WorldWideScience

Sample records for anethum graveolens foeniculum

  1. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Daljit S; Kaur Gurinder J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory conc...

  2. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  3. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  4. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini; Azar Baradaran; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens) were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily) and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily) for 2 months. The ...

  5. Antigiardial effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salih Sahib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite of humans identified worldwide. In spite of metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans, low patient compliance and side effects especially in children encourage efforts to look for new and safe agent; many plants used in folk medicine thought to have antigiardial effect,Anethum graveolens(Dill is an annual herb cultivated in Iraq used both as medicinal agent and as food spice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens leave in the treatment of giardiasis, compared with that of standard drug metronidazole. Patients and Methods:A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 28 pediatric patients of both sexes with age of less than one year ranging from 3-11 months, who attend to outpatient private clinic in Baghdad for a period of six months from June 2013-December 2013, Patients participate in this study were allocated into two groups: Group A composed of 14 patients treated with Metronidazole 15 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days. Group B composed of 14 patients treated with Anethum graveolensaqueous extract 1ml three times a day for 5 days. Stool samples were collected at zero time before administration of treatment, after five days and after 14 days from starting the treatments to checkthe efficacy of treatment. Results:Administration of Anethum graveolensaqueous extract results in significant decrease in incidence of Giardia lamblia after five days of treatment indicating the efficacy of Anethum graveolensaqueous extract in the treatment of giardiasis a result that is comparable to that of metronidazole. Conclusion:This study showed that pediatric patients with giardiasis may benefit from five days treatment with Anethum graveolensaqueous extract administered as 1 ml three times daily, the improvement in the symptom with this herbal agent was comparable to the standard

  6. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily for 2 months. The blood lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol from each group were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Use of gemfibrozil brought about increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (P < 0.05 and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% (P < 0.05 and 9.41% (P < 0.05, respectively. Applying Dill tablet for 2 months resulted in reduction of total cholesterol up to 18% (P < 0.05 and triglyceride by 7.38% (P < 0.05. However, circulating HDL-cholesterol was not affected by this treatment. In this study, gemfibrozil decreased triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol more than anethum (P < 0.05. Anethum decreased total cholesterol more than gemfibrozil (P < 0.05. Patients treated with anethum did not report any side effects. Conclusion: The results of this trial indicate that Dill might be beneficial for hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglycemic patients.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group's oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  8. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006 and AGEs formation (P=0.003 significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  9. Salt-induced changes in germination and vegetative stages of Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehr, Zahra Setayesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the response of dill (Anethum graveolens L. to salt stress during germination and vegetative stages. In the first stage, response of dill seeds germination to levels of salinity (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM was investigated. In the second stage, influence of salt stress on physiological and biochemical parameters in dill seedlings were investigated. Results showed germination rate and percentage, radical, plumule length and dry weight decreased significantly with the increase of salinity levels. Effect of salt stress on amount of chlorophyll a, b and total was significant. Results indicated that, amount of proline, total soluble carbohydrates and proteins and catalase (CAT activity in shoots and roots significantly increased with the increase of salinity. These results showed that dill maintained higher carbohydrates, proteins, proline and activity of CAT under salt stress and these traits could have partially to its salt tolerance.

  10. The effect of radiation of LED modules on the growth of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frąszczak Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Light quality is thought to affect the growth and development of plants. We examined how light influences the growth and content of some chemical compounds in dill (Anethum graveolens L.. The plants were grown under different light quality. The share of orange and green light in the spectrum was constant and amounted to 10% for either colour. In the first combination (A, 70/10, there was 70% of red light and 10% of blue light. Other combinations had the following proportions: B 60/20, C 50/30, D 40/40 and E 30/50 of red and blue light. The PPFD was about 155 μmol m-2 s-1. Blue light inhibited the elongation growth as well as leaf area. It had positive influence on the accumulation of dry mass, glucose and fructose in the herb. In the combinations with higher percentage of red light the plants were characterised by higher content of essential oils, macronutrients and zinc. To sum up, we can say that the proportion of red and blue light has significant influence on the morphological qualities, chemical composition and dynamics of photosynthesis in these plants. On the other hand, the selection of spectral composition of LEDs will depend on the result we want to achieve.

  11. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME. PMID:26013821

  12. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME.

  13. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  15. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Thawatchai PRABSATTROO; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Supaporn MUCHIMAPURA; Panee SRISAARD; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Wipawee THUKHAMMEE

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency,histology of testis and epididymis,and sperm physiology.Methods:Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50,150,and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1,7,and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency,testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting,sperm concentration,sperm acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis,respectively.Results:AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group.Additionally,rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group.In histological analyses,AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration,acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis.Conclusions:AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  16. The Effects of Anethum graveolens L. Seeds on the Male Reproductive Functions and CREM Gene Expression in the Testis of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shojaee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the increasing of the population in the developing countries is an anxiety, therefore finding safe and effective contraceptive materials can be very useful. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Anethum graveolens L. on the reproductive system of male rat and CREM gene expression in testis of rat. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of control (treated with normal salin for the period of 56 days, n = 8 and experimental (treated with 150 mg/kg/day of Anethum graveolens extract for 56 days, n = 8. RT-PCR and histological studies, hormonal assay and sperm analysis were carried out for evaluating of extract on reproductive function of rat. Results indicated no significant differences between body weights of control and experimental groups. Sperm counts and motility were reduced however there was an increase sperm abnormality by applying of extract. Indeed existence of disorganized germinal epitheliums, degeneration, necrotic cells in some of seminiferous tubules and lower concentration of sperms in the center of seminiferous tubules of experimental group was noticeable. Results also showed reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules of experimental groups comparing with control groups. Administration of extract caused a significant decline in the plasma level of testosterone. Our RT-PCR data revealed that CREM mRNA levels decreased significantly in testes from the experimental group in compared to control group. In conclusionAnethum graveolens has strong anti-spermatogenic activity by decreasing sperm parameters. This study strongly proposes that this plant can be a good candidate for manufacturing antifertility drugs.

  17. Evaluation of Safety and Protective Effect of Combined Extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens (PM52) against Age-Related Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wipawee Thukham-mee; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine acute toxicity, the protective effect, and underlying mechanism of PM52, a combined extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens, against age-related cognitive impairment in animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. PM52 was determined as acute toxicity according to OECD guideline. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given PM52 at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg at a period of 14 days before and 7 days after the bilateral admini...

  18. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Golmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  19. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  20. Morfoanatomía y efecto del secado en la germinación de semillas de caléndula y eneldo Morphology, anatomy and influence of drying on germination of seeds of Calendula officinalis and Anethum graveolens

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A Victoria T; Carmen R Bonilla C; Manuel S. Sánchez O

    2007-01-01

    En semillas de caléndula Calendula officinalis y de eneldo Anethum graveolens , se realizaron la descripción morfológica y anatómica y mediciones del contenido de humedad en equilibrio (CHE). La descripción morfológica y anatómica permitió precisar e ilustrar detalladamente los órganos y tejidos internos de la semilla, además, clarificar aspectos en la definición de semilla pura de caléndula. Se elaboraron curvas de secado y se midió el CHE en diferentes ambientes de secamiento artificial, ob...

  1. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  2. Ruta Graveolens intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seak, Chen-June; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of unintentional poisoning from Ruta Graveolens, a medicinal herb that is used for heart protection in Taiwan. A 78-year-old woman developed bradycardia, acute renal failure with hyperkalemia, and coagulopathy after three days of consuming a decoction made from Ruta Graveolens for the treatment of palpitations and heart protection. She was treated with hemodialysis in the emergency department for hyperkalemia. Her bradycardia and hypotension improved gradually three days later. Ruta use might cause multi-organ toxicity. We believe this case report helps in the recognition of the systemic toxicity of Ruta Graveolens.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  4. Environ: E00434 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit Anethi fructus Crude drug Carvone [CPD:C01767 C1138...3], Limonene [CPD:C06078] Anethum graveolens [TAX:40922] Apiaceae (carrot family) Anethum graveolens fruit (...dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit ...

  5. Antimicrobial and antiviral effects of essential oils from selected Umbelliferae and Labiatae plants and individual essential oil components

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, İlkay ERDOĞAN; ÖZÇELİK, Berrin; Kartal, Murat; Kan, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare collected at fully-mature and flowering stages, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum (green- and purple-leaf varieties), Origanum onites, O. vulgare, O. munitiflorum, O. majorana, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Satureja cuneifolia, as well as the widely encountered components in essential oils (g-terpinene, 4-allylanisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, D-limonene, (-)-ph...

  6. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Maria Tofană; Sonia A. Socaci; Ana viorica Pop; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Anca Fărcaş; Ovidiu Moldovan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare), dill (Anethum graveolens) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officin...

  7. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  8. AGASTACHE FOENICULUM – A PERSPECTIVE SOURCE OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chumakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical study has been conducted to explore Agastache foeniculum (Lamiaceae, which is widely used in oriental medicine for colds, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary system; exter-nally for fungal dermatitis, seborrhea, hair growth and strengthening. In the course of the experiment methods of chemical (such as alkalimetry, permanganatometriya, chelatometry and physico-chemical (such as mass spec-trometry coupled with GC, differential UV spectrophotometry, HPLC, planar chromatography analysis have been applied. The established range of biologically active compounds, especially essential oils and phenolic compounds, indicates the possibility of using Agastache foeniculum herb as a raw material source for producing drugs with antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimycotic and pilotropnym effect

  9. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.

  10. Effects of aqueous fraction of Anethum graveolens L. (dill extracts on fertility and terminal sugar of female rat\\\\\\'s reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihezaman Monsefi

    2013-02-01

    Results: Duration of diestrus phase under high dose of aqueous extract increased 2 times compared to the control group. Uterus thickness, longitudinal and transverse diameters of ovaries, granulosa cells of corpus luteum diameters of the experimental groups decreased 1.5 to 2 times compared to the control group's. Female rats of the experimental groups did not get pregnant. Intensity of reactions of α-mannose, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetyl galactoseamine of endometrium and ovarian cell surfaces changed after being stained by ConA, DBA and SBA. Conclusion: Oral administration of ethanol fraction and aqueous dill seeds extracts can induce infertility in female rats.

  11. Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has negative effects on women′s life. Due to side-effects of chemical drugs, there is growing trend toward herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dill compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted on 75 single female students between 18 and 28 years old educating in Nursing and Midwifery School and Paramedical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences of Iran in 2011. They were allocated randomly into one of the three groups: In Dill group, they took 1000 mg of Dill powder q12h for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles. Other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 500 mg starch capsule as placebo, respectively. Dysmenorrhea severity was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analog scale (VAS. Students with mild dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data were analyzed by SPSS using the descriptive statistic, paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences between three groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants of Dill and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1 st and the 2 nd months after treatment, whereas in the placebo group this was only significant in the 2 nd month (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

  12. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.

  13. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction. PMID:17059340

  14. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkant B. Badgujar; Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scienti...

  15. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FT-IR) SPECTRAL STUDIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Devika; Mohandass, S.; T. Nusrath

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Medicinal plants as a group comprise approximately 8000 species and account for about 50% of all the higher flowering plant species in India. In the present study, the plant Foeniculum vulgare was subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy. FT-IR-is a vibrational spectroscopy that records absorptions of IR light by chemical bonds in all molecules incl. polymers. Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) commonly known as fennel is a well know...

  16. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity. PMID:11349824

  17. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity.

  18. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view.

  19. Discrete nanoparticles of ruta graveolens induces the bacterial and fungal biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Deepa, Oyyappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-08-01

    Ruta graveolens silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed the color change within 30 min and characterized using UV-visible spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). UV-visible spectrum of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the sharp peak at the wavelength of 440-560 nm. XRD patterns confirmed that crystalline nature of R. graveolens AgNPs and FTIR results revealed that phytochemical reaction of these R. graveolens is responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. TEM results showed the size of the R. graveolens AgNPs around 30-50 nm with spherical and triangular nature. Further, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the effective inhibitory activity against clinically important Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Our findings suggest that R. graveolens AgNPs can be exploited toward the development of potential antibacterial agents for various biomedical and environmental applications.

  20. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  1. Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent.

  2. Antiprotozoal activity of the constituents of Teloxys graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Velázquez, Claudia; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Esquivel, Baldomero

    2003-08-01

    Antiprotozoal activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens led to the isolation of one coumarinic acid derivative, melilotoside, and five flavonoids, pinocembrine, pinostrobin, chrysin, narcissin and rutin. Among them, melilotoside exhibited the most potent activity toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (IC(50) 12.5 and 16.8 micro g/mL, respectively). Narcissin showed selectivity against E. histolytlica (IC(50) 17.2 micro g/mL). The results support data for the traditional use of T. graveolens in some gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:12916068

  3. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  4. Chemical composition, therapeutic potential and perspectives of Foeniculum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Garga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare is a widely distributed plant in most tropical and subtropical countries and have long been used in folk medicines to treat obstruction of the liver, spleen and gall bladder and for digestive complaints such as colic, indigestion, nausea and flatulence. In recent years the interest in this plant has increased considerably with substantial progress on its chemical and pharmacological properties. This review discusses the current knowledge of its chemistry, the various compounds isolated and pharamcological studies conducted. These studies carried out with the extracts and volatile oil support most of the reports of using this plant in folk medicines. However, well controlled, double-binding clinical trials are lacking. Several compounds including trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone and polyphenolics were isolated from this plant and some of these interact with potential mechanisms of the body. Together this data strongly supports the view that this plant has potential beneficial therapeutic actions in the management of bacterial and fungal infections, colic pain and lipid peroxidation.

  5. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  6. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  7. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Karine; Tran, Thi Lê Minh; Doerper, Sébastien; Hehn, Alain; Lacoste, Paul; Thomasset, Brigitte; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to develop a genetic transformation method for a medicinal plant Ruta graveolens. The direct plant regeneration strategy is preferred to callus line establishment. In vitro seedlings, 2- -to 3-wk-old, are used to excise hypocotyls and co-cultivated for 3 d with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1Rif containing plasmid pTDE4 harbouring neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II, kanamycin resistance) and beta-glucuronidase encoding genes. The Southern blot analysis has shown that 78% kanamycin resistant plants contain gene encoding beta-glucuronidase. The GUS histochemical assay shows that 67% transgenic plants exhibit the corresponding enzymatic activity. Routine transformation efficiency of R. graveolens L. is 11% and could reach up to 22%. Transgenic plants are grown in the greenhouse within 4 months after the initial seedlings.

  9. Furanocoumarins: novel topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2009-10-01

    Topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens are reported for the first time. Potent topoisomerase I inhibitory activity from in vitro culture extracts R. graveolens were observed. Stabilization of DNA-topoisomerase covalent complex was observed in all the tested extracts. The mechanism of topoisomerase inhibition was determined by preincubation studies. The irreversible topoisomerase I mediated relaxation of plasmid in enzyme-substrate preincubation study, indicated that the observed inhibitory activity of extract constituents was not mediated through conformational changes in the DNA. Furthermore, the affinity of inhibitors with the enzyme was tested by enzyme-extract preincubation study. Increase in inhibition of topoisomerase activity and promotion of DNA-enzyme complex was observed after enzyme-extract preincubation. The activity could be assigned to furanocoumarins-psoralen, bergapten and xanthotoxin, identifying them as novel, potent topoisomerase I inhibitors.

  10. A New Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpene from Casearia graveolens Twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Sripisut, Tawanun; Maneerat, Wisanu; Machan, Theeraphan; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The first phytochemical investigation of Casearia graveolens twigs led to the isolation and identification of a new clerodane diterpene, caseariagraveolin (1), together with six known compounds (2-7). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against oral cavity and breast cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 2.48 and 6.63 µM, respectively.

  11. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  12. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FT-IR SPECTRAL STUDIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Devika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Medicinal plants as a group comprise approximately 8000 species and account for about 50% of all the higher flowering plant species in India. In the present study, the plant Foeniculum vulgare was subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy. FT-IR-is a vibrational spectroscopy that records absorptions of IR light by chemical bonds in all molecules incl. polymers. Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The results showed the detections of the bands in organic molecules. Thus the study became evident that the plant posses some bioactive compounds at various bands obtained after FT-IR.

  13. PROMOTIVE EFFECT OF IRRADIATED SODIUM ALGINATE ON SEED GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Idrees; M. Naeem; Tariq Aftab; Nadeem Hashmi; M. Masroor A. Khan; Moinuddin; Lalit Varshney

    2012-01-01

    Radiolytically derived oligomers of sodium alginate are considered to act as signal molecules, affecting growth, development and defense mechanisms of plants through gene regulation. Since germination is a critical stage in the life cycle of plants, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of irradiated sodium alginate (ISA) on the characteristics of seed germination of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Soaking the seeds in an aqueous solution of ISA showed significant improvement in va...

  14. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. T...

  15. A PROMISING TREND IN THE PROCESSING OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) WHOLE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Timasheva, Lidiya; Gorbunova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic plants are a valuable source of biologically active substances. The use of aromatic plant processing products in the pharmaceutical, perfume and cosmetic, and food industries is of great interest. The search for new plant sources of biologically active substances and the study of their composition and properties are still topical. Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ) is a promising aromatic raw material containing a number of biologically active substances. Until now, essential oils w...

  16. Standardization of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Its Oleoresin and Marketed Ayurvedic Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasrija Anubhuti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, one of the most common use in India kitchen as a spice and as well as in traditional medicine for its estrogenic, lactagouge, diuretic, antioxidant, immune booster and its usefulness in dyspepsia. The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice that makes studies of their correct identification are very essential. In the present study the fruit of the plant, raw materials, their oleo resins and marketed formulations was subjected to Standardization parameter viz macro-microscopic, physico-chemical, microbial, heavy metals and Thin Layer Chromatography to fix the quality standards of this drug. Anethole, an active compound of Foeniculum vulgare, was also analyzed in different samples of Foeniculum vulgare. The result shown that physicochemical parameters evaluated are useful in standardization, Heavy metals and microbial load for raw materials, oleoresins and finished formulations are found to be within the limit of WHO guidelines, indicating that they are free from pathogens and they are safe to be used in Indian System of medicine. The data obtained from the study would be useful in the identification of the fruits of Fennel and serve as standards. The above parameters studied, may be used as a tool for the correct identification and standardization of the plant also to test the adulterants if any.

  17. Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tanise Gonçalves; Augusto, Patrice Martins; Montanari, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is used in many countries, including Brazil, as an abortifacient. To determine its effect on pregnancy, the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of its aerial parts was administered orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day to mice between the first and third day of pregnancy (DOP), between the fourth and sixth DOP or between the seventh and ninth DOP. The extract did not cause preimplantation embryonic loss or reabsorptions. Fetal death was found. Estrogenic activity was not exhibited by the extract.

  18. Antioxidant and antiangiogenic activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vanessa; Malafronte, Nicola; Mora, Flor; Pesca, Maria S; Aquino, Rita P; Mencherini, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many physiological and pathological conditions. Natural compounds with antioxidant activity have also been reported to possess potent antiangiogenic properties by regulating angiogenesis modulators such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Based on this, we screened the antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of Astronium graveolens leaf extracts by a DPPH test and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. MeOH extract expressed a significant free radical-scavenging activity (EC₅₀ = 37.65 μg/mL) and it was able to inhibit the interaction between placental growth factor (PlGF) (placental growth factor), a VEGF family member, and its receptor Flt-1 by more than 50% at 1 mg/mL. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-d-glucopyranose, 6 is the most active compound of the extract. It exhibited a high potency in scavenging DPPH (EC₅₀ = 2.16 μg/mL) and reduced by 58% the PlGF/Flt-1 interaction at a concentration of 50 μM. Moreover, the known compounds (1-6) have been isolated for the first time in A. graveolens. PMID:24588321

  19. Influences of various factors on hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum (Pursh Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz NOUROZI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium rhizogenes is known as a natural tool of genetic engineering in many plant species. For the first time, hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum using A. rhizogenes, rosmarinic acid content and the effect of different culture media and inoculation methods on hairy root growth rate were investigated. Hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was established by inoculation of the 1-month-old leaf explant with A4 strain of A. rhizogenes and the effectiveness of light – dark conditions and two inoculation methods (immersion and injection were tested. Furthermore, in immersion method, the effects of inoculation time (3, 5 and 7 min on root induction were investigated. In the second part of the study, the hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was studied using different basal culture media (MS, 1/2 MS and B5. Rosmarinic acid content in hairy roots and non- transformed roots was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was no significant difference between various inoculation methods in the ability of hairy roots induction. Observations showed that percentage of hairy root induction was higher when the explants were immersed for 5 min in bacterial suspension. Light conditions displayed the highest hairy root induction rates compared with dark condition. Various culture media are different in terms of types and amounts of nutrients and have influence on growth rate. The maximum growth rate (1.61 g fr wt/50 ml of hairy roots were obtained in 1/2 MS medium. Rosmarinic acid content in transformed roots (213.42 µg/g dry wt was significantly higher than non-transformed roots (52.28 µg/ g dry wt.

  20. The Effect of Citrus Aurantium, Foeniculum Vulgare and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils on Peroxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohajerani (PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Peroxidases catalyze protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The activity of these enzymes in nerve cells is involved in causing disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study investigated the effect of Citrus aurantium, Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils on activity of peroxidase enzyme. Methods: All three medicinal plants were dried at room temperature. Their essential oil was extracted by steam distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. Optimal reaction conditions were determined in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and guaiacol as substrate and hydrogen donor, respectively. Enzyme kinetics of zucchini peroxidase were evaluated by increasing the amount of essential oils in optimal reaction conditions. Enzyme reaction rate for each of the essential oils and the Km and Vmax values were determined. Results: The results indicated concentration-dependent effect of the extracted essential oils on enzyme kinetics at optimum temperature of 50 °C and optimal pH of 6.5. The essential oil of Citrus aurantium had non-competitive inhibitory effects on the enzyme with Km of 6.25 mM, while the enzyme’s Vmax significantly reduced by increasing the concentration. Foeniculum vulgare showed mixed inhibition effect with Km of 7.14 mmol per 20 μl of the essential oil, but had a decreasing effect on the Vmax in smaller amounts. Finally, Rosmarinus officinalis showed activating effects by reducing the Km to 4-5.88 mM. Conclusion: The essential oils of Citrus aurantium and Foeniculum vulgare are inhibitors of the peroxidase enzyme and can be further studied as natural herbal medicines.

  1. Free phenolic acids in Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A; Kuś, A

    2009-10-01

    Eight phenolic acids were determined using HPLC method in methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) shoots cultured in vitro on four variants of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium differing in contents of growth regulators, NAA and BAP (ranging between 0.1-3.0 mg/l). Four compounds: protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and p-coumaric acid were detected and quantified. The total content of metabolites was dependent on LS medium variants. The contents of protocatechuic acid, quantitatively dominating on all tested LS medium variants, were considerable (from 67.15 to 93.24 mg/100 g d.w.) in comparison with its contents in the plant material under analysis (46.36 to 218.27 mg/ 100 g d.w.). This is the first report of the isolation of protocatechuic acid from an in vitro plant culture.

  2. Fototoxicidad tras exposición a ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zayas-Pinedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La fototoxicidad es un tipo de reacción cutánea inflamatoria que se produce como consecuencia de la exposición a una sustancia química en combinación con la exposición a radiaciones lumínicas. Ruta graveolens, comúnmente llamada ruda, ha sido descrita en numerosas publicaciones como sustancia causante de reacciones de fototoxicidad. Presentamos el caso de una pareja que sufrió una reacción de fototoxicidad que requirió ingreso en la Unidad de Quemados como consecuencia del contacto con una infusión de ruda y posterior exposición solar. Consideramos que todo profesional que se ocupa del tratamiento de quemaduras debe incluir las fitofotodermatitis dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de las pérdidas cutáneas de espesor parcial.

  3. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL. (UMBELLIFERAE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Dahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance to push scientifically the investigations on the organic extracts of the plants aromatic as potential source of new antimicrobial compounds comes from the traditional use of the plants. However, the consumption of these natural products requires à thorough research in this field. The antimicrobial effect of organic and aqueous leaves extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., However, which makes difficult this antimicrobial activity, is the insolubility of organic extracts in water. The standard M27-T technique is basically used to cure this problem. The microorganisms under examination were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirea, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The M27-T technique allowed us to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs of different extracts. Therefore, the test’s results showed that the all samples were clearly different in terms of antimicrobial activities. All extracts of Foeniculum vulgare showed the most activity on all the microorganisms tested. The most significant and active extract under study were methanol and ethyl acetate on all the bacteria tested in comparaison to the hexane and aqueous extracts. On the other hand, the results of antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract were more compelling than the hexane and dichloromethane extracts when used on Candida albicans (ATCC and CBS (MIC = 0,78 mg mL-1. It then appear that C. albicans ATCC is the least susceptible microorganisms to the ethyl acetate extract. The chloramphenicol, amoxicillin and amphotericin B were used as standard antibiotics to carry this study."

  5. Evaluation of Salt Stress at Gerimination and Seedling Stages of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in Hydroponic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of medicinal plants with tolerance to salinity stress has an economical importance in Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on different Morpho-Physiological traits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill in germination and seedling stage in hydroponic condition. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four (in first experiment and three (in second experiment replications. Salinity effects of NaCl [0, 50, 100, 150 200 (Mm] was evaluated on three genotypes of  Foeniculum vulgare (Estahban, Isfahan, Shiraz. Analysis of variance showed that salinity levels reduced the percentage of germination, seed vigor index, rootlenght, stem length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, biomass, the ratio of shoot to root, chlorophyll index, chlorophyll a and b and caroteniod content. Significant variation was observed between different genotypes on different levels of salinity. Tolerance to salinity in seedling was more than germination. In two experiments, the genotype of Shiraz showed superiority in view point of tolerance.

  6. Parameters of Cs 137 and Sr 90 transition from soil into salad crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition coefficients of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from soil into plants for potherb of bulb onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been defined. (authors)

  7. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin by Pelargonium graveolens essential oil against selected uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tripti; Singh, Padma; Pant, Shailja; Chauhan, Nirpendra; Lohani, Hema

    2011-08-01

    The recent approach of using herbs and antibiotics in combination constitutes a strategy to overcome the problems of resistance and side effects associated with conventional antibiotics. In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Pelargonium graveolens L' Hér essential oil in combination with ciprofloxacin was evaluated on uropathogens, namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae KT2, Proteus mirabilis PRT3 and Staphylococcus aureus ST2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin were determined by the microbroth dilution method and further, the interaction between these two agents was studied by a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated to be 0.375 for both K. pneumoniae KT2 and P. mirabilis PRT3, while for S. aureus ST2 it was found to be 0.5. The values of FICI for the tested microorganisms were found to be ≤0.5, which indicates synergism between P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin. The concave shaped curve in the isobolograms also depicted a synergistic effect of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin against the tested microorganisms. Hence, the synergistic action of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin may be applied for the treatment of UTIs, which have hitherto been treated by using only synthetic drugs.

  8. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  9. Infraspecific morphological variations in Acinos graveolens (M.B. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Talebi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of ecological factors on phenotype plasticity in the natural populations of Acinos graveolens in Iran. In total, twenty six quantitative and qualitative morphological traits were examined in the sixteen populations at two sections: inter- and intrapopulation. In the interpopulation section, averages amounts of morphological characteristics of populations were examined, while in the intrapopulation, morphological features of the seventy six plant samples of the populations were investigated. The obtained data showed that these characteristics differed between and within the populations and the analysis of variance test and one-sample test have shown significant differences of all quantitative characteristics. The biplot Principal Correspondence Analysis (PCA-biplot of traits showed some populations had indicator morphological characteristic(s which were useful in detecting of these populations. Significant correlations were found between some quantitative characteristics with ecological factors. The studied populations were separated from each other in the PCA and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO plots and the Unweighted Paired Group using Average method (UPGMA tree. The PCA plot of morphological features showed that some characteristics separated from others and the rest ones were together and had overlapping. The individuals of the studied populations were separated from others in the PCA and PCO plots and the UPGMA tree of the morphological characteristics. Individuals of some populations arranged separately and placed far from others, but this condition was reverse in the rest populations and most of individuals placed near each other. The obtained data confirmed high variations within some populations.

