermatozoa with caffeine and calcium-ionophore A23187 had no significant effect on cleavage and blastocyst yield. There was a minor improvement in blastocyst yield when PHE combined with calcium-ionophore was employed during IVF. However, high concentrations of caffeine seem to be detrimental to cleavage rate and blastocyst development.

  2. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  3. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for chemical binding to tubulin in oocytes leading to aneuploid offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Massarotti, Alberto; Yauk, Carole L; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Russo, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has launched the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Programme to advance knowledge of pathways of toxicity and improve the use of mechanistic information in risk assessment. An AOP links a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome (AO) through intermediate key events (KE). Here, we present the scientific evidence in support of an AOP whereby chemicals that bind to tubulin cause microtubule depolymerization resulting in spindle disorganization followed by altered chromosome alignment and segregation and the generation of aneuploidy in female germ cells, ultimately leading to aneuploidy in the offspring. Aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number, is a well-known cause of human disease and represents a major cause of infertility, pregnancy failure, and serious genetic disorders in the offspring. Among chemicals that induce aneuploidy in female germ cells, a large majority impairs microtubule dynamics and spindle function. Colchicine, a prototypical chemical that binds to tubulin and causes microtubule depolymerization, is used here to illustrate the AOP. This AOP is specific to female germ cells exposed during the periovulation period. Although the majority of the data come from rodent studies, the available evidence suggests that the MIE and KEs are conserved across species and would occur in human oocytes. The development of AOPs related to mutagenicity in germ cells is expected to aid the identification of potential hazards to germ cell genomic integrity and support regulatory efforts to protect population health. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:87-113, 2016. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. PMID:26581746

  4. Adaptive response to ionizing radiation in normal and aneuploid human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to induce an adaptive response with low doses of gamma rays was studied in normal and trisomic lymphocytes (47, XX or XY, +21). The results indicate the presence of an adaptive response in lymphocytes of 3 normal donors, but in lymphocytes of 5 donors with trisomy 21 no significant adaptive response was found after irradiation with a low dose of gamma rays. In normal and trisomic lymphocytes (47, XX or XY, +21) irradiated with 1.50 Gy, a similar chromosomal radiosensitivity was observed at the 48th hour after stimulation. (author) 2 tabs., 15 ref

  5. Gene expression analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid chromosomal syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ruosi; Hao, Lili; Wang, Lingping; Chen, Meili; Li, Wen; Li, Rujiao; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan

    2013-01-01

    Background Human aneuploidy is the leading cause of early pregnancy loss, mental retardation, and multiple congenital anomalies. Due to the high mortality associated with aneuploidy, the pathophysiological mechanisms of aneuploidy syndrome remain largely unknown. Previous studies focused mostly on whether dosage compensation occurs, and the next generation transcriptomics sequencing technology RNA-seq is expected to eventually uncover the mechanisms of gene expression regulation and the relat...

  6. Organización espacial y funcional del genoma en células aneuploides

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Gandiaga, Nerea

    2014-01-01

    198 p. El genoma se encuentra altamente organizado en el espacio nuclear de las células eucariotas. Los cromosomas y los genes ocupan una posición preferente respecto del centro o de la periferia del núcleo, y respecto de otros elementos genéticos. En la actualidad se cuenta con un volumen importante de evidencias que apoyan la noción que la organización espacial del genoma tiene influencia sobre la función del mismo y viceversa. Variaciones en el número y estructura de los cromosomas ...

  7. Cdc20 is critical for meiosis I and fertility of female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome missegregation in germ cells is an important cause of unexplained infertility, miscarriages, and congenital birth defects in humans. However, the molecular defects that lead to production of aneuploid gametes are largely unknown. Cdc20, the activating subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, initiates sister-chromatid separation by ordering the destruction of two key anaphase inhibitors, cyclin B1 and securin, at the transition from metaphase to anaphase. The physiological significance and full repertoire of functions of mammalian Cdc20 are unclear at present, mainly because of the essential nature of this protein in cell cycle progression. To bypass this problem we generated hypomorphic mice that express low amounts of Cdc20. These mice are healthy and have a normal lifespan, but females produce either no or very few offspring, despite normal folliculogenesis and fertilization rates. When mated with wild-type males, hypomorphic females yield nearly normal numbers of fertilized eggs, but as these embryos develop, they become malformed and rarely reach the blastocyst stage. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we uncover that the vast majority of these embryos have abnormal chromosome numbers, primarily due to chromosome lagging and chromosome misalignment during meiosis I in the oocyte. Furthermore, cyclin B1, cyclin A2, and securin are inefficiently degraded in metaphase I; and anaphase I onset is markedly delayed. These results demonstrate that the physiologically effective threshold level of Cdc20 is high for female meiosis I and identify Cdc20 hypomorphism as a mechanism for chromosome missegregation and formation of aneuploid gametes.

  8. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser; M.H. Mochtar; A.A. de Melker; F. van der Veen; S. Repping; T. Gerrits

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counsellin

  9. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  10. INVocD: Identifier Name Vocabulary Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon; Wermelinger, Michel; Yu, Yijun; Sharp, Helen

    2013-01-01

    NVocD is a dataset of the identifier name declarations and vocabulary found in 60 FLOSS Java projects where the source code structure is recorded and the identifier name vocabulary is made directly available, offering advantages for identifier name research over conventional source code models. The dataset has been used to support a range of research projects from identifier name analysis to concept location, and provides many opportunities to researchers.

  11. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  12. IVOA Identifiers Version 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Linde, Tony; Williams, Roy; Noddle, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An IVOA Identifier is a globally unique name for a resource within the Virtual Observatory. This name can be used to retrieve a unique description of the resource from an IVOA-compliant registry or to identify an entity like a dataset or a protocol without dereferencing the identifier. This document describes the syntax for IVOA Identifiers as well as how they are created. The syntax has been defined to encourage global-uniqueness naturally and to maximize the freedom of resource providers to control the character content of an identifier.

  13. De-identifying an EHR Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Pantazos, Kostas; Lippert, Søren

    2011-01-01

    -identified a Danish EHR database with 437,164 patients. The goal was to generate a version with real medical records, but related to artificial persons. We developed a de-identification algorithm that uses lists of named entities, simple language analysis, and special rules. Our algorithm consists of 3 steps......: collect lists of identifiers from the database and external resources, define a replacement for each identifier, and replace identifiers in structured data and free text. Some patient records could not be safely de-identified, so the de-identified database has 323,122 patient records with an acceptable...... degree of anonymity, readability and correctness (F-measure of 95%). The algorithm has to be adjusted for each culture, language and database....

  14. Identifiable parameters for parallel robots kinematic calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Besnard, Sébastian; Khalil, Wisama

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for the determination of the identifiable parameters of parallel robots. The special case of Stewart-Gough 6 degrees-offreedom parallel robots is studied for classical and self calibration methods, but this method can be generalized to any kind of parallel robot. The method is based on QR decomposition of the observation matrix of the calibration system. Numerical relations between the identifiable and non identifiable parameters can be obtained.

  15. A uniform resource identifier scheme for SNMP

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Rui Pedro; Oliveira, José Luís

    2002-01-01

    One of the World Wide Web characteristics, besides its omnipresence in computer systems, is the adoption of a universal user interface that is used to access several different services that were previously accessed individually by independent applications. The Internet resources started to be identified by URI schemes, a text string with specific syntax and grammar. Although existing for several services such as http, ftp, gopher and news, these identifiers are not used to identify SNMP resou...

  16. Identifying shortage occupations in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Downs

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the top-down methodology used by the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) to identify shortage occupations. Identifying shortage occupations is difficult and few countries have attempted to do this in a systematic way. The methodology developed by the MAC to identify shortage occupations is the first to use a comprehensive range of indicators. The methodology dovetails national level top-down data with bottom-up micro-level data and qualitative information from stakeholde...

  17. Determination of set-membership identifiability sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ravanbod-Hosseini, Laleh; Verdière, Nathalie; Jauberthie, Carine

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the concept of set-membership identifiability introduced in \\cite{jauberthie}. Given a model, a set-membership identifiable set is a connected set in the parameter domain of the model such that its corresponding trajectories are distinct to trajectories arising from its complementary. For obtaining the so-called set-membership identifiable sets, we propose an algorithm based on interval analysis tools. The proposed algorithm is decomposed into three parts namely {\\it minci...

  18. Moving Beyond Weak Identifiers for Proxemic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    significantly closer than what is actually the case. This makes the smartphone a weak identifier for applications that need to track persons. With a focus on feasible interaction design, we present a concept and prototype of a platform, which seek to support proxemic interaction beyond weak identifiers. The...... limitations that need to be addressed....

  19. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  20. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  1. Identifying left-right deterministic linear languages

    OpenAIRE

    CALERA RUBIO, JORGE; Oncina Carratalá, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Recently an algorithm to identify in the limit with polynomial time and data Left Deterministic Linear Languages (Left DLL) and, consequently Right DLL, was proposed. In this paper we show that the class of the Left-Right DLL formed by the union of both classes is also identifiable. To do that, we introduce the notion of n-negative characteristic sample, that is a sample that forces an inference algorithm to output an hypothesis of size bigger than n when strings from a non identifiable langu...

  2. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  3. Helping You Identify Quality Laboratory Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helping You Identify Quality Laboratory Services Selecting quality health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission has prepared this information ...

  4. Identifying opportunities in online-communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, C.; Lettl, Christopher

    Previous research has identified innovation as a crucial prerequisite for early entrepreneurial processes. However, the nature of how innovations are developed is changing dramatically, as it is becoming increasingly open, collaborative and democratized. This paper demonstrates in conceptual term...

  5. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

  6. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interv...

  7. Identifying Domestic and Imported Core Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper estimates core inflation in Norway, identified as that component of inflation that has no long-run effect on GDP. The model distinguishes explicitly between domestic and imported core inflation. The results show that (domestic) core inflation is the main component of CPI inflation. CPI inflation, however, misrepresents core inflation in some periods. The differences are well explained by the other shocks identified in the model, in particular the oil price shocks of the 1970s when ...

  8. ORCID Author Identifiers: A Primer for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Katherine G; Sarkozy, Alexandra; Wu, Wendy; Slyman, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) registry helps disambiguate authors and streamline research workflows by assigning unique 16-digit author identifiers that enable automatic linkages between researchers and their scholarly activities. This article describes how ORCID works, the benefits of using ORCID, and how librarians can promote ORCID at their institutions by raising awareness of ORCID, helping researchers create and populate ORCID profiles, and integrating ORCID identifiers into institutional repositories and other university research information systems. PMID:27054531

  9. Identifying marker typing incompatibilities in linkage analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stringham, H M; Boehnke, M.

    1996-01-01

    A common problem encountered in linkage analyses is that execution of the computer program is halted because of genotypes in the data that are inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance. Such inconsistencies may arise because of pedigree errors or errors in typing. In some cases, the source of the inconsistencies is easily identified by examining the pedigree. In others, the error is not obvious, and substantial time and effort are required to identify the responsible genotypes. We have develope...

  10. Identifying Entity Aspects in Microblog Posts

    OpenAIRE

    Spina, D.; Meij, E.; Rijke, de, M.; Oghina, A.; Bui, M.T.; Breuss, M.

    2012-01-01

    Online reputation management is about monitoring and handling the public image of entities (such as companies) on the Web. An important task in this area is identifying "aspects" of the entity of interest (such as products, services, competitors, key people, etc.) given a stream of microblog posts referring to the entity. In this paper we compare different IR techniques and opinion target identification methods for automatically identifying aspects and find that (i) simple statistical methods...

  11. Method for detecting and identifying peronospora arborescens

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ledesma, Francisco Javier; Jiménez Díaz, Rafael Manuel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca; Montes Borrego, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    The method for detecting and identifying Peronospora arborescens is based on amplification of specific regions of said pathogen. To do this, a number of oligonucleotide primers specific for P. arborescens were designed, by means of enzymatic amplification reaction, for identifying and detecting said pathogen. This method is useful in agriculture and provides an early diagnosis of the disease (mildew) during asymptomatic states of plants, which facilitates efficient control thereof, and sanita...

  12. Identifiability analysis in conceptual sewer modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidorfer, M; Leonhardt, G; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    For a sufficient calibration of an environmental model not only parameter sensitivity but also parameter identifiability is an important issue. In identifiability analysis it is possible to analyse whether changes in one parameter can be compensated by appropriate changes of the other ones within a given uncertainty range. Parameter identifiability is conditional to the information content of the calibration data and consequently conditional to a certain measurement layout (i.e. types of measurements, number and location of measurement sites, temporal resolution of measurements etc.). Hence the influence of number and location of measurement sites on the number of identifiable parameters can be investigated. In the present study identifiability analysis is applied to a conceptual model of a combined sewer system aiming to predict the combined sewer overflow emissions. Different measurement layouts are tested and it can be shown that only 13 of the most sensitive catchment areas (represented by the model parameter 'effective impervious area') can be identified when overflow measurements of the 20 highest overflows and the runoff to the waste water treatment plant are used for calibration. The main advantage of this method is very low computational costs as the number of required model runs equals the total number of model parameters. Hence, this method is a valuable tool when analysing large models with a long runtime and many parameters. PMID:22864432

  13. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148

  14. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D;

    2000-01-01

    reconstructed from in vitro produced embryo donors. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then activated using calcium ionophore A23187 followed by 6- dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). Subsequently, embryos were reconstructed using blas- tomeres from day 4–5 in vitro produced donors. The embryos were...

  15. Blastocyst Elongation, Trophoblastic Differentiation and Embryonic Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular basis behind elongation and concomitant gastrulation in ungulates that occurs during pre-implantation is still poorly understood. In-depth transcriptome analysis of the elongating porcine conceptus at specific stages has demonstrated that protein synthesis, protein trafficking, cell g...

  16. Circulating LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR may identify pre-treatment IVF patients at risk of OHSS and poor implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Anne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF depends on the recovery of an adequate number of healthy oocytes and on blastocyst implantation following uterine transfer. Two hormones, LH and hCG, utilize a common LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR, variations in which have profound implications in human reproduction. Soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR is released from experimental cell lines and placental explants and it can be detected in the follicular fluid and serum. Methods To evaluate the impact of circulating soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR in fertility treatment, we measured sLHCGR and LH-sLHCGR complex in serum from women seeking IVF using specifically developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Following an IVF cycle of treatment, patients were grouped according to oocyte yield into low (lower than or equal to 7 oocytes, intermediate (8-14 oocytes and high (greater than or equal to 15 oocytes responders and pregnancy outcome noted. Results Pre-treatment sLHCGR identified many women at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation. Low levels of sLHCGR were associated with pregnancy in both high and low responders but sLHCGR did not significantly affect the treatment outcome of intermediate responders. Low responders who failed to become pregnant had high levels of circulating sLHCGR bound to LH (LH-sLHCGR. Conclusions Pre-treatment measurement of sLHCGR could be used to tailor individual fertility treatment programs and improve outcomes by avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation and poor embryo implantation.

  17. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  18. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  19. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Catini, Roberto; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.

  20. Coherence method of identifying signal noise model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The noise analysis method is discussed in identifying perturbance models and their parameters by a stochastic analysis of the noise model of variables measured on a reactor. The analysis of correlations is made in the frequency region using coherence analysis methods. In identifying an actual specific perturbance, its model should be determined and recognized in a compound model of the perturbance system using the results of observation. The determination of the optimum estimate of the perturbance system model is based on estimates of related spectral densities which are determined from the spectral density matrix of the measured variables. Partial and multiple coherence, partial transfers, the power spectral densities of the input and output variables of the noise model are determined from the related spectral densities. The possibilities of applying the coherence identification methods were tested on a simple case of a simulated stochastic system. Good agreement was found of the initial analytic frequency filters and the transfers identified. (B.S.)

  1. Identifying Turbulent Structures through Topological Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Peer-Timo; Gruber, Andrea; Bennett, Janine C.; Gyulassy, Attila; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Grout, Ray W.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of extracting vortical structures from a turbulent flow is proposed whereby topological segmentation of an indicator function scalar field is used to identify the regions of influence of the individual vortices. This addresses a long-standing challenge in vector field topological analysis: indicator functions commonly used produce a scalar field based on the local velocity vector field; reconstructing regions of influence for a particular structure requires selecting a threshold to define vortex extent. In practice, the same threshold is rarely meaningful throughout a given flow. By also considering the topology of the indicator field function, the characteristics of vortex strength and extent can be separated and the ambiguity in the choice of the threshold reduced. The proposed approach is able to identify several types of vortices observed in a jet in cross-flow configuration simultaneously where no single threshold value for a selection of common indicator functions appears able to identify all of these vortex types.

  2. Identifiability of surface sources from Cauchy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the reconstruction of surface sources from single Cauchy data on the potential. Identifiability is first proven when the location of these sources is known and their density is to be sought. We also investigate the ill-posedness degree to establish that the problem is severely ill-posed, and exhibit the necessary orthogonality conditions fulfilled by exact Cauchy data, for which the process of recovering the density function of the sources succeeds. We later turn to the more difficult reconstruction of the location, the shape and the density function of the sources. Identifiability cannot be obtained for general geometries. Nevertheless, under some acceptable assumptions on the size and the location of these sources, we are able to state identifiability results

  3. Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2012-09-01

    Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

  4. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla;

    2014-01-01

    protein sequence or structure. Finally, we review techniques to identify recurrent combinations of somatic mutations, including approaches that examine mutations in known pathways or protein-interaction networks, as well as de novo approaches that identify combinations of mutations according to......-throughput DNA sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on......, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high...

  5. Scientometric methods for identifying emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2015-11-03

    Provided is a method of generating a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain.

  6. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.

  7. Methods of Identifying and Preventing SQL Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojken Shehu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by identifying the organizations which are vulnerable to the SQL attack referred to as an SQL injection attack. The term SQL injection attack is defined and a diagram is used to illustrate the way that attack occurs. In another section, the paper identifies the methods used to detect an attack to SQL, whereby the techniques are discussed extensively using relevant diagrams for illustration. The other sections cover the preventive methods, where the methods are also discussed with an illustration using diagrams.

  8. Factors identifying pigs predisposed to tail biting

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, V. E.; Breuer, K.; O Connell, N. E.; Sneddon, I. A.; Mercer, J. T.; Rance, K. A.; Sutcliffe, M. E. M.; Edwards, S A

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs slaughtered in the UK have been tail-bitten, leading to welfare and production issues. Tail biting is sporadic and not all pigs tail bite. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are common in pigs that perform tail-biting behaviour, and that might be used in a predictive way to identify such animals. The behaviour of 159 pigs was observed in the post-weaning period. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age. In the week prior to weaning and at 6 weeks of age each...

  9. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  10. Radio Frequency Identifiers: What are the Possibilities?

    CERN Document Server

    Elmorshidy, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines the components of radio frequency identifiers (RFID). It also explores the different areas and sectors where RFID can be beneficial. The paper discusses the uses and advantages of RFID in deference, consumer packaged goods (CPG), healthcare, logistics, manufacturing, and retail.

  11. Identifying Sexual Harassment: A Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Laura; Shoda, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    We created a classroom activity to illustrate the complexity involved in identifying sexual harassment. In the activity, students decided whether 6 fictional scenarios constituted sexual harassment. The activity stimulates animated discussion, and evaluation data indicate that it received positive feedback from students and refined students'…

  12. Non identified emissions in natural radioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six-branched stars (including one short branch) have been observed in nuclear emulsions impregnated with chemical fractions of monazite. Also low-energy α-particle groups not corresponding to known emitters have been seen in Si spectra of monazite and hematite. An experiment in which magnetic mass separation was performed showed a non-identified α-radioactivity at mass 239

  13. Identifying personal microbiomes using metagenomic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Eric A; Huang, Katherine; Meadow, James F; Gevers, Dirk; Lemon, Katherine P; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2015-06-01

    Community composition within the human microbiome varies across individuals, but it remains unknown if this variation is sufficient to uniquely identify individuals within large populations or stable enough to identify them over time. We investigated this by developing a hitting set-based coding algorithm and applying it to the Human Microbiome Project population. Our approach defined body site-specific metagenomic codes: sets of microbial taxa or genes prioritized to uniquely and stably identify individuals. Codes capturing strain variation in clade-specific marker genes were able to distinguish among 100s of individuals at an initial sampling time point. In comparisons with follow-up samples collected 30-300 d later, ∼30% of individuals could still be uniquely pinpointed using metagenomic codes from a typical body site; coincidental (false positive) matches were rare. Codes based on the gut microbiome were exceptionally stable and pinpointed >80% of individuals. The failure of a code to match its owner at a later time point was largely explained by the loss of specific microbial strains (at current limits of detection) and was only weakly associated with the length of the sampling interval. In addition to highlighting patterns of temporal variation in the ecology of the human microbiome, this work demonstrates the feasibility of microbiome-based identifiability-a result with important ethical implications for microbiome study design. The datasets and code used in this work are available for download from huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/idability. PMID:25964341

  14. DOI: A New Identifier for Digital Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berinstein, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Previews Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), a potential unifying classification system for the Web and the Internet developed by the Association of American Publishers and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. Discusses issues and problems surrounding DOI implementation and usage and how DOI would affect publishers, users,…

  15. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  16. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  17. A Young Gene Specific to Man Identified

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ ACAS-Max Planck Junior Research Group headed by WANG Wen, vice director of the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), recently identified a young gene specific to man clorf37-dup. Their work was published on the June 1 issue of Human Molecular Genetics.

  18. Identify Your Brand, Before You Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Discusses marketing in special libraries and suggests that librarians need to identify library services that set them apart from others. Highlights include the competitive environment and alternatives for the consumer; value that the library offers; targeting consumers; return on investment; and determining why consumers choose your services. (LRW)

  19. Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

  20. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  1. The external muon identifier (EMI) for BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This detector identifies muons produced in neutrino interactions in BEBC. Whereas hadrons are absorbed in the iron shield around BEBC, muons penetrate and are detected in a 150 m2 layer of proportional chambers, each equipped with three sensitive planes, i.e. two anode wire and one cathode plane.

  2. Identifying Ethical Hypernorms for Accounting Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Mintz, Steven; Naser-Tavakolian, Mohsen; O'Shaughnessy, John

    2012-01-01

    Accounting educators have a unique role in academe because students learn about codes of ethics that will guide their actions as professionals. We identify hypernorms related to internal auditing educators that reflect unethical behaviors believed to be universally unacceptable by that community. We then compare the results to a prior survey of…

  3. Automatically identifying periodic social events from Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunneman, F.A.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2015-01-01

    Many events referred to on Twitter are of a periodic nature, characterized by roughly constant time intervals in between occurrences. Examples are annual music festivals, weekly television programs, and the full moon cycle. We propose a system that can automatically identify periodic events from Twi

  4. Identifying Effectiveness Criteria for Internet Payment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Tae-Hwan; Swatman, Paula M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines Internet payment systems (IPS): third-party, card, secure Web server, electronic token, financial electronic data interchange (EDI), and micropayment based. Reports the results of a Delphi survey of experts identifying and classifying IPS effectiveness criteria and classifying types of IPS providers. Includes the survey invitation letter…

  5. Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

  6. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  7. Teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research project on teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities, which is a core competence for entrepreneurs that should be emphasized in education. This research consists of four studies. The first case study aims at finding design strategies f

  8. Where to look when identifying roadkilled amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Franch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads have multiple effects on wildlife; amphibians are one of the groups more intensely affected by roadkills. Monitoring roadkills is expensive and time consuming. Automated mapping systems for detecting roadkills, based on robotic computer vision techniques, are largely necessary. Amphibians can be recognised by a set of features as shape, size, colouration, habitat and location. This species identification by using multiple features at the same time is known as “jizz”. In a similar way to human vision, computer vision algorithms must incorporate a prioritisation process when analysing the objects in an image. Our main goal here was to give a numerical priority sequence of particular characteristics of roadkilled amphibians to improve the computing and learning process of algorithms. We asked hundred and five amateur and professional herpetologists to answer a simple test of five sets with ten images each of roadkilled amphibians, in order to determine which body parts or characteristics (body form, colour, and other patterns are used to identify correctly the species. Anura was the group most easily identified when it was roadkilled and Caudata was the most difficult. The lower the taxonomic level of amphibian, the higher the difficulty of identifying them, both in Anura and Caudata. Roadkilled amphibians in general and Anura group were mostly identified by the Form, by the combination of Form and Colour, and finally by Colour. Caudata was identified mainly on Form and Colour and on Colour. Computer vision algorithms must incorporate these combinations of features, avoiding to work exclusively in one specific feature.

  9. Self-correction of chromosomal abnormalities in human preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrgar, Masood; Gourabi, Hamid; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Aneuploidy is commonly seen in human preimplantation embryos, most particularly at the cleavage stage because of genome activation by third cell division. Aneuploid embryos have been used for the derivation of normal embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines and developmental modeling. This review addresses aneuploidies in human preimplantation embryos and human ESCs and the potential of self-correction of these aberrations. Diploid-aneuploid mosaicism is the most frequent abnormality observed; hence, embryos selected by preimplantation genetic diagnosis at the cleavage or blastocyst stage could be partly abnormal. Differentiation is known as the barrier for eliminating mosaic embryos by death and/or decreased division of abnormal cells. However, some mosaicisms, such as copy number variations could be compatible with live birth. Several reasons have been proposed for self-correction of aneuploidies during later stages of development, including primary misdiagnosis, allocation of the aneuploidy in the trophectoderm, cell growth advantage of diploid cells in mosaic embryos, lagging of aneuploid cell division, extrusion or duplication of an aneuploid chromosome, and the abundance of DNA repair gene products. Although more studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of self-correction as a rare phenomenon, most likely, it is related to overcoming mosaicism. PMID:23557100

  10. Trustworthy persistent identifier systems of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Car, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades, persistent identifier (PID) systems have seen some significant changes in their governance policies, system capabilities, and technology. The development of most systems was driven by two main application areas, namely archives and libraries. Guidelines and criteria for trustworthy PID systems have been clearly devised (Bütikofer, 2009) and many PID system implementations for the identification of static digital objects have been built (e.g., PURL). However systems delivering persistent identifiers for dynamic datasets are not yet mature. There has been a rapid proliferation of different PID systems caused by the specific technical or organisational requirements of various communities that could not be met by existing systems such as DOI, ISBN, and EAN. Many of these different systems were limited by their inability to provide native means of persistent identifier resolution. This has prompted a decoupling of PID-associated data from the resolution service and this is where the Handle system has played a significant role. The Handle allowed to build a distributed system of independently managed resolver services. A trustworthy PID system must be designed to outlive the objects it provides persistent identifiers for, which may cease to exist or otherwise be deprecated, and the technology used to implement it, which will certainly need to change with time. We propose that such a system should rest on four pillars of agreements - (i) definitions, (ii) policies, (iii) services, and (iv) data services, to ensure longevity. While we believe all four pillars are equally important, we intentionally leave regulating aspects of issuing of identifiers and their registration out of the scope of this paper and focus on the agreements that have to be established between PID resolver services and the data sources indicated by the persistent identifiers. We propose an approach to development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system

  11. Identifying a novel locus for psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have identified genetic risk loci for PsA, the majority of which also confer risk for psoriasis. The stronger heritability of PsA in comparison with psoriasis suggests that there should be risk loci that are specific for PsA. Identifying such loci could potentially inform therapy development to provide more effective treatments for PsA patients, especially with a considerable proportion being non-responsive to current therapies. Evidence of a PsA-specific locus has been previously found at HLA-B27 within the MHC region. A recent study has provided evidence of non-HLA risk loci that are specific for PsA at IL23R, PTPN22 and on chromosome 5q31. Functional characterization of these loci will provide further understanding of the pathways underlying PsA, and enable us to apply genetic findings for patient benefit. PMID:26255310

  12. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsak, Maksim; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Muchnik, Lev; Stanley, H Eugene; Makse, Hernan A

    2010-01-01

    Networks portray a multitude of interactions through which people meet, ideas are spread, and infectious diseases propagate within a society. Identifying the most efficient "spreaders" in a network is an important step to optimize the use of available resources and ensure the more efficient spread of information. Here we show that, in contrast to common belief, the most influential spreaders in a social network do not correspond to the best connected people or to the most central people (high betweenness centrality). Instead, we find: (i) The most efficient spreaders are those located within the core of the network as identified by the k-shell decomposition analysis. (ii) When multiple spreaders are considered simultaneously, the distance between them becomes the crucial parameter that determines the extend of the spreading. Furthermore, we find that-- in the case of infections that do not confer immunity on recovered individuals-- the infection persists in the high k-shell layers of the network under conditi...

  13. Identifying the borders of mathematical knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a divide and conquer approach, knowledge about nature has been organized into a set of interrelated facts, allowing a natural representation in terms of graphs: each 'chunk' of knowledge corresponds to a node, while relationships between such chunks are expressed as edges. This organization becomes particularly clear in the case of mathematical theorems, with their intense cross-implications and relationships. We have derived a web of mathematical theorems from Wikipedia and, thanks to the powerful concept of entropy, identified its more central and frontier elements. Our results also suggest that the central nodes are the oldest theorems, while the frontier nodes are those recently added to the network. The network communities have also been identified, allowing further insights about the organization of this network, such as its highly modular structure.

  14. An Xpert screen to identify carbapenemases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubin Kazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent the spread of carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE active surveillance, contact isolation and cohorting infected patients should be practiced. Rectal swabs for the Xpert MDRO-assay of 32 patients were included. 71.85% were positive for targets incorporated into the MDRO-assay; whereas 28% were phenotypically not CRE and Xpert negative (9.37% had different mechanism [bla OXA]. The assay identified 59.3%, 9.37% and 3.1% as bla NDM, bla NDM+VIM and bla VIM, respectively. The assay is a screening test that identifies CPE harbouring organism within an hour and can be installed at tertiary-care facilities to screen colonized patients.

  15. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev N Kronenberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools-Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch-and demonstrate Wham's ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham, with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/. For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/.

  16. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  17. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  18. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  19. Identifying climatic drivers of tropical forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry-Kientz, M.; Rossi, V.; Wagner, F.; Hérault, B.

    2015-10-01

    In the context of climate change, identifying and then predicting the impacts of climatic drivers on tropical forest dynamics is becoming a matter of urgency. To look at these climate impacts, we used a coupled model of tropical tree growth and mortality, calibrated with forest dynamic data from the 20-year study site of Paracou, French Guiana, in order to introduce and test a set of climatic variables. Three major climatic drivers were identified through the variable selection procedure: drought, water saturation and temperature. Drought decreased annual growth and mortality rates, high precipitation increased mortality rates and high temperature decreased growth. Interactions between key functional traits, stature and climatic variables were investigated, showing best resistance to drought for trees with high wood density and for trees with small current diameters. Our results highlighted strong long-term impacts of climate variables on tropical forest dynamics, suggesting potential deep impacts of climate changes during the next century.

  20. Identifying Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recharge epodicity in arid regions provides a method to estimate annual groundwater recharge given a relationship expressed as the recharge to precipitation ratio. Traditionally, in-situ observations are required to identify aquifer recharge events, while more advanced approaches such as the water-table fluctuation method or the episodic master recession method are necessary to delineate the recharge event. Our study uses the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations to estimate monthly changes in groundwater storage which are attributed to the combination of groundwater abstraction and episodic recharge in the arid southwestern United States. Our results illustrate the ability of remote sensing technologies to identify episodic groundwater recharge in arid regions which can be used within sustainable groundwater management frameworks to effectively manage groundwater resources.

  1. Identifying Genetic Variation for Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are using various strategies to identify the genes that may be associated with alcoholism. The initial efforts primarily relied on candidate gene and linkage studies; more recently, however, modern advances in genotyping have resulted in widespread use of genome-wide association studies for alcohol dependence. The key findings of the earlier studies were that variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the DNA sequences of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (i.e., the ADH1B gene)...

  2. Identifying learning techniques among high achievers

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmukananda P; L. Padma

    2013-01-01

    Background: In every college, it is noticed that in spite of being exposed to the same teaching modalities and adopting seemingly similar strategies, some students perform much better than their peers. This can be evaluated in the form of better academic performance in the internal assessments they undertake. This project is an endeavor to identify the learning techniques among high achievers which they employ to outperform others. We can also suggest the same to the medium and low achievers ...

  3. Identifying modular relations in complex brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Mørup, Morten; Siebner, Hartwig; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the infinite relational model (IRM) against two simpler alternative nonparametric Bayesian models for identifying structures in multi subject brain networks. The models are evaluated for their ability to predict new data and infer reproducible structures. Prediction and reproducibility...... overfit and obtains comparable reproducibility and predictability. For resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 healthy controls the IRM model is also superior to the two simpler alternatives, suggesting that brain networks indeed exhibit universal complex relational structure in...

  4. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Biometric Authentication. Types of biometric identifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build clear understanding biometrics and biometrics identifiers and also to look closely on the methods of biometrics. In this work such methods as data collecting, content analysis were applied. The information is taken from multiple internet resources, TV reports, magazines and newspapers and books. The study contains information about the history of biometrics and the process of its development, characteristics that people consider to be the adva...