  10. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Effects of Foeniculum vulgare Miller Seed Fixed Oil Extract inMice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBEK, HANEFİ; Öztürk, Mustafa; Bayram, İrfan; UĞRAŞ, Serdar; SALTAN ÇİTOĞLU, GÜLÇİN

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate median lethal dose(LD50) and hypoglycemic effect of fixed oil ofFoeniculum vulgare Miller seed fixed oil (FFO) in miceand its hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats.Method: Extract of FFO, glibenclamide (as a referencegroup) and physiologic saline (control group) wereadministrated to the healthy and diabet occured micewith alloxan. Before treatment in the first, second, third,fourth and 24th hours, blood was ...

  11. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian

  12. Aspectos anatômicos de plântulas Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Anatomical aspects of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-doce, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, é uma erva entouceirada, aromática que apresenta propriedades condimentares e medicinais; tem origem Européia e é amplamente cultivada em todo o Brasil. Devido à deficiência de informações relativas à organização estrutural de plântulas de espécies medicinais, o presente estudo teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre a anatomia e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de F. vulgare. As sementes de erva-doce foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias, sendo realizadas regas diárias. Foram selecionadas plântulas normais e de padrão uniforme, que tiveram raiz, zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e primeiras folhas seccionados à mão livre. Este material foi corado e montado em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Em todos os órgãos da plântula de erva-doce a epiderme é unisseriada, cuticularizada e com estômatos; sendo que as duas últimas estruturas não são encontradas na raiz, porém esta apresenta pêlos unicelulares e cônicos. Os cotilédones e as folhas apresentam funções fotossintéticas e nutricionais, indicadas pela presença de grande quantidade de estômatos, cloroplastos e amido. A caracterização anatômica de plântulas de F. vulgare auxilia na identificação da espécie e no conhecimento da organização celular, fornecendo informações que auxiliam em estudos fisiológicos, taxonômicos e ecológicos.Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, is a forming clumps herb and presents aromatic, medicinal and condimental properties. It has European origin and is widely cultivated and used in Brazil. Due to lack of information concerning the structural organization of seedlings of medicinal species, this study aimed to provide information about the anatomy and development of F. vulgare seedlings. The seeds fennel was sowed in sand and maintained in greenhouse for 25 days, with daily waterings. Were selected

  13. Powdery mildew of Ruta graveolens in Brazil caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli Oídio de Ruta graveolens no Brasil causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Liberato; Robert Weingart Barreto

    2006-01-01

    Oidiopsis haplophylli is described causing powdery mildew on Ruta graveolens for the first time in Brazil (Viçosa, MG). The fungus causes yellowing of infected leaves accompanied by the presence of a whitish mycelial colony abaxially. The following combination of characters typical of this species was observed on the specimens collected in Viçosa: mycelium hypophyllous, hemiendophytic (partly external and partly internal), entering the leaves through the stomata; conidiophores hypophyllous, p...

  14. 小茴香及其混淆品莳萝子的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓君丽

    1998-01-01

    @@ 小茴香为常用中药,系伞形科植物茴香Foeniculum vulgare Mill.的干燥成熟果实.有些地区则把同科植物莳萝Anethum graveolens L.的干燥果实作小茴香入药.据文献[1~3]记载,小茴香和莳萝子是功效不同的2种中药,不宜混淆使用.为保证临床用药的准确,本文从性状、紫外吸收光谱和薄层色谱三方面进行了比较鉴别.

  15. Extraction, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was extract, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. The leaves and stems of S. graveolens were collected in the district of Puquio 3800 m.s.n.m., Lucanas province, and department of Ayacucho. The essential oil was obtained by steam water destilation dried leaves and stems with yield 1.26% (w/w to which physical testing were performed. The chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS. Antibacterial activity of S. graveolens oil was tested by agar diffusion method in wells against Gram positive strains such as S. aureus ATCC 29923 and Gram negative as E. coli. The density a 20 ºC was 0.8755 g/ml; the index refraction was 1.4726 and the rate rotation was 102° 85' and the solubility miscible in ethanol. The GC-MS showed the main components sabinene (52.39 %, (+-4-carene (8.20 %, τ-terpinen (7.11 %, β-myrcene (6.74 %, 4-terpinenol (3.78 % and pulegone (3.67 %. The results showing activity strong antibacterial activity and moderate, respectively, for the strains tested, observing formation of inhibition halos for essential oil concentrations at 80, 90 and 100 % in both strains. The essential oil of S. graveolens presented with promising antibacterial activity.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Ruta graveolens L. extract on guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, Saieed; Saieed, Pirouzpanah; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Reza, Rashidi Mohammad; Delazar, Abbas; Abbas, Delazar; Razavieh, Seyyed-Vali; Seyyedvali, Razavieh; Hamidi, Aliasghar; Aliasghar, Hamidi

    2006-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plant with various biological properties. In the present study, the effects of R. graveolens extract on aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum hydroxylase, are investigated. Aldehyde oxidase was partially purified from liver homogenates of mature male guinea pigs by heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation. The total extract was obtained by macerating the aerial parts of R. graveolens in MeOH 70% and the effect of this extract on the enzyme activity was assayed using phenanthridine, vanillin and benzaldehyde as substrates. Quercetin and its glycoside form, rutin were isolated, purified and identified from the extract and their inhibitory effects on the enzyme were investigated. R. graveolens extract exhibited a high inhibition on aldehyde oxidase activity (89-96%) at 100 microg/ml which was comparable with 10 microM of menadione, a specific potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effect of extract against the oxidation of benzaldehyde, vanillin and phenanthridine were 10.4, 10.1, 43.2 microg/ml, respectively. Both quercetin and rutin at 10 microM caused 70-96% and 27-52% inhibition on the enzyme activity, respectively. Quercetin was more potent inhibitor than rutin, but both flavonols exerted their inhibitory effects mostly in a linear mixed-type.

  17. Effect of gamma - irradiation on the volatile flavor profile of fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volatile flavor compounds of non-irradiated and 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy gamma-irradiated seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Pakistan were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds were identified in the non irradiated fennel, with EAnethole (36.74 percentage), Estragole (26.31 percentage), and β-Limonene (15.99 percentage) as the major compounds. The irradiation doses caused slight variations in the number and contents of the volatile components. Though several volatile compounds showed increase after Υ-irradiation, the contents of major compounds such as beta-Limonene and estrgole were decreased. The overall number of the volatile compounds showed increase up to the recommended irradiation doses of 10 kGy but their contents decreased. In general no major change was noted in the overall major flavor compounds of the subject spice. Therefore the application of Υ--irradiation is feasible without any significant qualitative or quantitative loss of volatile flavor compounds when exposed to 10 kGy Υ--irradiation. (author)

  18. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  19. BIOREACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of dried Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller seeds was analyzed for the presence of bioreactive compounds: ascorbate, riboflavin, tocopherol and polyphenols with potential antioxidant properties. The extract had low ascorbate (197.12+1.82µg, riboflavin (11.97+0.35µg and tocopherol (280.33+5.67µg/g dry seeds content. However the extract had high polyphenol content (16.506+0.32mg/g dry seeds. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by various mechanisms including DPPH free radical scavenging, metal induced protein and lipid oxidation inhibition and protection of DNA against H2O2 induced damage. Fennel had excellent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 2.1mg dry seed weight. IC50 observed for protection of proteins and lipids against metal ion induced oxidation is 2.1 and 2.5mg dry seed weight respectively. Extract equivalent to 0.5µg seeds is enough to protect DNA against H2O2 induced oxidation. The results suggest that polyphenols are the principal components responsible for high antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of fennel.

  20. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  1. Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih Mehmet Birdane; Mustafa Cemek; Yavuz Osman Birdane; (I)lhami Gül(c)in; Mehmet Emin Büyükokuro(g)lu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated;whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels were measured in all the groups.RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage.This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels.CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity.

  2. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  3. 小茴香生理活性成分的研究进展%Research progress in physiologically active compounds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲

    2013-01-01

    对小茴香的生理活性成分及其提取分离、保健作用等研究作了归纳与论述,为小茴香在食品和医药上的进一步研究开发提供理论依据.%Extraction,seperation and health function of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were summarized and discussed respectively. It provided theoretical evidence for future research and development of Foeniculum vulgare Mill in food industry and medicine.

  4. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Asteriscus graveolens against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znini, Mohamed; Cristofari, Gregory; Majidi, Lhou; Mazouz, Hamid; Tomi, Pierre; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2011-11-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Asteriscus graveolens have been studied using GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oil amounting to 94.9% of the total oil. The aerial part oils showed similar chromatographic profiles and were characterized by having a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxocyclonerolidol (66.7% +/- 5.5) and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol (8.8% +/-1.2) as the major components. The antifungal effect of the essential oil from A. graveolens leaves was evaluated in vitro against three phytopathogenic fungi of apples (Alternaria sp., Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer). The results suggest that this essential oil has fungicidal properties towards Alternaria sp. from direct contact assay at 0.2% (v/v) and to P. expansum from vapor assay tests at 80 microL.

  6. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

    2009-01-01

    There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines.

  7. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  8. Triterpenos aislados de corteza de Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae y su actividad biologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Robles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae, known in Colombia as "sasafrás", is useful for its medicinal properties and is rich in secondary metabolites. In our research, we carried out antimicrobial tests of several fractions and ethanolic extracts from aerial parts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, that showed growth inhibitory activity when applied at 250 mg/mL for extracts and 150 mg/mL for fractions. We carried out an antiinflamatory assay also, that showed 71% of inhibition by extracts (81% of Indomethacin and 70% of inhibition by fractions (78% of Indomethacin. Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae yielded three tetracyclic triterpene acids that have oxygenation in C-3, carboxylic acid in C-21 and unsaturation in C-24 and have been identified as 3-oxotirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (b-elemonic acid, 3a-hydroxytirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (a-elemolic acid and 3a-hydroxytirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid. The isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY experiments and comparison with published data. This is the first report of the isolated compounds in Bursera graveolens and they have a very important chemotaxonomic significance within the Burseraceae family and related families from the order Rutales.

  9. Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter, water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101 and C. illinoensis (4.33×102 extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

  10. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  11. STUDY ON PHARMACOGNOSY OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.AN ETHNODRUG%茴香根的生药学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦群辉; 朱兆云

    2000-01-01

    目的:为开发利用民族药茴香提供理论依据。方法:采用来源鉴别、性状鉴别、显微及理化鉴别的方法。结果:证明其主要有效成分为挥发油,主要显微特征为木栓层下具有一列红棕色色素细胞层。结论:茴香根是一味具有开发前景的民族药。%To provide the basis for development and utilization of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.METHODS:To study its sources,shapes properties,microscopic and physiochemical characteristics used in pharmacognostic identification.RESULTS:The experiments prove its main effective component is volatile oils and main microscopic featares are that there is a row of light brown cells under the layers of bark.CONCLUSION:Foeniculum vulgare Mill.is worth of development in future  

  12. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  13. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  14. Phenolic compounds from Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp. Piperitum (Apiaceae herb and evaluation of hepatoprotective antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona T. M. Ghanem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc and butanol (BuOH fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum. In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%, successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH· . Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250-300 g. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ΅g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM was exerted at 12.5 ΅g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare herb is a potential source of natural

  15. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  16. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals.

  17. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  18. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals. PMID:19256773

  19. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella, 1995. This study is aimed at assessing "in vivd'the effect of extracts of "oregano", "ruda" and "palta" to 20% on the morphology and growth of preimplantational mouse embryos.

  20. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view.

  1. Identification of Ruta graveolens L. metabolites accumulated in the presence of abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Kumirska, Jolanta; Maliński, Edmund; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Gajdus, Jerzy; Lojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and saccharin on the biosynthesis of simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins, and furoquinolone alkaloids in shoots of R. graveolens cultivated in vitro. The biosynthesized metabolites were analyzed and identified by GC-MS and by comparison of Kovats indices. Eight coumarin metabolites were identified: bergapten, chalepin, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, rutacultin, rutamarin, and xanthotoxin, and also four alkaloids: dictamnine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, and kokusaginine. Each of the tested BTH concentrations induced a significant production of furanocoumarins and furoquinolone alkaloids. The use of saccharin also increased the production of bergapten, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, and xanthotoxin several times.

  2. Pelargonium oil and methyl hexaneamine (MHA): analytical approaches supporting the absence of MHA in authenticated Pelargonium graveolens plant material and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Weerasooriya, Aroona; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas; Eichner, Amy; Bowers, Larry D

    2012-09-01

    Methylhexaneamine (MHA) has been marketed in dietary supplements based on arguments that it is a constituent of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves, stems, roots or oil, and therefore qualifies as a dietary ingredient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether P. graveolens plant material (authenticated) or its oil contains detectable quantities of MHA. Two analytical methods were developed for the analysis of MHA in P. graveolens using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results were further confirmed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty commercial volatile oils, three authenticated volatile oils and authenticated P. graveolens leaves and stems (young and mature, and fresh and dried) were analyzed for MHA content. In addition, three dietary supplements containing MHA that alleged P. graveolens as the source are analyzed for their MHA content. The data show that none of the authenticated P. graveolens essential oils or plant material, nor any commercial volatile oil of Pelargonium (geranium oil) contain MHA at detectable levels (limit of detection: 10 ppb). The dietary supplements that contained MHA as one of their ingredients (allegedly from geranium or geranium stems) contained large amounts of MHA. The amounts of MHA measured are incompatible with the use of reasonable amounts of P. graveolens extract or concentrate, suggesting that MHA was of synthetic origin.

  3. Chemical Constituents of the Root of Foeniculum vulgare%茴香根化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武拉斌; 黄波; 肖朝江; 董相; 姜北

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the chemical constituents of the root of Foeniculum vulgare. Methods: Compounds were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidences. Results: Five compounds were obtained from ethyl acetate fraction of the extract root of F. vulgare and were identified as dillapiol (1), butyl isobutyl phthalate (2), β-sitosterol (3), linoleic acid (4), and trilinolein (5). Conclusion: This research provides basic understanding about the medicinal values of F. vulgare root.%目的:研究茴香(Foeniculum vulgare)根的化学成分。方法:采用硅胶柱层析等分离方法对茴香根提取物中的化学成分进行分离,并运用NMR、MS等波谱学技术对所分离得到的化合物进行结构解析。结果:从茴香干燥根70%乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了5个化合物:莳萝脑(1)、邻苯二甲酸丁基异丁基二酯(2)、β-谷甾醇(3)、亚油酸(4)、亚油酸甘油三酯(5)。结论:该研究为了解茴香根的药用价值提供了研究基础。

  4. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant induced model of arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Helen, A

    2009-04-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (MER) exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 20 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug indomethacin. The activities of cycloxygenase-2 and myeloperoxidase and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C & E and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with MER. The increment in ESR and total WBC, reduction in RBC count and haemoglobin and aberrant changes to the C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin levels observed in the arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in MER treated rats. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased oedema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with MER. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

  5. The Effect of Drought Stress on the Essential Oil Content and Some of the Biochemical Characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Sajedeh Saeedfar; Marzieh Negahban; Mohammad Mahmoodi Soorestani

    2015-01-01

    Plot trials were carried out in a research field in Tehran (Iran) to determine the effect of drought stress on the essential oil content and some of the plant biochemical characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze), which is a valuable medicinal plant. Drought stress was conducted at different levels including: well-water (100% FC), mild drought stress (85% FC), moderate drought stress (70% FC), severe drought stress (55% FC), 100% FC (vegetative stage) 85% FC (repro...

  6. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Asgar Ebadollahi; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Alireza Aliakbar; Jabraeil Razmjou

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%), limonene (13.65%...

  7. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.R Lucca; L. H. P. NÓBREGA; Alves, L. F. A.; C. T. A. CRUZ-SILVA; F. P. PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.). T...

  8. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  9. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds. PMID:26072200

  10. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  11. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  12. Application of chitin and chitosan as elicitors of coumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids in Ruta graveolens L. (common rue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Malinski, Edmund; Kumirska, Jolanta; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Łojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    Common rue (Ruta graveolens L.) accumulates various types of secondary metabolites, such as coumarins furanocoumarins, acridone and quinolone alkaloids and flavonoids. Elicitation is a tool extensively used for enhancing secondary-metabolite yields. Chitin and chitosan are examples of elicitors inducing phytoalexin accumulation in plant tissue. The present paper describes the application of chitin and chitosan as potential elicitors of secondary-metabolite accumulation in R. graveolens shoots cultivated in vitro. The simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids biosynthesized in the presence of chitin and chitosan were isolated, separated and identified. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of R. graveolens shoots in the presence of either chitin or chitosan. Moreover, the results of the elicitation of coumarins and alkaloids accumulated by R. graveolens shoots in the presence of chitin and chitosan show that both compounds induced a significant increase in the concentrations of nearly all the metabolites. Adding 0.01% chitin caused the increase in the quantity (microg/g dry weight) of coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7, rutacultin up to 287.0, bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5 and rutamarin up to 133.7). The higher concentration of chitosan (0.1%) induced production of simple coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7 and rutacultin up to 287.0), furanocoumarins (bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5) and dihydrofuranocoumarins (chalepin up to 18 and rutamarin up to 133.7). Such a dramatic increase in the production of nearly all metabolites suggests that these compounds may be participating in the natural resistance mechanisms of R. graveolens. The application of chitin- and chitosan-containing media may be considered a promising prospect in the biotechnological production of xanthotoxin

  13. Powdery mildew of Ruta graveolens in Brazil caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli Oídio de Ruta graveolens no Brasil causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Liberato

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis haplophylli is described causing powdery mildew on Ruta graveolens for the first time in Brazil (Viçosa, MG. The fungus causes yellowing of infected leaves accompanied by the presence of a whitish mycelial colony abaxially. The following combination of characters typical of this species was observed on the specimens collected in Viçosa: mycelium hypophyllous, hemiendophytic (partly external and partly internal, entering the leaves through the stomata; conidiophores hypophyllous, produced from the internal mycelium emerging through the stomata, cylindrical, hyaline, smooth; conidia, isolate, dimorphic - primary conidia lanceolate, 66.5-91.5 x 11.0-20.0 mm l/w ratio 3.5-6.2, secondary conidia cylindrical with rounded ends, 57.0-81.5 x 13.5-20.0 mm, l/w ratio 3.1 - 5.3, aseptate, hyaline, smooth.Oidiopsis haplophylli é relatado causando oídio em arruda (Ruta graveolens pela primeira vez no Brasil (Viçosa, MG. O fungo causa um amarelecimento de folhas de arruda sem bordos definidos acompanhado de cobertura fúngica branca na superfície abaxial. O seguinte conjunto de características, típico desta espécie foi observado nos espécimes coletados em Viçosa: presença de micélio hemiendofítico (parcialmente interno e parcialmente externo, tênue a denso com penetração das folhas através dos estômatos; conidióforos originando do micélio interno, emergindo através dos estômatos, cilíndricos, hialinos, lisos; conídios unicelulares, hialinos, produzidos isoladamente, dimórficos - conídios primários lanceolados, 66,5-91,5 x 11,0-20,0 mm, razão c/l 3,5-6,2, conídios secondários cilíndricos com extremidades arredondadas, 57,0-81,5 x 13,5-20,0 mm, razão c/l 3,1-5,3.

  14. Sazonalidade dos ductos secretores e óleo essencial de Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae Seasonality of the secretory ducts and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os ductos secretores e o óleo essencial das folhas de Foeniculum vulgare em diferentes épocas do ano. Para esta finalidade, foram realizados estudos de caracterização anatômica, bem como anatomia comparada dos ductos secretores e testes histoquímicos das folhas. O óleo essencial foi obtido de folhas e frutos, por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa, realizando-se análises seguidas de três réplicas para folhas coletadas durante o inverno e primavera, e frutos no verão. Os resultados encontrados para os ductos secretores de óleo corresponderam à redução do teor de óleo essencial nas folhas coletadas no final da primavera. O componente majoritário do óleo essencial de folhas e frutos foi o trans-anetol, durante todas as estações do ano. Portanto, evidenciou-se que os ductos secretores e teor de óleo essencial estão relacionados, bem como os constituintes químicos também estão sujeitos a sazonalidade, conforme o estágio fenológico da planta.This work aimed to analyze the secretory ducts and the essential oil of the leaves of Foeniculum vulgare in different periods of the year. For this purpose, the anatomic characterization, and histochemical tests of the leaves were performed as well as the comparative anatomy of the secretory ducts. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves and fruits by hidrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, each analysis was repeated three times for leaves collected during the winter and spring, and for fruits collected in the Summer. The results obtained for the secretory ducts, corresponded to the yield reduction of essential oil in the leaves collected in the end of the spring. The major substance of the essential oil of the leaves and fruits, in all

  15. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  16. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  17. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  18. Effect of polyamines on shoot multiplication and furanocoumarin production in Ruta graveolens cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2012-07-01

    The influence of the polyamines putrescine (Put), spermine (Spr) and spermidine (Spd) on growth and furanocoumarin production was investigated by exogenous addition, at different concentrations, to shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens at different phases of growth. Preliminary studies indicated that addition of Put (20 microM) and Spr (80 microM) had a promotive effect on shoot multiplication rate and number of multiple shoots formed. Spd was toxic, even at lower concentrations. The growth-phase of the culture at the time of exogenous addition of polyamines was found to be an important factor. Put was most effective when added at the lag phase, while Spr was most effective when added in the log phase. Time course studies of growth and furanocoumarin content were carried out for each polyamine and phase of addition. It was seen that maximum production of furanocoumarins (256.8 mg/10 g DW) occurred in the second week when Put was added in the lag phase and 260.5 mg/10 g DW in the fourth week when Spr was added in the log phase. Put addition resulted in a 3.10 fold increase in psoralen, 6.12 in xanthotoxin and 1.46 fold in bergapten production. Spr addition resulted in a 1.31 fold increase in psoralen, 4.11 fold in xanthotoxin and 1.49 fold in bergapten production. Results indicate that alteration of growth and furanocoumarin production kinetics is a combined outcome of choice of polyamine and the phase of culture at the time of exogenous addition. Polyamine addition enabled significant enhancement in production of pharmaceutically important bergapten and xanthotoxin in shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens, which could be explored for commercial production.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  20. In silico target fishing for rationalized ligand discovery exemplified on constituents of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Danzl, Birgit; Schwaiger, Stefan; Markt, Patrick; Schmidtke, Michaela; Gertsch, Jürg; Raduner, Stefan; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    The identification of targets whose interaction is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease is of growing interest for natural product scientists. In the current study we performed an exemplary application of a virtual parallel screening approach to identify potential targets for 16 secondary metabolites isolated and identified from the aerial parts of the medicinal plant RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. Low energy conformers of the isolated constituents were simultaneously screened against a set of 2208 pharmacophore models generated in-house for the IN SILICO prediction of putative biological targets, i. e., target fishing. Based on the predicted ligand-target interactions, we focused on three biological targets, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein and the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB (2)). For a critical evaluation of the applied parallel screening approach, virtual hits and non-hits were assayed on the respective targets. For AChE the highest scoring virtual hit, arborinine, showed the best inhibitory IN VITRO activity on AChE (IC (50) 34.7 muM). Determination of the anti-HRV-2 effect revealed 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and arborinine to be the most active antiviral constituents with IC (50) values of 11.98 muM and 3.19 muM, respectively. Of these, arborinine was predicted virtually. Of all the molecules subjected to parallel screening, one virtual CB (2) ligand was obtained, i. e., rutamarin. Interestingly, in experimental studies only this compound showed a selective activity to the CB (2) receptor ( Ki of 7.4 muM) by using a radioligand displacement assay. The applied parallel screening paradigm with constituents of R. GRAVEOLENS on three different proteins has shown promise as an IN SILICO tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research.

  1. 宁夏海原小茴香发展现状及前景展望%Development Status and Prospect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.in Haiyuan of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷茜; 张欣; 贝盏临; 吕云熙

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the distribution, biological characteristics, chemical composition and industry status of Foeniculum vulgare Mill, in Ningxia, analyzed the main issues restricting the development of Haiyuan Foeniculum vulgare Mill. , and finally forecasted the development potential and prospect of Haiyuan Foeniculum vulgare Mill, industry in future.%介绍了小茴香在宁夏的分布、生物学特性、化学成分及其产业现状;分析了目前制约海原小茴香发展的主要问题;展望了未来海原小茴香产业发展的潜力及前景.

  2. 茴香茎叶提取物对菜粉蝶生物活性的影响研究%Preliminary Studies on Biological Activity of Extracts from Foeniculum vulgare to Pieris rapae L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利民; 陆宁海; 蒋国锋; 魏旺; 蒋坤; 李德兵

    2012-01-01

    为了探索番茄茎叶提取物对菜粉蝶生物活性的影响.采用水蒸气蒸馏法从茴香( Foeniculum vulgare)茎叶中提取获得其挥发性物质,测定了茴香提取物在室内对菜青虫的拒食作用及对菜粉蝶的产卵忌避作用.结果表明:茴香粗提取物对菜青虫3龄幼虫具有较强的拒食活性,且非选择性的拒食作用均大于选择性的拒食作用;茴香提取物对菜粉蝶的产卵具有较强的忌避作用.%This paper objective was to explore biological activity of extracts from Foeniculum vulgare to Pieris rapae. Extract volatile matter was extracted from stem and leaves of Foeniculum vulgare Mill by steam distillation. Biologial activity of antifeedant effect and oviposition repellent on Pieris rapae L. Was tested with extraction of Foeniculum vulgare. The results showed that extracts of Foeniculum vulgare have strong antifeedant effect on Pieris rapae 3-instar larvae, which the antifeeding activities of Pieris rapae L. Of non-choice was higher than that of choice tests. Moreover, that extracts of Foeniculum vulgare had strong effect of repellent effect on Pieris rapae.

  3. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Karine M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT, measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2 in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1 during the placebo treatment (p Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430

  4. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  5. Specific accumulation and revised structures of acridone alkaloid glucosides in the tips of transformed roots of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovkina, Inna; Al'terman, Irina; Schneider, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    The root tips of Ruta graveolens (common rue) show strong autofluorescence of acridone alkaloids, which are characteristic secondary metabolites of this plant. To study the specific distribution and accumulation of acridone alkaloids in various root segments of Ruta graveolens, root material was harvested from genetically transformed root cultures and extracts were investigated by chromatographic techniques and HPLC-(1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cells of the elongation and differentiation zones contained acridone glucosides and large amounts of acridone alkaloids, mainly rutacridone. Gravacridondiol glucoside was identified as the dominant secondary compound of the root tips and its structure revised by means of spectroscopic methods. In addition, minor acridones, including the structurally revised gravacridontriol glucoside and unknown natural products, were found in the root tip.

  6. Hoya thuathienhuensis and Hoya graveolens (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species and a new record for the Flora of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rodda, M.; Trân, Thê Bách; Simonsson Juhonewe, N.; Sâm, Lý Ngọc

    2012-01-01

    A new species from the Annamite mountain range of central Vietnam, Hoya thuathienhuensis, is here described and illustrated. Its flowers bear similarity with Hoya lockii, a taxon recently described from the same area with which it shares the reflexed corolla and the thin coriaceous laves. Hoya lockii is an epiphytic shrub, whereas H. thuathienhuensis is a strong climbing liana. We also report the noteworthy extension into southern Vietnam of Hoya graveolens, a taxon previously considered to b...

  7. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  8. Protective effects of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fractions of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2010-02-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India, were evaluated for their protective effect in acute and chronic models of inflammation. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and adjuvant induced arthritis were employed as the experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation respectively. Isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction (AFR) from Ruta graveolens and evaluated its anti inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced acute model. AFR with a dose 10 mg/kg showed higher anti inflammatory effect than polyphenols and standard drug diclofenec. AFR significantly decreased the paw edema in arthritic rats. TBARS, COX-2, 5-LOX and MPO level were decreased and the levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH level were increased on treatment with AFR. The increment in CRP level and ceruloplasmin level observed in arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in AFR treated rats. The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats.