  6. Using compression to identify acronyms in text

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, Stuart; Bainbridge, David; Witten, Ian H

    2000-01-01

    Text mining is about looking for patterns in natural language text, and may be defined as the process of analyzing text to extract information from it for particular purposes. In previous work, we claimed that compression is a key technology for text mining, and backed this up with a study that showed how particular kinds of lexical tokens---names, dates, locations, etc.---can be identified and located in running text, using compression models to provide the leverage necessary to distinguish ...

  7. Identifying innovation in higher education elearning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Aczel, James; Continat, Olivier; Hardy, Pascale; Iggulden, Helen; Komáromi, Laszlo; Maillet, Katherine; Medina, Sara; Meiszner, Andreas; Obermueller, Eva; SPINOGLIO Mark; Staniland, Karen

    2006-01-01

    There are many case studies of individual Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) devising distinctive eLearning strategies, reported by the HEI itself, journalists, or research observatories. An extraordinarily wide range of university-level eLearning programmes are rapidly becoming available from large numbers of HEIs across Europe, and there are strong attempts being made to identify and disseminate case studies of innovative eLearning practices (e.g. MENON, 2006). However, the vital research...

  8. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  9. Confirming congenital hypothyroidism identified from neonatal screening.

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, A.; Leslie, H.; Carson, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    All patients identified in the neonatal screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism in Northern Ireland between 1983 and 1993 were reviewed. 131 infants were recalled because of TSH elevation of whom 85 proved to have true permanent congenital hypothyroidism, while 44 had transient TSH elevation and 2 cases died before the diagnosis could be confirmed. TSH elevation at presentation was milder in the transient group and these infants were more likely to be unwell and/or suffering from co...

  10. Asteroid secular dynamics: Ceres' fingerprint identified

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Bojan; Maurel, Clara; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezević, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. We demonstrate that this type of secular resonance can be the dominant dynamical factor in certain regions of the main asteroid belt. Specifically, we performed a dynamical analysis of the asteroids belonging to the (1726) Hoffmeister family. To identify which dynamical mechanisms are actually at work in this part of the main asteroid b...

  11. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  12. Test and evaluation of isotope identifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three devices were tested against eighteen radio-isotopes ranging in activity from 0.37 kBq (K-40) to 93.24 GBq (Pu-239) to determine their effectiveness as isotope identifiers. Two of the devices were hand-held instruments using NaI(Tl) detectors and the third one was a bench-top instrument using a mechanically-cooled Ge detector. Details of the test and the test results are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Magnetic survey for identifying favorable zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey describes the ability of magnetic methods in identifying the zone conductor associated with mineral magnetite, pyrite, ilmenite and pyrrhotite. Large magnetic anomalies strongly influenced by the induction of ferromagnetic mineral. From the 2D modeling results can be interpreted that the favorable zone associated with the mineral magnetite, pyrite, ilmenite and pyrrhotite. This model obtained favorable dimensions of the width of between 50 to 75 meters, thickness of between 67 to 75 meters and a depth of 12 meters. (author)

  14. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  15. Identifying motifs in folktales using topic models

    OpenAIRE

    Karsdorp, F.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    With the undertake of various folktale digitalization initiatives, the need for computational aids to explore these collections is increasing. In this paper we compare Labeled LDA (L-LDA) to a simple retrieval model on the task of identifying motifs in folktales. We show that both methods are well able to successfully discriminate between relevant and irrelevant motifs. L-LDA represents motifs as distributions over words. In a second experiment we compare the quality of these distributions to...

  16. Identifying kinetically stable proteins with capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Songjie; Xia, Ke; Chung, Wai Keen; Cramer, Steven M; Colón, Wilfredo

    2010-01-01

    Unlike most proteins, which are in equilibrium with partially and globally unfolded conformations, kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are trapped in their native conformations and are often resistant to harsh environment. Based on a previous correlation between kinetic stability (KS) and a protein's resistance to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), we show here a simple method to identify KSPs by SDS-capillary electrophoresis (CE). Control non-KSPs were fully denatured by SDS and formed protein:SDS...

  17. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro;

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  18. Identifying the learning needs of senior nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerinus, Marie

    There has been a drive to encourage nurses into positions of leadership but, despite the importance of considering how the senior nurse role should be developed and the needs of senior nurses, little literature exists on the subject. To explore senior nurse development, one health. board in Scotland invited senior nurses to participate in a "development conversation". Key points were noted during each conversation and themed. This article outlines the needs identified and explores how they could be addressed. PMID:27386709

  19. Preclinical Assays for Identifying Cancer Chemopreventive Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Takeru; Yasui, Yumiko; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    Dietary factors influence carcinogenesis in a variety of tissues. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of several types of epithelial malignancies. In addition, there are interrelationships between diet, environmental factors, and genetics that can affect cancer risk. Potential chemopreventive agents against cancer development can be found among nutritive and/or nonnutritive compounds in inedible and edible plants. To identify potential cancer chemoprev...

  20. Identifying Social Satisfaction from Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Shuotian; Gao, Rui; Hao, Bibo; Yuan, Sha; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the critical need to identify social situation and instability factors by acquiring public social satisfaction in this research. However, subject to the large amount of manual work cost in subject recruitment and data processing, conventional self-reported method cannot be implemented in real time or applied in large scale investigation. To solve the problem, this paper proposed an approach to predict users' social satisfaction, especially for the economy-related satisfaction b...

  1. Identifying Potential Factors of Childbearing in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Asaduzzaman; Md. Hasinur Rahaman Khan

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to identify different potential factors associated with childbearing pattern among the ever-married women in Bangladesh. Childbearing pattern is directly related to fertility level and rapid population growth is the major consequence of more childbearing. Bearing more children affects adversely on social and economic opportunities and produces substantial risks to the health of mothers and children. Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data 1999-2000 and 2004 have been used fo...

  2. Identifying the Universal Part of TMDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veken, F. F.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    We attempt to identify a path layout in the definition of transverse-momentum-dependent T-odd parton distribution functions (TMD)s which combines features of both, initial- and final-state interactions, so that it remains universal despite the fact that the Wilson lines entering such TMDs change their orientation. The generic structure of the quark correlator for this path layout is calculated.

  3. Identifying the Universal part of TMDs

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Veken, F F

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to identify a path layout in the definition of transverse-momentum-dependent T-odd parton distribution functions (TMD)s which combines features of both, initial- and final-state interactions, so that it remains universal despite the fact that the Wilson lines entering such TMDs change their orientation. The generic structure of the quark correlator for this path layout is calculated.

  4. Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickersin, K.; R Scherer; Lefebvre, C. (Charles)

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the sensitivity and precision of Medline searching for randomised clinical trials. DESIGN--Comparison of results of Medline searches to a "gold standard" of known randomised clinical trials in ophthalmology published in 1988; systematic review (meta-analysis) of results of similar, but separate, studies from many fields of medicine. POPULATIONS--Randomised clinical trials published in 1988 in journals indexed in Medline, and those not indexed in Medline and identified by...

  5. Teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Nab, J.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research project on teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities, which is a core competence for entrepreneurs that should be emphasized in education. This research consists of four studies. The first case study aims at finding design strategies for entrepreneurship education that is successful in generating new start-ups. This study resulted in five design strategies for a learning environment that includes those elements of entrepreneursh...

  6. Identifying nanotechnological linkages in the Finnish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulainen, Tuomo

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology, as an emerging science-based technology, is seen to have great potential both in scientific as well as economic terms. In this paper the focus is on identifying the technological linkages between the Finnish nanotechnology community and the industrial incumbents. These technological link-ages are first observed at a broader level in comparison with the technological strengths of the Finnish industries, and then in greater detail at the level of companies. In addition, the abso...

  7. Identifying differentially regulated subnetworks from phosphoproteomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebbe Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various high throughput methods are available for detecting regulations at the level of transcription, translation or posttranslation (e.g. phosphorylation. Integrating these data with protein networks should make it possible to identify subnetworks that are significantly regulated. Furthermore, such integration can support identification of regulated entities from often noisy high throughput data. In particular, processing mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic data in this manner may expose signal transduction pathways and, in the case of experiments with drug-treated cells, reveal the drug's mode of action. Results Here, we introduce SubExtractor, an algorithm that combines phosphoproteomic data with protein network information from STRING to identify differentially regulated subnetworks and individual proteins. The method is based on a Bayesian probabilistic model combined with a genetic algorithm and rigorous significance testing. The Bayesian model accounts for information about both differential regulation and network topology. The method was tested with artificial data and subsequently applied to a comprehensive phosphoproteomics study investigating the mode of action of sorafenib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor. Conclusions SubExtractor reliably identifies differentially regulated subnetworks from phosphoproteomic data by integrating protein networks. The method can also be applied to gene or protein expression data.

  8. Identifying web usage behavior of bank customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Sandro; Silva, Mariano; Weber, Richard

    2002-03-01

    The bank Banco Credito e Inversiones (BCI) started its virtual bank in 1996 and its registered customers perform currently more than 10,000 Internet transactions daily, which typically cause les than 10% of traditional transaction costs. Since most of the customers are still not registered for online banking, one of the goals of the virtual bank is to increase then umber of registered customers. Objective of the presented work was to identify customers who are likely to perform online banking but still do not use this medium for their transactions. This objective has been reached by determining profiles of registered customers who perform many transactions online. Based on these profiles the bank's Data Warehouse is explored for twins of these heavy users that are still not registered for online banking. We applied clustering in order to group the registered customers into five classes. One of these classes contained almost 30% of all registered customers and could clearly be identified as class of heavy users. Next a neural network assigned online customers to the previously found five classes. Applying the network trained on online customers to all the bank customers identified twins of heavy users that, however had not performed online transactions so far. A mailing to these candidates informing about the advantages of online banking doubled the number of registrations compared to previous campaigns.

  9. Survival rates of mouse blastocyst vitrified in dimethylformamide based solutions associated with ethylene glicol or 1-2 propanediol Sobrevivência de embriões de camundongo vitrificados em soluções com dimetilformamida associadas ao etilenoglicol ou 1-2 propanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodriguez Villamil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dimethylformamide (DF associated with ethylene glycol (EG or 1-2 propanediol (PROH during vitrification, on the in vitro development of mouse blastocysts. Cryoprotectant toxicity was evaluated exposing embryos into three different equilibrium solutions (ES composed by DF, EG or PROH mixtures (10% v/v of each in mPBS + 0.5% PVA at different interval times (1, 3 and 10min. In a second experiment, embryos were exposed to the same ES (either 1 or 3min, following for the three respectively vitrification solutions (VS (20% v/v of each for 30s. After 72 hours of in vitro culture, embryo hatching and expansion rates were similar for the ES1 and ES2 equilibration solutions during the time interval of 1 or 3min. However embryos exposed for 10 min to the DF equilibration solutions, had lower survival rates than EG-PROH solution (PO objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da dimetilformamida (DF associada com etileno glycol (EG ou 1-2 propanediol (PROH durante a vitrificação, no desenvolvimento in vitro de blastocistos murinos. A toxicidade dos crioprotetores foi avaliada ao expor os embriões as três soluções de equilíbrio (ES compostas pelas misturas de DF, EG ou PROH (10% v/v de cada em mPBS + 0,5% PVA, em diferentes intervalos de tempo (1, 3 e 10min. Em um segundo experimento, os embriões foram expostos as mesmas ES (durante 1 e 3min, seguido da exposição as três respectivas soluções de vitrificação (VS (20% v/v de cada durante 30seg. Após 72 horas de cultivo in vitro, as taxas de expansão e eclosão dos embriões expostos durante os períodos de 1 e 3min às soluções de equilíbrio ES1 e ES2 foram semelhantes. No entanto, os embriões expostos durante 10min às soluções de equilíbrio com DF apresentaram taxas de sobrevivência inferiores à solução de EG-PROH (P<0,01. Além disso, as taxas de sobrevivência dos embriões expostos à DF-PROH (ES+VS foram menores que as dos

  10. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  11. Persistent Identifiers, Discoverability and Open Science (Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Lehnert, Kerstin; Hanson, Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Early in 2016, the American Geophysical Union announced it was incorporating ORCIDs into its submission workflows. This was accompanied by a strong statement supporting the use of other persistent identifiers - such as IGSNs, and the CrossRef open registry 'funding data'. This was partly in response to funders' desire to track and manage their outputs. However the more compelling argument, and the reason why the AGU has also signed up to the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (http://cos.io/top), is that ultimately science and scientists will be the richer for these initiatives due to increased opportunities for interoperability, reproduceability and accreditation. The AGU has appealed to the wider community to engage with these initiatives, recognising that - unlike the introduction of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for articles by CrossRef - full, enriched use of persistent identifiers throughout the scientific process requires buy-in from a range of scholarly communications stakeholders. At the same time, across the general research landscape, initiatives such as Project CRediT (contributor roles taxonomy), Publons (reviewer acknowledgements) and the forthcoming CrossRef DOI Event Tracker are contributing to our understanding and accreditation of contributions and impact. More specifically for earth science and scientists, the cross-functional Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (COPDESS) was formed in October 2014 and is working to 'provide an organizational framework for Earth and space science publishers and data facilities to jointly implement and promote common policies and procedures for the publication and citation of data across Earth Science journals'. Clearly, the judicious integration of standards, registries and persistent identifiers such as ORCIDs and International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) to the research and research output processes is key to the success of this venture

  12. Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Among the possible terrorist activities that might threaten national security is the release of an airborne pathogen such as anthrax. Because the potential damage to human health could be severe, experts consider 1 minute to be an operationally useful time limit for identifying the pathogen and taking action. Many commercial systems can identify airborne pathogenic microbes, but they take days or, at best, hours to produce results. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other U.S. government agencies are interested in finding a faster approach. To answer this national need, a Livermore team, led by scientist Eric Gard, has developed the bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system--the only instrument that can detect and identify spores at low concentrations in less than 1 minute. BAMS can successfully distinguish between two related but different spore species. It can also sort out a single spore from thousands of other particles--biological and nonbiological--with no false positives. The BAMS team won a 2005 R&D 100 Award for developing the system. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program funded the biomedical aspects of the BAMS project, and the Department of Defense's Technical Support Working Group and Defense Advanced Research Project Agency funded the biodefense efforts. Developing a detection system that can analyze small samples so quickly has been challenging. Livermore engineer Vincent Riot, who worked on the BAMS project, explains, ''A typical spore weighs approximately one-trillionth of a gram and is dispersed in the atmosphere, which contains naturally occurring particles that could be present at concentrations thousands of times higher. Previous systems also had difficulty separating benign organisms from those that are pathogenic but very similar, which has resulted in false alarms''.

  13. Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process. METHODOLOGY: In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7% are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8% are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has

  14. Identifying learning techniques among high achievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukananda P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In every college, it is noticed that in spite of being exposed to the same teaching modalities and adopting seemingly similar strategies, some students perform much better than their peers. This can be evaluated in the form of better academic performance in the internal assessments they undertake. This project is an endeavor to identify the learning techniques among high achievers which they employ to outperform others. We can also suggest the same to the medium and low achievers so that they can improve their academic performance. This study was conducted to identify different learning techniques adopted by high achievers and suggesting the same to medium and low achievers. Methods: After obtaining clearance from the institutional ethics committee, the high achievers were identified by selecting the upper third of the students in the ascending order of marks obtained in the consecutive three internal assessments in three consecutive batches. The identity of the students was not revealed. They were then administered an open ended questionnaire which addressed relevant issues. The most common and feasible techniques will be suggested to the medium and low achievers. Results: The respondents’ (n=101 replies were analyzed by calculating the percentages of responses, and assessing based on that, which were the most frequently adapted techniques by these high achievers Conclusions: High-achievers have a diligent study pattern; they not only study regularly, but also involve in group discussions and approach their teachers when in doubt. Additionally, they refer to other sources of information like the internet, demonstrating a proactive attitude towards studies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 203-207

  15. Identifying single copy orthologs in Metazoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Creevey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of single copy (1-to-1 orthologs in any group of organisms is important for functional classification and phylogenetic studies. The Metazoa are no exception, but only recently has there been a wide-enough distribution of taxa with sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes to gain confidence in the wide-spread single copy status of a gene.Here, we present a phylogenetic approach for identifying overlooked single copy orthologs from multigene families and apply it to the Metazoa. Using 18 sequenced metazoan genomes of high quality we identified a robust set of 1,126 orthologous groups that have been retained in single copy since the last common ancestor of Metazoa. We found that the use of the phylogenetic procedure increased the number of single copy orthologs found by over a third more than standard taxon-count approaches. The orthologs represented a wide range of functional categories, expression profiles and levels of divergence.To demonstrate the value of our set of single copy orthologs, we used them to assess the completeness of 24 currently published metazoan genomes and 62 EST datasets. We found that the annotated genes in published genomes vary in coverage from 79% (Ciona intestinalis to 99.8% (human with an average of 92%, suggesting a value for the underlying error rate in genome annotation, and a strategy for identifying single copy orthologs in larger datasets. In contrast, the vast majority of EST datasets with no corresponding genome sequence available are largely under-sampled and probably do not accurately represent the actual genomic complement of the organisms from which they are derived.

  16. Identified nerve cells and insect behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, C M; Robertson, R M

    2001-03-01

    Studies of insect identified neurons over the past 25 years have provided some of the very best data on sensorimotor integration; tracing information flow from sensory to motor networks. General principles have emerged that have increased the sophistication with which we now understand both sensory processing and motor control. Two overarching themes have emerged from studies of identified sensory interneurons. First, within a species, there are profound differences in neuronal organization associated with both the sex and the social experience of the individual. Second, single neurons exhibit some surprisingly rich examples of computational sophistication in terms of (a) temporal dynamics (coding superimposed upon circadian and shorter-term rhythms), and also (b) what Kenneth Roeder called "neural parsimony": that optimal information can be encoded, and complex acts of sensorimotor coordination can be mediated, by small ensembles of cells. Insect motor systems have proven to be relatively complex, and so studies of their organization typically have not yielded completely defined circuits as are known from some other invertebrates. However, several important findings have emerged. Analysis of neuronal oscillators for rhythmic behavior have delineated a profound influence of sensory feedback on interneuronal circuits: they are not only modulated by feedback, but may be substantially reconfigured. Additionally, insect motor circuits provide potent examples of neuronal restructuring during an organism's lifetime, as well as insights on how circuits have been modified across evolutionary time. Several areas where future advances seem likely to occur include: molecular genetic analyses, neuroecological syntheses, and neuroinformatics--the use of digital resources to organize databases with information on identified nerve cells and behavior. PMID:11163685

  17. Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Rudy, R. J.; Bernstein, L. S.

    2008-09-01

    Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae David K. Lynch, Richard. J. Rudy (The Aerospace Corporation) & Lawrence S. Bernstein (Spectral Sciences, Inc.) Novae spectra in the near infrared frequently show a set of six emission lines that have not been positively identified (Williams, Longmore, & Geballe 1996, MNRAS, 279, 804; Lynch et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2013; Rudy et al. 2002 ApJ, 573, 794; Lynch et al. 2004 Astron. J. 127, 1089-1097). These lines are at 0.8926, 1.1114, 1.1901, 1.5545, 2.0996 and 2.425 µm ± 0.005 µm. Krautter et al. (1984 A&A 137, 304) suggested that three of the lines were due to rydberg (hydrogenic) transitions in an unspecified atomic species that was in the 4th or 5th ionization stage (core charge = 4 & 5). We believe that Krautter et al.'s explanation is correct based on 4 additional lines that we have identified in the visible and near infrared spectrum of V723 Cassiopeiae. The observed Rydberg lines appear to originate from high angular momentum states with negligible quantum defects. The species cannot be determined with any certainty because in rydberg states, the outer electron sees a nucleus shielded by the inner electrons and together the inner atom appears to have a charge of +1, like hydrogen. As a result, the atom looks hydrogenic and species such as CV, NV, OV, MgV, SiV, etc. have their rydberg transitions at very similar wavelengths. All the lines represent permitted transitions, most likely formed by recombination. Atoms with core charges 4, 5 & 6 are rarely seen in the astrophysical environment because an extremely hot radiation field is necessary to ionize them. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of a white dwarf can reach millions of degrees K, and thus there are enough X-ray photons available to achieve the necessary high ionization levels.

  18. Identifying image forgeries using change points detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Saic, Stanislav

    Washington: SPIE, 2011, 788008-1-780808-2. ISBN 978-0-8194-8417-8. ISSN 0277-786X. [SPIE Electronic Imaging, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics III. San Francisco (US), 22.01.2011-23.01.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470; GA MV VG20102013064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image forgery Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/mahdian-identifying image forgeries using change points detection.pdf

  19. Diagnostic tools to identify black Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Robert A.; Noonim, P.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present taxonomy of the black aspergilli reveals that there are 19 accepted taxa. However the identification of species of Aspergillus section Nigri is often problematic in spite of the existence of numerous methods proposed. An overview is provided of phenotypic and molecular methods to...... identify the accepted species of the black aspergilli. Colony morphology, conidial size and ornamentation of the ex type cultures is presented in a pictorial overview. The temperature range of all species is given and their growth characteristics on creatine agar and boscalid agar, a medium which was...... evaluation of the usefulness of various techniques and genomic loci for species identification of black aspergilli is presented....

  20. Identifying Phase Space Boundaries with Voronoi Tessellations

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Dipsikha; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T; Yang, Yuan-Pao

    2016-01-01

    Determining the masses of new physics particles appearing in decay chains is an important and longstanding problem in high energy phenomenology. Recently it has been shown that these mass measurements can be improved by utilizing the boundary of the allowed region in the fully differentiable phase space in its full dimensionality. Here we show that the practical challenge of identifying this boundary can be solved using techniques based on the geometric properties of the cells resulting from Voronoi tessellations of the relevant data. The robust detection of such phase space boundaries in the data could also be used to corroborate a new physics discovery based on a cut-and-count analysis.

  1. Can Chameleon Field be identified with Quintessence ?

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ivanov; Wellenzohn, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the Friedmann-Einstein equations for the Universe evolution with the expansion parameter $a$ dependent on time only in the Einstein gravity with the chameleon field, changing its mass in dependence of a density of its environment. We show that the chameleon field can be identified with quintessence (a canonical scalar field responsible for the late-time acceleration of the Universe expansion and dark energy dynamics) if and only if the radiation rho_r(a) and matter rho_m(a) (dark a...

  2. Hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbons produced by γ-radiation of peanuts were analyzed to determine the relationship between irradiation and production of hydrocarbons, and the use of hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts. Hydrocarbons in peanuts were determined by a sequential procedure of lipid extraction by hexane, Florisil column chromatography, and gas chromatography. Hydrocarbons C17:1, C16:2, C17:2, and C16:3 were easily detected in peanuts irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher, but not in unirradiated ones. The hydrocarbons were minimally changed by roasting the irradiated peanuts and were not detected in unirradiated roasted peanuts

  3. Identifying biomass fuel shortages in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Michael (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Inst. of Development Studies)

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Sri Lankan Forestry Master Plan and other sources, to explore the causes of biomass shortages, and to identify the areas where interventions are likely to have most impact. Five districts, concentrated in the wet lowland and hill country zones, are found to be in overall biomass fuel deficit whilst in a further five, which include dry zone locations, fuelwood consumption exceeds potential supply, Within the area of overall deficit, poorer urban groups and rural families with no home gardens - who together comprise 15% of all households nationally - are affected most severely. Another 10% of households are likely to suffer to a lesser extent. (author).

  4. Identifying Nuclear Materials Using Tagged Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, C L; Borodzin, K; Durham, J M; Fabritius, J M; Guardincerri, E; Hecht, A; Milner, E C; Miyadera, H; Perry, J O; Poulson, D

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by stopped cosmic-ray muons to identify nuclear materials are described. The neutrons are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of uranium objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects. The specificity of the technique to significant quantities of nuclear material along with its insensitivity to spatial details may provide a new method for the task of warhead verification for future arms reduction treaties.

  5. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  6. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  7. Identifying Bitcoin users by transaction behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, John V.

    2015-05-01

    Digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, offer convenience and security to criminals operating in the black marketplace. Some Bitcoin marketplaces, such as Silk Road, even claim anonymity. This claim contradicts the findings in this work, where long term transactional behavior is used to identify and verify account holders. Transaction timestamps and network properties observed over time contribute to this finding. The timestamp of each transaction is the result of many factors: the desire purchase an item, daily schedule and activities, as well as hardware and network latency. Dynamic network properties of the transaction, such as coin flow and the number of edge outputs and inputs, contribute further to reveal account identity. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for identifying and verifying Bitcoin users based on the observation of Bitcoin transactions over time. The behavior we attempt to quantify roughly occurs in the social band of Newell's time scale. A subset of the Blockchain 230686 is taken, selecting users that initiated between 100 and 1000 unique transactions per month for at least 6 different months. This dataset shows evidence of being nonrandom and nonlinear, thus a dynamical systems approach is taken. Classification and authentication accuracies are obtained under various representations of the monthly Bitcoin samples: outgoing transactions, as well as both outgoing and incoming transactions are considered, along with the timing and dynamic network properties of transaction sequences. The most appropriate representations of monthly Bitcoin samples are proposed. Results show an inherent lack of anonymity by exploiting patterns in long-term transactional behavior.

  8. Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is open-quotes to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient mannerclose quotes. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor's meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities

  9. Identifying influential spreaders in interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying the most influential spreaders in spreading dynamics is of the utmost importance for various purposes for understanding or controlling these processes. The existing relevant works are limited to a single network. Most real networks are actually not isolated, but typically coupled and affected by others. The properties of epidemic spreading have recently been found to have some significant differences in interconnected networks from those in a single network. In this paper, we focus on identifying the influential spreaders in interconnected networks. We find that the well-known k-shell index loses effectiveness; some insignificant spreaders in a single network become the influential spreaders in the whole interconnected networks while some influential spreaders become no longer important. The simulation results show that the spreading capabilities of the nodes not only depend on their influence for the network topology, but also are dramatically influenced by the spreading rate. Based on this perception, a novel index is proposed for measuring the influential spreaders in interconnected networks. We then support the efficiency of this index with numerical simulations. (paper)

  10. Identifying dependability requirements for space software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Toshiro Yano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are increasingly used in space, whether in launch vehicles, satellites, ground support and payload systems. Software applications used in these systems have become more complex, mainly due to the high number of features to be met, thus contributing to a greater probability of hazards related to software faults. Therefore, it is fundamental that the specification activity of requirements have a decisive role in the effort of obtaining systems with high quality and safety standards. In critical systems like the embedded software of the Brazilian Satellite Launcher, ambiguity, non-completeness, and lack of good requirements can cause serious accidents with economic, material and human losses. One way to assure quality with safety, reliability and other dependability attributes may be the use of safety analysis techniques during the initial phases of the project in order to identify the most adequate dependability requirements to minimize possible fault or failure occurrences during the subsequent phases. This paper presents a structured software dependability requirements analysis process that uses system software requirement specifications and traditional safety analysis techniques. The main goal of the process is to help to identify a set of essential software dependability requirements which can be added to the software requirement previously specified for the system. The final results are more complete, consistent, and reliable specifications.

  11. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P consumer appeal. PMID:25943857

  12. ABCB5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schatton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here, we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5 identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1. Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of DIRCs on T cell activation, inhibited DIRC-dependent Treg induction, and attenuated DIRC-induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival, indicating that DIRC immunoregulatory function is mediated, at least in part, through PD-1. Our results identify ABCB5+ DIRCs as a distinct immunoregulatory cell population and suggest promising roles of this expandable cell subset in cellular immunotherapy.

  13. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1 the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2 the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3 the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  14. Identifying Potential Factors of Childbearing in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify different potential factors associated with childbearing pattern among the ever-married women in Bangladesh. Childbearing pattern is directly related to fertility level and rapid population growth is the major consequence of more childbearing. Bearing more children affects adversely on social and economic opportunities and produces substantial risks to the health of mothers and children. Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data 1999-2000 and 2004 have been used for this study. First bi-variate analysis method is carried out to identify different factors associated with childbearing. Then generalized linear modelling approach has been performed to quantify the simultaneous effect of key socio-economic and demographic factors. Our primary findings show that childbearing varied tremendously by education level and age at first marriage. From the generalized linear model analysis, mother's age group, types of place of residence, division, media exposure are found to be significantly associated with bearing more children among the ever-married women in Bangladesh. These findings suggest that government should continue its effort to ensure higher education for females and to promote to delay age at marriage.

  15. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  16. Identifying financial crises in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Eder Lucio; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2013-03-01

    Following the thermodynamic formulation of a multifractal measure that was shown to enable the detection of large fluctuations at an early stage, here we propose a new index which permits us to distinguish events like financial crises in real time. We calculate the partition function from which we can obtain thermodynamic quantities analogous to the free energy and specific heat. The index is defined as the normalized energy variation and it can be used to study the behavior of stochastic time series, such as financial market daily data. Famous financial market crashes-Black Thursday (1929), Black Monday (1987) and the subprime crisis (2008)-are identified with clear and robust results. The method is also applied to the market fluctuations of 2011. From these results it appears as if the apparent crisis of 2011 is of a different nature to the other three. We also show that the analysis has forecasting capabilities.

  17. New methods to identify forgeries in philately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmeier, Paolo

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of my presentation is to describe to you the major problems confronting us in philately today, to raise your interest in these problems and to ask for your suggestions to solve them. It is not my intention to hold a scientific dissertation. No sooner had the first postage stamps come on the market, in 1840, when the first forgeries appeared. These were to the detriment of the postal authorities as they were used for franking mail. However, only a few years later, stamp collecting began and provided forgers the opportunity to reproduce expensive stamps and t sell them to collectors. But because printing methods differed, these forgeries are relatively easy to identify.

  18. Identifying the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. In the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls and uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylize the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models, thus increasing our ability to predict social activiti...

  19. Bacterial spoilage profiles to identify irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of low dose gamma-irradiation of fish product on spoilage potentials of bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa) and mixed flora were examined for ability to proliferate in radurized fish and produce volatile acids (TVA) and bases (TVBN). Bacteria proliferated well in unirradiated and irradiated fish, but formation of VA and VB were lower in irradiated than unirradiated counterparts. This was found in Bombay duck, Indian mackerel, white pomfret, seer and shrimp gamma-irradiated at 0 to 5 kGy under ice. TVA and TVBN produced by the organisms or mixed flora from fish were only 30-50% those of controls. A method for identifying radiation-processed fish could evolve based on lower susceptibility of irradiated fish to bacterial spoilage

  20. Identifying systematic DFT errors in catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Using CO2 reduction reactions as examples, we present a widely applicable method for identifying the main source of errors in density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method has broad applications for error correction in DFT calculations in general, as it relies on the dependence of the...... applied exchange–correlation functional on the reaction energies rather than on errors versus the experimental data. As a result, improved energy corrections can now be determined for both gas phase and adsorbed reaction species, particularly interesting within heterogeneous catalysis. We show that for...... the CO2 reduction reactions, the main source of error is associated with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds and not the typically energy corrected OCO backbone....

  1. Identifying Community Structures in Dynamic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alvari, Hamidreza; Sukthankar, Gita; Lakkaraju, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world social networks are inherently dynamic, composed of communities that are constantly changing in membership. To track these evolving communities, we need dynamic community detection techniques. This article evaluates the performance of a set of game theoretic approaches for identifying communities in dynamic networks. Our method, D-GT (Dynamic Game Theoretic community detection), models each network node as a rational agent who periodically plays a community membership game with its neighbors. During game play, nodes seek to maximize their local utility by joining or leaving the communities of network neighbors. The community structure emerges after the game reaches a Nash equilibrium. Compared to the benchmark community detection methods, D-GT more accurately predicts the number of communities and finds community assignments with a higher normalized mutual information, while retaining a good modularity.

  2. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...... strategy. This is a time-consuming and error-prone step, which needs to be carefully planned and implemented. There is an apparent need for a systematic approach to designing, executing, and evaluating a suitable search strategy for optimally retrieving the target literature from digital libraries...

  3. Identifying important characteristics of municipal carbon footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hogne N.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E1, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Local climate action has been identified as a vital contributor to global mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper focuses on the GHG emissions resulting from the provision of local public services, illustrated through the Carbon Footprint (CF) indicator. The CF of all 429 Norwegian municipalities is calculated and compared to variables of interest. Results show that the CF changes significantly depending on size and wealth. Small and/or wealthy municipalities tend to have a much higher CF per capita compared to more populated and/or less wealthy cities. While wealth and CF relate very well linearly, increased population is only beneficial up to a certain size. Results indicate that the CF per capita increases in municipalities with more than {proportional_to}50,000 inhabitants, thus indicating a possible ideal size of municipalities to achieve the optimal municipal CF. (author)

  4. Identifying States of a Financial Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-09-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992-2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical ``market states''. Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen.