  9. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsouna Anis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  11. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  12. Unusually divergent 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Alexander; Martens, Stefan; Wellmann, Frank; Matern, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Most angiosperms encode a small family of 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases (4CLs) activating hydroxycinnamic acids for lignin and flavonoid pathways. The common rue, Ruta graveolens L., additionally produces coumarins by cyclization of the 4-coumaroyl moiety, possibly involving the CoA-ester, as well as acridone and furoquinoline alkaloids relying on (N-methyl)anthraniloyl-CoA as the starter substrate for polyketide synthase condensation. The accumulation of alkaloids and coumarins, but not flavonoids, was enhanced in Ruta graveolens suspension cultures upon the addition of fungal elicitor. Total RNA of elicitor-treated Ruta cells was used as template for RT-PCR amplification with degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from conserved motifs in AMP-binding proteins, and two full-size cDNAs were generated through RACE and identified as 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases, Rg4CL1 and Rg4CL2, by functional expression in yeast cells. The recombinant enzymes differed considerably in their preferential affinities to cinnamate (Rg4CL1) or ferulate (RgCL2) besides 4-coumarate, but did not activate hydroxybenzoic or (N-methyl)anthranilic acid. Most notably, the Rg4CL1 polypeptide included an N-terminal extension suggesting a chloroplast transit peptide. The genes were cloned and revealed four exons, separated by 1056, 94 and 54 bp introns for RgCL1, while Rg4CL2 was composed of five exons interupted by four introns from 113 to 350 bp, and the divergent heritage of these genes was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Both genes were expressed in shoot, leaf and flower tissues of adult Ruta plants with preference in shoot and flower, whereas negligible expression occurred in the root. However, Rg4CL1 was expressed much stronger in the flower, while Rg4CL2 was expressed mostly in the shoot. Furthermore, considerable transient induction of only Rg4CL1 was observed upon elicitation of Ruta cells, which seems to support a role of Rg4CL1 in coumarin biosynthesis.

  13. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  14. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  15. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

  16. IMPROVED PLANT REGENERATION AND IN VITRO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN Ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraida AR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro callus cultures initiated from stem segments of Ruta graveolen which later on differentiated into somatic embryoids and subsequently regenerated whole plants. Callus formation was observed in culture medium containing low concentrations of the plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. At 0.2 mg/L NAA was showing the highest rate (85% of callus induction. The callus appeared watery, but showed no sign of browning after a month of culture. Sub-culturing the callus on to medium with 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D showed enhanced the callus proliferation rate up to 95%. Somatic embryogenesis from callus was most successful on MS medium containing either 6 g/L agar and supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 9 g/L agar, supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN. The former medium was more successful in plantlet regeneration when the embryoids were subsequently transferred to regeneration medium with 3 g/L agar and 0.5 mg/L BAP.

  17. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively).

  18. Genetic variation for silvicultural traits in open-pollinated progenies of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the genetic variation for silvicultural traits in an open-pollinated progeny test of Astronium graveolens Jacq., established at Luiz Antônio Experimental Station (State of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was planted in a random block experimental design, containing 23 families, six replications and five plants per plot. The traits measured were diameter at breast height (DBH, total height and stem form. The assessments were taken at the age of 19 years. Significant differences were not detected by the analysis of variance, suggesting that the genetic variation was low, as well as the probability to raising genetic gains through selection among progenies. The coefficient of genetic variation was moderate for the traits height (8.2% and DBH (21.2% and low to stem form (4.0%. However, the average coefficient of heritability among progenies was low for all studied traits (ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, confirming the low probability of genetic improvement of this population by selection among progenies.

  19. [The fatty acid composition of Ruta graveolens seed oil and its byological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabishvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Nikolaĭshvili, M N

    2013-11-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography methods are qualitatively and quantitatively identified most biological important high fatty acids, contained in Ruta graveolens seed oil grown on the experimental plot of Kutateladze Institute of Pharmakochemistry (Georgia) and compare its biological activity. Their relative concentration is expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The sample contained the range of fatty acids from С12:0 to С22:0. The investigation showed different sensitivity of components. In order of elution the list of compound are reported. The oil contained 2,08±0,1 mg% lauric, 2,18±0,1 mg% miristic, 3,98±0,1 mg% palmitic, 30,90±1,2 mg% stearic, 41,92±1,8 mg% oleic, 10,14±0,4 mg% linolic, 6,50±0,3 mg% linolenic, 2,00±0,1 mg% arachinic and 2,10±0,1 mg% begenic acid. The chromatography signals with retention values 7,96 and 14,08 minuts are qualitatively not identified.

  20. Algicidal and antifungal compounds from the roots of Ruta graveolens and synthesis of their analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Schrader, Kevin K; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-11-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens roots yielded rutacridone epoxide with potent selective algicidal activity towards the 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB)-producing blue-green alga Oscillatoria perornata, with relatively little effect on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. The diol-analog of rutacridone epoxide, gravacridondiol, which was also present in the same extract, had significantly less activity towards O. perornata. Rutacridone epoxide also showed significantly higher activity than commercial fungicides captan and benomyl in our micro-bioassay against the agriculturally important pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and Botrytis cineara and Fusarium oxysporium. Rutacridone epoxide is reported as a direct-acting mutagen, precluding its use as an agrochemical. In order to understand the structure-activity relationships and to develop new potential biocides without toxicity and mutagenicity, some analogs containing the (2-methyloxiranyl)-dihydrobenzofuran moiety with an epoxide were synthesized and tested. None of the synthetic analogs showed comparable activities to rutacridone epoxide. The absolute stereochemistry of rutacridone was determined to be 2'(R) and that of rutacridone epoxide to be 2'(R), 3'(R) by CD and NMR analysis.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Ruta graveolens L. on oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in reducing oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. For the study rats were divided into three groups - control group, hypercholesteremic group and treatment group (20 mg MER/kg/d orally) - and were fed for 90 days. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, total WBC count, CRP level, TBARS, atherogenic index, activities of COX, 15 LOX in monocyte and serum myeloperoxidase were increased in cholesterol fed rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration reduced glutathione in liver and heart tissue and serum HDL-C were decreased in cholesterol fed rats. The results showed that level of total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index was decreased and HDL-C was increased in MER treated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be increased and the activity of MPO, COX and 15 LOX were decreased on supplementation with MER. Concentration of TBARS and total WBC count were decreased and GSH was increased on supplementation with MER. Histopathology of aorta of cholesterol fed rat showed marked alterations whereas the aorta of MER administrated rat showed no significant changes. These results suggested that MER reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. Thus the plant may therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment of clinical conditions associated atherosclerosis.

  2. Immobilising effect of Ruta graveolens L. on human spermatozoa: coumarin compounds are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Harat, Z; Lakpour, N; Sadeghipoor, H R; Kamalinejad, M; Eshraghian, M R; Naghibi, B; Akhondi, M M; Binaafar, S; Sadeghi, M R

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to find out Ruta graveolens L. functional components, which have immobilisation effect on human spermatozoa for contraceptive use. A five-step fractionation method was used to derive different components from rue aqueous extract by using hexane, chloroform, ethanol, acetone and ultrapure water. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometery (GC-MS) of all fractions and the aqueous extract were performed to determine the chemical components. The immobilisation assay and membrane integrity test were also performed with four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Hexane, chloroform, acetone and ethanol fractions could significantly decrease motility of sperms within the first and the second hours. Hexane fraction had also significant immediate effect. The aqueous fraction had no effect on sperm motility. Meanwhile, GC-MS revealed that aqueous extract and effective fractions had similar coumarin compounds. We performed the immobilisation assay on four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Reduction of sperm motility was only significant for xanthotoxin. In the sperm viability and membrane integrity tests, hexane and ethanolic fractions could impair sperm vitality significantly, in contrast to coumarins. These results indicated that a part of immobilising effect of rue could be due to its coumarins. The possible mechanism could be blocking of spermatozoa potassium channels.

  3. New quinoline alkaloid from Ruta graveolens aerial parts and evaluation of the antifertility activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Hassan, Emad M; Shafik, Nabila H; Abdel-Latif, Sally M; Brouard, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanol extract of Ruta graveolens L. leaves yielded a new quinoline alkaloid, (4S) 1,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-1,4-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)quinoline 2,7-diol, and nine phenolic compounds including rutin as a major compound. Structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using chromatography, UV, HR-ESI-MS and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The uterotonic activity of methanol extract fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) as well as the isolated major compounds was tested in the isolated mouse uterus in vitro. The n-butanol-soluble fraction was found to demonstrate the most potent uterotonic activity in a dose-dependent manner, also the major isolated compound rutin revealed the occurrence of an uterotonic response, which was maximum at a concentration level of 0.25 mg/mL, accounting for 68.7% of that exhibited by the chosen concentration of oxytocin.

  4. Biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ruta graveolens (L.) and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, K.; Raja Naika, H.; Manjunath, K.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.; Suresh, D.

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by biological method using aqueous stem extract of Ruta graveolens act as reducing agent. Formation of ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were subjected to biological properties such as antibacterial and antioxidant studies. The PXRD pattern reveals that ZnO sample belongs to hexagonal phase with Wurtzite structure. The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows an absorption band at 355 nm due to ZnO nanoparticles. SEM images show that the particles have spherical like structure with large surface area and the average crystallite sizes were found to be in the range ~28 nm. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis. The ZnO nanoparticles are found to inhibit the antioxidant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals effectively. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Gram -ve bacterial strains such as Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method.

  5. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  6. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively). PMID:26594749

  7. 驱蚊草挥发物化学成分分析%Chemical components of Pelargonium graveolens volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 金荷仙; 蔡宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Under the condition of TDS, the volatile matter was extracted by dynamic headspace collection method with good adult Pelargonium graveolens, and the composition of the extract was detected by gas chrom atograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There were 58 kinds of volatile matter,including ten types of compounds, such as alkane, olefins etc. There were 32 types terpenoid (relative content of 61. 35% ), and the content of citronellal was the highest in simple carbohydrate (relative content of 14.46% ). Then, our work demonstrated that retention index could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis of the volatile matter from leaves of P. Graveolens. The results obtained may be helpful for the further exploitation of P. Graveolens.%以长势优的成年驱蚊草为研究材料,采用顶空套袋法收集挥发物,并在TDS条件下用气相色谱一质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对收集挥发物进行分析检测,测出叶片挥发物有58种.包括烷烃、烯烃等10类化合物,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物有32种(相对含量为61.35%),其中香茅醛含量最多(相对含量为14.46%);同时结合保留指数分析驱蚊草叶片挥发物化学成分,比单独使用GC-MS其结果更加准确、可靠,有助于驱蚊草的进一步开发利用.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be β-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium.

  9. The selective cytotoxicity elicited by phytochemical extract from Senecio graveolens (Asteraceae) on breast cancer cells is enhanced by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Alfaro-Lira, Susana; Brown, Nelson; Salas, Cristian O; Cuellar, Mauricio; Santander, Javier; Ogalde, Juan Pablo; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer‑related deaths in woman and the incidence of the disease has increased worldwide, in part due to improvements in early detection. Several drugs with anticancer effects have been extracted from plants in the last 20 years, many of which are particularly effective against breast cancer cells. In particular, we have become interested in the ethanolic extract from Senecio graveolens (synonym of S. nutans), a plant commonly called Chachacoma, in an effort to isolate compounds that could demonstrate cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Senecio (Asteraceae) is the largest gender in Chile comprising approximatly 200 species. These herbs inhabit areas over 3,500 meters above the sea level in the Andes Mountains. S. graveolens is commonly used by local communities for its medicinal properties, particularly its capacity to ameliorate high-altitude-associated sickness. The cytotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract from S. graveolens, as well as its most abundant compound 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, were tested in the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231, and non-tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. We show that the phytochemical extract was able to induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells but not in MCF-10F. Importantly, this effect was enhanced under hypoxic conditions. However, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, the main compound, did not by itself show an effective anticarcinogenic activity in comparison to the whole extract. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the phytochemical extract was dependent on the basal MnSOD protein expression. Thus, cytotoxicity was increased when MnSOD levels were low, but resistance was evident when protein levels were high. Additionally, the crude extract seems to trigger cell death by a variety of processes, including autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis, in MCF-7 cells. In summary, S. graveolens extract possess anticancer activity displaying a specific

  10. Actividad antioxidante de flavonoides del tallo de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK var. berlandieri Schauer)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Celina González Güereca; Marcos Soto Hernández; Geoffrey Kite; Mariano Martínez Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    México es el principal exportador a nivel mundial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens), con 35 – 40 % del mercado internacional; su alta demanda se debe al contenido de aceite esencial de calidad en la hoja. Su recolección es complementaria a la agricultura de temporal o secano en zonas áridas y semiáridas. El desaprovechamiento del tallo y los escasos estudios fitoquímicos y farmacológicos reportados, indujeron esta investigación en la que determinó el tipo de flavonoides y se evaluó la...

  11. Estudio de las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos sobre Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) y Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) en la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina Study of the associations of aphids-entomophagous in Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) and Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) in the central region of Santa Fe, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Romina G. Manfrino; César E. Salto; Leticia Zumoffen

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller) y Conyza bonariensis L, a fin de implementar el Control Biológico Conservativo (CBC) en agroecosistemas de la región central de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se realizaron estudios, a campo, de la entomofauna presente mediante la observación directa de las plantas; las mismas se llevaron a cabo con una frecuencia semanal. En invernáculo, se procedió a la identificación de las especies ...

  12. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  13. Isolation of Insecticidal Constituent from Ruta graveolens and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies against Stored-Food Pests (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Isolates from essential oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of Ruta graveolens and commercial phenolic analogs were evaluated using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against adults of the stored-food pests Sitophilus zeamais, Sitophilus oryzae, and Lasioderma serricorne. The insecticidal activity of these compounds was then compared with that of the synthetic insecticide dichlorvos. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol and its analogs was examined against these stored-food pests. Based on the 50% lethal dose, the most toxic compound against S. zeamais was 3-isopropylephenol, followed by 2-isopropylphenol, 4-isopropylphenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and 2-methylphenol. Similar results were observed with phenolic compounds against S. oryzae. However, when 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol isolated from R. graveolens oil and its structurally related analogs were used against L. serricorne, little or no insecticidal activity was found regardless of bioassay. These results indicate that introducing and changing the positions of functional groups in the phenol skeleton have an important effect on insecticidal activity of these compounds against stored-food pests.

  14. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.

  15. Effects of Apium graveolens Extract on the Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukketsiri, Wanida; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Tanasawet, Supita; Choosri, Nutjanat; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn

    2016-06-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is an indigenous plant of the North and South Americas, Southern Europe, and Asia and has been widely used as a food or a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation and arthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a methanolic extract of A. graveolens (AGE) against liver oxidative stress in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. The AGE (250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally for 24 consecutive days after induction by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant. Liver and spleen weights were recorded. The superoxide anion level, total peroxide (TP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. AGE treatment significantly decreased the levels of the superoxide anion, TP, and OSI whereas the GPx and SOD activities significantly increased in the liver of the arthritic rats. These results indicated that AGE showed an ameliorative effect against liver oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats by reducing the generation of liver free radicals and increasing the liver antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27390722

  16. Antibacterial Activity and Composition of Essential Oils from Pelargonium Graveolens L’Her and Vitex Agnus-Castus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities.Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity.Results and Conclusion: Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  17. Effects of Apium graveolens Extract on the Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukketsiri, Wanida; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Tanasawet, Supita; Choosri, Nutjanat; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn

    2016-01-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is an indigenous plant of the North and South Americas, Southern Europe, and Asia and has been widely used as a food or a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation and arthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a methanolic extract of A. graveolens (AGE) against liver oxidative stress in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. The AGE (250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally for 24 consecutive days after induction by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant. Liver and spleen weights were recorded. The superoxide anion level, total peroxide (TP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. AGE treatment significantly decreased the levels of the superoxide anion, TP, and OSI whereas the GPx and SOD activities significantly increased in the liver of the arthritic rats. These results indicated that AGE showed an ameliorative effect against liver oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats by reducing the generation of liver free radicals and increasing the liver antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27390722

  18. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  19. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHITAL BONDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bonde S. 2011. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 59-63. We report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, saunf. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was detected by changing color from green to brown after treatment with AgNO3 (1mM and the UV-visible spectrophotometer analysis showed the absorbance peak at about 427 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticle Tracking and Analysis (NTA by LM-20 was used for multi-parameter analysis, allowing for characterization of particle size and particle distribution of silver nanoparticles synthesized from extract of F. vulgare. NTA revealed the polydispersed nanoparticles in the range of 18-83 nm. Phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC-39403. The silver nanoparticles also demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against two human pathogenic bacteria when used in combination with commercially available antibiotics. The bactericidal activity of the standard antibiotics was significantly enhanced in presence of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria, viz. E. coli-JM-103 (ATCC-39403 and S. aureus (ATCC-25923. Silver nanoparticles in combination with vancomycin showed maximum activity against E. coli (increase in fold area 5.76. and followed by S. aureus (1.08 and Gentamicin showed the maximum activity S. aureus (2.6 while E. coli (0.96. The approach of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using F. vulgare appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of synthesis.

  20. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  1. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels. PMID:26501253

  2. Investigation of cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines of arborinine and furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthy, Borbála; Zupkó, István; Minorics, Renáta; Hohmann, Judit; Ocsovszki, Imre; Falkay, George

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of a series of furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) and of two further acridone alkaloids (arborinine and evoxanthine) were investigated by means of the MTT assay, using the human cell lines HeLa, MCF7 and A431. Arborinine proved best in inhibiting the proliferation of all three cell lines. The cytotoxic potency of the furacridone alkaloids was a function of their lipid solubility, which was determined by means of PAMPA. The capacity of the most effective furanoacridones to induce apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and by staining with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. This finding was reinforced by determining the apoptosis-regulating factors Bcl-2 and Bax, which were revealed by means of RT-PCR to change dose-dependently. The data presented here indicate that naturally occurring furanoacridones can be regarded as excellent starting structures for the potential development of new anticancer agents.

  3. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  4. Effective biotic elicitation of Ruta graveolens L. shoot cultures by lysates from Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, A; Sidwa-Gorycka, M; Malinski, E; Czerwicka, M; Kumirska, J; Golebiowski, M; Lojkowska, E; Stepnowski, P

    2008-03-01

    Growth of Ruta graveolens shoots was induced when Bacillus sp. cell lysates were added to the culture medium. Elicitation of coumarin by this lysate was also very effective; the concentrations of isopimpinelin, xanthotoxin and bergapten increased to 610, 2120 and 1460 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively. It also had a significant effect on the production of psoralen and rutamarin (680 and 380 microg g(-1) dry wt) and induced the biosynthesis of chalepin, which was not detected in the control sample, up to 47 microg g(-1) dry wt With lysates of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum, their effect on growth was not so significant and had no effect on the induction of coumarin accumulation. But elicitation with this lysate was much more effective for inducing the production of furoquinolone alkaloids; the concentrations of gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, dictamnine and kokusaginine rose to 99, 680, 172 and 480 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.

  5. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  6. The effects of chrysin and pinostrobin, two flavonoids isolated from Teloxys graveolens leaves, on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; Paz, D; Acosta, J; Mata, R

    1998-12-01

    The pharmacological effects of pinostrobin and chrysin obtained from the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens (Chenopodiaceae) were evaluated using isolated in vitro guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle. Both flavonoids inhibited the contractions evoked by high concentrations of potassium. The potency of the relaxant effect was determined by measuring the capacity of each product in reducing the phasic and the slower sustained tonic contractile responses induced by depolarization with 60 mM K(+). Concentrations up to 5 × 10(-7) M of pinostrobin and 1 × 10(-7) M of chrysin induced a non-competitive depression of responses to Ca(2+) in ileum preparations bathed in a Ca(2+)-free, high K(+) medium. Both compounds produced a rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to Ca(2+) with a concentration-dependant increase of EC(50) and a decrease of the maximal response. Examination of the inhibitory effect produced by these flavonoids on the phasic component of contractile response evoked with K(+) and on the contraction induced with caffeine, led to propose a different intracellular mechanism of action used by these compounds. The results obtained led us to conclude that the previously detected relaxant effect of Teloxys graveolens crude extract is due in part, to the presence of chrysin and pinostrobin, which inhibit intestinal smooth muscle contractions by means of a calcium-mediated mechanism. Since the modulation of calcium fluxes in the mucosal epithelium may play a role in antidiarrheal drug action, the observed effects in vitro could in the same way explain the popular use of the plant for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:23196029

  7. Molecular identification of Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence%ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其常见混伪品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义梅; 罗焜; 陈科力; 陈士林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基于ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其混伪品的新方法.方法 对小茴香4份样品的ITS2序列进行PCR扩增和测序,同时从GenBank上下载小茴香及其常见混伪品共6个物种42个样本.用MEGA4.1计算其种间、种内的K-2-P距离,并分析各物种间ITS2序列二级结构的差异,最后利用ITS2序列构建其系统发育树.结果 小茴香种内最大K-2-P距离为0.0307,与混伪品的种间最小K-2-P距离为0.0405;小茴香及其混伪品的ITS2二级结构存在明显差异;构建的系统发育树显示小茴香的不同来源样本聚在一支,能很好与混伪品区分.结论 ITS2序列能够成功鉴定小茴香及其易混伪品,可以作为小茴香及其混伪品的分子鉴定方法.%Objective To explore the new method of discriminating Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants by using ITS2 sequence. Method DNA samples were extracted from Foeniculum vulgare.ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced hidirectionally. Sequences were assembled hy CodonCode Aligner. The intra-specific and inter-specific K-2P distances of Foeniculum vulgare ancl its adulterants were calculated. and NJ tree was constructed by MEGA V 4. 1. ITS2 and secondary structure were predicted by the web tool established by Schultz etc. Results The maximum intra-specific K-2P distance was0. 0307 . while the minimum inter-specific K-2P distance was 0. 0405. Different samples of Foeniculum vulgare were gathered together and could be distinguished from its adulterants by NJ tree. And Foeniculum vulgare could he differentiated obviously from its adulterants by their ITS2 secondary structure. Conclusion Our study shows that ITS2 sequence is able to identify Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular identification method for Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants.

  8. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Piarulli, Monica; Mazzotta, Manuela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Mallamaci, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the Nystatin dose via combination is very important. Our findings showed an experimental occurrence of a synergistic interaction between two of these essential oils and Nystatin. The essential oil O. vulgare appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated in this study. Some combinations of Nystatin and P. graveolens essential oil did not have any synergistic interactions for some of the strains considered. Associations of Nystatin with M. alternifolia essential oil had only an additive effect.

  9. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens l'Herit e Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson dos S. Niculau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens, Lippia alba and compounds geraniol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, limonene, carvone, citral and Azamax® were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Topical application assay showed essential oil of P. graveolens has acute toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (third instar with LD50 1.13 µg/mg per insect and LD90 2.56 µg/mg per insect. Three essential oils of L. alba also exhibited insecticidal activity with LD50 ranging from 1.20 to 1.56 µg/mg per insect and LD90 from 2.60 to 3.75 µg/mg per insect. Geraniol, linalool, carvone and citral caused significant mortality of 30, 90, 84 and 64% respectively, compared to negative control. The bioinsecticide, Azamax®, caused lower mortality than the compounds of the essential oils.

  10. Overview of Pharmaceutical Research on Pelargonium graveolens L%香叶天竺葵药学研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党璇; 张晓珍; 姚默; 高昂; 巩江; 倪士峰

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of extensive literature search, the flora, composition, pharmacology and clinical application of Pelargonium graveolens L. Have been reviewed, to provide reference for further development and utilization.%在广泛检索文献基础上,综述了香叶天竺葵种属、成分、药理及临床应用,为深入开发利用提供参考依据.

  11. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64 µL mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

  12. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  13. Review of scientific evidence of medicinal convoy plants in traditional Persian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Nargess Sadati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh. According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs, which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort, the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory, and Apium graveolens (celery seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, and Cucumis melo (melon seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper, Piper longum (long pepper, red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea, hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal, Anethum graveolens (dill, Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  14. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. LUCCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.. The treatments were: fennel, anise, cloves extracts at 10%; fennel, anise, cloves oils at 1% and control with distilled water. The mortality tests were carried out with aphids in laboratory, with three replications, after 1, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. During laboratory trials , it was found out that fennel oil at 1% showed the best rate of mortality on aphid nymphs (70% at 72 h, followed by clove extract at 10% with 37% mortality. Tests in pots were only carried out only with cloves extracts at 10% and fennel oil at 1% treatment, in which such efficiency was alsoindicated on aphid nymphs.

  15. Rezene (Foeniculum dulce Miller) uçucu yağının verimine ve bileşimine partikül boyutunun etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    BALKAN, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, tatlı rezene (Foeniculum dulce Miller) tohumları öğütülerek elde edilen 5 farklı boyuttaki partiküllerin, uçucu yağın verimine ve bileşimine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Materyal olarak, Burdur’un Gölhisar ilçesinde 2010 ve 2011 yıllarında yetiştirilip hasat edilen rezene tohumları kullanılmıştır. Tohumlar öğütüldükten sonra elek analizi yapılarak beş farklı partikül boyutunda (<300μm, 300-710μm, 710μm-1mm, 1-1,4mm, >1,4mm) sınıflandırılmıştır. Öğütülmüş rezene...

  16. Effect of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Used as a Feed Additive on The Egg Quality of Laying Hens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Gharaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, one hundred and twenty 40-wk-old White Leghorn laying hens were submitted to two different thermal conditions (24° C vs. 34° C and were fed three levels (0, 10, or and 20 g/kg of dietof fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. as a feed additive in. This study was carried out according to a factorial design consisting of two temperatures and three fennel levels with five 5 replicates each (n = 2 × 3 × 5. Performance, egg production, egg quality, and oxidative product levels (malondialdehyde, MDA, and carbonyl in the eggs were measured before and after heat exposure. The results showed that the tested temperatures did not affect egg production (p>0.05, but the production of eggs with broken shell and feed intake were affected by heat stress (p0.05, but increased yolk triglyceride levels. Hens that consumed fennel presented lower yolk cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. In general, fennel fruit influenced egg yolk cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and because of its antioxidant properties, it may alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on laying hens.

  17. 小茴香根皮化学成分研究%On the chemical constituents from the root barks of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健博; 古丽娜·沙比尔

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析新疆小茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill)根皮中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱层析法反复分离纯化技术,通过质谱分析、核磁共振等现代波谱技术对新疆小茴香根皮中的化学成分进行结构鉴定.结果 从新疆小茴香中分离得到6种化合物:7-羟基-6-甲氧基香豆素(Scopoletin,Ⅰ).5-羟甲基糠(5-Hydroxymethylfurfural,Ⅱ)、焦谷氨酸乙酯(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid;(±)-form,ET ester,Ⅲ)、胡萝卜苷(Daucosterol,Ⅳ)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sitosterol,V)、蔗糖(Sucrose,Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅲ为首次从茴香属植物中分离得到,为进一步研究新疆小茴香的化学成分提供理论依据.