  5. Can Chameleon Field be identified with Quintessence ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A N

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the Friedmann-Einstein equations for the Universe evolution with the expansion parameter $a$ dependent on time only in the Einstein gravity with the chameleon field, changing its mass in dependence of a density of its environment. We show that the chameleon field can be identified with quintessence (a canonical scalar field responsible for the late-time acceleration of the Universe expansion and dark energy dynamics) if and only if the radiation rho_r(a) and matter rho_m(a) (dark and baryon matter) densities in the Universe evolution differ from their standard dependence on the expansion parameter a, i.e. rho_r(a) ~ a^{-4} and rho_m ~ a^{-3}, respectively, and these deviations are caused by the conformal factor, relating the Einstein and Jordan frames and defining the interaction of the chameleon field with its environment.

  6. Identifying Excessively Rounded or Truncated Data

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H; Wheeler, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    All data are digitized, and hence are essentially integers rather than true real numbers. Ordinarily this causes no difficulties since the truncation or rounding usually occurs below the noise level. However, in some instances, when the instruments or data delivery and storage systems are designed with less than optimal regard for the data or the subsequent data analysis, the effects of digitization may be comparable to important features contained within the data. In these cases, information has been irrevocably lost in the truncation process. While there exist techniques for dealing with truncated data, we propose a straightforward method that will allow us to detect this problem before the data analysis stage. It is based on an optimal histogram binning algorithm that can identify when the statistical structure of the digitization is on the order of the statistical structure of the data set itself.

  7. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2015-01-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors, and omissions in these records. Additionally, many of these early records are fragmented. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia, many astronomical traditions were recorded, but curiously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This under-representation continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that some of these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques in cultural astronomy to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  8. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    -related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts. The....... Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet...... contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  9. Identifying links between origami and compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Greenberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Origami is the art of folding paper. In the context of engineering, orimimetics is the application of folding to solve problems. Kinetic origami behavior can be modeled with the pseudo-rigid-body model since the origami are compliant mechanisms. These compliant mechanisms, when having a flat initial state and motion emerging out of the fabrication plane, are classified as lamina emergent mechanisms (LEMs. To demonstrate the feasibility of identifying links between origami and compliant mechanism analysis and design methods, four flat folding paper mechanisms are presented with their corresponding kinematic and graph models. Principles from graph theory are used to abstract the mechanisms to show them as coupled, or inter-connected, mechanisms. It is anticipated that this work lays a foundation for exploring methods for LEM synthesis based on the analogy between flat-folding origami models and linkage assembly.

  10. Radiological emergencies: Lessons identified and response requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological accidents occur more frequently than nuclear accidents and can lead to more serious health effects. As a result of the disaster of 11 September 2001 and of the increased awareness of possible terrorist acts involving radioactive material, more efforts have been invested in the preparation of radiological emergency plans and in training. Lessons identified from past events and from work recently carried out in support of international guidance in this area provide a good basis to ensure that the plans, procedures and training for a radiological emergency are effective. The paper looks at some of the more important lessons and discusses some of the preparedness and response concepts contained in the latest international guidance on this subject. (author)

  11. Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kowalski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT, was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  12. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2015-03-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors and omissions in these records. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia many astronomical traditions were recorded but, cur- iously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  13. Identifying Dyads and their conservation in Drosphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Debasis

    2007-03-01

    Core promoter regions in Drosophila are enriched with binding sites like TATA, Inr, DPE, MTE, etc. They have very strict spacing between each other in promoters where they occur together. For example, in Drosophila melanogaster TATA-Inr has a spacing of 25-30 bp. Our aim in this work is to identify all such pair of motifs having strict positional constraint in the core promoters of all Drosophila species. We discover how these motifs and the spacing between them evolve within Drosophila species. For this we analyze 700 bp upstream and 300 bp downstream of TSS in D. melanogaster and the corresponding orthologous region in other Drosophila species. For each species, this 1000 bp region is searched for statistically over-represented compound words of the form W1NLW2, where L is the spacing between words W1 and W2. These compound words are systematically clustered for further analysis.

  14. Identifying environmental correlates of intraspecific genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrisson, K A; Yen, J D L; Pavlova, A; Rourke, M L; Gilligan, D; Ingram, B A; Lyon, J; Tonkin, Z; Sunnucks, P

    2016-09-01

    Genetic variation is critical to the persistence of populations and their capacity to adapt to environmental change. The distribution of genetic variation across a species' range can reveal critical information that is not necessarily represented in species occurrence or abundance patterns. We identified environmental factors associated with the amount of intraspecific, individual-based genetic variation across the range of a widespread freshwater fish species, the Murray cod Maccullochella peelii. We used two different approaches to statistically quantify the relative importance of predictor variables, allowing for nonlinear relationships: a random forest model and a Bayesian approach. The latter also accounted for population history. Both approaches identified associations between homozygosity by locus and both disturbance to the natural flow regime and mean annual flow. Homozygosity by locus was negatively associated with disturbance to the natural flow regime, suggesting that river reaches with more disturbed flow regimes may support larger, more genetically diverse populations. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that artificially induced perennial flows in regulated channels may provide greater and more consistent habitat and reduce the frequency of population bottlenecks that can occur frequently under the highly variable and unpredictable natural flow regime of the system. Although extensive river regulation across eastern Australia has not had an overall positive effect on Murray cod numbers over the past century, regulation may not represent the primary threat to Murray cod survival. Instead, pressures other than flow regulation may be more critical to the persistence of Murray cod (for example, reduced frequency of large floods, overfishing and chemical pollution). PMID:27273322

  15. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  16. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  17. Analytical strategies for identifying drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Chandra; Shaffer, Christopher L; Nedderman, Angus

    2007-01-01

    With the dramatic increase in the number of new chemical entities (NCEs) arising from combinatorial chemistry and modern high-throughput bioassays, novel bioanalytical techniques are required for the rapid determination of the metabolic stability and metabolites of these NCEs. Knowledge of the metabolic site(s) of the NCEs in early drug discovery is essential for selecting compounds with favorable pharmacokinetic credentials and aiding medicinal chemists in modifying metabolic "soft spots". In development, elucidation of biotransformation pathways of a drug candidate by identifying its circulatory and excretory metabolites is vitally important to understand its physiological effects. Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have played an invaluable role in the structural characterization and quantification of drug metabolites. Indeed, liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) MS has now become the most powerful tool for the rapid detection, structure elucidation, and quantification of drug-derived material within various biological fluids. Often, however, MS alone is insufficient to identify the exact position of oxidation, to differentiate isomers, or to provide the precise structure of unusual and/or unstable metabolites. In addition, an excess of endogenous material in biological samples often suppress the ionization of drug-related material complicating metabolite identification by MS. In these cases, multiple analytical and wet chemistry techniques, such as LC-NMR, enzymatic hydrolysis, chemical derivatization, and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange (H/D-exchange) combined with MS are used to characterize the novel and isomeric metabolites of drug candidates. This review describes sample preparation and introduction strategies to minimize ion suppression by biological matrices for metabolite identification studies, the application of various LC-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) techniques for the rapid quantification and

  18. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  19. Identifying cancer origin using circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Si-Hong; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Chou, Teh-Ying; Pang, See-Tong; Lin, Po-Hung; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become an established clinical evaluation biomarker. CTC count provides a good correlation with the prognosis of cancer patients, but has only been used with known cancer patients, and has been unable to predict the origin of the CTCs. This study demonstrates the analysis of CTCs for the identification of their primary cancer source. Twelve mL blood samples were equally dispensed on 6 CMx chips, microfluidic chips coated with an anti-EpCAM-conjugated supported lipid bilayer, for CTC capture and isolation. Captured CTCs were eluted to an immunofluorescence (IF) staining panel consisting of 6 groups of antibodies: anti-panCK, anti-CK18, anti-CK7, anti-TTF-1, anti-CK20/anti-CDX2, and anti-PSA/anti-PSMA. Cancer cell lines of lung (H1975), colorectal (DLD-1, HCT-116), and prostate (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) were selected to establish the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing CTCs from lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Spiking experiments performed in 2mL of culture medium or whole blood proved the CMx platform can enumerate cancer cells of lung, colorectal, and prostate. The IF panel was tested on blood samples from lung cancer patients (n = 3), colorectal cancer patients (n = 5), prostate cancer patients (n = 5), and healthy individuals (n = 12). Peripheral blood samples found panCK(+) and CK18(+) CTCs in lung, colorectal, and prostate cancers. CTCs expressing CK7(+) or TTF-1(+), (CK20/ CDX2)(+), or (PSA/ PSMA)(+) corresponded to lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer, respectively. In conclusion, we have designed an immunofluorescence staining panel to identify CTCs in peripheral blood to correctly identify cancer cell origin. PMID:26828696

  20. Internet Identifiability and Beyond: A Model of the Effects of Identifiability on Communicative Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Karen; McGarty, Craig

    2002-01-01

    K.M. Douglas and C. McGarty (in press) demonstrated that being identifiable to an ingroup audience in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) setting leads people to describe anonymous outgroup targets in more abstract, or stereotypical ways. Based on these findings, and on the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE: S.D. Reicher, R. Spears, & T. Postmes, 1995), we aimed to test a model of the effects of identifiability on communicative behavior, in and beyond C...

  1. Recognizing and identifying people: A neuropsychological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g., face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favor a 'distributed-only' model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a 'person-hub' model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second question is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  2. Analytical methods to identify irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, three promising techniques for the identification of irradiated food were developed: - Studies of luminescence, mainly thermoluminescence measurements, of food containing mineral impurities like spices, dried vegetables: and fresh fuit and vegetables. This technique can probably be applied also to food with crystalline components like shells or bones. - Gaschromatographic/mass-spectrometric investigation of radiation-induced lipid changes. - Electron-spin-resonance measurements of dried products or of products containing dry components like bones, fish bones, shells or seeds. The thermoluminescence technique has been routinely applied for more than one year by several German Food Inspection Laboratories. The results suggest that there are scarcely any irradiated spices and dried vegetables in the German market. Gaschromatography/mass spectrometry of lipid components and electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy will be established in routine food inspections in Germany in the next two years. Further possibilities to identify irradiated food are the analysis of specific changes in amino acids, DNA and carbohydrates. Radiation-induced viscosity changes, and changes in electric properties (impedance) may be helpful in identifiying at least some irradiated products. Also microbiological and biological techniques as e.g. microbial flora shift or embryo development tests in citrus fruit have been considered. All activities concerning the development of identification techniques are now coordinated by the European Communities and by IAEA. (orig.)

  3. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  4. Identifying electrons and positrons with AMS-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMS-02 experiment is a multi-purpose detector for cosmic ray particles mounted on the International Space Station. It recorded over 40 billion events since its installation in 2011. The bulk of these events are protons, which are most abundant in cosmic rays. Electrons are 100 times and positrons 1000 times less abundant. Measuring the positrons as function of energy is especially interesting, as an excess over the expected astrophysical background may hint at an additional source of positrons in the galaxy or a new phenomena responsible for the excess, e.g. dark-matter annihilation. In order to measure positrons accurately with a small uncertainty, a large proton rejection of 106 is needed. AMS-02 offers a transition radiation detector to separate positrons from protons and an electromagnetic calorimeter allowing a precise measurement of the kinetic energy of an incoming lepton. This talk covers the general strategy of identifying electrons/positrons with AMS-02 and presents the so-obtained electron/positron fluxes that were recently published.

  5. From Slovene into English: Identifying Definiteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Lipovšek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses some typical instances of the translator’s failure to recognize definite reference in Slovene, which, in turn, results in an inappropriate determiner selection in English. It is argued that errors of this kind are ascribable not solely to the fact that the Slovene determiner system lacks an overt non-selective determiner parallel to the definite article, but to the relatively scarce use of overt determiners in general. Since definiteness is typically signalled by an anaphoric relation, some factors are explored that may help identify textual co-reference despite the absence of explicit anaphoric markers. Besides the translator’s inability to recognize the given phrase as anaphoric, two other major causes of inappropriate determiner selection are discussed: the misconception that the absence of an anaphoric relation entails indefiniteness and the translator’s misinterpreting an anaphoric expression as an ascriptive, non-referential entity. The second part of the paper focuses on the difference in use between the selective demonstrative pronoun and the non-selective definite article.

  6. Indexing molecules with chemical graph identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    Fast and robust algorithms for indexing molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming adaptation of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original adaptation and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used indexing codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular index being used. PMID:21647928

  7. Identifying an active case of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G; Alarcon, E; Jittimanee, S; Walusimbi, M; Sebek, M; Berga, E; Villa, T S

    2008-04-01

    The best practice standards set out in chapter 2 of the Best Practice guide focus on the various aspects of identifying an active case of TB and aim to address some of the challenges associated with case detection. The importance of developing a good relationship with the patient from the start, when he or she is often most vulnerable, is emphasised. The first standard focuses on the assessment of someone who might have TB and the second gives detailed guidance about the collection of sputum for diagnosis. The standards are aimed at the health care worker, who assesses the patient when he or she presents at a health care facility and therefore needs to be familiar with the signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with TB. Having suspected TB, the health care worker then needs to ensure that the correct tests are ordered and procedures are followed so that the best quality samples possible are sent to the laboratory and all documentation is filled out clearly and correctly. The successful implementation of these standards can be measured by the accurate and prompt reporting of results, the registration of every case detected and the continued attendance of every patient who needs treatment. PMID:18371262

  8. Identifying Middlewares for Mashup Personal Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinan Fiaidhi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The common understanding of e-learning has shifted over the last decade from the traditional learning objects portals to learning paradigms that enforces constructivism, discovery learning and social collaboration. Such type of learning takes place outside the formal academic settings (e.g., seminars or lectures where a learning environment is created by using some kind of web application mashup tools. The use of these mashup tools moves the learning environment further away from being a monolithic platform towards providing an open set of learning tools, an unrestricted number of actors, and an open corpus of artifacts, either pre-existing or created by the learning process – freely combinable and utilizable by learners within their learning activities. However, collaboration, mashup and contextualization can only be supported through services, which can be created and modified dynamically based on middlewares to suit the current needs and situations of learners. This article identifies middlewares suitable for creating effective personal learning environment based on Web 2.0 mashup tools. This article also proposed a general framework for constructing such personal learning environments based on Ambient Learning realized by learning agents and the use of Enterprise Mashup servers.

  9. Asteroid secular dynamics: Ceres' fingerprint identified

    CERN Document Server

    Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezević, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. We demonstrate that this type of secular resonance can be the dominant dynamical factor in certain regions of the main asteroid belt. Specifically, we performed a dynamical analysis of the asteroids belonging to the (1726) Hoffmeister family. To identify which dynamical mechanisms are actually at work in this part of the main asteroid belt, i.e. to isolate the main perturber(s), we study the evolution of this family in time. The study is accomplished using numerical integrations of test particles performed within different dynamical models. The obtained results reveal that the post-impact evolution of the Hoffmeister asteroid family is a direct consequence of the nodal secular resonance with Ceres. This leads us to the conclusion that similar effects must exist in other parts of the asteroid belt. In this respect, the obtained results shed light on an i...

  10. The Protein Identifier Cross-Referencing (PICR service: reconciling protein identifiers across multiple source databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leinonen Rasko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each major protein database uses its own conventions when assigning protein identifiers. Resolving the various, potentially unstable, identifiers that refer to identical proteins is a major challenge. This is a common problem when attempting to unify datasets that have been annotated with proteins from multiple data sources or querying data providers with one flavour of protein identifiers when the source database uses another. Partial solutions for protein identifier mapping exist but they are limited to specific species or techniques and to a very small number of databases. As a result, we have not found a solution that is generic enough and broad enough in mapping scope to suit our needs. Results We have created the Protein Identifier Cross-Reference (PICR service, a web application that provides interactive and programmatic (SOAP and REST access to a mapping algorithm that uses the UniProt Archive (UniParc as a data warehouse to offer protein cross-references based on 100% sequence identity to proteins from over 70 distinct source databases loaded into UniParc. Mappings can be limited by source database, taxonomic ID and activity status in the source database. Users can copy/paste or upload files containing protein identifiers or sequences in FASTA format to obtain mappings using the interactive interface. Search results can be viewed in simple or detailed HTML tables or downloaded as comma-separated values (CSV or Microsoft Excel (XLS files suitable for use in a local database or a spreadsheet. Alternatively, a SOAP interface is available to integrate PICR functionality in other applications, as is a lightweight REST interface. Conclusion We offer a publicly available service that can interactively map protein identifiers and protein sequences to the majority of commonly used protein databases. Programmatic access is available through a standards-compliant SOAP interface or a lightweight REST interface. The PICR

  11. Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

  12. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kochzius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S, cytochrome b (cyt b, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of "DNA barcoding" and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the "position of label" effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90% renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products.