  18. UJI IRITASI DAN AKTIVITAS PERTUMBUHAN RAMBUT TIKUS PUTIH: EFEK SEDIAAN GEL APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerasan seledri (Apium graveolens L. biasa dipergunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan rambut. Salah satu senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam seledri adalah apigenin. Penelitian ini membahas tentang pengaruh pemakaian gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri sebagai penumbuh rambut, meliputi uji iritasi dan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih jantan galur Spraque-Dawley. Uji iritasi menggunakan metode Kamkaen dan Rao, sedangkan uji aktivitas penumbuh rambut menggunakan metode Hattori-Ogawa dan Suzuki-Hamada. Berdasarkan indeks iritasi primer, semua formulasi gel tidak potensial menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit tikus putih (p>0,05. Gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dalam memacu pertumbuhan rambut (p<0,05 dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Apigenin menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik (p<0,05 dalam meningkatkan ketebalan rambut dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Namun perlakuan perasan herba seledri tidak nyata (p>0,05 meningkatkan ketebalan rambut. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Kata kunci : seledri, apigenin, gel, iritasi kulit, penumbuh rambutAbstractCelery (Apium graveolens L. juice is widely used for promoting hair growth. One of the main compounds in celery is apigenin. This research discusses about the effect of gel containing apigenin and celery juice application as hair growth in term of skin irritation and its hair growth activity on Spraque-Dawley male mice. The irritation test was Kamkaen and Rao methods, while hair growth activity was HattoriOgawa and Suzuki-Hamada methods. Based on primary index irritation, all of the gel formulations did not signifiantly potential in resulting skin irritation on the mice (p>0,05. Gel containing apigenin andcelery juice showed better activity in promoting hair growth (p<0,05 than

  19. Determination of Linoleic Acid in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from Different Habitats by HPLC-ELSD%HPLC-ELSD 法测定不同产地小茴香中亚油酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱生勇; 顾湘

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立小茴香中亚油酸含量的 HPLC-ELSD 测定方法并测定不同产地小茴香的亚油酸含量。方法:采用 Cosmosil 5 C18-MS-Ⅱ柱,甲醇-水-冰醋酸(95∶5∶0.1%),流速1.0 mL· min-1,柱温35℃,漂移管温度40℃,雾化气 N2,载气流速3.0 L·min-1。结果与结论:本法测定小茴香中亚油酸含量简便可靠。测得4个产地小茴香中亚油酸含量最高为8.73 mg·g-1,最低为1.70 mg·g-1。不同产地小茴香中亚油酸含量差异明显。%Objective: To establish a quantitative HPLC-ELSD method for the determination of linoleic acid in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from different habitats. Methods: A column of Cosmosil 5C18-MS-Ⅱ was used with the mobile phase of methanol and water and acetic acid (95∶5∶0.1%), the fIow rate was 1.0 mL· min-1, and the column temperature was set at 35 ℃. The temperature of drift tube was set at 40 ℃ with an air fIow rate of 3.0 L·min-1 for ELSD. Results and Conclusion: The established HPLC-ELSD method is simple and suitable for the quality control of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The maximum content of linoleic acid in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from four habitats was 8.73 mg·g-1 and the minimum content was 1.70 mg· g-1. Great difference of linoleic acid content is shown in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from different habitats.

  20. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  1. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil. PMID:26696243

  2. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species. PMID:26805742

  3. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shagun; Tandon, Simran

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of various potencies of Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, migration, clonogenecity, morphological and biochemical changes and modification in the levels of genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle. On treatment of COLO-205 cells maximal effects were seen with mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies, wherein decrease in cell viability along with reduced clonogenecity and migration capabilities were noted. In addition morphological and biochemical alterations such as nuclear changes (fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin) and DNA ladder-like pattern (increased amount of fragmented DNA) in COLO-205 cells indicating apoptotic related cell death were seen. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory genes assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an up-regulation of caspase 9, caspase-3, Bax, p21 and p27 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The mode of cell death was suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic pathway along with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals present in Ruta showed potential for natural therapeutic product development for colon carcinoma.

  4. Unusual pseudosubstrate specificity of a novel 3,5-dimethoxyphenol O-methyltransferase cloned from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Laura; Wellmann, Frank; Lukacin, Richard; Witte, Simone; Schwab, Wilfried; Schröder, Joachim; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA was cloned from Ruta graveolens cells encoding a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) with high similarity to orcinol or chavicol/eugenol OMTs, but containing a serine-rich N-terminus and a 13 amino acid insertion between motifs IV and V. Expression in Escherichia coli revealed S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent OMT activity with methoxylated phenols only with an apparent Km of 20.4 for the prime substrate 3,5-dimethoxyphenol. The enzyme forms a homodimer of 84 kDa, and the activity was insignificantly affected by 2.0 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, whereas Fe2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ or Hg2+ were inhibitory (78-100%). Dithiothreitol (DTT) suppressed the OMT activity. This effect was examined further, and, in the presence of Zn2+ as a potential thiol methyltransferase (TMT) cofactor, the recombinant OMT methylated DTT to DTT-monomethylthioether. Sets of kinetic OMT experiments with 3,5-dimethoxyphenol at various Zn2+/DTT concentrations revealed the competitive binding of DTT with an apparent Ki of 52.0 microM. Thus, the OMT exhibited TMT activity with almost equivalent affinity to the thiol pseudosubstrate which is structurally unrelated to methoxyphenols.

  5. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  6. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  7. Study on the Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides to prevent Leucocytozoonosis%驱蚊草驱除库蠓预防鸡白冠病的应用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代友洪; 蒋清蓉; 叶兆美; 赖守勋

    2012-01-01

    This test. used sticky paper to collect Culicoides, understanding the effect of Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides inside and outside henhouse. The resuhs showed that using Pelargonium graveolens could effectively reduce the number of Culicoides in the range of 1.5 m (P〈0.05). Placing Pelargonium graveolens in the house dispelling Culicoides better than without placing Pelargonium graveolens significantly (P〈0.05). Pelargonium graveolen had no significant effect on laying rate and death rate for laying hens. So we summarized that Pelargonium graveolens had significant effect of dispelling Culicoides, also reached the purpose of preventing white-crowned disease.%本试验采用粘蚊帖收集库蠓的方法,了解在鸡舍内和鸡舍外使用驱蚊草对库蠓的驱除作用。试验结果证明:使用驱蚊草在鸡舍外能够在1.5m范围内有效地减少库蠓的数量(P〈0.05):放置了驱蚊草的鸡舍相比未放置驱蚊草的鸡舍其库蠓数量明显减少(P〈0.05);另外,驱蚊草对蛋鸡的产蛋率与死淘率无明显影响。由此可见,驱蚊草有明显的驱库蠓效果,能达到预防鸡白冠病的目的,

  8. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%, limonene (13.65%, and α-fenchone (8.27% in the fennel essential oil and linalool (28.63%, 1,8-cineole (18.65%, and 1-borneol (15.94% in the lavender essential oil were found as main components. Contact and fumigant toxicity of essential oils was assessed against adult females of T. urticae after 24 h exposure time. The essential oils revealed strong toxicity in both contact and fumigant bioassays and the activity dependeds on essential oil concentrations. Lethal concentration 50% for the population of mite (LC50 was found as 0.557% (0.445–0.716 and 0.792% (0.598–1.091 in the contact toxicity and 1.876 μL/L air (1.786–1.982 and 1.971 μL/L air (1.628–2.478 in the fumigant toxicity for fennel and lavender oils, respectively. Results indicated that F. vulgare and L. angustifolia essential oils might be useful for managing of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae.

  9. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80t/ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  10. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel. The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%, AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L, and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Ciniglia, Claudia; Reccia, Mafalda G; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Estimación de la capacidad germinativa y el vigor de las semillas de diomate (astronium graveolens jacq.) sometidas a diferentes tratamientos y condiciones de almacenamiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Restrepo, Martha Ligia

    2011-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  15. 蚊净香草叶片离体培养研究%Study on leaves in vitro culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊辉; 杨妙贤; 冼元香

    2005-01-01

    以蚊净香草(Pelargonium graveolens L'herit)不同叶龄的叶片为外植体进行离体培养,结果表明,只有成熟的叶片可诱导形成愈伤组织,培养基MS+6-BA 1.00mg/L+NAA 0.20mg/L最适于愈伤组织的诱导、不定芽分化和丛生芽的增殖,培养基MS+NAA 0.20 mg/L最适合根系诱导及幼苗生长.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed; S. Shahidi-Motlagh; H. Bagherzadeh; S. Azad Forouz; H. Tafazoli

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL). In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, signific...

  17. The effect of chronic administration of Apium graveolens aqueous extract on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdad Roghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Diabetes mellitus accompanies with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of Apium graveolens (AG , this research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic i.p. administration of AG on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests.   Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, AG-treated control, diabetic, and AG-treated diabetic groups. AG treatment continued for 4 weeks. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks as compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in AG-treated diabetic group as compared to control group at the end of study. In addition, STL did not significantly change in AG-treated control group in comparison with control group. In addition, results of Y-maze test showed that there is no significant difference between diabetic and Ag-treated diabetic groups and between control and Ag-treated control group regarding alternation behavior. Discussion: In summary, chronic oral administration of AG could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals.  

  18. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50 µL on Petri dish of 8.5 cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5 µL/20 mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses.

  19. Optimization Experiment to Extract Citronellol from Pelargonium graveolens with Ethanol%利用乙醇提取香叶天竺葵中香茅醇研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 谭乐和; 徐飞; 刘向阳; 郝朝运; 吴刚; 张翠玲

    2012-01-01

    本文利用香叶天竺葵的叶片,对香叶天竺葵中香茅醇的提取率进行研究.对提取香茅醇的最适乙醇浓度、温度、时间、料液比分别进行了测定.结果表明,乙醇提取法的最佳工艺条件为乙醇浓度75%、温度40℃、时间4h、料液比1:20的最佳组合,在该条件下香茅醇提取率可达0.88 mg/g.%The extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens were determined. The optimum ethanol concentration, temperature, time, and solid-liquid ratio for extracting the citronellol were examined. The results of statistical analysis showed that the ideal extraction condition was as follows; 75 % ethanol concentration, 40℃, 4 h, and 1:20 of the solid-liquid ratio. Under this condition, the extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens was 0.88 mg/g.

  20. STUDY OF DRUG LIKENESS ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sathya; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemicals in medicinal plants can deliver potential therapeutic drugs such as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant etc. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and each phytochemical cannot be tested in the wetlab preparations. Hence the main aim of the study is the drug likeness activity of phytochemicals in medicinal plants such as Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens against hepatocellular carcinoma. These plants have anticancer, antilivercancer, hepatoprotective, antiv...

  1. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética Efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, nos níveis de glucose, colesterol e triacilglicerídeos num modelo do rato diabético Induced effects by Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, and Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, on glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (Diversas plantas com propriedades hipoglicêmicas foram usadas na medicina popular e em sistemas tradicionais de curas em torno do mundo. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L, Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, em modelo do rato diabético onde níveis da glucose foram determinados a cada 24 h em um mês antes da administração gástrica do extrato das plantas. Colesterol e triacilglicerídeos foram avaliados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Os resultados mostraram que a administração de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dose de 0,5 a 1,5 g/kg induz um aumento hipoglicêmico ( 200 mg/dL. Outros resultados, mostraram que Citrus aurantium exerce mudanças na concentração de triacilglicerídeos (158-172 mg/dL e colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, a administração de Ruta graveolens na dose de 0.5 g/kg induziu um efeito hipoglicêmico (Several plants with hypoglycemic properties have

  2. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  3. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinn...

  4. A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Ruta graveolens L. exhibits p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase activity (C2'H): a missing step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialart, Guilhem; Hehn, Alain; Olry, Alexandre; Ito, Kyoko; Krieger, Celia; Larbat, Romain; Paris, Cedric; Shimizu, Bun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2012-05-01

    Coumarins are important compounds that contribute to the adaptation of plants to biotic or abiotic stresses. Among coumarins, umbelliferone occupies a pivotal position in the plant phenylpropanoid network. Previous studies indicated that umbelliferone is derived from the ortho-hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid by an unknown biochemical step to yield 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, which then undergoes spontaneous lactonization. Based on a recent report of a gene encoding a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibited feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase activity (Bourgaud et al., 2006), we combined a bioinformatic approach and a cDNA library screen to identify an orthologous ORF (Genbank accession number JF799117) from Ruta graveolens L. This ORF shares 59% amino acid identity with feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and converted feruloyl CoA into scopoletin and p-coumaroyl CoA into umbelliferone with equal activity. Its bi-functionality was further confirmed in planta: transient expression of JF799117 in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded plants with leaves containing high levels of umbelliferone and scopoletin when compared to control plants, which contained barely detectable traces of these compounds. The expression of JF799117 was also tightly correlated to the amount of umbelliferone that was found in UV-elicited R. graveolens leaves. Therefore, JF799117 encodes a p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase in R. graveolens, which represents a previously uncharacterized step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants. Psoralen, which is an important furanocoumarin in R. graveolens, was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, and it may exert this effect through negative feedback on the enzyme at an upstream position in the pathway.

  5. CYP98A22, a phenolic ester 3’-hydroxylase specialized in the synthesis of chlorogenic acid, as a new tool for enhancing the furanocoumarin concentration in Ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamat Fazeelat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Furanocoumarins are molecules with proven therapeutic properties and are produced in only a small number of medicinal plant species such as Ruta graveolens. In vivo, these molecules play a protective role against phytophageous insect attack. Furanocoumarins are members of the phenylpropanoids family, and their biosynthetic pathway is initiated from p-coumaroyl coA. The enzymes belonging to the CYP98A cytochrome P450 family have been widely described as being aromatic meta-hydroxylases of various substrates, such as p-coumaroyl ester derivatives, and are involved in the synthesis of coumarins such as scopoletin. In furanocoumarin-producing plants, these enzymes catalyze the step directly downstream of the junction with the furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway and might indirectly impact their synthesis. Results In this work, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of the first CYP98A encoding gene isolated from R. graveolens. Using Nicotiana benthamiana as a heterologous expression system, we have demonstrated that this enzyme adds a 3-OH to p-coumaroyl ester derivatives but is more efficient to convert p-coumaroyl quinate into chlorogenic acid than to metabolize p-coumaroyl shikimate. Plants exposed to UV-B stress showed an enhanced expression level of the corresponding gene. The R. graveolens cyp98a22 open reading frame and the orthologous Arabidopsis thaliana cyp98a3 open reading frame were overexpressed in stable transgenic Ruta plants. Both plant series were analyzed for their production of scopoletin and furanocoumarin. A detailed analysis indicates that both genes enhance the production of furanocoumarins but that CYP98A22, unlike CYP98A3, doesn’t affect the synthesis of scopoletin. Conclusions The overexpression of CYP98A22 positively impacts the concentration of furanocoumarins in R. graveolens. This gene is therefore a valuable tool to engineer plants with improved therapeutical values that might

  6. Comparison of leaf morphology and anatomy among Malva sylvestris ("gerânio-aromático", Pelargonium graveolens ("falsa-malva" and Pelargonium odoratissimum ("gerânio-de-cheiro" Comparação da Morfologia e da anatomia foliar entre as espécies Malva sylvestris (gerânio-aromático, Pelargonium graveolens (falsa-malva e Pelargonium odoratissimum (gerânio-de-cheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Romitelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris is generally confused with Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium odoratissimum due to similarities in their leaf morphology. The leaves of M. sylvestris have anthocyanins with scientifically proven cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. The leaves of P. odoratissimum have essential oil with antibacterial and spasmolytic properties, while the essential oil from P. graveolens has antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to morpho-anatomically analyze the leaves of these species, indicating differences that can be used to clarify controversies about their use as medicinal plants. To anatomically compare the structure of each plant, samples were observed by Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Leaf anatomy among species was quite different. Malva sylvestris showed capitate starry tector trichomes, as well as druses and mucilaginous cells. P. graveolens and P. odoratissimum differed as to trichomes. Both species had tector and glandular trichomes, and P. graveolens is distinguished for the greater height of tector trichomes and less quantity of the latter relative to P. odoratissimum. This study allowed the detection of anatomical differences, assisting in the taxonomy and classification of these species.Malva sylvestris é comumente confundida com Pelargonium graveolens e Pelargonium odoratissimum devido às semelhanças na morfologia foliar. As folhas de M. sylvestris possuem antocianinas com propriedades citotóxicas, antiinflamatória, antitumoral e antioxidante já comprovadas cientificamente. As folhas de P. odoratissimum apresentam óleo essencial com propriedades antibacteriana e espasmolítica, e o óleo essencial da folha de P. graveolens possui atividade antimicrobiana e antifúngica. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas destas espécies, apontando diferenças que possam ser utilizadas para esclarecer controvérsias na

  7. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  8. Effect of Vermicompost on Chemical and Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content during Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill. Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker UZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate impact of vermicompost on chemical and biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content in the presence of plant under the open field conditions in semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study also included farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers for comparison and was conducted in two consecutive growth seasons in the same plots to observe any cumulative effect. Plots were amended with fertilizers in different rates and celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill. was grown as the test plant. In general, vermicompost appeared to be more effective to increase organic matter, N, P, and Ca compared to farmyard manure. Soil alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities, especially in the second growth season, were significantly elevated by the vermicompost application. Urease activity, however, appeared not to be influenced by the type of organic fertilizer. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria with vermicompost giving the lower values. Results showed that, in general, vermicompost significantly alters chemical and biological properties of the alkaline soil with high lime content during celery production under field conditions compared to farmyard manure and that it has a high potential to be used as an alternative to conventional organic fertilizers in agricultural production in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  9. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  10. Graveoline isolated from ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens triggers apoptosis and autophagy in skin melanoma cells: a novel apoptosis-independent autophagic signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samrat; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Anti-cancer drugs generally kill cancer cells by apoptosis but fail to do so when they become resistant and escape apoptosis signals. But these resistant cells can still be killed by autophagy. Therefore, drugs having both apoptotic and autophagic abilities are solicited in effective cancer management. In search of such a drug, we examined the efficacy of graveoline, a bioactive compound isolated from Ruta graveolens on skin melanoma A375 cells through the use of specific signaling cascades and their inhibitors. Cytotoxicity of graveoline was tested by conducting MTT assay. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis was checked. Expression of related proteins and their localization were studied by conducting immunoblot assay and through confocal microscopy, respectively. We found graveoline-induced Beclin-1 associated autophagy in A375 cells and 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy did not affect apoptosis. Conversely, caspase inhibitor that blocked apoptosis did not affect autophagic cell death, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers inhibited cell death, but blocking autophagy did not affect graveoline-induced ROS generation, suggesting that ROS generation ensued autophagy. Thus, graveoline-induced both apoptotic and autophagic cell death in skin melanoma cells, a desirable quality in effective anti-cancer drug design.

  11. An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her for potential use by resource-limited animal owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Botha

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary needs appraisals in rural, peri-urban and urban areas have indicated a need for affordable and accessible veterinary health care. It was also found that farmers and animal owners used indigenous plants for treating animals. In Africa, insects such as Culex, Culicoides and Stomoxys may transmit diseases, cause irritation to animals or prevent wound healing. Insect repellents used topically are generally safer and cheaper than insecticides. Using readily available commercial sources of ethanol 43 %v/v (brandy and cane spirits, it was shown that citronellol could be extracted from uncrushed leaves of the indigenous shrub Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. Efficacy of extraction was compared to that using reagent grade absolute ethanol. The peak concentration of citronellol was achieved within 7 days of extraction and thereafter remained constant for 4 months. Extraction methods using tap water and cooking oil were not successful. The extraction was also less successful when the leaves were crushed or macerated before being placed into ethanol. Gas chromatography was used to monitor the concentration of citronellol in the different extracts.

  12. 驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导和增殖%Effects on induction and proliferation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 刘树楠; 周吉源

    2006-01-01

    以驱蚊香草(Pelargonium graveolens)的幼嫩叶片为外植体,接种于附加不同浓度的NAA、2,4-D、6-BA、KT及其组合的MS固体培养基上,结果表明:单独使用4种植物生长调节物质对驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导在一定浓度范围内都有效果,其中单独使用KT时效果不太明显;最佳的组合培养基为MS+2,4-D0.2 mg/L +6-BA0.5 mg/L.在黑暗和光照培养条件下,愈伤组织的增殖呈"S"型,且生长周期均为30 d.

  13. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K. and European (Origanum vulgare L. Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Hernández-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO’s of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO’s was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME. The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO’s was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO’s and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO’s varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol and γ-terpinene (pentane as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO’s showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO’s remained the same, while free EO’s decreased 41% (MXO and 67% (EUO from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO’s from oregano.

  14. Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun ZHANG; Jianbing WANG; Zhongyi YANG; Guorong XIN; Jiangang YUAN; Junliang XIN; Charlie HUANG

    2013-01-01

    To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.

  15. Bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Yang; Zhongren Nan; Zhuanjun Zhao; Zhaowei Wang; Shengli Wang; Xia Wang; Wangqiang Jin; Cuicui Zhao

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium (Cd) in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the Cd-polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China.The results showed that Cd in the unpolluted oasis soil was mainly bound to carbonate fraction (F2) and Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3).However,marked change of Cd fractions was observed with increasing soil Cd concentrations,in which the concentration of Cd in F1 (exchangeable fraction),F2 and F3 increased significantly (p < 0.001 for F1,F2 and F3).The growth of cole and celery could be facilitated by low concentrations of Cd,but inhibited by high concentrations.The correlation analysis between the fraction distribution coefficient of Cd in the soil and Cd concentration accumulated in the two vegetables showed that Cd in FI in the soil made the greatest contribution on the accumulation of Cd in the two vegetables.The high bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor of Cd in both cole and celery were observed,and Cd had higher accumulation in the edible parts of the two vegetables.Therefore,both cole and celery grown in Cd-polluted oasis soil have higher risk to human health.And the two vegetables are not suitable to be cultivated as vegetables consumed by human in the Cd-polluted oasis soil.

  16. Observation on Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells in Apium graveolens%芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 张蜀宁; 张宇; 李俊星; 刘惠吉

    2011-01-01

    The flower buds of celery (Apium graveolens ) were used to study the mitosis in pollen mother cells with enzyme - dye -squash technique.The results showed that the pollen mother cells carried on their meiosis and cytokinesis simultaneously and their tetrads were tetrahedral or decussate type; at metaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there showed a small number of chromosomes scattered outside their equatorial plate; at anaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there appeared chromosome bridges and lagged chromosomes in some pollen mother cells.%以中国芹品种铁杆芹花蕾为材料,采用改良卡宝染色压片法对芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂进行了细胞学研究.结果表明:花粉母细胞减数分裂为胞质同时型,四分体为正四面体型或十字交叉型,中期Ⅰ和中期Ⅱ细胞可见赤道板外染色体,后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ部分细胞出现染色体桥及落后染色体.

  17. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  18. Ethnopharmacology, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter. Which Has Been Used as Remedies Antirheumatic, Anti-inflammation and Antiinfection against Leishmaniasis in the Traditional Medicine of Gorgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was survey to investigate of ethnopharmacology, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter extract in in vitro from waste ground region of Gorgan, Iran, which has been used in traditional as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene, and antiinfection. Materials and Methods: Ethnopharmacological data were obtained among well-known indigenous herbal practitioner (70 ages in Gorgan, Iran. Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Gorgan waste ground (80 m in October 2013. Methanol and acetone extracts were obtained by maceration, antioxidant activity were evaluated spectrophotometrically by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power to compare of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole antioxidant standard and antibacterial activity were determined by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs method against tree Gram-positive and negative pathogenic bacteria. Results: D. graveolens (L. W. Greuteris is usually wild grow in Golestan Province and has been used in traditional medicine as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene and antiinfection specially in treat of leishmaniosis metanolic extract of plant has strong antioxidant activity against free radical scavenging specially in DPPH methode than aceton extract with IC50 (6.2 ± 0.13 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus with inhibition zone 35, 30, 26, 21 mm were the most sensitive bacteria, with MIC ranging from 12.6 to 112 μg/ml, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium have moderate sensitivity and other bacteria were resistant to the plant extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the methanolic extract of D. graveolens can become good potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity for controlling certain Gram

  19. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  20. Alternativní způsoby ochrany zeleniny proti houbovým patogenům

    OpenAIRE

    Zusková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on assessment of the effectiveness of 12 selected essential oils originaly from the following plants Thymus vulgaris, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus sinensis, Eucalypthus citriodora, Litsea cubeba, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Artemisia dracunculus, against selected pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani and Alternaria brassicae. The first chapter of literature re...

  1. Fumigant Activities of Essential Oil from Foeniculum vulgare against Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) Adults at Different Temperatures%温度对小茴香精油熏杀谷蠹成虫活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍章; 李世广; 王小云

    2011-01-01

    采用滤纸栽药熏蒸法,测试了不同温度处理条件下小茴香精油在空仓和实仓两种模拟条件下对谷蠹成虫的熏杀活性.结果表明,小茴香精油在空仓模拟条件下对谷蠹成虫的熏杀活性好于实仓.在30℃条件下,小茴香精油6.67 μL/L空仓处理试虫48 h、100.00 μL/L实仓处理谷蠹成虫7d,试虫的校正死亡率均为100%.此外,小茴香精油对谷蠹子代种群也具有较强的控制作用.%The fumigant activities of essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare seeds against adults of Rhizopertha dominie a (Fab.) were tested by drug-paper method in simulation warehouses. When the pests were not fed with wheat kernels, the F. vulgare essential oil showed better fumigant activities than those fed with wheat kernels. When the non-fed pests were exposure by drug vapor with 6.67 μL/L for 48 h and pests fed with wheat were exposure by drug vapor with 100.00 μL/L for 7 d at 30 t, the corrected mortalities of R. dominica were both 100%. Furthermore, the F. vulgare essential oil could effectively restrain the R. dominica of next generation.

  2. Atividade in vitro de plantas condimentares (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. contra o calicivírus felino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Felli Kubiça

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O calicivírus felino (FCV é um importante patógeno de gatos que causa lesões ulcerativas orais e infecções respiratórias. O vírus tem sido utilizado como modelo experimental para avaliação de agente antivirais contra norovírus (NoVs. Nesse estudo, investigou-se a ação dos óleos essenciais de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. frente ao FCV, in vitro. A toxicidade celular foi testada pelo método de MTT e os ensaios antivirais pelo teste de redução de placas. Três protocolos foram aplicados: a diferentes concentrações não tóxicas dos óleos essenciais (CNTOE foram incubadas com o vírus por 1 hora antes da inoculação (ensaio virucida; b CNTOE foram adicionadas às células CRFK e incubadas por 1 hora antes da adsorção viral (ensaio de pré-tratamento; c CNTOE foram adicionadas às células após a inoculação do FCV e mantidas por 18 horas (ensaio de pós-tratamento. A CC50 para os óleos de alecrim, orégano mexicano e tomilho foram: 1300,21 μg mL-1; 435,92 μg mL-1 e 675,34 μg mL-1; respectivamente. O óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou índice de seletividade [IS=CC50/CI50] de 8,57 para o ensaio de pré-tratamento e 6,2 no ensaio virucida. O óleo de alecrim mostrou atividade antiviral no ensaio virucida (IS=6,54 e de pós-tratamento (IS=6,86. O orégano mexicano apresentou IS de 5,75 no ensaio virucida e 5,59 no de pós-tratamento. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de tomilho e alecrim apresentaram atividade frente ao FCV em diferentes momentos da infecção viral.Palavras-chave: Norovírus. FCV. óleos essenciais. Citotoxicidade. MTT. ensaio de placa. ABSTRACTIn vitro activity of plants used as condiments (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. against the feline calicivirusThe feline calicivirus (FCV is an important pathogen of feline causing oral ulcerative lesions and respiratory disease. This virus

  3. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  4. Larvicidal, Repellent and Irritant Potential of the Seed-derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L., the primary carrier for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures; the eco-friendly, bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens; was investigated for anti-mosquito potential against Ae. aegypti. Evaluation of larvicidal potential of celery seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti resulted in LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 ppm and 29.08 ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24 h; the toxic effect of the oil increasing by 1.2 fold with an LC50 value of 13.22 ppm after an exposure to 48h. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause rapid mortality, suggesting a delayed type of larval killing effect. The remarkable finding of the present study was effective repellency of the essential oil leading to 100% protection till 165 min as compared to control that did not show any repellency against mosquitoes. Only 1 bite was recorded in the 165th minute after which only 2 bites were scored until 180 min of exposure of the oil to the adult mosquitoes. An exciting observation was the knocked-down of mosquitoes caused by the exposure to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The exposure to 1% oil resulted in first flight only after 4 sec and a total of 63.66 average flights during 15 min exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97.The qualitative phytochemical study of the oil showed the presence of terpenoids, lactones and flavonoids as the major constituents suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Present investigations proved celery seed essential oil to be an efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms and the

  5. Morphology, anatomy and influence of drying on germination of seeds of Calendula officinalis Morfoanatomía y efecto del secado en la germinación de semillas de caléndula y eneldo

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria T. Jorge A.; Sánchez O Manuel Salvador; Bonilla C Carmen Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory tests with seed of Calendula officinalis and Anethum graveolens to describe morphology and anatomy components such as humidity content in balance (CHB) in different atmospheres to get appropriate conservation of the germsplasm to determine physiological behavior in short seed storage to evaluate and to stablish an appropriate methodology for germination, were carried out. The morphological and anatomical description allowed to specify and to illustrate the organs and internal struc...

  6. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani; Sameerah I. Al-Saeedi; Rasmiah Almufarij

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV) extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca), Eruca Sativa (Arugula), Petroselinum crispum (Parsley), and Anethum Graveolens (Dill) were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss) method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inh...