  13. Identifying enabling management practices for employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Joubert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A currently emerging viewpoint is that today's management practices no longer add value to organisations. The focus of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the scholarly literature on management practices that could be related to employee engagement. Research purpose: This study searched for evidence in support of the notion of a management value chain, and enabling management practices within each value chain component that could relate to employee engagement. Motivation for the study: An alternative management value chain model could contribute towards a better understanding of which management practices may potentially impact employee engagement. Research design, approach, and method: This is a non-empirical (theoretical study, based on a systematic, in-depth literature review to identify the key management components and enabling practices within this proposed management value chain. Scholarly research databases were sourced for relevant peer reviewed research conducted since 1990, not excluding important contributions prior to 1990. The literature was systematically searched, selected, studied, and contextualized within this study. Main findings: Support was found for the notion of a management value chain, for enabling management practices within each proposed management value chain component, and it was also established these management practices indeed have an impact on employee engagement. Practical/managerial/implications: The possibility that management work can be presented as a generic management value chain allows managers to approach engaging management practices more systematically. Contribution/value-add: This study highlights the importance of some management practices that have never been seen as part of management work.

  14. Identifying Hendra virus diversity in pteropid bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and/or agent and/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the natural bat host, as previously sequences have only been obtained from horses or humans following spillover events. In order to obtain an insight into possible variants of HeV circulating in flying foxes, collection of urine was undertaken in multiple flying fox roosts in Queensland, Australia. HeV was found to be geographically widespread in flying foxes with a number of HeV variants circulating at the one time at multiple locations, while at times the same variant was found circulating at disparate locations. Sequence diversity within variants allowed differentiation on the basis of nucleotide changes, and hypervariable regions in the genome were identified that could be used to differentiate circulating variants. Further, during the study, HeV was isolated from the urine of flying foxes on four occasions from three different locations. The data indicates that spillover events do not correlate with particular HeV isolates, suggesting that host and/or environmental factors are the primary determinants of bat-horse spillover. Thus future spillover events are likely to occur, and there is an on-going need for effective risk management strategies for both human and animal health.

  15. From Invisibility to Transparency: Identifying the Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terre Satterfield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the need for a broader and more inclusive approach to decisions about land and resources, one that recognizes the legitimacy of cultural values and traditional knowledge in environmental decision making and policy. Invisible losses are those not widely recognized or accounted for in decisions about resource planning and decision making in resource- and land-use negotiations precisely because they involve considerations that tend to be ignored by managers and scientists or because they are often indirect or cumulative, resulting from a complex, often cumulative series of events, decisions, choices, or policies. First Nations communities in western North America have experienced many such losses that, together, have resulted in a decline in the overall resilience of individuals and communities. We have identified eight types invisible losses that are often overlapping and cumulative: cultural/lifestyle losses, loss of identity, health losses, loss of self-determination and influence, emotional and psychological losses, loss of order in the world, knowledge losses, and indirect economic losses and lost opportunities. To render such invisible losses more transparent, which represents the first step in developing a more positive and equitable basis for decision making and negotiations around land and resources, we recommend six processes: focusing on what matters to the people affected, describing what matters in meaningful ways, making a place for these concerns in decision making, evaluating future losses and gains from a historical baseline, recognizing culturally derived values as relevant, and creating better alternatives for decision making so that invisible losses will be diminished or eliminated in the future.

  16. An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vázquez-Suñé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, .... The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii Selection of tracers, (iii Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%, the sewage network losses (30%, rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%, from runoff infiltration (20%, and the Besòs River (11%. Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide, sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

  17. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  18. Using Java to Generate Globally Unique Identifiers for DICOM Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Kamauu, Aaron W C; DuVall, Scott L; Avrin, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) specifies that all DICOM objects have globally unique identifiers (UIDs). Creating these UIDs can be a difficult task due to the variety of techniques in use and the requirement to ensure global uniqueness. We present a simple technique of combining a root organization identifier, assigned descriptive identifiers, and JAVA generated unique identifiers to construct DICOM compliant UIDs.

  19. Eight-Shaped Hatching Increases the Risk of Inner Cell Mass Splitting in Extended Mouse Embryo Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yan

    Full Text Available Increased risk of monozygotic twinning (MZT has been shown to be associated with assisted reproduction techniques, particularly blastocyst culture. Interestingly, inner cell mass (ICM splitting in human '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts that resulted in MZT was reported. However, the underlying cause of MZT is not known. In this study, we investigated in a mouse model whether in vitro culture leads to ICM splitting and its association with hatching types. Blastocyst hatching was observed in: (i in vivo developed blastocysts and (ii-iii in vitro cultured blastocysts following in vivo or in vitro fertilization. We found that '8'-shaped hatching occurred with significantly higher frequency in the two groups of in vitro cultured blastocysts than in the group of in vivo developed blastocysts (24.4% and 20.4% versus 0.8%, respectively; n = 805, P < 0.01. Moreover, Oct4 immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify the ICM in the hatching and hatched blastocysts. Scattered and split distribution of ICM cells was observed around the small zona opening of '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts. This occurred at a high frequency in the in vitro cultured groups. Furthermore, we found more double OCT4-positive masses, suggestive of increased ICM splitting in '8'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts than in 'U'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts (12.5% versus 1.9%, respectively; n = 838, P < 0.01. Therefore, our results demonstrate that extended in vitro culture can cause high frequencies of '8'-shaped hatching, and '8'-shaped hatching that may disturb ICM herniation leading to increased risk of ICM splitting in mouse blastocysts. These results may provide insights into the increased risk of human MZT after in vitro fertilization and blastocyst transfer.

  20. 48 CFR 2009.570-7 - Conflicts identified after award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-7 Conflicts identified after award. If potential organizational conflicts of interest are... the effects of the identified conflict....

  1. Can a structured questionnaire identify patients with reduced renal function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups.......To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups....

  2. 3 Drugs Identified to Potentially Fight Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160680.html 3 Drugs Identified to Potentially Fight Zika Virus But only one is already approved in the ... developing fetuses protection against the damaging effects of Zika virus, a new multicenter study reports. Researchers identified these ...

  3. 45 CFR 162.605 - Standard unique employer identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard unique employer identifier. 162.605... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Employer Identifier § 162.605 Standard unique employer identifier. The Secretary adopts the EIN as the standard unique employer...

  4. 49 CFR 7.6 - Deletion of identifying detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying detail. 7.6 Section 7.6... To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.6 Deletion of identifying detail. Whenever it is determined to be necessary to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, identifying details will be...

  5. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 401.118 Section... Deletion of identifying details. When CMS publishes or otherwise makes available an opinion or order... identifying details will be deleted....

  6. Identifying Critical Cross-Cultural School Psychology Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Margaret R.; Lopez, Emilia C.

    2002-01-01

    Study sought to identify critical cross-cultural competencies for school psychologists. To identify the competencies, an extensive literature search about cross-cultural school psychology competencies was conducted, as well as a questionnaire to ask expert panelists. The 102 competencies identified cover 14 major domains of professional activities…

  7. Genomic instability influences the transcriptome and proteome in endometrial cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habermann Jens K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to clinical characteristics, DNA aneuploidy has been identified as a prognostic factor in epithelial malignancies in general and in endometrial cancers in particular. We mapped ploidy-associated chromosomal aberrations and identified corresponding gene and protein expression changes in endometrial cancers of different prognostic subgroups. Methods DNA image cytometry classified 25 endometrioid cancers to be either diploid (n = 16 or aneuploid (n = 9, and all uterine papillary serous cancers (UPSC to be aneuploid (n = 8. All samples were subjected to comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression profiling. Identified genes were subjected to Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA and were correlated to protein expression changes. Results Comparative genomic hybridization revealed ploidy-associated specific, recurrent genomic imbalances. Gene expression analysis identified 54 genes between diploid and aneuploid endometrioid carcinomas, 39 genes between aneuploid endometrioid cancer and UPSC, and 76 genes between diploid endometrioid and aneuploid UPSC to be differentially expressed. Protein profiling identified AKR7A2 and ANXA2 to show translational alterations consistent with the transcriptional changes. The majority of differentially expressed genes and proteins belonged to identical molecular functions, foremost Cancer, Cell Death, and Cellular Assembly and Organization. Conclusions We conclude that the grade of genomic instability rather than the histopathological subtype correlates with specific gene and protein expression changes. The identified genes and proteins might be useful as molecular targets for improved diagnostic and therapeutic intervention and merit prospective validation.

  8. Guess Who Rated This Movie: Identifying Users Through Subspace Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Amy; Fawaz, Nadia; Ioannidis, Stratis; Montanari, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    It is often the case that, within an online recommender system, multiple users share a common account. Can such shared accounts be identified solely on the basis of the user- provided ratings? Once a shared account is identified, can the different users sharing it be identified as well? Whenever such user identification is feasible, it opens the way to possible improvements in personalized recommendations, but also raises privacy concerns. We develop a model for composite accounts based on un...

  9. Can "Federal Sanctuaries" be identified in Triphylia and Arkadia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses whether federal sanctuaries - such as are known from the Achaian and Aitolian Federations - can be identified in Triphylia and Arkadia in the Peloponnese. It is concluded that on present evidence it is not possible to identify such sanctuaries in these areas......This paper discusses whether federal sanctuaries - such as are known from the Achaian and Aitolian Federations - can be identified in Triphylia and Arkadia in the Peloponnese. It is concluded that on present evidence it is not possible to identify such sanctuaries in these areas...

  10. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  11. Identifying single points of failure in your organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robby J

    2013-01-01

    Single points of failure may spell disaster for businesses that have not adequately identified and mitigated these critical risks. A single point of failure audit will identify the single points of failure in all functional areas that may negatively impact organisational processes and process flows. This paper provides a holistic approach to constructing a successful single point of failure audit and identifies the systems that are frequently the sources of single points of failure. It also examines the internal and external risks that may spawn single points of failure and provides various mitigation strategies for the systems identified. PMID:24113634

  12. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology. PMID:26337290

  13. Identifying Target Markets for Landscape Plant Retail Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Chandler; Turner, Steven C.; Gunter, Lewell F.; Stegelin, Forrest E.

    2003-01-01

    Landscape plant retailers must identify target markets to maximize marketing effectiveness. A tobit process is used on a system of three equations with fourteen years of data identifies target markets for different retail outlets. Results, compared with a previous study, show effects of time on target markets.

  14. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... details. 5.27 Section 5.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... identifying details. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, FEMA may delete identifying details when making available or publishing an opinion, statement of...

  15. 34 CFR 5.16 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 5.16 Section 5.16... details. Whenever any final opinion, order, or other materials required to be made available pursuant to... other identifying details will constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, the...

  16. 28 CFR 22.22 - Revelation of identifiable data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revelation of identifiable data. 22.22 Section 22.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND... subject, be expected to totally conceal subject identity....

  17. Identifying Interbank Loans, Rates, and Claims Networks from Transactional Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.; Cely, Jorge; Cadena, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We identify interbank (i.e. non-collateralized) loans from the Colombian large-value payment system by implementing Furfine’s method. After identifying interbank loans from transactional data we obtain the interbank rates and claims without relying on financial institutions’ reported data. Contrasti

  18. On the Identifiability Conditions in Some Nonlinear Time Series Models

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Jungsik; Lee, Sangyeol

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we consider the identifiability problem for nonlinear time series models. Special attention is paid to smooth transition GARCH, nonlinear Poisson autoregressive, and multiple regime smooth transition autoregressive models. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to establish the identifiability of these models.

  19. Gasoline identifier based on SH0 plate acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Seleznev, Eugenii P; Verona, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The present paper is devoted to the development of gasoline identifier based on zero order shear-horizontal (SH0) acoustic wave propagating in piezoelectric plate. It has been found that the permittivity of gasoline is increased when its octane number rises. The development of such identifier is experimentally demonstrated to be possible. PMID:27125559

  20. Identifying Evidence of Reflective Ability in Preservice Teacher Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzen, James

    2011-01-01

    Results of this study identified "evidence markers" that characterize reflection in preservice teacher electronic portfolios. Examples of such markers include openness to self-learning, willingness to self-critique, analytical detail of reflections, and taking responsibility for pupil learning challenges. To identify the markers, school of…

  1. Identifying costs for capitation in psychiatric case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J J; Chiverton, P; Hines, V

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an example of how one hospital identified costs for capitation in psychiatric case management. An 18-month postacute case management pilot project collected data on a nurse-specific and patient-specific basis. Costs were identified using activity-based costing methodology. PMID:9502055

  2. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Gustavsson, Frida; Glantz, Maria; Paulsson, Marie; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Bendixen, Christian

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  3. Integrating subpathway analysis to identify candidate agents for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiye; Li, Mi; Wang, Yun; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-associated death worldwide, characterized by a high invasiveness and resistance to normal anticancer treatments. The need to develop new therapeutic agents for HCC is urgent. Here, we developed a bioinformatics method to identify potential novel drugs for HCC by integrating HCC-related and drug-affected subpathways. By using the RNA-seq data from the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database, we first identified 1,763 differentially expressed genes between HCC and normal samples. Next, we identified 104 significant HCC-related subpathways. We also identified the subpathways associated with small molecular drugs in the CMap database. Finally, by integrating HCC-related and drug-affected subpathways, we identified 40 novel small molecular drugs capable of targeting these HCC-involved subpathways. In addition to previously reported agents (ie, calmidazolium), our method also identified potentially novel agents for targeting HCC. We experimentally verified that one of these novel agents, prenylamine, induced HCC cell apoptosis using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, an acridine orange/ethidium bromide stain, and electron microscopy. In addition, we found that prenylamine not only affected several classic apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c, but also increased caspase-3 activity. These candidate small molecular drugs identified by us may provide insights into novel therapeutic approaches for HCC. PMID:27022281

  4. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.529 Section 174.529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES...

  5. Identifying workflow disruptions in the cardiovascular operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, T N; Cabrera, J S; Sisk, O D; Welsh, K L; Abernathy, J H; Reeves, S T; Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A; Boquet, A J

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency and nature of flow disruptions in the operating room with respect to three cardiac surgical team members: anaesthetists; circulating nurses; and perfusionists. Data collected from 15 cases and coded using a human factors taxonomy identified 878 disruptions. Significant differences were identified in frequency relative to discipline type. Circulating nurses experienced more coordination disruptions (χ(2) (2, N = 110) = 7.136, p role. PMID:27396248

  6. On identifying transfer functions and state equations for linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, L. S.; Chen, C. F.; Huang, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Two methods are established for identifying constant-coefficient, C to the 2n power type of noise-free linear systems if the time response data of the input-output or of all states are known. 2n response data are required to identify an nth-order transfer function or state equation for an unknown linear system. The order of the unknown system can be identified by checking a sequence of determinants. The Z transform and its inversion are mainly used.

  7. A System for Distributed Minting and Management of Persistent Identifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Bolikowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minting persistent identifiers and managing their metadata is typically governed by a single organization. Such a single point of failure poses a risk to longevity and long-term preservation of identifiers. In this paper we address the risk by proposing a radically different approach, in which minting and management of persistent identifiers is distributed, and the integrity of the distributed system is guaranteed by public-key cryptography. We describe the general architecture of the system, analyse its robustness and discuss potential deployment scenarios.

  8. Method and system for identifying and authenticating an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An object has a taggant placed in a first portion thereof and has a visible symbol placed on a second portion thereof. When the object is to be identified and authenticated, the taggant is made to radiate with a specific energy signature. The energy signature and at least one image of the symbol are recorded along with a relative location that identifies the first portion of the object. The combination of the energy signature, symbol image and relative location are used to repeatedly identify and authenticate the object.

  9. A systematic approach to identify cellular auxetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxetics are materials showing a negative Poisson’s ratio. This characteristic leads to unusual mechanical properties that make this an interesting class of materials. So far no systematic approach for generating auxetic cellular materials has been reported. In this contribution, we present a systematic approach to identifying auxetic cellular materials based on eigenmode analysis. The fundamental mechanism generating auxetic behavior is identified as rotation. With this knowledge, a variety of complex two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) auxetic structures based on simple unit cells can be identified. (paper)

  10. Using the National Provider Identifier for Health Care...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The establishment in recent years of a National Provider Identifier (NPI) offers a new method for counting and categorizing physicians and other health care...

  11. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-10-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.

  12. Identifying refuge resources of concern and management priorities : A handbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This handbook provides a strategy for anyone who must identify priorities (refuge resources of concern) that will guide future refuge wildlife and habitat...

  13. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly we identified victims of violence in national registers and discussed strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Secondly we assessed the magnitude of violence and the characteristics of the victims using register-based data. METHODS: We used three...... nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources...

  14. Expression profiling identifies genes involved in emphysema severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Rayleen V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in emphysema severity in COPD patients. Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from non-tumor lung tissue from 30 smokers with emphysema. Class comparison analysis based on gas transfer measurement was performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Genes were then selected for technical validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR if also represented on microarray platforms used in previously published emphysema studies. Genes technically validated advanced to tests of biological replication by qRT-PCR using an independent test set of 62 lung samples. Class comparison identified 98 differentially expressed genes (p p Gene expression profiling of lung from emphysema patients identified seven candidate genes associated with emphysema severity including COL6A3, SERPINF1, ZNHIT6, NEDD4, CDKN2A, NRN1 and GSTM3.

  15. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Vanhoof, K.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This defin

  16. 76 FR 39234 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unique Procurement Instrument Identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., including the Federal Government, contractors, and the public, to potential duplicate, overlapping, or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unique Procurement Instrument Identifier AGENCIES: Department of...

  17. An improved anti-leech mechanism based on session identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbiao; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Han; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology and extensive requirement of network resource sharing, plenty of resource hotlinking phenomenons appear on the internet. The hotlinking problem not only harms the interests of legal websites but also leads to a great affection to fair internet environment. The anti-leech technique based on session identifier is highly secure, but the transmission of session identifier in plaintext form causes some security flaws. In this paper, a proxy hotlinking technique based on session identifier is introduced firstly to illustrate these security flaws; next, this paper proposes an improved anti-leech mechanism based on session identifier, the mechanism takes the random factor as the core and detects hotlinking request using a map table that contains random factor, user's information and time stamp; at last the paper analyzes the security of mechanism in theory. The result reveals that the improved mechanism has the merits of simple realization, high security and great flexibility.

  18. Identifying and Educating Gifted/Talented Nonhandicapped and Handicapped Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Merle B.; Bertschi, Jane D.

    1978-01-01

    The Retrieval and Acceleration of Promising Young Handicapped and Talented program, part of the Joint Early Education Program for the Handicapped, identifies and educates preschool children who are both handicapped and gifted or talented. (PHR)

  19. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl

    1991-09-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990). The objectives of the present study was to evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides.

  20. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  1. Experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified. PMID:23668602

  2. Identifying distinct classes of bladder carcinoma using microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Marcussen, Niels; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton; Wolf, Hans; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2003-01-01

    immunohistological or molecular markers have been identified to define clinically relevant subsets of bladder cancer. Here we report the identification of clinically relevant subclasses of bladder carcinoma using expression microarray analysis of 40 well characterized bladder tumors. Hierarchical cluster analysis...

  3. Communication difficulties in children identified with psychiatric problems

    OpenAIRE

    Helland, Wenche Andersen

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have pointed to an overlap between different developmental psychopathological conditions and language impairments, and difficulties with communication have been identified in children of various diagnostic backgrounds. This thesis is based on three empirical studies, and the purposes are to investigate communication difficulties as reported by parents, in children identified with psychiatric problems as well as to evaluate a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’...

  4. Experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons

    OpenAIRE

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews sho...

  5. Ken Wilber's Spectrum Model: Identifying Alternative Soteriological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Schlamm, Leon

    2001-01-01

    I identify two problematic strands of Wilber's transpersonal theory. First, I question Wilber's claim that his spectrum model is supported by the materials of all the world's major mystical traditions. I argue that his integral, hierarchical perspective privileges some traditions but distorts others. Drawing heavily upon Andrew Rawlinson's recent, taxonomic study of mystical traditions, which identifies four authentic routes to spiritual emancipation (Cool Structured, Cool Unstructured, Hot S...

  6. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, F.; Coughlin, Jeffery L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D.; Haas, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long period planets in the \\kepler\\ planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler's sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events, and use a Bayesian Inf...

  7. Identifying appropriate tasks for the preregistration year: modified Delphi technique

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, J.; O'Halloran, Cath; Harrigan, P; Spencer, J; Barton, J. R.; Singleton, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the tasks that should constitute the work of preregistration house officers to provide the basis for the development of a self evaluation instrument. Design: Literature review and modified Delphi technique. Setting: Northern Deanery within the Northern and Yorkshire office NHS executive. Subjects: 67 educational supervisors of preregistration house officers. Main outcome measures: Percentage of agreement by educational supervisors to tasks identified fr...

  8. Identifying and recruiting sponsors for Uganda Olympic Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Nuwagaba, Godfrey; Delpy, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Sponsorship is one of the biggest challenge facing Olympic sports in Uganda. Many sports disciplines have not been able to identify, recruit, and sustain sponsors.. This has hampered team preparations, training, provision of kits, and consequently poor performance of individuals and teams at all levels. To avert this situation, Uganda Olympic Committee (UOC) needs to identify and recruit capable sponsors in order to allow long term planning and execution of strategic plans. This research stud...

  9. SOFTWARE PURCHASING PROFESSIONAL : Identifying Competences and Capabilities in Software Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Tidenberg, Pia

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the existing purchasing and supply management competence theories and seeks to understand if these theories are applicable in evaluating the competence requirements in the specific business category, software purchasing. The aim of this study was to identify the meaning and content of individual competence and capability in the field of purchasing and supply chain management, and to take this information on the case organization level to identify the most important com...

  10. Tools and resources for identifying protein families, domains and motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    With the large influx of raw sequence data from genome sequencing projects, there is a need for reliable automatic methods for protein sequence analysis and classification. The most useful tools use various methods for identifying motifs or domains found in previously characterized protein families. This article reviews the tools and resources available on the web for identifying signatures within proteins and discusses how they may be used in the analysis of new or unknown protein sequences.

  11. Newly identified YSO candidates towards the LDN 1188

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Gábor; Kiss, Csaba; Smidla, József

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  12. An Advanced Threshold Secret Sharing Scheme for Identifying Cheaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-cui; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an advanced threshold secret sharing scheme for identifying cheaters is proposed by using authentication codes. The performance of the scheme is discussed. The results show that in the scheme the valid shareholders can not only identify the impersonation of an adversary, but also detect cheating of some valid shareholders. In particular one honest shareholder is able to detect cheating of other participants forming a collection, and the information rate of the scheme is higher than that of others.

  13. A Unique, Consistent Identifier for Alternatively Spliced Transcript Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Alberto; Pesole, Graziano

    2009-01-01

    Background As research into alternative splicing reveals the fundamental importance of this phenomenon in the genome expression of higher organisms, there is an increasing need for a standardized, consistent and unique identifier for alternatively spliced isoforms. Such an identifier would be useful to eliminate ambiguities in references to gene isoforms, and would allow for the reliable comparison of isoforms from different sources (e.g., known genes vs. computational predictions). Commonly ...

  14. Identifying Children with Persistent Asthma from Health Care Administrative Records

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Mustard, Cameron A; Becker, Allan B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigation into the origins of asthma is contingent on definitions of asthma, which can differentiate asthma from transient wheezing syndromes in children.OBJECTIVES: This research was undertaken to develop a definition for asthma derived from health care administrative records, which would identify children with persistent asthma.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using population-based, health care administrative data, children with possible asthma were identified as having one or more ph...

  15. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Lusseau, David; Newman, M.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques recently developed for the analysis of human social networks are applied to the social network of bottlenose dolphins living in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. We identify communities and subcommunities within the dolphin population and present evidence that sex- and age-related homophily play a role in the formation of clusters of preferred companionship. We also identify brokers who act as links between sub-communities and who appear to be crucial to the social cohesion of the popul...

  16. Identifying patients at risk of emergency admission for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, D.; Walker, K.; Kuryba, A; Finan, P; Scott, N.; Van Der Meulen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients whose colorectal cancer is treated after an emergency admission tend to have late-stage cancer and a poor prognosis. We identified risk factors for an emergency admission by linking data from the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBCA) and the English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), an administrative database of all admissions to English National Health Service hospitals, which includes data on mode of admission. Methods: We identified all adults included in the NBCA with a...

  17. Using Financial Ratios to Identify Romanian Distressed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Andreica, Madalina; Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; ANDREICA Marin

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the current financial crisis, when more companies are facing bankruptcy or insolvency, the paper aims to find methods to identify distressed firms by using financial ratios. The study will focus on identifying a group of Romanian listed companies, for which financial data for the year 2008 were available. For each company a set of 14 financial indicators was calculated and then used in a principal component analysis, followed by a cluster analysis, a logit model, and a CHAID...

  18. Identifying peer-reviewed journals in clinical medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Eldredge, J D

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two directories that contain information about serials also offer lists of thousands of journals identified as peer-reviewed. Librarians generally regard these lists as authoritative. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical medicine journals on both peer-reviewed lists, measure the extent of discrepancies between these two lists, and determine the cause for these discrepancies. DESIGN: Comparison study. MEASUREMENTS: The extent of the discrepancies were tallied once the author had attempt...

  19. Eight Unrecorded Higher Fungi Identified at the Korea National Arboretum

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sang-Kuk; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2010-01-01

    A total of 560 higher fungal specimens were collected in the Gwangneung Forest from May to November of 2007. All of the collected specimens were identified; categorized into 8 classes, 19 orders, 69 families, 165 genera, and 296 species; and deposited in the herbarium of the Korea National Arboretum. Of the identified specimens, 8 were confirmed as being new to Korea and are as follows: Cudoniella acicularis (Korean name: Jeombakisotugubeoseos), Discina ancilis (Korean name: Jomwonbanbeoseos)...

  20. A research for identifying study anxiety sources among university students

    OpenAIRE

    Prima Vitasari; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Othman; Muhammad Ghani Awang

    2010-01-01

    University students suffer to some levels of study anxiety, such as; have new experiences, environment and situation. Study anxiety is a real phenomenon. Campus environment has universal access to increase study anxiety among students. The prevalence of study anxiety has been acknowledged by students and educators. However, no current researches exist to identify the study anxiety sources among university students. In this research, we present a survey aimed to identify of study anxiety sourc...

  1. Identifying causal variants at loci with multiple signals of association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozdiari, Farhad; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Eun Yong; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-10-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified thousands of risk loci for complex traits, only a handful of the biologically causal variants, responsible for association at these loci, have been successfully identified. Current statistical methods for identifying causal variants at risk loci either use the strength of the association signal in an iterative conditioning framework or estimate probabilities for variants to be causal. A main drawback of existing methods is that they rely on the simplifying assumption of a single causal variant at each risk locus, which is typically invalid at many risk loci. In this work, we propose a new statistical framework that allows for the possibility of an arbitrary number of causal variants when estimating the posterior probability of a variant being causal. A direct benefit of our approach is that we predict a set of variants for each locus that under reasonable assumptions will contain all of the true causal variants with a high confidence level (e.g., 95%) even when the locus contains multiple causal variants. We use simulations to show that our approach provides 20-50% improvement in our ability to identify the causal variants compared to the existing methods at loci harboring multiple causal variants. We validate our approach using empirical data from an expression QTL study of CHI3L2 to identify new causal variants that affect gene expression at this locus. CAVIAR is publicly available online at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/caviar/. PMID:25104515

  2. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Neal S; Reich, Brian J; Pacifici, Krishna; Laber, Eric B; Menninger, Holly L; Henley, Jessica B; Barberán, Albert; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts. PMID:25875229

  3. SitesIdentify: a protein functional site prediction tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank surpasses the capacity to experimentally characterise them and therefore computational methods to analyse these structures have become increasingly important. Identifying the region of the protein most likely to be involved in function is useful in order to gain information about its potential role. There are many available approaches to predict functional site, but many are not made available via a publicly-accessible application. Results Here we present a functional site prediction tool (SitesIdentify, based on combining sequence conservation information with geometry-based cleft identification, that is freely available via a web-server. We have shown that SitesIdentify compares favourably to other functional site prediction tools in a comparison of seven methods on a non-redundant set of 237 enzymes with annotated active sites. Conclusion SitesIdentify is able to produce comparable accuracy in predicting functional sites to its closest available counterpart, but in addition achieves improved accuracy for proteins with few characterised homologues. SitesIdentify is available via a webserver at http://www.manchester.ac.uk/bioinformatics/sitesidentify/

  4. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal S Grantham

    Full Text Available There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  5. Effectively identifying user profiles in network and host metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.; Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a collection of methods that is used to effectively identify users of computers systems based on their particular usage of the software and the network. Not only are we able to identify individual computer users by their behavioral patterns, we are also able to detect significant deviations in their typical computer usage over time, or compared to a group of their peers. For instance, most people have a small, and relatively unique selection of regularly visited websites, certain email services, daily work hours, and typical preferred applications for mandated tasks. We argue that these habitual patterns are sufficiently specific to identify fully anonymized network users. We demonstrate that with only a modest data collection capability, profiles of individual computer users can be constructed so as to uniquely identify a profiled user from among their peers. As time progresses and habits or circumstances change, the methods presented update each profile so that changes in user behavior can be reliably detected over both abrupt and gradual time frames, without losing the ability to identify the profiled user. The primary benefit of our methodology allows one to efficiently detect deviant behaviors, such as subverted user accounts, or organizational policy violations. Thanks to the relative robustness, these techniques can be used in scenarios with very diverse data collection capabilities, and data privacy requirements. In addition to behavioral change detection, the generated profiles can also be compared against pre-defined examples of known adversarial patterns.

  6. IDENTIFYING LANDSLIDE HAZARD IN THE CHECHIȘ CATCHMENT, BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA – LUANA MĂGUȚ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying Landslide Hazard in the Chechiș Catchment, Baia Mare Depression. One of the starting points when assessing landslide risk is hazard identification, represented by the description of the landslide process and the extent to which it has an impact on the human community. Different areas affected by sliding processes have been identified and mapped on the field in the 100 km2 of the Chechiș catchment, a territory situated to the south of Baia Mare municipality. Several other areas are considered to be susceptible to sliding processes, based on the factors which have influenced the occurrence of the ones already identified. Past and present effects of the existing landslides are illustrated and discussed together with the costs associated to the measures needed for their mitigation. In the view of these results, a landslide risk assessment is considered necessary in the area.

  7. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on gravity formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling-ling; Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-06-01

    How to identify the influential spreaders in social networks is crucial for accelerating/hindering information diffusion, increasing product exposure, controlling diseases and rumors, and so on. In this paper, by viewing the k-shell value of each node as its mass and the shortest path distance between two nodes as their distance, then inspired by the idea of the gravity formula, we propose a gravity centrality index to identify the influential spreaders in complex networks. The comparison between the gravity centrality index and some well-known centralities, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and k-shell centrality, and so forth, indicates that our method can effectively identify the influential spreaders in real networks as well as synthetic networks. We also use the classical Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to verify the good performance of our method.

  8. Stochastic search variable selection for identifying multiple quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nengjun; George, Varghese; Allison, David B

    2003-07-01

    In this article, we utilize stochastic search variable selection methodology to develop a Bayesian method for identifying multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) for complex traits in experimental designs. The proposed procedure entails embedding multiple regression in a hierarchical normal mixture model, where latent indicators for all markers are used to identify the multiple markers. The markers with significant effects can be identified as those with higher posterior probability included in the model. A simple and easy-to-use Gibbs sampler is employed to generate samples from the joint posterior distribution of all unknowns including the latent indicators, genetic effects for all markers, and other model parameters. The proposed method was evaluated using simulated data and illustrated using a real data set. The results demonstrate that the proposed method works well under typical situations of most QTL studies in terms of number of markers and marker density. PMID:12871920

  9. Family and academic performance: identifying high school student profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.

  10. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  11. Identifying Differentially Abundant Metabolic Pathways in Metagenomic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Pop, Mihai

    Enabled by rapid advances in sequencing technology, metagenomic studies aim to characterize entire communities of microbes bypassing the need for culturing individual bacterial members. One major goal of such studies is to identify specific functional adaptations of microbial communities to their habitats. Here we describe a powerful analytical method (MetaPath) that can identify differentially abundant pathways in metagenomic data-sets, relying on a combination of metagenomic sequence data and prior metabolic pathway knowledge. We show that MetaPath outperforms other common approaches when evaluated on simulated datasets. We also demonstrate the power of our methods in analyzing two, publicly available, metagenomic datasets: a comparison of the gut microbiome of obese and lean twins; and a comparison of the gut microbiome of infant and adult subjects. We demonstrate that the subpathways identified by our method provide valuable insights into the biological activities of the microbiome.