  7. Evaluation of the Antitoxic Effect of Phthalides from Apium graveolens in Acrylamide Intoxication I. Evolution of the Hepatic Cytolysis and Proteosynthetic Parameters in Acrylamide Intoxication on the Background of Phthalide Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PRISACARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a toxic compound formed during thermical processing of foods that contain amino acids, mainly asparagine, and reducing sugars. The toxicodynamics of acrylamide, exerted mainly by its major metabolite glycidamide, is expressed by mutagenic, carcinogenic and imunosupressive effects. Due to its toxicity and its high prevalence in aliments, the present paper approaches a possible way of reducing the toxic effects of acrylamide by using phytotherapeutical means. In this direction, the antitoxic potential of some phytopreparates obtained from Apium graveolens (Apii aetheroleum, extractive solutions from A. radix, A. folium and A. semen were monitorized on the background of acrylamide intoxication. The antitoxic potential of phthalides has been evaluated by determining biochemical parameters: hepatic cytolysis parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanil aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and protesosynthesis parameters (colinesterase, total poteins, albumins. The biochemical investigation confirmed the antitoxic potential fo phthalides from celery, the highest protection being obtained for the phytopreparate from Apii semen.

  8. Analysis on Content and Composition of Essential Oil in Different Month of Growth in Pelargonium graveolens%不同月份香叶天竺葵精油的含有率与成分变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2006-01-01

    对生长在上海地区的香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L.)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在1月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  9. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase mechanism-based inactivation by psoralen derivatives: cloning and characterization of a C4H from a psoralen producing plant-Ruta graveolens-exhibiting low sensitivity to psoralen inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravot, Antoine; Larbat, Romain; Hehn, Alain; Lièvre, Karine; Gontier, Eric; Goergen, Jean Louis; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) complete cDNA was cloned from the leaves of Ruta graveolens, a psoralen producing plant. The recombinant enzyme (classified CYP73A32) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mechanism-based inactivation was investigated using various psoralen derivatives. Only psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were found to inactivate C4H. The inactivation was dependent on the presence of NADPH, time of pre-incubation, and inhibitor concentration. Inactivation stoichiometry was 0.9 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A1 and 1.1 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A32. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that [3H]psoralen was irreversibly bound to the C4H apoprotein. K(i) and k(inact) for psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen inactivation on the two C4H revealed a lower sensitivity for CYP73A32 compared to CYP73A1. Inactivation kinetics were also determined for CYP73A10, a C4H from another furocoumarin-producing plant, Petroselinum crispum. This enzyme was found to behave like CYP73A32, with a weak sensitivity to psoralen and 8-MOP inactivation. Cinnamic acid hydroxylation is a key step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds, psoralen derivatives included. Our results suggest a possible evolution of R. graveolens and P. crispum C4H that might tolerate substantial levels of psoralen derivatives in the cytoplasmic compartment without a depletive effect on C4H and the general phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  10. 不同倍性种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Ploidy Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the aroma characteristics of essential oils of different ploidy seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens,oils from tissue-cultured seedlings with normal and doubling chromosomes were analyzed by gas chromatography,respectively.It was shown that the aroma chemical constituents from two different seedlings were identical but differed in amounts.The contents of geraniol and iso-menthone were higher in polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings,while the contents of citronellol,citronellyl formate and citronellyl acetate were higher in normal tissue-cultured seedlings.The main constituents are citronellol 30.83 %-38.25 %,geraniol 5.30 %-9.72 %,and β-gurjunene 3.71 %-5.50 %,for normal tissue-cultured seedlings ; citronellol 26.1%-38.8%,geraniol 5.94%-14.81%,and β-gurjunene 3.21%-6.16%,for polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings.%以香叶天竺葵的不同倍性组培苗为研究材料,对不同采样时间的香叶油进行气相色谱分析,比较其香气特征.结果表明:常规组培苗和染色体加倍苗的香叶油的化学成分相同,且各个成分含量随月份变化的规律一致,但在各成分的含量上有差异.多倍体组培苗香叶油中香叶醇、异薄荷酮的含量较高,而常规组培苗香叶油中香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、乙酸香茅酯的含量较高.常规组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇30.83%~38.25%、香叶醇5.30%~9.72%、β-古芸烯3.71%~5.50%,多倍体组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇26.1%~38.8%、香叶醇5.94%~14.81%、β-古芸烯3.21%~6.16%.

  11. 芹菜黄酮合成酶Ⅰ基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of flavone synthase I gene in Apium graveo-lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸云; 王枫; 徐志胜; 谭国飞; 李梦瑶; 熊爱生

    2014-01-01

    The flavone synthase I gene (AgFS I), the key gene for flavonoids synthesis, was cloned from Apium graveolens cultivars Liuhehuangxinqin, Jinnanshiqin and Meiguoxiqin, respectively. The length of AgFS I gene was 1 616 bp, containing 359-bp intronⅠ and 190-bp intronⅡ. The AgFS I gene encodes 355 amino acids, belonging to the 20G-FeII Oxy superfamily. There were differences in 5 nucleotide sites and 5 amino acid sites among the three cultivars of Api-um graveolens. Multiple sequence alignment of AgFS Is with FSIs from other plants showed that FSⅠs were highly conser-vative. Phylogenetic tree revealed the AgFS Is had the closest relationship to Daucus carota and Cuminum cyminum, which belong to the Apiaceae. Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that AgFS I belong to the hydrophobic protein. The AgFS Is from three cultivars of Apium graveolens are similar in three dimentional structure.%选用3个芹菜材料六合黄心芹、津南实芹和美国西芹,分别从中克隆了合成黄酮类化合物的关键酶基因---芹菜黄酮合成酶I基因( AgFS I)。该基因全长均为1616 bp,含有359 bp的内含子I和190 bp的内含子II。芹菜AgFS I基因编码355个氨基酸,属于20G-FeII Oxy超级家族。序列分析结果显示,3种芹菜中AgFS I基因在核苷酸水平上有5个碱基的差异,编码的氨基酸有5个位点的差异。芹菜黄酮合成酶I( AgFS I)与其他来源植物的FSI氨基酸多重序列比对分析结果表明,该酶具有高度保守性。对AgFS I进行进化树分析,氨基酸序列的疏水性/亲水性分析,三级结构预测与分析,结果显示AgFS I与同属于伞形科的胡萝卜和孜然芹的FSI进化关系最近, AgFS I属于疏水性蛋白质,3种芹菜AgFS I的空间结构相似。

  12. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1beta through suppression of NF-kappaB activation by 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Shrivastava, Anju; Das, Hasi Rani

    2007-03-29

    The Ruta graveolens L. plant is used in traditional medicine to treat a large number of diseases. The methanol (50%) extract of the whole plant was observed to inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells (J774A.1, [Raghav, S.K., Gupta, B., Agrawal, C., Goswami, K., Das, H.R., 2006b. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 234-239]). The effect of whole plant extract on the expression of other pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB) were investigated in LPS stimulated macrophage cells. An active compound was isolated from this methanol extract by further solvent fractionation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The purified compound was identified as 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin having IUPAC nomenclature of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-methyl but-3-en-2yl)-2H-chromen-2-one by ESI-MS, MALDI, FT-IR and NMR. Effect of this purified compound was assessed on iNOS, COX-2 and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and was observed to inhibit both the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1beta in LPS challenged macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analyses indicated that the plant extract and the isolated active compound blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB through the prevention of inhibitor-kB (IkB) degradation. The purified compound also showed the anti-oxidant activity. The active compound at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was observed to inhibit the iNOS and IL-1beta gene expression significantly in endotoxin-induced inflammatory model of BALB/c mice. The low level of nitric oxide production was also observed in the sera of compound treated mice

  13. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Ruta graveolens L. sob influência de fenantreno e benzo[a]pireno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomara Dias da Costa Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A exposição a contaminantes orgânicos como os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem atraído considerável atenção devido aos efeitos dessas substâncias sobre a saúde humana, o ambiente e o desenvolvimento vegetal. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do fenantreno e do benzo[a]pireno sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal in vitro de R. graveolens. Sementes comerciais descontaminadas foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio com meio MS suplementado com 0 (controle; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e 0 (controle; 0,001; 0,01 e 0,1 mg L-1 de benzo[a]pireno. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sementes germinadas, o índice de velocidade de germinação e a entropia. Após dois meses, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e radicular e contabilizou-se o número de folhas desenvolvidas. Durante o primeiro mês, a presença do fenantreno não alterou o processo germinativo, enquanto que o benzo[a]pireno na concentração de 0,01 mg L-1 proporcionou aumento significativo da germinação (p≤0,05. Durante o segundo mês, as concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e de 0,001 mg L-1 benzo[a]pireno resultaram em desenvolvimento radicular significativamente superior. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas quanto à fitomassa, ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e número de folhas por plântulas. Tais resultados sugerem potencial para o cultivo de R. graveolens em áreas contaminadas, nos níveis investigados.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  15.  Determination of lethal doses of volatile and fixed oils of several plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hanefi, Özbek; Mustafa, Öztürk; Abdurrahman, Öztürk; Ebubekir, Ceylan; Zabit, Yener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine lethal doses of fixed and/orvolatile oils extracted from leafs or fruits of Pimpinellaanisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sesamum indicum,Eugenia caryophyllata, Nigella sativa, Urtica pilulifera,Apium graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Coriandrumsativum and Thymus fallax.Method:   Swiss albino mice were injectedintraperitoneally with different concentrations of theextract and results were evaluated with the method ofprobit analysis.Results: Maximum volume of oil administered to mice...

  16. The Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil in Pelargonium graveolens Polyloid Seedlings%香叶天竺葵多倍体精油的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰

    2014-01-01

    探讨香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L‘He’rit)染染色体加倍后精油的香气特征,为香叶新品种选育提供理论基础.对香叶天竺葵扦插苗、组培苗和多倍苗的香叶油进行GC-9A分析,并与玫瑰香叶油、法国波尔蓬香叶油的主成分进行对比.这5种油的化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异.组培苗及多倍苗香叶油中香叶醇、甲酸香叶酯、芳樟醇的含量显著提高,而香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、玫瑰醚的含量有所下降.其中,多倍苗香叶油含:香茅醇26.1%,香叶醇14.81%,p-古芸烯4.77%,这3个主香成分接近法国波尔蓬香叶油中的含量.香叶天竺葵染色体加倍后能改善其精油的品质,其精油中香茅醇、香叶醇的含量更接近法国波尔蓬等国外香叶油中的含量.

  17. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L.), Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.), Kereviz (Apium graveolens L.) ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altıniğne, Nejat; Gönül, Meral

    1988-01-01

    Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum), enginar (C. scolymus), kereviz (A. graveolens) ve lahana (B. oleraceae) sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.   ...

  18. Umbelliferae Familyasından Bazı Önemli Kültür Türlerinin Isparta Ekolojik Koşullarında Tarımsal ve Teknolojik Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil KESKİN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anason (Pimpinella anisum L., dereotu (Anethum graveolens L., kimyon (Cuminum cyminum L., kişniş (Coriandrum sativum L., rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. dünyada ve ülkemizde kültürü yapılan çok değerli tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerdir. Bu araştırmada; anason, kimyon, kişniş, rezene ve dereotu türlerine ait çeşitlerin ve populasyonların Isparta ekolojik koşullarında bazı tarımsal ve teknolojik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi, uçucu yağ, sabit yağ ve petroselinik asit kaynağı olarak değerlendirme olanaklarının araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Tarla ve laboratuvar araştırmalarından elde edilen sonuçlara göre, en yüksek tohum verimi anasonda “Yeşilova” populasyonundan (47.01 kg/da, dereotunda “Akşehir” populasyonundan (77.75 kg/da, kimyonda “Egebir09” çeşidinden (97.00 kg/da, kişnişte “Erbaa” çeşidinden (82.85 kg/da ve rezenede “Denizli” populasyonundan (63.66 kg/da elde edilmiştir. En yüksek uçucu yağ oranı anasonda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%3.60, dereotunda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%3.73, kimyonda “Türkmen09” çeşidinde (%2.13, kişnişte “Gamze” çeşidinde (%0.47 ve rezenede “Burdur” populasyonunda (%3.13 tespit edilmiştir. En önemli ana uçucu yağ bileşeni anasonda trans-anetol (%95.56-95.88, dereotunda D-karvon (%37.87-67.76, kimyonda a-thujenal (%30.90-42.52, kişnişte linalool (%81.85-88.94 ve rezenede trans-anetol (%79.67-89.13 olarak bulunmuştur. En yüksek sabit yağ oranı anasonda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%30.17, dereotunda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%21.24, kimyonda “Egebir09” çeşidinde (%29.03, kişnişte “Erbaa” çeşidinde (%25.42 ve rezenede “Denizli” populasyonunda (%23.67 belirlenmiştir. En yüksek petroselinik asit oranı ise anasonda “Çardak” populasyonunda (%63.37, dereotunda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%87.28, kimyonda “Türkmen09” çeşidinde (%60.18, kişnişte “Erbaa” çeşidinde (%79.89 ve

  19. Comparison of Current Chemical and Stereochemical Tests for the Identification and Differentiation of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. (Geraniaceae Essential Oils: Analytical Data for (--(1S, 4R, 5S-Guaia-6,9-diene and (--(7R,10S-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.

  20. 两种天竺葵不同生长时期的精油含有率及成分研究%Monthly Variation of the Content and Composition of Essential Oils of Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium × fragrans in Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2007-01-01

    本文对生长在上海地区的香天竺葵(Pelargonium × fragrans)和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,香天竺葵在一月份精油含有率最低,七月份达到了最高点.其精油成分的含量在各个月份不稳定.香叶天竺葵精油成分在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在一月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  1. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  2. Determination of the contents of monosaccharide components in non-starch polysaccharides of aerial part of Apium graveolens L. By pre-column derivatization GC%柱前衍生化GC法测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮; 杨洋; 张琦; 霍鑫; 毕开顺; 贾英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish pre-column derivatization GC method for determination of monosaccharide component of non-starch polysaccharides of the aerial part of Apium graveolens L. Methods The derivatives were determined by GC and DB-17 column(30 m ×0. 25 mm,0. 25 μm)was used. The inlet temperature was maintained for 270 ℃. The column oven was begun at 180 ℃ ,then programmed from 180 ℃ to 225℃ at 3 ℃- min -1, hold for 2 min, then programmed from 225 ℃ to 260 ℃ at 6 ℃· min -1, and finally, hold for 7 min. Manner of sample injection was splitless. Detector temperature was maintained at 270 ℃. Sample amount was I. 0 μL. Results Seven monosaccharides L-( + )-rhamnose,L-( + )-arabinose,D-( + )-fucose, D-( + )-xylose,D-( + )-mannose,D-( + )-glucose and D-( + )-galactose were determined in INSP. Except D-( + )-fucose,other six monosaccharides were the same as from INSP in SNSP. Conclusions The method is accurate and reproducible,which is suitable for the determination of monosaccharide component in soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides in Apium graveolens L.%目的 建立测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量的柱前衍生化GC法.方法 非淀粉多糖经衍生化生成糖腈乙酯,采用GC法进行分析.色谱柱:DB-17柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm);柱温:程序升温;载气:N2;进样温度:270℃;进样方式:不分流;检测器温度:270℃;进样量:1.0μL.结果 水不溶性非淀粉多糖(insoluble non-starch polysaccharides,INSP)水解后得到7种单糖,分别是:L-(+)-鼠李糖、L-(+)-阿拉伯糖、D-(+)-岩藻糖、D-(+)-木糖、D-(+)-甘露糖、D-(+)-葡萄糖和D-(+)-半乳糖;水溶性非淀粉多糖(soluble non-starch polysaccharides,SNSP)水解后得到6种单糖,除无D-(+)-岩藻糖外,其余均同INSP水解后单糖.结论 本方法准确度高,重现性好,可用于测定旱芹水溶性和水不溶性非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分的含量.

  3. Efficient surface functionalization of wound dressings by a phytoactive nanocoating refractory to Candida albicans biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2013-12-01

    The present study reports the fabrication and characterization of a novel nanostructured phyto-bioactive coated rayon/polyester wound dressing (WD) surface refractory to Candida albicans adhesion, colonization and biofilm formation, based on functionalized magnetite nanoparticles and Anethum graveolens (AG) and Salvia officinalis (SO) essential oils (EOs). TEM, XRD, TGA, FT-IR were used for the characterization of the fabricated nanobiocoated WDs. Using magnetic nanoparticles for the stabilization and controlled release of EOs, the activity of natural volatile compounds is significantly enhanced and their effect is stable during time. For this reason the nanobiocoated surfaces exhibited a longer term anti-biofilm effect, maintained for at least 72 h. Besides their excellent anti- adherence properties, the proposed solutions exhibit the advantage of using vegetal natural compounds, which are less toxic and easily biodegradable in comparison with synthetic antifungal drugs, representing thus promising approaches for the development of successful ways to control and prevent fungal biofilms associated infections. PMID:24706124

  4. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  5. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  6. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu2+ and Monitoring of Hg2+ and Ni2+ in some Iranian Vegetables Using 6-(2-Naphthyl)-2, 3-Dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Fazel; Barazande Tehrani, Malehe; Mehravar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Recently, 6-(2-naphthyl)-2, 3-dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione (NDTT) was synthesized in laboratory and used successfully for the spectrophotometric determination of nanogram levels of Cu2+ in aqueous solution. This reagent forms a specific red complex with Cu2+ ions after the extraction by chloroform at alkaline pH. The absorption of the complex in the UV region (313 nm) is about 8 times as strong as in the visible one (510 nm). Mercury and nickel ions form yellow complexes with NDTT under the same conditions which interfere in the UV region and without effect on Cu (II) absorbance in the visible region. The studied vegetables include Mentha pipereta L., Anethum graveolens L., Beta vulgaris L., Coriandrum sativum, Petroselinum hortense H., Ocimum basilicum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Lactuca sativa L., and Brassica oleracea L. PMID:24250566

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu(2+) and Monitoring of Hg(2+) and Ni(2+) in some Iranian Vegetables Using 6-(2-Naphthyl)-2, 3-Dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Fazel; Barazande Tehrani, Malehe; Mehravar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Recently, 6-(2-naphthyl)-2, 3-dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione (NDTT) was synthesized in laboratory and used successfully for the spectrophotometric determination of nanogram levels of Cu(2+) in aqueous solution. This reagent forms a specific red complex with Cu(2+) ions after the extraction by chloroform at alkaline pH. The absorption of the complex in the UV region (313 nm) is about 8 times as strong as in the visible one (510 nm). Mercury and nickel ions form yellow complexes with NDTT under the same conditions which interfere in the UV region and without effect on Cu (II) absorbance in the visible region. The studied vegetables include Mentha pipereta L., Anethum graveolens L., Beta vulgaris L., Coriandrum sativum, Petroselinum hortense H., Ocimum basilicum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Lactuca sativa L., and Brassica oleracea L. PMID:24250566

  8. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  9. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

  10. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  11. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  12. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  13. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  14. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  15. Essential Oil Extraction of Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare Using Steam Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a potential country in developing essential oils which is each part of the plants produce essential oils such as leaf, seed, fruit, and root. One of the potential plants is fennel. Fennel oil distillation used fennel seed from Cepogo District, Boyolali Regency. The characteristics of the seed are; the color is black and the length is 0,2 centimeters. The condition operation to exctract of the fennel seed are 1 atm and 7,5 hours. The calculation of the time started when the first fennel oil dropped into the decanter. It finished when the fennel oil was not dropped anymore. The color is bright and muddy. The last process is add 1% (m/m Na2SO4 anhidrous into fennel oil to absorp remain water in it. The distillation process produce fennel oil102,125 grams. Sample of fennel oil tested which are density test, solubility on 90% alcohol, GC-MS test, and AAS test. The result shows that fennel oil from the fennel seed is 2,0425%. The tested samples contain the brightest and the muddies sample. The density of 0,9500 and 0,949 g/cc respectively that is not fulfill to  the Food Chemical Codex (FCC. Samples solubility in 90% alcohol (1:3 is fulfill to the the Food Chemical Codex (FCC.  Three main components of the brightest sample are anethole (47,51%, estragole (22,41%, and  α-fensone (21,92% while the muddiest sample’s components are anethole (52,38%, estragole (21,37%,and α-fensone (15,74%. The AAS test shows that fennel oil contains 65,1473 ppm which does not fulfill the Indonesian National Standards of  patchouli and clove leaf oil. [Keywords— essential oil; extraction; fennel seed; steam distillation

  16. Extraction of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Seeds: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Capacity of the Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Angelov, G.; Boyadzhieva, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study on the extraction of bioactive substances from fennel seeds. The impact of the main process variables (solvent composition, liquid-to-solid ratio, temperature, contact time) on the concentration of the target substances (polyphenols and flavonoids) in the extracts is studied resulting in the selection of a set of operating parameters, at which their content is maximized. Extracts with higher concentration of target compounds demonstrate higher antioxidant capacit...

  17. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  19. АЛЛЕЛОПАТИЧЕСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ У СЕМЯН ОВОЩНЫХ СЕЛЬДЕРЕЙНЫХ КУЛЬТУР

    OpenAIRE

    Бухаров, А.; Балеев, Д.

    2014-01-01

    Исследовали стабильность проявления аллелопатической активности у овощных сельдерейных культур. Объектами-донорами служили семена сельдерея корневого ( Apium graveolens ) сорта Купидон, петрушки корневой ( Petroselinum crispum ) сорта Любаша, пастернака ( Pastinaca sativa ) сорта Кулинар и укропа ( Anethum graveolens ) сорта Кентавр; объекты-тестеры семена редиса ( Raphanus sativus ), салата ( Lactuca sativa ), капусты японской ( Brassica chinesis var. japonica ), кресс-салата ( Lepidium sati...

  20. Larvicidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against aedes albopictus and formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Sung-Woong; Hyun, Jinho; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-11-18

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase with their components. Of the 12 plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), caraway seed (Carum carvi), carrot seed (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) resulted in >90% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Of the compounds identified, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, γ-terpinene, cuminaldehyde, neral, (S)-+-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, carvacrol, myristicin, apiol, and carotol resulted in >80% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Two days after treatment, 24.69, 3.64, and 12.43% of the original amounts of the celery, cumin, and parsley oils, respectively, remained in the water. Less than 50% of the original amounts of α-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, cuminaldehyde, and trans-antheole were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. Carvacrol, α-pinene, and β-pinene inhibited the activity of Ae. albopictus acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.190 mg/mL, respectively. A spherical microemulsion of parsley essential oil-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared, and the larvicidal activity of this formulation was shown to be similar to that of parsley oil. PMID:26500081

  1. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  2. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Jelínková, Marcela; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Elena; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David

    2016-02-01

    Research on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the synthesis of essential oils (EOs) by aromatic plants has seldom been conducted in field-relevant conditions, and then, only limited spectra of EO constituents have been analyzed. The effect was investigated of inoculation with AMF on the synthesis of a wide range of EO in two aromatic species, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and dill (Anethum graveolens), in a garden experiment under outdoor conditions. Plants were grown in 4-l pots filled with soil, which was either γ-irradiated (eliminating native AMF) or left non-sterile (containing native AMF), and inoculated or not with an isolate of Rhizophagus irregularis. AMF inoculation significantly stimulated EO synthesis in both plant species. EO synthesis (total EO and several individual constituents) was increased in dill in all mycorrhizal treatments (containing native and/or inoculated AMF) compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, EO concentrations in coriander (total EO and most constituents) were increased only in the treatment combining both inoculated and native AMF. A clear positive effect of AMF on EO synthesis was found for both aromatic plants, which was, however, specific for each plant species and modified by the pool of AMF present in the soil.

  4. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-06-01

    Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

  5. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  6. Chemical Composition and Zootechnical Effects of Essebtial Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill and Anise (Pimpinella Anisum L. on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould sidi moctar Yacoub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the dietary oils from fennel and anise on the zootechnical performances of Turkey. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. One Hundred turkey males meat strain BUT 10 (Meleagris gallopavo, of one day old, were weighed and randomly allotted into 5 groups of 20 turkeys each. These groups were fed, for 35 days, the basal diet (Control or the basal diet supplemented with 0.2 g/kg of fennel oil (EOFVD1, 0.5 g/kg of fennel oil (EOFVD2, 0.2 g/kg of anise oil (EOPAD1 and 0.5 g/kg of anise oil (EOPAD2. The mean body weight of EOFVD2 group (807.85 g was higher than other groups at the end of the treatment (P<0.05. Likewise, mean body weight of the EOPAD1 group (782.45 g was different from those of EOFVD1 (769.89 g, EOPAD2 (756.77 g and Control group (768.35 g (P<0.01. The results related to the average day weight gain (ADG indicated that subjects belonging to the batches treated with EOFVD2, EOPAD1 and EOFVD1, expressed the best performance with ADG respective of 79.46±4.03 g/d, 51.12±27.88 g/d, 50.47±26.94 g/d, followed by control group (49.76±26.67 g/d, against 49.98 ±28.46 g/d for the EOPAD2 group with a difference which is statistically significant (P<0.05. These results concluded that supplementing diets with essential oils of fennel and anise, which improved body weight, could be interesting feed additives for growth promotion turkey.

  7. Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on fruit yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, R.; Rezvani Moghaddam, P.; Nasiri Mahallati, M.; Nezhadali, A.

    2011-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of fennel essential oil, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental treatments included two organic (compost and vermicompost) and two biological (Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum) fertilizers, their all twin combinations (Ps. putida + A. chroococcum, Ps. putida + compost, Ps. putida + vermicompost, A. chroococcum + compost, A. chroococcum + vermicompost and compost + vermicompost) and control (non fertilized). There were significant differences between treatments in terms of seed essential oil percentage, essential oil yield; anethole, fenchone, limonene and straggle content in seed essential oil. Results showed that the highest and the lowest percentages of essential oil were obtained in control (2.9%) and A. chroococcum + vermicompost (2.2%) treatments, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (29.9 L ha{sup -}1) and anethole content of essential oil (69.7%) and the lowest contents of fenchone (6.14%), limonene (4.84%) and estragole (2.78%) in essential oil were obtained in compost + vermicompost treatment. It seems that compost + vermicompost treatment compared to other treatments supplied the highest equilibrium of nutrients and water in the root zone of sweet fennel which is led to increasing the anethole content, there upon, decreasing other compounds. Essential oil yield and percentage of anethole content in essential oil were significantly higher in all organic and biological treatments compared with control. (Author) 43 refs.

  8. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  9. Inhibition of grey mould in vitro and in vivo with essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane MOHAMMADI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal effects of the fennel essential oil against fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato fruit under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Treatments consisted of five concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 lL-1.The fennel oil had a remarkable effect on spore germination of grey mould. The growth of grey mould was completely inhibited by fennel oil at 600 and 800 lL-1.The results in vivo showed that fennel oil increased the shelf life and decreased decay rate of tomato fruits. Also, fennel essential oil positively affected on postharvest quality factors. Treated fruits with fennel oil had significantly higher titrable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and lycopene and -carotene content comparison to control. Thus, these results showed that fennel essential oil has impact on postharvest decay and fruit quality of tomato.

  10. Chemistry, technology, and nutraceutical functions of celery (Apium graveolens L.): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbhagya, H B

    2014-01-01

    Celery is a commercially important seed spice belonging to the family Umbelliferrae. Celery is used in various forms such as fresh herb, stalk, seeds, oil, and oleoresin for flavoring of foods and for medicinal purposes. Celery seed contains 2% volatile oil that finds application for flavoring of foods and also in perfumery industry. Limonene and selinene form about 60% and 20% of the oil, respectively. However, the important flavor constituents of the oil responsible for the typical aroma are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butyl phthalide, sedanolide, and sedanonic anhydride present in very low levels (1-3%). Celery contains 15% fatty oil with the fatty acids: petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%), and palmitic acids. Phthalides especially sedanenaloide possess many health benefits. Celery extracts are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties, viz., antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-platelet aggregation. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of celery and the components responsible are discussed. PMID:24188309

  11. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L.) on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Wesam Kooti; Najmeh Kafash-Farkhad; Ali Ghorbani-Ranjbari; Naim Sharafi-Ahvazi

    2016-01-01

    Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, v...

  12. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  13. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  14. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  15. EVALUASI, UJI STABILITAS FISIK DAN SINERESIS SEDIAAN GEL YANG MENGANDUNG MINOKSIDIL, APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMinoxidil, apigenin and celery are believed to have the same bioactivity as a vasodilator that can widen blood vessels. This study discusses about the gel formulation in the scope of evaluation of gel preparation, using carbomer as a gelling agent each containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice. The method used in gel evaluation were organoleptic observation, homogeneity, pH, consistency and viscosity; physical stability at 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C and syneresis. Based on the result, all gel formulations showed their consistency and viscosity were higher after 8 weeks of storage at room temperature. The rheogram of three gel formulations in term of flow properties remain unchanged after 8 weeks of storage. It was indicated that the flow properties of gel formulation was pseudoplastis tixotropic. The gel containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice showed good physical stability at 28±2 °C and 40±2 °C, but less stable at 4±2 °C after 14 weeks of storage. The highest number of syneresis was found in a gel containing celery juice.Keywords : Celery, Apigenin, Gel, StabilityAbstrakMinoksidil, apigenin dan seledri memiliki aktivitas biologi yang sama sebagai vasodilator yang dapat memperlebar pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini sebagai evaluasi sediaan gel, menggunakan karbomer sebagai gelling agentyang mengandung masing-masing minoksidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri. Metode yang digunakan dalam evaluasi gel adalah pengamatan organoleptis, homogenitas, pH, konsistensi dan viskositas; stabilitas fisik pada suhu 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C dan sineresis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketiga formula gel menunjukkan konsistensi dan viskositas yang lebih tinggi setelah 8  minggu  penyimpanan  pada  temperatur  ruang.  Hasil  rheogram  dari  ketiga  formula gel  menunjukkan  sifat  alir  yang  tetap  tidak  berubah  setelah  8  minggu  penyimpanan, yaitu pseudoplastis tiksotropik. Gel yang mengandung minoxidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan stabil fisik pada penyimpanan suhu 28±2 °C dan 40±2 °C, tetapi kurang stabil pada suhu 4±2 °C setelah 14 minggu penyimpanan. Angka sineresis tertinggi terdapat pada gel yang mengandung perasan herba seledri.Kata kunci : Seledri, Apigenin, Gel, Stabilitas

  16. De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker development using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences in celery (Apium graveolens L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery is an increasing popular vegetable species, but limited transcriptome and genomic data hinder the research to it. In addition, a lack of celery molecular markers limits the process of molecular genetic breeding. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method to generate a large transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery, molecular marker development and marker-assisted selection breeding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Celery transcriptomes from four tissues were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 42,280 unigenes (average length of 502.6 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. 78.43% and 48.93% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein database (Nr and Swiss-Prot database respectively, and 10,473 (24.77% unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. 21,126 (49.97% unigenes harboring Interpro domains were annotated, in which 15,409 (36.45% were assigned to Gene Ontology(GO categories. Additionally, 7,478 unigenes were mapped onto 228 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG. Large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs were indentified, and then the rate of successful amplication and polymorphism were investigated among 31 celery accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information by Illumina paired-end sequencing and efficient assembling. Our results provide a valuable resource for celery research. The developed molecular markers are the foundation of further genetic linkage analysis and gene localization, and they will be essential to accelerate the process of breeding.

  17. 芸香根系生物学研究%Biological reserch on ruta graveolens root system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 齐红

    2003-01-01

    在时芸香根的外观形态、内部解剖、根系变化一般观察研究的基础上,重点研究了根中淀粉含量的变化,揭示芸香的根为须根状直根系,根的次生木质部有明显的年轮;芸香根一年中淀粉积累高峰有二个,一个在花前期(6月下旬),一个在入冬前(10月下旬).并对芸香的营养积累与抗寒性关系问题进行了讨论.

  18. Effects of calcium peroxide on arsenic uptake by celery (Apium graveolens L.) grown in arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-ping; Luo, Chun-ling; Xu, Xiang-hua; Wu, Chuang-an; Li, Fang-bai; Zhang, Gan

    2012-03-01

    The ability of calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) to immobilize As of contaminated soil was studied using pot and field experiments. In pot experiment, CaO(2) applied at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) significantly increased celery shoot weight and decreased shoot As accumulation, which was ascribed to the formation of stable crystalline Fe and Al oxides bound As and the reduction of labile As fractions in the soil. The labile As fractions were pH dependent and it followed a "V" shaped profile with the change of pH. In field experiment, the dose of CaO(2) application at 750 kg ha(-1) was optimal and at which the celery was found to produce the highest biomass (63.4 Mg ha(-1)) and lowest As concentration (0.43 mg kg(-1)). CaO(2) probably has a promising potential as soil amendment to treat As contaminated soils.

  19. Distribution of Trans-Anethole and Estragole in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill of Callus Induced from Different Seedling Parts and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim Mohamed Radwan AFIFY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seeds from local cultivar of fennel were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS without plant growth regulators. Different types of explants from the growing seedling such as cotyledonal leaves, hypocotyls, epicotyls and roots were cultured on MS medium, contained different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D either alone or with kinetin. Differential responses in the essential oil constituents were observed in the induction and development of callus. The major components of essential oils includes estragole, trans-anethole, limonene and fenchone were studied under different conditions to find out the best methods which could be used to reduce the amount of estragole (not favorite for human consumption and increase the amount of trans-anethole.

  20. Inhibitory effect of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) samples and their phenolic compounds on formation of advanced glycation products and comparison of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-15

    In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76μg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125μg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity. PMID:27451172

  1. Influence of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and Hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.) on biogas and methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Shamseldin Daffallah Yousif

    2014-01-01

    A high demand for agricultural biomass production in Germany was attributed to the increasing number of biogas plants every year. The value of a crop as a substrate for biogas production via anaerobic digestion depends on its biomass yield capacity compared to the effort for cultivation and on its ability to produce biogas with high methane content. After the EEG 2012 amendment which determined the amount of maize that should be used in biogas production farmers searching for alternative s...

  2. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  3. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  4. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L. y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisell Martelo C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura, considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1 y atmosférica (X y g, y la porosidad disponible (Ee al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por efecto de la posición. En las etapas de proceso se obtuvieron para el apio y el pepino valores de X1 (-14.32 ± 2.75 y -5.51±1.76%, g1 (-0.587±0.69 y -0.079±0.99%, X(13.49±2.32 y 6.72±2.72%, g (-1.40±1.042% y -2.33±1.26% y Ee (15.73±2.31 y 9.35±2.57%, respectivamente. Estos resultados indicaron una salida de líquido nativo (X1<0 y una ligera contracción volumétrica de las estructuras (g y g1<0, lo cual se evidenció microestructuralmente. Conclusiones. La respuesta a la IV en apio y pepino, permite identificar estas matrices alimentarias, como aptas para la incorporación de componentes que le proporcionen un valor agregado a estos productos.

  5. 低温对芸香抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Ruta Graveolens Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺; 曾丽; 徐娜

    2010-01-01

    通过在低温胁迫下对芸香的研究,结果表明:在5℃低温胁迫下,芸香叶片的脂膜相对透性与MDA呈上升趋势;O2-呈波动性变化,H2O2呈线性增加;SOD先升高后下降,而POD呈波动性变化.证明,芸香通过体内一系列生理特性的变化来抵抗低温.

  6. Biological Study on overground organs of Ruta Graveolens%芸香地上器官的生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞

    2004-01-01

    对芸香的茎、叶及花等器官的形态结构进行了较为系统的观察研究,对花芽形成及开花过程进行了客观描述.芸香花有顶生和侧生两种,柱头为"湿柱头",叶片具有典型旱生型植物特点,茎叶中均含有簇晶和油腔,这些特征可作为分类学上鉴别该物种的性状.茎的淀粉积累过程:花前期淀粉积累很少(6月下旬),10月下旬达高峰,之后略有减少并保持稳定直至被冻死.对此结合当地温度及水分条件进行了抗寒、抗旱的讨论.

  7. 不同种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 任洪涛; 周斌

    2010-01-01

    为探讨不同种苗香叶油的香气特征,对7~9月扦插苗和组培苗的香叶油进行GC-9A气相色谱分析,结果发现,两者化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异,其中:扦插苗香叶油含香茅醇31.81%~34.79%,香叶醇6.84%~7.43%,β-古芸烯5.91%~6.59%;组培苗香叶油含香茅醇30.02%~31.64%,香叶醇10.21%~10.29%,β-古芸烯5.24%~5.33%.

  8. Study on tissue culture and rapid regeneration of Pelargonium graveolens%香叶天竺葵组培快繁体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玉华; 刘冰; 田艳春; 李学风

    2010-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵无菌苗叶片为外植体,MS为基本培养基进行组培快繁研究,结果表明:愈伤组织诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+2,4-D 0.1 mg/L;不定芽诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;不定芽增殖最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L,生根率达100%,且根系长势良好.

  9. 云南热区柑桔套种香叶天竺葵技术%Intercropping of citrus and Pelargonium graveolens in Yunnan hot area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文翠; 唐文冲; 李云平; 万福术; 陈艺齐; 袁理春

    2010-01-01

    为了提高云南热区柑桔种植区土地利用率,实施柑桔套种香叶天竺葵的栽种模式,有效地解决了果树幼龄期土地产出率低的问题,每年每公顷可增加经济收入12万元左右,为果树套种香料作物提供了可行的栽培模式,该模式具有很好的推广前景.

  10. 香叶天竺葵的组织培养和快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芳; 娄利华

    2003-01-01

    培养条件 种子萌发培养基:(1)MS。分化培养基:(2)MS+6-BA0.5mg·L-1(单位下同);(3)MS+6-BA0.5+NAA0.1;(4)MS+6-BA1.0;(5)MS+6-BA1.0+NAA0.1。壮苗培养基:(6)MS+6.BA0.5+GA1.0。生根培养基:(7)1/2MS+IBA1.0;(8)1/2MS+IBA0.5+NAA0.1:(9)1/2MS+IBA0.25。

  11. 香叶天竺葵的离体培养研究%Studies on Technology of Isolated Culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚莲; 李绅崇; 吴丽芳; 杨春梅; 贾玉梅; 黎霞

    2007-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵的嫩茎为外植体进行组织培养研究,结果表明:培养基MS+BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L既适合于愈伤组织的诱导,也适合于不定芽的分化增殖;培养基1/2MS+BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.7 mg/L为生根诱导的最佳配方.组培苗的过渡成活率可达到90%以上.

  12. Produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com espécies aromáticas e medicinais Yield of tomato in monocrop and intercropping with aromatics plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro é cultivado, principalmente em monocultivos, com uso intensivo de defensivos químicos, atividade de risco econômico, social e ambiental. O consórcio vem sendo praticado como forma de reduzir os riscos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção do tomateiro solteiro e em consórcio com as espécies medicinais e aromáticas Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum e Ruta graveolens. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos. Avaliou-se altura, área do dossel, produção, produtividade e eficiência do uso da terra. Nos consórcios, verificou-se que, na densidade de plantio adotada, o funcho teve maior altura e área de dossel e causou redução significativa na produção total de tomates: de 12,23 kg, no cultivo solteiro, para 7,88 kg, no consórcio com funcho. No entanto, contribuiu com a menor porcentagem de perda de tomates por broqueamento (24%. As maiores perdas por broqueamento ocorreram no monocultivo e no consórcio com hortelã-pimenta. A arruda favoreceu aumento significativo na produção comercial de tomates, em média 26%. A produtividade relativa do tomateiro foi maior no consórcio com arruda (13,6 t ha-1, seguido pelo consórcio com hortelã-pimenta (9,8 t ha-1 e manjericão (9,1 t ha-1, e menor no consórcio com funcho (6,4 t ha-1, o que indicou que o consórcio com arruda foi mais vantajoso para a produção de tomates. Dentre as aromáticas estudadas, o manjericão teve maior produtividade (96,5 t ha-1. Concluindo, os consórcios permitiram maior aproveitamento no uso da terra, com aumento na produtividade dos tomateiros na presença da arruda e redução na presença do funcho. As demais plantas não reduziram significativamente a produção e portanto podem ser empregadas como fonte alternativa de renda.Tomato is mainly cultivated in monocrops, by intensive use of chemical products. It is an activity with economic, social and

  13. Research on the suppression on Aβ42 aggregation activity of extracts of food and drug Chinese medicine%小茴香等药食两用中药提取物抑制Aβ42聚集活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海强; 张嫽; 张昉; 蒙诺亚; 贺震旦; A.Tunnacliffe; 郑易之

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究几种药食两用中药提取物的A β42多肽聚集抑制活性.方法:选择小茴香、花椒、薄荷、玫瑰等10种药食两用中药为研究对象,分别用索氏提取法、溶剂浸取法制备石油醚、乙酸乙酯和甲醇提取物;用体外ThT荧光光谱法和E.coli细胞模型对各提取物进行A β42聚集抑制活性研究.结果:各中药石油醚和甲醇提取物在体外ThT试验和E.coli细胞模型中均没有明显活性;小茴香和玫瑰花乙酸乙酯提取物则可以显著降低样品作用体系ThT相对荧光强度,分别为0.64和0.59;同时对E.coli细胞具有显著的生长促进作用,相对生长率分别为56.88%和44.59%(200μ g/mL),超过阳性对照表没食子儿茶素没食子酸脂(EGCG)( 41.87%).结论:小茴香、玫瑰花等中药乙酸乙酯提取物在体外和E.coli模型中具有A β 42聚集抑制活性.%Objective: To research the suppression on A β 42 aggregation activity of extracts of some kinds of food and drug plants. Methods: Ten kinds edible herbals, such as: fennel, pepper, menthea haplocalyx, rose, etal, were selected as research objects. Soxhlet's and solvent extraction methods were used to get petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts and methanol extracts; ThT fluorescence spectrum assay in vitro and an E.coli model were used to study A β 42 aggregation activity from extracts. Results: Petroleum ether and methanol extracts were found no activity in ThT fluorescence spectrum assay in vitro and an E.coli model. Fennel and rose ethyl acetate extracts were found to lower THT fluorescence intensity, respectively 0.64 and 0.59. Meanwhile, they also had obviously growth promoting action to E.coli cell, respectively 56.88% and 44.59%. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts from Anethum graveolens Linn and Rosa rugosa and so on, could inhibit the aggregation of A β 42 in vitro and in E.coli cells.

  14. Most Common Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Iranian Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Ghazanfarpour; Ramin Sadeghi; Mohammad Ali Kiani; Imaneh Khorsand; Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the efficacy of foeniculum Vulgar, menthe longifolia and Garlic in Iranian children. Methods and Matherials: Nine databases such as MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials as well as domestic  database (Persian) such as SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Medlib, Irandoc, and Google Scholar were searched using keywords such as  “child” and “complementary treatments or alternative treatments or herbal treatments or Anthum Foeniculum or Capillaceum or...

  15. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  16. Study on the Bacteriostasis in Vitro of Compound Ruta graveolens L. Tablets%复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2001-01-01

    目的:实验研究复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用.方法:采用抑菌实验,观察复方芸香片及其组成的水提物、醇提物对所选用的8种细菌的最低抑菌浓度和相对抑菌浓度作用程度.结果:醇提的复方芸香片对化脓性链球菌、藤黄八叠球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、B群链球菌、肺炎链球菌、绿脓杆菌、大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌,均有同等的较弱的抑菌作用.复方芸香药材醇提物对上述细菌的抑菌作用大为增强,其中最强的是前两种,其次是金黄色葡萄球菌和B群链球菌.芸香醇提物对前4种菌的抑菌作用也较强.H对上述细菌也有一定抑制作用.结论:复方芸香片对一般细菌有抑菌作用.

  17. 香叶天竺葵精油及单体抗氧化能力比较%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Its Monomer from Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 徐志敏; 王淳凯; 瞿伟菁; 林承杰

    2005-01-01

    根据试样对二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH·)的清除作用,评价了香叶天竺葵茎和叶精油及其单体,以及蒸馏后的残渣和废水的抗自由基活性.所试样品中几乎都有一定的抗氧化作用,以中午采集的叶片提取物的DPPH·清除率最高,达99.70%.废水和残渣的清除率分别达97.56%和90.24%.提示天然香料工业所弃的废水和残渣可提取到具有较强的抗自由基活性的物质,为种植香叶天竺葵综合利用提供了可能.

  18. 香叶天竺葵离体芽的培养及生产应用研究%Study on in vitro Shoot Culture of Pelargonium graveolens and Its Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 江明; 任洪涛

    2010-01-01

    香叶天竺葵生产上采用扦插繁殖,存在病害加重,品种退化的现象.本实验用离体芽进行诱导培养,探索产业化快繁优质种苗的方法,从而达到改良品种的目的.试验表明:MS+BA 0.5~2.0 mg/L+NAA 0~0.2 mg/L的配比可直接诱导产生较多的不定芽;MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L可作为微型扦插的继代培养基;MS+IBA 0.5 mg/L为最佳生根培养基,试管苗移栽成活率可达95 %.

  19. Study on tissue culture and high frequency propagation of Pelargonium graveolens L.Her%香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷开荣

    2005-01-01

    对香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术进行了研究,建立了种苗快速繁殖技术规程.结果:适宜的增殖培养基为MS+6-BA为0.5~1.0 mg/ L,继代周期为25~30 d,繁殖系数5以上;生根培养基为1/ 2MS+IBA 0.2 mg/ L,生根诱导率达100 %;生根培养20 d后,将试管苗移栽到菜园土:河沙=1:1的混合基质中,保湿培养,移栽成活率达98.6 %.

  20. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  1. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L. Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)%旱芹籽粗提取物对埃及伊蚊的效果评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wej Choochote; 郑剑宁; 裘炯良; 杨定波

    2005-01-01

    埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)是众所周知的虫媒病毒性疾病——登革热的传播媒介,分布于东南亚、太平洋岛屿、非洲和美洲。它也是中美、南美和西非传播黄热病的媒介。登革热因报告的病例数逐年上升,尤其是因该病有多种类型——登革出血热、登革休克综合症和其他诸如侵犯中枢神经系统等少见类型,已成为当今社会严重的公共卫生问题。据2003年世界卫生组织的报告,全球受到登革热威胁的人口约占全球人口总数的40%。目前,减少该病发生的最有效措施是加强个人防护和控制埃及伊蚊。

  2. Most Common Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Iranian Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ghazanfarpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess the efficacy of foeniculum Vulgar, menthe longifolia and Garlic in Iranian children. Methods and Matherials: Nine databases such as MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials as well as domestic  database (Persian such as SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Medlib, Irandoc, and Google Scholar were searched using keywords such as  “child” and “complementary treatments or alternative treatments or herbal treatments or Anthum Foeniculum or Capillaceum or Foeniculum Officinale or Foeniculum vulgare or menthe longifolia or Garlic in June 2014 Result: Five studies were included in the systematic review. Our systematic review showed beneficial effect of Foeniculum Vulgare on redacting of infant colic and also led to significant increase on prolactin levels in lactating mothers.  Base on only study, comparison between two groups (Shirafza and placebo Drops did not show any significant difference in regarding infant weight gain. Menthe longifolia combined with ORS improved frequency of defecation, Volume and consistency of stool. Also Review Systematic showed that Garlic significantly decreased fever, frequency and duration of diarrhea, leukocyte in stool.   Conclusion: herbals medicine (foeniculum Vulgar, menthe longifolia and Garlic had beneficial effect on Women's serum prolactin levels, infantile colic, frequency of defecation, Volume, consistency of stool. However, this result should be interpreted with caution which low number of sample and methodological quality.

  3. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  5. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  6. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    ão (Ocimum basilicum, melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia, arruda (Ruta graveolens, falso-boldo (Coleus barbatus, confrei (Symphitum officinalis, erva-de-bicho (Polygonum acre, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, funcho (Foeniculum vulgare, guiné (Petiveria alliacea, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e nim (Azadirachta indica. Água destilada foi adicionada ao solo como tratamento testemunha. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz e os números de galhas e de ovos por sistema radicular. Os extratos de hortelã, bardana e mamona reduziram o número de galhas em 75,6%, 65,7% e 54,4%, e o número de ovos em 81,7%, 75,9% e 56,6%, respectivamente.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1698 - Rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1698 Rue. (a) Rue is the perennial herb of several species of Ruta (Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L.). The leaves, buds, and...

  8. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum g...

  10. 神奈川県大磯町で見つかる局方生薬の基原植物

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 竹夫||イシイ, タケオ||Ishii, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Geographic distribution of original plants of Japanese Pharamacopoeia (JP; Sixteenth Edition) crude drugs was surveyed in Oiso town in Kanagawa Prefecture. In hilly country, Mallototus japonicas, Akebia quinata, Pharbitis nill, Foeniculum vulgare, Plantago asiatica, Atractylodes japonica, Pinellia ternate, Artemisia capillaries, Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonicum, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Magnolia kobus, Phellodendron amurense, Lycium chinense, Pueraria lobata, Geranium nepalense, Cimici...

  11. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Al-Mazroa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  12. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

  13. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  14. AcEST: DK954867 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pulus ... 162 1e-39 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 162 1e-39 sp|P37115|...140 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 5...TGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta graveolen... 161 3e-38 tr|Q6IV46|Q6IV46_CAMAC Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase OS

  15. AcEST: DK955574 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available INST Chalcone synthase OS=Pinus strobus GN=CHS P... 166 1e-40 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta...p|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 161 2e-39 sp|O22652|CHSY_RAPSA Chalcone s...EWG-QPKSK 128 >sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CHS3 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 393 Sc

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THREE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM PORTUGUESE FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. Rosário; Tinoco, M. Teresa; Almeida, A. S.; J. Cruz-Morais

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the evaluation of chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three aromatic herbs, growing wild in the south of Portugal, used in traditional food preparations: Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Rosmarinus officinalis. The principal components of essential oils were anethole (41.2%) for F. vulgare, carvone (41.1%) for M. spicata and myrcene (23.7%) for R. officinalis. Essential oils showed antioxidant activity eit...

  17. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C.M.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs’ properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Ment...

  18. 小茴香的优质高产栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易思荣; 李娟; 全健

    2009-01-01

    @@ 小茴香别名小茴、谷茴、香丝菜等,为伞形科植物茴香(Foeniculum vulgare.)的干燥成熟果实,具有祛寒止痛、理气和胃之功能,用于胃寒胀痛、少腹冷痛、痛经、疝痛、食少呕吐等症.

  19. 小茴香的优质高产栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易思荣; 李娟; 全健

    2009-01-01

    小茴香别名小茴、谷茴、香丝菜等,为伞形科植物茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)的干燥成熟果实,具有祛寒止痛、理气和胃之功能,用于胃寒胀痛、少腹冷痛、痛经、疝痛、食少呕吐等症。

  20. Allelopathy in some spontaneous and cultivated species

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    Cucumber growth was inhibited by volatile and water soluble compounds occurring in leaves of Cistus salvifolius, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis and Rosmarinus officinalis but germination was never affected. R. officinalis shows some evidence of being the strongest inhibitor with both water soluble and volatile components while F. vulgare seems to contain more volatile-compounds. It is suggested that water soluble compounds are more inhibitory than volatiles and can play an important role...

  1. Phytoactivity of secondary compounds in aromatic plants by volatile and water-soluble ways of release

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoactivity should be expected as a generalized trait of secondary plant compounds if their primary role is defence against co-occurring plants, and volatilization should be their predominant way of release in dry climates while in wet climates water leaching should prevail. Bioassays were designed to compare the ability of volatiles and water-solubles of four aromatic species thriving in dry environments (Cistus salvifolius L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Myrtus communis L., and Rosmarinus ...

  2. Microencapsulation of fennel and chamomile aqueous extracts for application in cottage cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Barreiro, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing concern among consumers to choose “natural foods” or foods in which synthetic additives were replaced by natural ingredients. Some of these ingredients possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties making them suitable to be used as natural preservers, bringing also health benefits in the prevention of several diseases [1]. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomile) are examples of plants that showed both antioxi...

  3. Antioxidant, Anti-5-lipoxygenase and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils and Decoction Waters of Some Aromatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia M. Albano; A. Sofia Lima; M. Graça Miguel; Luis G. Pedro; Barroso, José G.; A. Cristina Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The scavenging of free radicals and superoxide anion, the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and the antiacetylcholinesterase activities of essential oils and decoction waters of eight aromatic plants (Dittrichia viscosa, Foeniculum vulgare, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Thymbra capitata, Thymus camphoratus, Thymus carnosus and Thymus mastichina) were studied. The essential oils were dominated by 1,8-cineole in S. officinalis (59%), T. mastichina (49%) and T. camphoratus (21%); borneol (20%...

  4. First Report of Apium Virus Y on Cilantro, Celery, and Parsley in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently Apium virus Y (ApVY) was detected in field grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California. Previously, in 2003, cilantro plants from 3 different fields in California showed symptoms of mosaic, vein clearing and stunting. Whe...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1699 - Oil of rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... distillation of the fresh blossoming plants of rue, the perennial herb of several species of Ruta—Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L. (b) Oil of rue meets...

  6. Effect of Gamma Irradiation And Some Plant Oils on Mating Competitiveness of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation and plant oils on mating competitiveness of Phthorimaea operculella. When full grown pupae were irradiated with two sub-sterilizing doses and sterilizing dose (650 Gy) separately or combined with LC50 of 2% conc. Menth pepirita or Pelargonium graveolens. The fecundity and fertility were decreased by increasing the radiation dose. When males of Ph. operculella (Zeller) were sub-sterilized with gamma irradiation (150 or 200 Gy) or sterilized by 650 Gy and caged with non-irradiated pairs of adults at ratios of 1:1:1 and 5:1:1 (I male : U male : U female), the calculated degree of competitiveness showed that males irradiated with the lowest dose (150 Gy and 150 Gy + 2% conc. of M. pepirita or P. graveolens) were more competitive than males irradiated with the highest dose (650Gy). However, increasing the ratio of irradiated males with 650 Gy + 2% conc. M. pepirita to 10 increased the competitiveness value (CV), and the irradiated males were full competitive. The CV was more high among the irradiated males with 200 Gy while males were full competitive when irradiated and treated with 200 Gy + 2% conc. P. graveolens. The irradiated males with 150 Gy separately or combined with plant oil could be used in an effective sterile male release program at the ratio 1:1 (I male:N male) after suppression the field population with LC50 2% of plant oils M. pepirita or P. graveolens

  7. The antibacterial activity of some essential oils against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is categorized as a red alert pathogen that is increasingly associated with a high mortality rate in infected patients due to its resistance to extensive antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of some essential oils (Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Eugenia caryophyllata, Ziziphora tenuir and Trachyspermum copticum oils against 32 clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The antibacterial evaluations and chemical composition of essential oils was determined. Thymol, eugenol, -terpineol, -citronellol and thymol were the chief portions of T. copticum, E. caryophyllata, Z. tenuir, O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils, respectively. The MIC values of oils against these clinical isolates revealed the three subsets of oils including 1- T. copticum, E. caryophyllata and O. decumbens, 2- Z. tenuir and 3- P. graveolens oils. These oils showed the synergistic activity with amikacin, the lower Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI was for P. graveolens oil (0.23 and the higher FICI was for E. caryophyllata (0.325.

  8. Study of antinociceptive effects of Pelargonium geraveolens L. leaves hydroethanolic extract in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Anti nociceptive, Pelargonium graveolens Abstract: Introduction: Pain is a somatosensory sense that as an indicator to diagnoses for diseases . Pelargonium graveolens is known as a medicinal plant with use in traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens leaves extract (PGE in male mice Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male mice were divided in 6 groups (n=7. The control group(taking normal saline,0.25 ml, i.p, morphine group( 1mg/kg, i.p, treated groups with PGE at doses of 100, 200 and 600mg/kg and group induced with naloxone (0.1mg/kg, i.p + 200mg/kg of PGE. In order to evaluate the analgesic effects of PGE the tail flick and writhing tests were used. The data for each test were compared with One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post test. Results: Our results showed that PGE (200 and 600 mg/kg increased pain thershold compared with control group in writhing and tail flick test significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion: The PGE has anitinociceptive effects in male mice. This analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens extract probably related to its flavonoids composition which has effect on opioid system.