  12. Benchmarking in Identifying Priority Directions of Development of Telecommunication Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharchenko Lolita A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses evolution of development and possibilities of application of benchmarking in the telecommunication sphere. It studies essence of benchmarking on the basis of generalisation of approaches of different scientists to definition of this notion. In order to improve activity of telecommunication operators, the article identifies the benchmarking technology and main factors, that determine success of the operator in the modern market economy, and the mechanism of benchmarking and component stages of carrying out benchmarking by a telecommunication operator. It analyses the telecommunication market and identifies dynamics of its development and tendencies of change of the composition of telecommunication operators and providers. Having generalised the existing experience of benchmarking application, the article identifies main types of benchmarking of telecommunication operators by the following features: by the level of conduct of (branch, inter-branch and international benchmarking; by relation to participation in the conduct (competitive and joint; and with respect to the enterprise environment (internal and external.

  13. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on gravity formula

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    How to identify the influential spreaders in social networks is crucial for accelerating/hindering information diffusion, increasing product exposure, controlling diseases and rumors, and so on. In this paper, by viewing the k-shell value of each node as its mass and the shortest path distance between any two nodes as their distance, then inspired by the idea of the gravity formula, we propose a gravity centrality index to identify the influential spreaders in complex networks. The comparison between the gravity centrality index with some well-known centralities, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and k-shell centrality, and so forth, indicates that our method can effectively identify the influential spreaders in real networks as well as artificial networks. We also use the classical Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to verify the good performance of our method.

  14. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 蒋国平; 宋玉蓉; 夏玲玲

    2015-01-01

    A tiny fraction of infl uential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the infl uential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-infl uential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-infl uential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-infl uential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods.

  15. Identifying Network Anomalies Using Clustering Technique in Weblog Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhaskar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for identifying networkanomalies by visualizing network flow data which is stored inweblogs. Various clustering techniques can be used to identifydifferent anomalies in the network. Here, we present a newapproach based on simple K-Means for analyzing networkflow data using different attributes like IP address, Protocol,Port number etc. to detect anomalies. By using visualization,we can identify which sites are more frequently accessed bythe users. In our approach we provide overview about givendataset by studying network key parameters. In this processwe used preprocessing techniques to eliminate unwantedattributes from weblog data.

  16. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan to...... of 4.81 on chromosome 9q31-q33 was detected. Haplotype analysis identified a common 2.2-megabase interval in the chromosomal region in 4 of the nuclear families, where an overrepresentation of intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel susceptibility locus for...... stroke. Haplotype analysis suggests that a shared genetic factor is of particular importance for intracerebral hemorrhage....

  17. A Framework for Identifying and Understanding Enterprise Systems Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Williams, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    business change, which addresses the identified limitations of previous research and provides a more detailed analysis of benefits and their contextual variation. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on data gathered from 31 real-world organizations (case studies) of differing size, maturity, and industry...... codes and the method for deriving the codes allows companies to identify and define benefits as well as to assess the outcome of enterprise systems implementation projects. Originality/value – The paper empirically develops an applicable benefits framework, which addresses the lack of detail of previous...

  18. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina;

    2008-01-01

    were linked to MMR status based on immunostaining and BRAF mutation status.MMR defects were identified in 22.7% of the tumors, with 46 classified as sporadic. When the clinical parameters of age, sex, and proximal tumor location were combined with the morphologic features with the highest relative...... risks (RRs), eg, mucinous differentiation (RR, 9.0), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (RR, 7.5), absence of necrosis (RR, 7.5), and expanding growth pattern (RR, 5.0) into a 7-factor index, the presence of at least 4 features identified the MMR-defective tumors with 92.3% sensitivity and 75.3% specificity...

  19. Identifying risks in the realm of enterprise risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    An enterprise risk management (ERM) discipline is comprehensive and organization-wide. The effectiveness of ERM is governed in part by the strength and breadth of its practices and processes. An essential element in decision making is a thorough process by which organizational risks and value opportunities can be identified. This article will offer identification techniques that go beyond those used in traditional risk management programs and demonstrate how these techniques can be used to identify risks and opportunity in the ERM environment. PMID:26789745

  20. Recent Developments in Methods for Identifying Reaction Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenjin

    2015-01-01

    In the study of rare events in complex systems with many degrees of freedom, a key element is to identify the reaction coordinates of a given process. Over recent years, a number of methods and protocols have been developed to extract the reaction coordinates based on limited information from molecular dynamics simulations. In this review, we provide a brief survey over a number of major methods developed in the past decade, some of which are discussed in greater detail, to provide an overview of the problems that are partially solved and challenges that still remain. A particular emphasis has been placed on methods for identifying reaction coordinates that are related to the committor.

  1. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  2. Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central

  3. Monochromatic and identifiable photons used in photonuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general overview is given of the most common experimental procedures for the production and utilisation of monochromatic and (or) identifiable photon probes actually operational in 1979. Their basic characteristics, merits and drawbacks, together with their respective major domains of experimental physics to which they are usually applied, are also investigated. Methods for producing such monochromatic and (or) identifiable photon probes, with a continuously variable energy from a few MeV up till about 180 GeV, are treated in some detail. Some of the most promising future trends in the ulterior development of such electromagnetic probes are also mentioned

  4. Structural parameter identifiability analysis for dynamic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidescu, Florin Paul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental problem in model identification is to investigate whether unknown parameters in a given model structure potentially can be uniquely recovered from experimental data. This issue of global or structural identifiability is essential during nonlinear first principles model development...... where for a given set of measured variables it is desirable to investigate which parameters may be estimated prior to spending computational effort on the actual estimation. This contribution addresses the structural parameter identifiability problem for the typical case of reaction network models. The...

  5. Identifying the interactions in a colored dynamical network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴召艳; 弓晓利

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of a colored dynamical network play a great role in its dynamical behaviour and are denoted by outer and inner coupling matrices. In this paper, the outer and inner coupling matrices are assumed to be unknown and need to be identified. A corresponding network estimator is designed for identifying the unknown interactions by adopting proper adaptive laws. Based on the Lyapunov function method and Barbalat’s lemma, the obtained result is analytically proved. A colored network coupled with chaotic Lorenz, Chen, and L ¨u systems is considered as a numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Potential Utility of Actuarial Methods for Identifying Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Newman, Isadore

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how actuarial methods can supplant discrepancy models and augment problem solving and Response to Intervention (RTI) efforts by guiding the process of identifying specific learning disabilities (SLD). Actuarial methods use routinized selection and execution of formulas derived from empirically established relationships to…

  7. Identifying Quality in Preschool Education: Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Dominguez, Vitiello, Maier, and Greenfield's (2010) article on identifying quality in preschool education. Dominguez et al. have conducted a methodologically sophisticated study describing the growth of learning behavior among Head Start children. By doing so, they contribute to a growing body of evidence…

  8. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  9. Identifying Codes in the Complementary Prism of Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Marcia R.; Coelho, Erika M. M.; Coelho, Hebert; Penso, Lucia D.; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We show that an identifying code of minimum order in the complementary prism of a cycle of order $n$ has order $7n/9+\\Theta(1)$. Furthermore, we observe that the clique-width of the complementary prism of a graph of clique-width $k$ is at most $4k$, and discuss some algorithmic consequences.

  10. Replacement Behaviors for Identified Functions of Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Functional assessment has become a major feature of learning-based research. A critical element of the majority of these studies includes not only methods and procedures to identify the cause of the challenging behavior, but to establish replacement treatment methods. By far the most common intervention in the 176 studies we reviewed was…

  11. Identifying Heterogeneities in Subsurface Environment using the Level Set Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hongzhuan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lu, Zhiming [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    These are slides from a presentation on identifying heterogeneities in subsurface environment using the level set method. The slides start with the motivation, then explain Level Set Method (LSM), the algorithms, some examples are given, and finally future work is explained.

  12. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  13. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  14. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM…

  15. Researchers Develop Method to Identify Sparticles in Big Bang Conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Three Northeastern University researchers have proposed a new approach for the highly anticipated discovery of supersymmetric particles, often called sparticles. The methodology, which was published in the December 21 issue of the Physical Review Letters, is based on identifying the hierarchical mass patterns of sparticles, which are assumed to exist in a new class of particle physics theories beyond the Standard Model.

  16. Competitive intelligence system inorganizations - difficulties identified by experience feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Manel Guechtouli

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dealing with major issues on a competitive intelligence system. Our research is based on an inductive approach as we study the case of the competitive intelligence system of a big technological firm. Results identify three categories of factors that are widely discussed. Managerial recommendations are formulated.

  17. Identifying multiple submissions in Internet research: preserving data integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anne M; Daniel, Candice M; Williams, Mark L; Baird, Grayson L

    2008-11-01

    Internet-based sexuality research with hidden populations has become increasingly popular. Respondent anonymity may encourage participation and lower social desirability, but associated disinhibition may promote multiple submissions, especially when incentives are offered. The goal of this study was to identify the usefulness of different variables for detecting multiple submissions from repeat responders and to explore incentive effects. The data included 1,900 submissions from a three-session Internet intervention with a pretest and three post-test questionnaires. Participants were men who have sex with men and incentives were offered to rural participants for completing each questionnaire. The final number of submissions included 1,273 "unique", 132 first submissions by "repeat responders" and 495 additional submissions by the "repeat responders" (N = 1,900). Four categories of repeat responders were identified: "infrequent" (2-5 submissions), "persistent" (6-10 submissions), "very persistent" (11-30 submissions), and "hackers" (more than 30 submissions). Internet Provider (IP) addresses, user names, and passwords were the most useful for identifying "infrequent" repeat responders. "Hackers" often varied their IP address and identifying information to prevent easy identification, but investigating the data for small variations in IP, using reverse telephone look up, and patterns across usernames and passwords were helpful. Incentives appeared to play a role in stimulating multiple submissions, especially from the more sophisticated "hackers". Finally, the web is ever evolving and it will be necessary to have good programmers and staff who evolve as fast as "hackers". PMID:18240015

  18. Systems constellations : A better way to identify branding opportunities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurg, W.; Bloemer, J.; Doorewaard, H.; Peelen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Building strong brands has become one of the main marketing priorities for brand-supportive companies. The leading positivist paradigm in marketing may not be, however, the most-effective perspective in identifying branding opportunities. This paper offers an alternative phenomenological point of vi

  19. Identifying and Mitigating Sources of School Revenue Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prombo, Michael; Dalianis, Ares G.; Metcalf, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Preserving existing revenues is an essential component of the work of school business officials. The broad ranges of activities that can affect school district revenues make identifying potential threats difficult. By understanding the issues that affect school district revenue, school business officials are better able to diminish its erosion--a…

  20. 31 CFR 270.3 - Requests for identifiable records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for identifiable records. 270.3 Section 270.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS §...

  1. Easy Long-Term Identifiers and the "Data Paper"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, John

    2011-05-01

    A new publishing paradigm is needed to cope with the deluge of data artifacts produced by data-intensive science, many of which are vital to data re-use and verification of published scientific conclusions. Due to the limitations of traditional publishing, most of these artifacts are not usually disseminated, cited, or preserved. At the California Digital Library (CDL), one promising approach to the problem is to wrap these artifacts in the metaphor of a "data paper", assigning and managing data citations with our EZID (easy-eye-dee) identifier service. A data paper is a somewhat unfamiliar bundle of scholarly output with a familiar facade: minimally, a set of links to archived artifacts and a cover sheet containing familiar elements such as title, authors, date, abstract, and persistent identifier _ just enough to create basic citations, build "overlay journals", and enable discovery of data by internet search engines. Over time, we expect to add elements that permit deeper domain-specific discovery and re-use, such as variable names, methods, etc. At the same time, for data and identifiers that we manage, we will leverage as much domain-agnosticism data and identifier as possible.

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian coffee arabica varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, E.S.N.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Carvalho, M.G.G.; Esselink, G.; Vosman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of ninet

  3. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jensen, Siri Beier; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Harslund, Jakob Le Fèvre; Thaysen-Andersen, M.; Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Usher, Pernille Autzen; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Højrup, Peter; Reibel, Jesper; Nielsen, H.J.; Brunner, Nils; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S; Bardow, A; Harslund, J; Thaysen-Andersen, M; Lademann, U; Autzen Usher, P; Offenberg, H; Højrup, P; Reibel, J; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Brunner, N; Nauntofte, B

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIM...

  4. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  5. 75 FR 14539 - Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax Return Preparer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... their contents may become material in the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax... 2009, Public Law 111-92, 123 Stat. 2984, 2997 (adding Code section 6011(e)(3)). Tax return preparers... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI28 Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax Return...

  6. 75 FR 60309 - Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax Return Preparer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Treasury Department and the IRS published in the Federal Register (75 FR 14539) a notice of proposed... that registered tax return preparers are authorized to practice law or certified public accountancy or... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BI28 Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax...

  7. Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

  8. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manu...

  9. Invisible Kids: Preventing School Violence by Identifying Kids in Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, William N.; Shubert, Terresa H.; McLaughlin, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of school violence compares possible causes of the school shootings in Colorado and Georgia with a prior analysis of possible causes of school shootings. Characteristics of these violent perpetrators are discussed as a possible guide to help identify these seemingly "invisible kids." Identification options include warning…

  10. Implications of Identifying Additional Cerebral Metastases during Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral R. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK-SRS is commonly used to treat cerebral metastases. Although additional intracranial metastases are often found on the day of GK-SRS, the significance of finding them is unknown. Methods. A retrospective review of 133 patients undergoing GK-SRS for cerebral metastases was performed. The change in number of metastases detected between initial referral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and subsequent treatment MRI was quantified. Multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses were employed to examine the significance of identifying additional lesions. Results. Additional lesions were identified in 41% of patients. An increasing number of metastases on referral MRI (=0.001 and the presence of progressive systemic disease (=0.003 were predictive of identifying additional metastases. Median survival was 6.9 months for patients with additional metastases, compared to 12.1 months for patients without additional metastases (hazard ratio 1.56, =0.021. Conclusions. Identifying additional metastases on the day of GK-SRS may add important prognostic information.

  11. Use of Photogrammetry and Biomechanical Gait analysis to Identify Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Lynnerup, Niels

    Photogrammetry and recognition of gait patterns are valuable tools to help identify perpetrators based on surveillance recordings. We have found that stature but only few other measures have a satisfying reproducibility for use in forensics. Several gait variables with high recognition rates were...

  12. Identifying core domains to assess flare in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, Susan J; Hewlett, Sarah; Bingham, Clifton O;

    2012-01-01

    For rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is no consensus on how to define and assess flare. Variability in flare definitions impairs understanding of findings across studies and limits ability to pool results. The OMERACT RA Flare Group sought to identify domains to define RA flares from patient and...

  13. Identifying and Teaching Accounting Students with Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ellen D.; Alexander, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways that teachers can identify students with mild learning problems, determine the assistance the students require, and alter their own teaching style to accommodate the students' learning needs. Recommends instructional techniques to address poor organizational skills, poor writing skills, long- or short-term memory problems, and…

  14. Identifying Indicators Related to Constructs for Engineering Design Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    This study ranked constructs articulated by Childress and Rhodes (2008) and identified the key indicators for each construct as a starting point to explore what should be included on an instrument to measure the engineering design process and outcomes of students in high schools that use the PLTW and EbDTM curricula in Idaho. A case-study design…

  15. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  16. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brugman; J. Lobbestael; A. Arntz; M. Cima; T. Schuhmann; F. Dambacher; A.T. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  17. Identifying slip systems around indentations in FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic force and orientation imaging microscopy can be used to identify slip planes responsible for slip step formation around indentations in FCC polycrystalline engineering alloys. The character of the slip steps provides insight into the material's slip mode and the step patterns can be used to study dislocation reactions

  18. Identifying slip systems around indentations in FCC metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nibur, K.A.; Bahr, D.F

    2003-12-15

    Atomic force and orientation imaging microscopy can be used to identify slip planes responsible for slip step formation around indentations in FCC polycrystalline engineering alloys. The character of the slip steps provides insight into the material's slip mode and the step patterns can be used to study dislocation reactions.

  19. IDENTIFYING FEATURES OF PERSONALITY WHICH ENSURES PROFFESIONAL SUCCES OF ATTORNEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Craiovan, Petru Mihai; Bordeianu, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The paper " Identifying features of personality which ensures professional succes of attorneys" tries to capture the personality dimensions that support the success of professional attorneys. In this approach we have used the following methods of psihodiagnostic: EPI, Questionnaire "mentality towards working" and Questionnaire "satisfaction towards working". The objectives of this study are : identification of psychoprofesionals features that promote the professional success of young lawyers ...

  20. Identifying structural shocks behind loan supply fluctuations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Deryugina, Elena B.; Ponomarenko, Alexey A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the drivers behind loan supply fluctuations in Russia using Bayesian vector autoregressive model with sign restrictions on impulse response functions. We identify two types of structural innovations: loan supply shock and monetary stance shock. We find that contractionary shocks of both types contributed significantly and in the roughly equal measure to the decrease of bank lending after the Lehman Brothers collapse.