  9. Sensitization Prevalence, Antibody Cross-Reactivity and Immunogenic Peptide Profile of Api g 2, the Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 of Celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Gadermaier; M. Hauser; M. Egger; R. Ferrara; P. Briza; K.S. Santos; D. Zennaro; T. Girbl; L. Zuidmeer-Jongejan; A. Mari; F. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background: Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. Methodology: 786 no

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Maria Lara; Adriano Bonfim Carregaro; Deise Flores Santurio; Mariangela Facco de Sá; Janio Moraes Santurio; Sydney Hartz Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each ...

  11. Taxonomical notes on macrofungi in roadside verges planted with trees in Drenthe (The Netherlands) — II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Peter-Jan; Arnolds, Eef

    1995-01-01

    In the second part of this study special attention is paid to the genera Hebeloma, Psathyrel la and Russula. Psathyrella rhombispora is described as a new species. Russula cicatricata Romagn., R. elaeodes (Bres.) Romagn. and R. purpurata Crawsh. are reduced to formae of R. graveolens Romell. in Brit

  12. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype analysis in Carrot and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome localization of the rDNA gene clusters was determined for the first time in several Apiaceae using double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one Apioideae species including taxa of economic importance (e.g. Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cumin cyminum, Daucus c...

  13. Fast Identification of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine Using Direct Analysis in Real Time-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H]+ ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P. graveolens plant material or pelargonium oil or in multiple samples of commercially available pelargonium oil. DMAA was detected in three samples of dietary supplements. The LOD of DMAA was found to be 10 ng/mL. PMID:26086254

  14. Responses of a tropical tree species to ozone: visible leaf injury, growth, and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-04-01

    The Brazilian native tree species Astronium graveolens was indicated as sensitive to ozone in a fumigation experiment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate how sensitive A. graveolens is to ozone under realistic conditions in the field. Eighteen saplings were exposed to ozone in a contaminated area and in a greenhouse with filtered air during two exposure periods of approximately 63 days each (March-May 2012 and September-October 2012). Leaf injury was analyzed by means of its incidence and severity, the leaf injury index (LII) and the progression of leaf abscission. These variables were monitored weekly, whereas growth and lipid peroxidation were monitored monthly. Plants exposed to ozone showed significant growth decrease and visible leaf injury increase, but lipid peroxidation and leaf abscission remained unchanged. These results indicated that plants subjected to ozone possibly diverted energy from growth to the production of antioxidants necessary to cope with ozone-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26780049

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from Pelargonium graveolens Ait. (family Geraniaceae, against one standard S. aureus strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical S. aureus strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from P. graveolens has strong activity against all of the clinical S. aureus isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  16. Sviluppo di fertilizzanti azotati con inibitore della nitrificazione di origine vegetale

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cillo, Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Le proprietà di inibizione della nitrificazione di sostanze naturali offrono potenziali benefici per l’agricoltura e l’ambiente. Al fine di valutare le performance di oli estratti da Mentha spicata e Artemisia annua e di Acque di Vegetazione delle Olive come inibitori della nitrificazione per regolare la trasformazione dell’azoto dal Solfato Ammonico. Questi effetti sull’efficienza dell’uso dell’azoto sono stati testati su sedano (Apium graveolens). I risultati di questa ricerca suggeriscono ...

  17. ANALYSIS OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Rout; Rabinarayan Acharya; Rakshapal Gupta; Sagar Kumar Mishra; Rashmibala Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a preliminary data of occurrence of elemental concentration in medicinal plants i.e Apium graveolens (seed), Sida cordifolia (root), Solanum surattense (whole plant), Tribulus terrestris(fruit) and Withania somnifera (root) used in Ayurveda, using Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) following standard procedures. The elemental concentration i.e. Mn, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were found in various proportions. The data obtained from the study can...

  18. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago da Silva Domingos; Eliana Mara Braga

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and afte...

  19. Review on plants with CNS-effects used in traditional South African medicine against mental diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Gary Ivan; Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; van Staden, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    inhibitory activity from Boophone disticha and Crinum species. Extracts of Mentha aquatica, Gasteria croucheri, Ruta graveolens and Scotia brachypetala inhibited MAO-B. Naringenin was isolated from Mentha aquatica as a MAO inhibitor. Only a small number of the more than 300 southern African plant species...... reported to treat or affect the CNS have been scientifically evaluated. Very few of the active compounds have been isolated and identified....

  20. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira; Marcelo Coutinho Picanço; Luiz Cláudio de Almeida Barbosa; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Mateus Ribeiro de Campos; Gerson Adriano Silva; Júlio Cláudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  1. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. - Highlights: • We searched for tree species from Atlantic Forest for future air pollution monitoring in Brazil. • Croton floribundus, Astronium graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha were possible bioindicators. • P. gonoachanta was a potential bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. • C. floribundus was a potential bioindicator of heavy metals and sulfur. • A. graveolens may be used for monitoring oxidative pollutants, due to its biochemical leaf traits. - Inherent characteristics of the most abundant native tree species were potential biomarkers for assessing pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

  2. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, César G.; Torres, Enrique; de Vis, Raf

    2011-01-01

    En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA) de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca), se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis) sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de z...

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the Euphorbiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bahar; Alam, Tanveer; Varshney, Manoj; Khan, Shah Alam

    2002-03-01

    The different extracts of Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) and Croton oblongifolius Roxb. (Euphorbiaceae) were tested for their hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin. The methanolic extracts showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin. Other extracts namely petroleum ether and acetone also exhibited a potent activity. PMID:11849834

  4. Antidiabetic and Cytotoxicity Screening of Five Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional African Health Practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Huyssteen, Mea; Milne, Pieter J; Campbell, Eileen E; VAN DE VENTER, MARYNA

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisatio...

  5. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Bianchini; Garcia, Cristina C.; José A. Pimenta; José M.D. Torezan

    2010-01-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. a...

  6. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    A. CHERITI; N. BELBOUKHARI; S. HACINI

    2013-01-01

    A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist ...

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    A. CHERITI; N. BELBOUKHARI; S. HACINI

    2013-01-01

    A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk a...

  9. R-(+)-ABP a novel derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide possesses anti-convulsant and neuroprotective properties in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELESTAGE; A.ROGER; L.DANOBER; ERENARD; X-Q.PENG; Z.GUO; J.T.ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    ABP is a novel phthalide derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide (NBP) synthesized at the Beijing Institute of Materia Medica.NBP was isolated from several plants including Apium graveolens Linn. The juice squeezed from fresh celery leaves has long been used in Southeastern China for the treatment of epilepsy, and NBP has been reported to possess anti-convulsant properties (Drugs Future 2000; 25: 16-23). The present study

  10. Plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, ADZ.; Ceolin, T.; Vargas, NRC.; Heck, RM.; Vasconcellos, CL.; Borges, AM.; Mendieta, MC.

    2011-01-01

    Identificar las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil por familias de agricultores de base ecológica de la región Sur de Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. El enfoque de investigación es cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con datos recogidos de enero a mayo de 2009. Los sujetos fueron ocho familias de agricultores, residentes en los municipios de Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu y Arroio do Padre. Seis plantas fueron citadas (Chrysanthemun cinerariifolium, Foeniculum vulgare, Acca ...

  11. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  12. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  13. Inhibition Mould of Distillation Extracts from Seven Species of Natural Plants%小茴香等7种植物蒸馏提取物的抑霉菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建清; 杨艳; 金政伟; 赵亚珠

    2011-01-01

    以存在于水果的常见霉菌中的灰霉、黑根霉、交链孢、青霉和黑曲霉为研究对象,采用滤纸片扩散法和时倍稀释法,对小茴香、柠檬草、孜然、广藿香、肉桂叶、桉树叶和鼠尾草这7种植物的蒸馏提取物有效抑菌成分(精油)进行抑菌筛选研究.结果表明:小茴香抑菌效果最好且得率高,为1.90%,对青霉、黑根霉最低抑菌浓度(MIC)均为3.2μL/mL,灰霉、黑曲霉和交链孢MIC为6.4μL/mL;其次为肉桂叶,对交链孢和灰霉有很强抑菌效果,9d内抑菌率为100%.%By filter paper diffusion method and dilution method,the inhibition characters of Foeniculum vulgare Mill,Cymbopogon citratus , Cuminum cyminum L., Pogostemon cablin Benth, Cinnamomum cassia Presl. , Eucalyptus leaves and Salvia japonica Thunb. essential oil extracted by steam distillation were studied. Common Botrytis cinerea,Rhizopus nigricans ,Alternaria.Penicillium citrinum,Aspergillus niger in the mould existing in fruits were chosed as research objects.The results show that Foeniculum vulgare Mill is the most effective bacteriostatic agent and has the highest extraction productivity which is 1.90%. Minimal inhibitory concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill effect on Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus nigricans is 3.2 μL/mL. Minimal inhibitory concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill effect on Botrytis cinerea,Aspergillus niger,Alternaria is 6.4 μL/mL. The latter is Cinnamomum cassia Presl,especially to Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria has the best effect. The Inhibitory rate was 100% in 9 d.

  14. Antibacterial activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Ten Aromatic Plants against selected Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bharti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of essential oils from ten aromatic plants Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia, Zanthoxylum rhetsa, Coriandrum sativum, Nardostachys jatamansi, Eucalyptus globules, Cyperus scariosus, Cinnamomum cecidodaphne, Olea europea, Foeniculum vulgare have been determined against nine selected bacteria. Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The GC-MS analyses of these oils showed that α-Terpine, Thymol and β -Cymene were the main compounds responsible for the inhibitory effects of thyme oil. α- Pinene and Cymene were the major compounds in the Tea tree oil. The major compound in the Eucalyptus oil was found to be Eucalyptol.

  15. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  16. Response of Brazilian native trees to acute ozone dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; de Souza, Sílvia Ribeiro; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic secondary pollutant able to cause an intense oxidative stress that induces visual symptoms on sensitive plant species. Controlled fumigation experiment was conducted with the aim to verify the O3 sensibility of three tropical species: Piptadenia gonoachanta (Mart.) Macbr. (Fabaceae), Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae), and Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). The microscopical features involved in the oxidative stress were recognized based on specific histochemical analysis. The three species showed visual symptoms, characterized as necrosis and stippling between the veins, mostly visible on the adaxial leaf surface. All the studied species presented hypersensitive-like response (HR-like), and peroxide hydrogen accumulation (H2O2) followed by cell death and proanthocyanidin oxidation in P. gonoachanta and A. graveolens. In P. gonoachanta, a decrease in chlorophyll autofluorescence occurred on symptomatic tissues, and in A. graveolens and C. floribundus, a polyphenol compound accumulation occurred. The responses of Brazilian native species were similar to those described for sensitive species from temperate climate, and microscopical markers may be useful for the detection of ozone symptoms in future studies in the field. PMID:24297466

  17. Effect of bio-fertilizers and gamma radiation on the essential oil of dill at the vegetative, flowering, fruiting stages and their antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the response of dill plants to gamma radiation and bio- fertilizers on the essential oils and their constituents during vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages. The results showed that the most effective treatment on the volatile oil content in the three stages was 2 k -rad + bio- fertilizers. The major compounds were found to be α -phellandrene, limonene, β -phellandrene and p- cymene (vegetative stage). In the flowering stage, p- cymene, carvone, dillether and dillapiole. Whereas, carvone, dillapiole and limonene were major compounds (fruiting stage). The results showed those dill volatile oils at different developing stages exhibited strong and a variable degree of antimicrobial activity. Key words: dill (Anethum graveoleus L.) essential oil, gamma radiation, biofertilizer, anti -microbial

  18. 6种芳香植物精油的提取及综合品质评价%Extraction of Essential Oils from 6 Aromatic Plants and Evaluation on Their Comprehensive Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小兰; 赵林森; 李恒安; 张蕴薇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为芳香精油的生产提供理论指导.[方法]分别从蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘中提取芳香精油,然后比较其出油率并采用灰色关联度法对6种精油的品质进行综合评价.[结果]蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘的平均出油率分别为0.86%、0.33%、0.24%、1.29%、1.27%和1.88%.精油颜色由亮到暗为:猴樟>薄荷>蓝桉>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>柑橘;香味强弱为:柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>猴樟>蓝桉>薄荷>柑橘;香味持久性为:蓝桉>柑橘>香叶天竺葵>柠檬草>猴樟>薄荷;透明度为:猴樟>薄荷>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>蓝桉>柑橘;香味好感度为:柠檬草>猴樟>香叶天竺葵>薄荷>柑橘>蓝桉.综合评价值最高的是柠檬草精油.[结论]该试验建立了精油品质的综合评价体系.%[Objective] The purpose was to provide theoretical direction for the production of aromatic essential oil. [Method] The aromatic essential oils were extracted from Eucalyptus globules, Cinnamomum bodinier, Pelargonium graveolens, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha haploca-lyx and Citrus reticulata. Then their oil yielding rates were compared and the qualities of 6 essential oils were evaluated comprehensively by gray related degreeMethod. [Result] The average oil yielding rates of E. globules, C. bodinier, P. graveolens, C. citralus, M. haplocalyx and C. reticulata were 0. 86% , 0.33% , 0.24% , 1.29% , 1. 27% and 1. 88% resp. The colors of these essential oils from bright to dark were; C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > E. globules > C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. reticulata; their fragrance intensities were; C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. bodinier > E. globules > M. haplocalyx > C. reticulata; their fragrance endurances were: E. globules > C. reticulate > P. graveolens > C. citrates > C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx; their transparencies were: C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > C. citrates > P. graveolens > E. globules > C. reticulata and

  19. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  1. Characterization of a member of a new Potyvirus species infecting arracacha in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, A F; Dusi, A N; Madeira, N R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2009-01-01

    An arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) plant collected in Brazil was found to be infected by a new virus. This viral isolate (named C17) systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana and Apium graveolens. A polyclonal antibody was raised, and analysis of our arracacha germplasm collection showed a high infection rate of C17-like viruses (93% infection). Sequencing of the ca. 1.7 kb 3'-terminal genomic region revealed a typical potyvirus genome organization. It shared less than 70% nucleotide identity with any other potyvirus sequence, which thus indicated that it is possibly a member of a new Potyvirus species tentatively named Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV).

  2. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion.

  3. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  4. Root development of beetroot, sweet corn and celeriac, and soil N content after incorporation of green manure

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, J.S.; Thorup-Kristensen, K.; Kristensen, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Root development in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris var. conditiva Alef.), sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. Saccharata Koern.) and celeriac (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.) was followed during two growing seasons with the aim of describing the root systems and nitrogen (N) utilisation of the three vegetables. The crops were grown after incorporation of green manure either in the preceding Autumn or Spring. Beetroot reached a final root depth of 1.55 – 1.8 m. For sweet corn, th...

  5. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo; Julio Viégas; Deise Flores Santurio; Luana Rossatto; Isaura Helena Soares; Sydney Hartz Alves; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs) de Origanum vulgare (orégano), Thymus vulgaris (tomilho), Lippia graveolens (lípia), Zingiber officinale (gengibre), Salvia officinalis (sálvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim) e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão), bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bacteri...

  6. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira; Margareth de Fátima Melo Diniz; EDELTRUDES O. LIMA

    2008-01-01

    Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas planta...

  8. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  9. Chinese herbal extract dl-3n-butylphthalide A commonly used drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke as a novel therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfang He; Wensheng Zhou; Zhiping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Dl-3n-butylphthalide is the active component isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. A number of pharmacological and clinical studies have proven that dl-3n-butylphthalide is highly po-tent and multi-targeted with low toxicity and has a long time-window for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying dl-3n-butylphthalide include improving mi-tochondrial function and microcirculation, inhibiting apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress. Fur-thermore, dl-3n-butylphthalide may also be promising for the treatment of neurodegenerative dis-eases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.

  10. Caracteres morfológicos e número de cromossomos em Pelargonium Morphological characters and chromosome numbers in Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reune observações morfológicas e citológicas em dez cultivares e cinco espécies de Pelargonium aromático e em onze cultivares ornamentais. Os cultivares aromáticos são, morfològicamente, muito semelhantes ao P. x asperum, do qual possivelmente devem ter-se originado; apresentam meiose irregular, com alta freqüência de monovalentes. Os cultivares ornamentais pertencem todos à espécie P. zonale, e dentre êles uns são diplóides e outros tetraplóides. Das espécies em coleção algumas se identificam com as descrições anteriores, mas outras devem ter sido introduzidas erroneamente classificadas. Considerando o material estudado, foram encontrados, para Pelargonium, três números básicos de cromossomos: x = 8, x = 9 e x = 11.Morphological characters and chromosome number of ten cultivars and five species of aromatic Pelargonium, as well as ornamental cultivars, were compared. The oil cultivars are very alike morphologically and they are supposed to be clones of P x asperum. They have irregular meiosis with high frequency of univalents and are male sterile; their chromosome number is 2n=77. Some of the species (P. graveolens from Italy, P. odoratissimum, P. tomentosuni and P. grossularioides agree with previous descriptions, but others, as P. graveolens from Argentina and P. radula from Italy, were probably introduced with a wrong classification. Their chromosome number were counted and compared to previous determinations with excelent agreement. No data was found concerning P. grossularioides; the present chromosome counting seems to be the first. The ornamental cultivars studied here belong to the species P. zonale; some are diploid, others tetraploid; in the diploid cultivars mixoploidy is frequent. As chromosome number is concerned, three basic numbers were established; x=8 for P. odoratissimum, x = 9 for P. grossularioides cv. cocoanut, P. graveolens from Italy and P. zonale (ornamental cultivars, and x=11

  11. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Pérez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagación, composición química y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano. Los fitoquímicos presentes pueden clasificarse en tres categorías: compuestos volátiles, lípidos y fenólicos. Estos componentes presentan diversas propiedades nutracéuticas entre las que destacan la actividad antioxidante, hipoglucémica, hipotensiva, hipolipidémica y anticancerígena. Los avances en el estudio de la composición fitoquímica y su relación con nuevas propiedades nutracéuticas hacen del orégano un producto de alto valor comercial con amplias aplicaciones quimioterapéuticas.The oregano plant is distributed worldwide, and represented mainly by two species: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace native of Europa, and Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, native of America. Mexico is the second largest producer of oregano in the world, with the species L. graveolens H. B. K. However, most of the species used are wild, and raising them is done in a traditional and limited way. In this study we present an analysis of the dissemination strategies, chemical composition and nutraceutical properties of oregano. Phytochemicals present can be classified into three categories: volatile, lipids and phenolic compounds. These components present diverse neutraceutical properties, the most important of which are antioxidant activities, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolypidemic and anti-carcinogenic. The advances in the study of the phytochemical composition and its relationship with new

  12. Óleos essenciais para aromaterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Meirilane Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biotecnologia e Bio-empreendedorismo em Plantas Aromáticas e Medicinais O potencial terapêutico de óleos essenciais de Salvia sclarea, Salvia officinalis cv. ‘purpurascens’, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) em doenças neurodegenerativas e de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) como ansiolítico, muitas vezes utilizados em Aromaterapia sugerem o papel relevante da regulamentação deste sector, designadamente quanto a critérios d...

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  15. Sensitization Prevalence, Antibody Cross-Reactivity and Immunogenic Peptide Profile of Api g 2, the Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 of Celery

    OpenAIRE

    Gadermaier, G.; Hauser, M.; Egger, M.; Ferrara, R; Briza, P.; Santos, K.S.; Zennaro, D.; Girbl, T.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L.; Mari, A.; F. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background: Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. Methodology: 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP) and nPru p 3 (peach LTP) using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected pati...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Rout

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a preliminary data of occurrence of elemental concentration in medicinal plants i.e Apium graveolens (seed, Sida cordifolia (root, Solanum surattense (whole plant, Tribulus terrestris(fruit and Withania somnifera (root used in Ayurveda, using Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS following standard procedures. The elemental concentration i.e. Mn, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were found in various proportions. The data obtained from the study can be used to evaluate the potentiality of these plants in their used for Ayurvedic drugs

  17. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  18. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Charles I.; Michaluk, Lynnette M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Depts. of Psychology and Zoology. Lab. Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Biology]. E-mail: charles.abramson@okstate.edu; Wanderley, Paulo A.; Wanderley, Maria J.A.; Silva, Jose C.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Bananeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura

    2007-11-15

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  19. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  20. Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Some Commercial Essential Oils and Their Major Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Aazza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L. Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene.

  1. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. PMID:27211646

  2. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved. PMID:26776029

  3. Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Cocozza, Claudio; Gonnella, Maria; Abdelrahman, Hamada; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-06-15

    Thirteen elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 11 different wild edible plants (WEP) (Amaranthus retroflexus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus, Glebionis coronaria, Sonchus spp., Borago officinalis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Sinapis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lagopus and Portulaca oleracea) collected from countryside and urban areas of Bari (Italy) were determined. B.officinalis and P.rhoeas could represent good nutritional sources of Mn and Fe, respectively, as well as A.retroflexus and S.arvensis for Ca. High intake of Pb and Cd could come from P.lagopus and A.retroflexus (1.40 and 0.13 mg kg(-1) FW, respectively). WEP may give a substantial contribution to the elements intake for consumers, but in some cases they may supply high level of elements potentially toxic for human health. Anyway, both ANOVA and PCA analyses have highlighted the low influence of the harvesting site on the elements content. PMID:25660854

  4. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  5. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  6. Gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) sobre principios ativos e carga microbiana de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Agnol, L. [Herbarium Laboratorio Botanico Ltda, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Garantia da Qualidade

    2001-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  7. 香精香料信息17则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    1.不同氮肥剂量对小茴香农学和化学性质的影响 土耳其YuzuncuYil大学农学院学者M.Tuncturk在“Asian Journal of Chemistry”杂志2008,20(4),3209~3217页上用英文发表的文章报道作者以四种不同的氮肥(0、20、40和60kg/公顷)来研究对小茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)得率和质量的影响。

  8. [Influence of spiced feed additives on taste of hen's eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Th; Braun, P; Fehlhaber, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the spices garlic (Allium sativum), extract from garlic, sage (Salvia officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), peppermint (Mentha piperita), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), paprika (Capsicum annuum), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and sausage-mix fed to white hybrides on the quality of eggs (n = 705) was tested by 10 qualified persons. Changes in smell or taste were partly significant; a direct improvement is hard to induce. A well seasoned taste was obtained by feeding of garlic, fennel, peppermint and marjoram. They produce an aromatic flavor. A practical application is possible but limited by higher production prices. Further, it is uncertain if there is a need for "taste-manipulated" eggs.

  9. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 μg/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 μg/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:  The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient. PMID:22417594

  10. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  11. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. PMID:25818087

  12. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paz Elia,1 Raya Zach,1 Sharon Hazan,2 Sofiya Kolusheva,2 Ze’ev Porat,1,3 Yehuda Zeiri1,3 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Ilse Katz Institute of Nanotechnology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 3Division of Chemistry, Negev Nuclear Research Center Beersheba, Israel Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Lippia citriodora, Salvia officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Punica granatum, antioxidants, size distribution, zeta potential

  14. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693

  15. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  16. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  17. Impact of aqueous extracts from six flavoring materials on rats' gut Lactobacilli%六种香辛料水提取物对大鼠肠道乳酸菌影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志超; 黄丽珠; 王聪; 张宁; 刘柳; 彭喜春

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Six flavoring materials of Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale Rose, Syzygium aromatieum, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Piper nigrum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum were examined whether to have positive effects on dysfunction of digestive system such as gastrointestinal dysfunction and diarrhea. Methods: The amount, diversity and composition of Lactobacilli in rat colon and rectum were analyzed with Ribotype abundance ( S) , Shannon diversity index ( H) , Evenness index and Jacaard similarity index by using the technique of terminal- restriction fragment length polymorphism after the aqueous extracts of six materials were orally administrated into rats for one month. Results : The results showed that the aqueous extracts of six materials had different effects on Lactobaciili in rat colon,but presented to inhibit them in rectum. However, all of these extracts enhanced the diversity and distribution evenness of Lactobacilli in colon except for that of Syzygium aromatieum and Foeniculum vulg are Mill. Foeniculum vulgare Mill reduced the diversity and distribution evenness of Lactobacilli in rectum. Conclusion : These extracts exerted a heavy impact on the composition of Lactobacilli in both colon and rectum. The functional mechanism of these materials on the dysfunction of digestive system might be relative with the shared and different effects on gut Lactobacilli.%目的:观察肉桂、干姜、丁香、小茴香、胡椒和花椒等六种香辛料水提取物对消化系统功能紊乱的积极作用.方法:本研究采用末端限制性片段长度多态性分析技术,再用总峰面积、Ribotype丰富度(S)、Shannon多样性指数(H)、均匀度指数(E)以及Jacaard相似性指数等指标,针对六种常见香辛料的水提取物对大鼠结肠和直肠中乳酸菌群的数量、多样性及结构进行了分析. 结果:六种香辛料的水提取物对结肠中乳酸菌群生长的影响存在差异,但均抑制了直肠中乳酸菌的生长;然

  18. Compendium of dietary sources of vitamin A in the Thar desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed long term solution to prevent nutritional blindness lies in changing the dietary habits of a given population through nutritional education, nutritional supplementation, and nutritional rehabilitation. Before such strategies can be successfully implemented, it becomes necessary to study the existing dietary pattern of the population and to identify locally grown foods rich in vitamin A. Seventy eight rural women were interviewed to determine the common dietary items in western Rajasthan. These items were then matched with their B-carotene contents, only to discover that, 100 grams of any of them would not provide the RDA for a 1-3 year old child, with the exception of Suva (Peucedanum graveolens and Bathua (Chenopodium album leaves. The B-Carotene contents of several food items is unknown at present and there is an urgent need to evaluate them.

  19. Chemical composition of phytonciders from tw o aromatic plants by HS-SPM E and comparison with their essential oil%固相微萃取技术分析两种芳香植物精气成分及与其精油成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓生; 庄东红; 吴清韩; 李妙清; 马瑞君

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱‐质谱(GC‐MS)联用技术对香叶天竺葵与柠檬香蜂草的精气进行分析鉴定,并用面积归一法测定其相对含量.结果显示,在香叶天竺葵和柠檬香蜂草中分别鉴定出62和43种化学成分,分别占总精气成分的99.5%和99.9%.其中,香叶天竺葵的主要成分为香叶醇(17.8%)、愈创蓝油烃(14.6%)、 d‐杜松烯(12.0%)、 香茅醇(8.7%),而柠檬香蜂草的主要成分则为β‐石竹烯(11.4%)、 异戊醇(9.5%)、 月桂烯(9.0%)、 3‐辛酮(8.4%),顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱‐质谱(GC‐MS)联用技术比动态顶空采样和热脱附/GC/MS 联用技术所得到精气成分种类多,且主要成分差异性明显.与精油相比,香叶天竺葵精气与精油的共有成分为香叶醇、香茅醇、α‐水芹烯、罗勒烯、芳樟醇、薄荷酮、异薄荷酮、丙酸香茅酯、α‐石竹烯;柠檬香蜂草精气和精油的共有成分是甲基庚烯酮、芳樟醇、香茅醇、α‐石竹烯.%The chemical composition of phytonciders from the Pelargonium graveolens L and Melissa officinalis L are collected and identified by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS‐SPME) with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) , and their relative contents are determined by normalization of area . A total of 62 and 43 compounds are identified from P graveolens and M officinalis , which account for 99.4% and 99.9% of the total aroma components , respectively . The main constituents of phytoncider are geraniol(17.8% ) , guaiazulenum(14.6% ) , d‐cadinene(12.0% ) and citronellol(8.7% ) in P graveolens , β‐caryophyllene (11.4% ) , isoamyl alcohol (9.5% ) , myrcene (9.0% ) and 3‐octanone (8.4% ) in M officinalis . The HS‐SPME can detect more volatile ingredients than the purge & trap‐thermal desorption(P & T‐TD) , and have obvious different in the

  20. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  1. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts.

  2. 生物灭鼠新探索——芸香雄性不育毒饵的实验研究%Study on Rat Male Sterility by Rue Bait to a Purpose of Biological Deratization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 杨艳芳; 刘路; 梁晓明; 曲万明

    2010-01-01

    目的:芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,其地上茎的产量高,制成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的生产和应用提供理论基础.方法:芸香茎部制成高、中、低浓度的毒饵,饲喂雄性小鼠,现察体重、睾丸重量、小肠重量变化以及雄鼠不育率.结果:毒饵组与对照组比,体重、睾丸重量、小肠重量显著降低,雄鼠不育率提高.结论:芸香毒饵能够有效地抑制小鼠的繁殖速度.

  3. AcEST: DK953240 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9AR74 Definition sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta...ns-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 124 4e-28 sp|Q43054|TCMO_POPKI Trans-...e-12 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = ...tr|Q5IDB4|Q5IDB4_PINTA Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (Fragment) OS=Pin... 130 6e-29 tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta...RTRNVVFDIFTGKGQDMVFTVY 129 >tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta

  4. 生物灭鼠新探索——制备芸香毒饵降低小鼠生育的实验研究%A New Exploration on Biological Rodenticide.Study on the Reproductive Ability of Mice Decreased by Rue Poison Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 杨艳芳; 秦荣; 赵东; 王建勃

    2009-01-01

    芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,有良好避孕效果,刺成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的大批量生产和应用提供理论基础.实验把芸香全草包煎制成水煎剂,制成毒饵,孕前和孕后分别饲喂小鼠,观察体重变化、怀孕率和流产率.统计分析结果,毒饵组与对照组比,体重变化差异不显著,怀孕率明显降低,流产率明显增高.结论:芸香毒饵可以有效的抑制小鼠繁殖速度.

  5. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  6. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  7. 香桂、香叶林草间作试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖玉平; 陈岩冰; 何天平

    2005-01-01

    种植香桂(Cinnamomum petrophium N.Chao)前3年无收益,可以采用间种香叶(Pelargonium graveolens L.Herit.)加以弥补.本试验667m2定植香桂苗450株(1.5m×1.0m),行间种植香叶1 200株(40 cm×40cm),定植后1~3年的产值为2 100元、1 800元、1 222元.取得了以短养长的良好效果.

  8. 香桂、香叶林草间作试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖玉平; 陈岩冰; 何天平

    2005-01-01

    种植香桂(Cinnamornum petrophilum N.Chao)前3年无收益,可以采用间种香叶(Pelargonium graveolens L.Herit.)加以弥补。本试验667m2定植香桂苗450株(1.5m×1.0m),行间种植香叶1200株(40cm×40cm),定植后1-3年的产值为2100元、1800元、1222元。取得了以短养长的良好效果。

  9. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  10. Desarrollo de apio mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingeniería de matrices. / Development of minimally processed celery fortified with vitamin E, by matrix engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    MARTELO CASTAÑO, YISELL JOHAN; Cortés Rodríguez, Misael; Suárez Mahecha, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingeniería de matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacío con dlαtocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solución isotónica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en función del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacío), en términos de la cuantificación...

  11. The effect of celery and parsley juices on pharmacodynamic activity of drugs involving cytochrome P450 in their metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, V; Raskovic, A; Popovic, M; Sabo, J

    2002-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) and parsley (Petroselinum sativum), plants used worldwide in human nutrition, are the natural sources of methoxsalen. In this study we investigated the effect of mice pretreatment with juices of this plants on the hypnotic action of pentobarbital and analgesic action of paracetamol and aminopyrine, the drugs involving cytochrome P450 superfamily in their metabolism. In mice pretreated with celery and parsley juices a prolonged action of pentobarbital with respect to control was observed, statistical significance being attained only with parsley-pretreated animals. Both pretreatments increased and prolonged the analgesic action of aminopyrine and paracetamol, pretreatment with parsley being again more effective. Celery and parsley juices given to animals two hours before their decapitation caused a significant decrease of cytochrome P450 in the liver homogenate as compared to control. PMID:12365194

  12. Mėsos gaminių su augalų ekstraktais mikrobiologinių rodiklių kitimas laikymo metu ir juslinės savybės

    OpenAIRE

    Šarkinas, A.; Šipailienė, A.; Venskutonis, P. R.; Čypienė, V.; Mieželienė, A.; Alenčikienė, G.

    2005-01-01

    Augalų ekstraktų antimikrobinės savybės išbandytos modelinėje maltos kiaulienos ir jautienos sistemoje, laikant produktą 4–6 C temperatūroje. Įvertintas gelsvės (Levisticum officinale WDJ Koch), petražolių (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm), salierų (Apium graveolens L), rozmarino (Rozmarinus officinalis L), raudonėlio (Origanum vulgare L) 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 % ekstrakto priedo poveikis. Vertinant bendro mikroorganizmų skaičiaus, koliforminių bakterijų, stafilokokų, salmonelių skaičiaus pokyčius nustaty...

  13. From traditional European medicine to discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Frustaci, A; Del Bufalo, A; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2013-01-01

    The leading Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics to date involves inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which should, in principle, elevate cholinergic signaling and limit inflammation. In spite of the effectiveness in 20%-30% of AD patients, more attention has been paid to find new anti-AChE agents from medicinal plants. Galanthamine, contained in the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus and related genera like Narcissus, represents a good example. The aim of this study is to review the role of possible AChE inhibitors (AChEI) present in plants traditionally used in European medicine for improving memory. Starting from Galanthamine, properties of Melissa species, Salvia officinalis, Arnica chamissonis and Ruta graveolens are discussed to point to the role of these plants as potential sources for the development of therapeutic agents for AD. PMID:23210783

  14. Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2013-10-01

    The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ⩾96% at 2 μL/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

  15. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906

  16. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  17. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10 ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10 ppb detection level of the procedure used. PMID:25346500

  18. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  19. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  20. Potential interaction between the volatile and non-volatile fractions on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Jacqueline Y; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Van Vuuren, Sandy F

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have reported promising antimicrobial efficacy for the essential oils and solvent extracts of several indigenous Pelargonium species. This study aimed to determine if any pharmacological interaction (e.g. synergism or antagonism) exists between the volatile and non-volatile components when the different fractions were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the following fractions were tested; the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation (EO), non-volatile fraction (NV), prepared by extraction of plant material remaining in the distilling apparatus (having no or negligible volatile constituents) and solvent extracts prepared from fresh (FC) and dried (DC) plant material containing both volatile and non-volatile constituents. Pelargonium quercifolium oil was dominated by p-cymene (42.1%) and viridiflorol (16.9%), while P. graveolens and P. tomentosum oil had high levels of isomenthone (84.0 and 58.8%, respectively). Menthone was noted as a major constituent in the P. tomentosum EO sample. It was evident from the results that the presence of volatile constituents in the three species; P. graveolens, P. quercifolium and P. tomentosum is generally not a pre-requisite for antimicrobial activity. The most significant variations of antimicrobial activity were noted for P. tomentosum where poorer activity was noted for the FC and EO fractions against Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans. Studies on Staphylococcus aureus, however, showed the converse, where best activity was noted for the FC fraction (3.0 mg/mL). For P. quercifolium, the DC fraction indicated a notable increase in anti-staphylococcal activity (2.0 mg/mL) when compared with the FC (8.0 mg/mL) and EO (16.0 mg/mL) fractions. For P. tomentosum, the FC fraction indicated much lower antimicrobial activity (against both B. cereus and C. albicans) when compared with all other fractions, suggesting that the essential oils may impact negatively on the antimicrobial activity when tested against

  1. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10 ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10 ppb detection level of the procedure used.

  2. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  3. 18种食用香料中的硒含量特征%The Selenium Content in 18 Kinds of Edible Spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟体忠; 张文华; 唐文华; 蒋天智; 孙大方; 彭章美; 毛仕焦; 梁文涛

    2014-01-01

    研究食用香料中硒含量,以便为富硒食用香料的选择提供重要参考。采用氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法测定18种食用香料中的硒含量。结果表明:18种食用香料中的硒含量变化较大,其含量变化在0.002~0.849 mg/kg之间。千里香、小茴香、香果、孜然、鱼香菜和鱼蓼中的硒含量较高,其含量分别为0.849,0.719,0.669,0.560,0.435,0.149 mg/kg。分析认为千里香、小茴香、香果、孜然、鱼香菜和鱼蓼已达到富硒调味品标准。%To study the selenium content in edible spices,which may provide important reference for picking selenium-enriched edible spices.The content of selenium in 18 kinds of edible spices is analyzed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.The results show that there are major changes in the selenium content in 18 kinds of edible spices,ranging from 0.002 mg/kg to 0.849 mg/kg.Murraya paniculata (L.)Jack.,Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.,Cuminum cyminum L.,Mentha spicata Linn.and Polygonum lapathifolium L.have higher selenium content,which is 0.849,0.719,0.669,0.560,0.435,0.149 mg/kg.Analysts believe that Murraya paniculata(L.)Jack.,Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.,Cuminum cyminum L.,Mentha spicata Linn.and Polygonum lapathifolium L.have reached the standard of selenium-enriched condiment.

  4. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  5. Can estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human health? A fennel safety update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, L; Gallo, E; Mascherini, V; Mugelli, A; Vannacci, A; Firenzuoli, F

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction. PMID:22899959

  6. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. PMID:25764982

  7. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants Against Malaria Vector, Anopheles Stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Salim Abadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anophe­les stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distil­lated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to stan­dard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program.Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activi­ties were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively.Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhib­ited more larvicidal properties.

  8. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  9. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  10. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  11. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  12. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Marín

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to (i determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii determine the total phenolic content; (iii determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28% and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox, but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs, followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs, and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs. P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils.

  13. Evaluation of essential oils for maintaining postharvest quality of Thompson seedless table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Ali; Hassani, Abbas; Ghosta, Youbert; Bernousi, Iraj; Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad Hadi; Shabani, Razieh; Ziaee, Seyed Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The effects of postharvest spraying of essential oils from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), summer savory (Satureja hortensis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on fungal decay and quality parameters of the 'Thompson seedless' table grape stored at 0 ± 1°C for 60 days were evaluated. Results showed that the essential oils, especially of thyme and fennel, have a good inhibitory effect on the development of fungal decay in Thompson table grapes. In addition, essential oils reduced weight loss, berry and rachis browning and had no considerable adverse effect on the flavour of the fruits. GC-MS analysis showed that the main compounds identified in sweet basil, fennel, summer savory and thyme oils are linalool (65.25%), trans-anethole (64.72%), carvacrol (54.14%) and β-ocimene (12.62%), respectively. Therefore, these essential oils have good potential for use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the preservation and storage of table grapes. PMID:21999332

  14. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

  15. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K; Tiralongo, J; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in the industrialized world, being associated with the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and inducing diseases partially through intestinal adherence. With increasing reports of C. jejuni drug resistance against standard antibiotics, investigations into antiadhesive agents for the prevention of bacterial infection are highly significant. Given the consumer-driven development towards holistic and integrative healthcare, research into additional anti-Campylobacter effects of herbal medicines that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions is important. Twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays. Antiadhesion effects with IC(50) values 35 mg/mL) was found for Agrimonia eupatoria (agrimony), Andrographis paniculata (andrographis), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) extracts. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of marketed herbal medicines in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21280113

  16. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, C; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of gastric diseases is increasing with H. pylori, the causative agent of acute and chronic gastritis, being a major predisposing factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. C. jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting in severe diarrhoea. Increasing drug resistance of these bacteria against standard antibiotics, and the more widespread use of herbal medicines, favours investigations into additional anti-Helicobacter and anti-Campylobacter effects of phytotherapeutics that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions. Twenty-one hydroethanol herbal extracts and four essential oils were screened for antibacterial activity using a modification of a previously described micro-dilution assay and compared with the inhibitory effects of antibiotics. The herbal extracts showing the highest growth inhibition of C. jejuni were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Silybum marianum. Agrimonia eupatoria, Hydrastis canadensis, Filipendula ulmaria and Salvia officinalis were the most active herbal extracts in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of phytotherapeutics marketed for their gastrointestinal effects and identifies new beneficial antibacterial effects for some herbal medicines not currently recommended for gastrointestinal problems. PMID:19653313

  17. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  18. External Nursing Applications in the Supportive Management of Prolonged Postoperative Ileus: Description of Interventions and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Bernhard; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Voggenreiter, Bernd; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged postoperative ileus is a common but clinically challenging problem that leads to patient discomfort and prolonged hospitalization; the condition is managed through a multimodular program of supportive measures. In anthroposophic nursing, the management of prolonged postoperative ileus involves additional tools, including external abdominal compresses and massages with plant or silver-containing oils and ointments. We describe 3 typical techniques: Oxalis tincture compresses, Thuja/Argentum ointment compresses, and massage with "Wala Melissenöl" (containing Melissa officinalis, Carvum cari, Foeniculum amari, and Origanum majorana). A 61-year-old man with chronic pain from adhesions after multiple abdominal surgical procedures developed a prolonged postoperative ileus after an elective ileostomy reversal. Following slow recovery during the first postoperative days, he began vomiting. A nasogastric tube was inserted, and daily Oxalis tincture compresses and massage with "Wala Melissenöl" and Thuja/Argentum ointment compresses were applied on the abdomen. The patient's symptoms gradually improved over the next 10 days. No prokinetic medications were needed to manage this episode. External abdominal nursing applications with plant substances and silver can be an additional tool in the management of prolonged postoperative ileus. PMID:27309410

  19. An overview of amenorrhea and respective remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Elahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea is described as complete absence or cessation of menstruation. Besides conventional treatment approaches, traditional and complementary medical systems have suggested numerous natural medications for management of amenorrhea. Current study aimed to compile the pharmacological reports on amenorrhea from the standpoints of early Persian scholars. Medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persian medicine from 9th to 18th centuries A.D. have been reviewed to extract the critical points and natural remedies. Based on Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM, impairment in uterus, brain and circulation are main causes of amenorrhea. Any obstruction, either anatomical or functional, in uterus and allied organs or tissues may lead the body to this disorder. Concerning herbal therapy of amenorrhea in TPM, 71 medicinal plants related to 35 families were found. The most prevalent families were Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Fabaceae, respectively. Usual routes of administration were oral, vaginal and topical. However, there was one report on a medicament, spoken to be effective nasally. Traditionally, emmenagogue medicines should possess diuretic activity to be effective for amenorrhea. All reported remedies were known as diuretic agents. However, this description is not corresponded with what is now accepted as diuretic. On the other hand, only Foeniculum vulgare showed therapeutic effects on amenorrhea in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Despite lack of novel information on emmenagogue activity of these remedies, design and conducting evidence-based animal or human studies may be beneficial for new drug discovery from traditional knowledge.

  20. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  1. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Fernando T; Ventura, Maurício U; Carvalho, Mateus G; Miguel, André L A; Souza, Mariana S J; Paula, Maria T; Zawadneak, Maria A C

    2016-07-01

    The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations. PMID:27085718

  2. Uso de Plantas Medicinais por Famílias do Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Barreto CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a utilização de plantas medicinais pelas famílias residentes no Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar, amostra constituída por 555 domicílios selecionados de maneira aleatória simples por meio de amostragem por conglomerado de 137 setores censitários. Dos participantes, 73,51% relataram a utilização de plantas medicinais, sendo Mentha x piperita L., Mentha pulegium L. e Foeniculum vulgare Mill as mais citadas. Dos que utilizaram plantas medicinais, 48% preparavam por decocção, 46,8% por infusão, 77% aprenderam com os pais como utilizar e preparar. Foi observado que 90,7% obtiveram as plantas dos próprios quintais, 90,9% consumiam frescas e 94,4% achavam que não fazia mal. A utiliza- ção de plantas medicinais é comum nos municípios estudados. Assim, nota-se a necessidade de realização de pesquisa etnobotânica e capacitação dos profissionais de saúde para promover o uso racional de plantas medicinais.

  3. Fungal Control of Pathogenic Fungi Isolated From Some Wild Plants in Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Zeid, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Aerva lanata, Arnebia hispidissima, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia monosperma, Asphodelus aestives, Avena barbata, Capparis dcidua, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia glomerifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Launaea sonchoides, Medicago sativa, Opuntia ficus, Phagnalon sinaicum, Prunus persica, Pulicaria crispa, Punica granatum, Rumex dentatus and Trichodesma calathiforme. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternata, Cephalosporium madurae, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Humicola grisea, Penicillium chrysogenum and Ulocladium botrytis. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens.

  4. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  5. Antimycotic efficacy of Iranian medicinal plants towards dermatophytes obtained from patients with dermatophytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Khosravi; Hojjatollah Shokri; Zohreh Farahnejat; Reza Chalangari; Martis Katalin

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Nine plant essential oils (EOs),including those from Artemisia sieberi,Cuminum cyminum,Foeniculum vulgare,Heracleum persicum,Menta spicata,Nigella sativa,Rosmarinus officinalis,Zataria multiflora and Ziziphora clinopodioides,were evaluated for their anti-dermatophytic properties.METHODS:The tested dermatophytes included Trichophyton mentagrophytes (No.32),T.rubrum (No.29),Epidermophytonfloccosum (No.19),Microsporum gypseum (No.11) and M.canis (No.42).The susceptibility tests of plant oils in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were performed by the broth microdilution technique as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute.RESULTS:All EOs studied were active against the dermatophytes.The MICs recorded for the plant oils tested ranged from 0.25 to 4 mg·mL-1.The most significant activity was observed with A.sieberi,showing a lower MIC against dermatophytes than other plant oils (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Data from this study indicated that several Iranian medicinal plant oils,mainly A.sieberi,are active in vitro against different dermatophyte species,suggesting their potential use for the topical treatment of dermatophytoses.

  6. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  7. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  8. Can Estragole in Fennel Seed Decoctions Really Be Considered a Danger for Human Health? A Fennel Safety Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. mature fruit (commonly known as seeds and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction.

  9. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  10. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  11. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  12. 14种植物精油对茶尺蠖行为的影响%Effect of 14 Plant Essential Oils on the Behavior of Ectropis obliqua (Prout)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正群; 孙晓玲; 罗宗秀; 高宇; 边磊; 辛肇军; 蔡晓明; 陈宗懋

    2014-01-01

    To study the repellency, oviposition deterrence and antifeeding effect of 14 plant essential oils against Ectropis obliqua (Prout) and to explore essential oils as the behavior-modifying stimuli of E. obliqua “push-pull”strategy in tea plantations. Behavioral bioassays were conducted to test the repellent and oviposition deterrence activity of 14 different essential oils on adults of E. obliqua, and the antifeeding activities of plant essential oils against the 3rd-instar larvae were investigated by leaf disc choice bioassays. The results showed that Ocimum basilicum oil, Rosmarinus officinalis oil, Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil, Cuminum cyminum oil and Pelargonium graveolens oil displayed strongest repellency against the female and male adults of E. obliqua, and R. officinalis oil and P. graveolens oil also have deterred oviposition for female E. obliqua. Under three tested concentrations of essential oil, C. cyminum oil, O. basilicum oil and Agastache rugosa oil showed strong antifeeding activities to E. obliqua larvae. The antifeedant rates of essential oils increased differently, and the growth rates of E. obliqua larvae decreased with the increase of concentration of essential oils. The results demonstrated that among those 14 plant essential oils, R. officinalis oil, O. basilicum oil, C. cyminum oil and P. graveolens oil showed the remarkable behavior regulating functions on E. obliqua, with the potential to be developed as the components of the „push-pull‟strategy for control of this pest.%为获得能够应用于茶园茶尺蠖Ectropis obliqua“推-拉”策略的行为调节剂,在室内测定了茶尺蠖成虫对14种植物精油的趋性反应,及植物精油对茶尺蠖雌虫产卵行为的干扰作用,并采用叶碟法测定了植物精油对茶尺蠖幼虫的拒食作用。结果表明,罗勒、迷迭香、肉桂、茴香及天竺葵5种植物精油对茶尺蠖成虫表现出一定的驱避活性,并且迷迭香油和天竺葵油还

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  14. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  15. Estudo fitossociológico de um trecho da floresta estacional semidecidual em Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Phytosociology in semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in Diamate do Norte, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erci Marcos Del Quiqui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual de 1.426 ha, localizada na Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (54° 49’W e 22° 34’S em Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram locadas 29 parcelasgeoreferenciadas de 50 m x 30 m, totalizando 4,35 ha. Em cada parcela, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP > 5,0 cm, e, em subparcelas, os indivíduos com DAP £ 5 cm, totalizando 3.812 indivíduos arbóreos pertencentes a 38 famílias, 85 gêneros e 102 espécies. As famílias Myrtaceae, Rutaceae e do grupo das Leguminosaea destacaram-se pelo elevado número de espécies. Xylosma venosa, Metrodorea nigra, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia uniflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Actinostenon concolor, Zygia cauliflora, Caesaria gossypiosperma, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Astronium graveolens, Campomanesia xanthocarpa e Balfourodendron riedelianum destacaram-se como as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ obtido foi de 3,56 e índice de similaridade de Sorensen (ISS neste trabalho foi de 75,5% entre os estratos avaliados.The aim of this work was to study a Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragment. It was carried out at the Ecological Station Caiuá (54° 49’W and 22° 34'S, in Diamante do Norte, Paraná State, Brazil. The study covered an area of 1.426 ha. The plots were located by GPS in that fragment. The area was divided in 29 parcels with 50 x 30 m, totalizing 4.35 ha. The individuals belonging to regeneration and the ones with DBH higher than or equal to 5.0 cm were then measured, totalizing 3,812 adult individuals, gathered into 38 families, 85 genera and 102 species. The families with the highest number of species were Myrtaceae, Rutaceae and Leguminosaea groups. Xylosmavenosa, Metrodorea nigra, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia uniflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron

  16. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  17. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores do povoado de Manejo, Lima Duarte - MG Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by dwellers of Manejo Village, Lima Duarte-Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população do povoado de Manejo, Lima Duarte (MG. O estudo foi realizado mediante visitas às casas dos moradores que responderam a questionário relacionado às espécies de plantas que são cultivadas, respectivas partes utilizadas, bem como as formas de preparo e quais doenças são tratadas com as plantas. Foram realizadas 41 visitas resultando em citações de 100 diferentes espécies medicinais, sendo a maioria cultivada nos quintais e outras nativas da região, as quais também são utilizadas pelos moradores. Exemplares foram coletados e depositados no herbário CESJ, da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. As espécies mais citadas foram Mentha sp., Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Bidens pilosa L., Mentha pulegium L., Mikania glomerata Spreng., Rosa sp. e Plantago major L. As doenças mais tratadas com as plantas medicinais em Manejo são gripes e resfriados, problemas estomacais, cólicas menstruais e infecções no útero, verminose, problemas renais, ansiedade e estresse. As partes mais utilizadas são as folhas, e a forma de preparo mais comum das plantas são os chás por infusão. A construção de horta comunitária no povoado pode valorizar o emprego das plantas medicinais, sobretudo pelos mais jovens, mantendo a tradição do uso pelas futuras gerações.The aim of this study was the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the population of Manejo Village, Lima Duarte (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study was performed by means of visitations to the houses of dwellers who answered a questionnaire related to the plant species that are cultivated, respective parts that are used, as well as preparation forms and which diseases are treated with the plants. A total of 41 visitations were done, resulting in citation of 100 different medicinal species, most of which

  18. Fungos endofíticos associados a plantas medicinais Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mussi-Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a utilização de plantas medicinais em infusões, xaropes, tinturas, ungüentos, dentre outras formas, pressupõe-se que fungos endofíticos, presentes no interior das plantas, mas sem causar doença, possam tornar-se um componente destes produtos, principalmente quando utilizados in natura. Além disso, os fungos endofíticos podem também produzir substâncias tóxicas aos usuários ou mesmo alterar o metabolismo vegetal, modificando a composição e as propriedades medicinais, assim como, a qualidade do produto armazenado e comercializado. Neste sentido, objetivou-se isolar e identificar a flora fúngica endofítica de onze espécies medicinais escolhidas ao acaso. Obtiveram-se culturas-puras dos fungos Phomopsis, Colletotrichum, Pestalotia, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Nigrospora e Glomerella ocorrendo endofiticamente em Plectranthus barbatus, Vernonia condensata, Pfaffia paniculata, Foeniculum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cordia curassavica, Maytenus ilicifolia, Punica granatum, Morus nigra e Bauhinia forficata. As espécies vegetais em que se identificaram o maior número de fungos endofíticos foram Vernonia condensata, Punica granatum e Morus nigra. Todos os fungos recuperados neste trabalho apresentaram características estritamente endofíticas, não manifestando patogenicidade nas espécies hospedeiras. Dentre os fungos detectados, especial atenção deve ser dada ao gênero Fusarium, uma vez que inúmeras espécies deste gênero são conhecidas produtoras de micotoxinas e constituem-se em importantes patógenos pós-colheita.With the use of medicinal plants in infusions, syrups, dyes, unguents, among other forms, it is expected that endophytic fungi, present inside the plants but not causing diseases, become components of these products, especially when used in natura. In addition, endophytic fungi can produce toxic substances to the users or even modify the plant metabolism, altering the medicinal composition and

  19. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  20. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczaj Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68 in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L. and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs, as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  2. Effect of Different Fertilizer Types and Processing Methods on the Nitrite Content of Vegetables%不同施肥种类与加工方法对蔬菜亚硝酸盐含量变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭超; 颜嘉雯; 何牧; 龚加顺

    2010-01-01

    采用盆栽试验的方法,研究了施用不同肥料对不同蔬菜主要生长期中亚硝酸盐含量的动态变化规律,并探讨了不同加工方法对蔬菜亚硝酸盐含量的影响.结果表明,不同种类的氮肥对生菜(Lactuca sativa Linn.var.ramosa Hort.)、茴香(Foeniculum vulgare)、豆腐菜(Basella rubra)、菠菜(Prunella asiatica Nakai)、芫荽(Coriandrum sativum L.)和京白菜(Basella campestris)在生长发育过程中体内亚硝酸盐的积累有显著性影响(P<0.05).成熟期的蔬菜中,亚硝酸盐含量变化规律为:施混合肥料蔬菜>施硝酸铵蔬菜>施硫酸铵蔬菜>未施肥蔬菜.炒制的蔬菜中的亚硝酸盐含量高于煮制.因此,在蔬菜施肥过程中应该尽量少施化肥或施用少量硫酸铵,并进行合理加工.研究结果为绿色蔬菜合理施用氮肥提供科学依据,也为蔬菜合理烹饪提供参考.

  3. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  5. Evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Fennel, Juniper and Kalonji essential oils against multi drug resistant clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharmishtha Purkayastha; Rittee Narain; Praveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The inhibitory effects of essential oils including fennel, juniper and kalonji from Foeniculum Vulgare, Juniperus Osteosperma and Nigella Sativa on multi drug resistant clinical isolates were investigated. All the oils have been evaluated for phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activity and TLC bioautography assay. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed. The antibacterial potential of essential oils from fennel, juniper and kalonji fennel, juniper and kalonji was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect was investigated using the TLC-bioautographic method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of most of the phytochemicals including saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was assessed on eight multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and two standard strains. All the oils tested showed significant to moderate antibacterial activity toward all tested strains except Acinetobacter sp and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. The maximum zone of inhibition was found to be 25依0.12 mm for juniper oil followed by 21依0.085 mm for kalonji oil againstStaphylococcus aureus 2. Thin layer chromatography and bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus 2 and E. coli for juniper essential oil in correspondence with tannins observed at Rf values of 0.07 and 0.57. Conclusions: Based on the present study, the essential oils from juniper and kalonji possess antibacterial activity against several multi drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and thus can be used as a base for the development of new potent drugs and phytomedicine.

  6. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ, its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10: Cordia dichotoma (10.6, Anchusa italic (10.6, Euphorbia humifusa (4.9, Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9, Ziziphus jujube (4.9, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1, Foeniculum vulgare (4.9, Lavandula angustifolia (4.9, Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9, and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3. Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were 0.999. Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ.

  7. Inhibition of microorganisms involved in deterioration of an archaeological site by silver nanoparticles produced by a green synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Martínez-Gómez, Miriam Araceli; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Mendoza Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-15

    The Citadel, part of the pre-Hispanic city of Teotihuacan and listed as a World Heritage Site, harbors irreplaceable archaeological walls and murals. This city was abandoned by the 7th century and its potential deterioration represents a noteworthy loss of the world's cultural heritage. This research consisted of isolation and identification of bacteria and fungi contributing to this deterioration from walls of a pre-Hispanic city. In addition, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) produced, using a green synthesis method, were tested as potential inhibitors of microbes. AgNP of different sizes and concentrations were tested using in situ assays. Leaf aqueous extracts from two plants species (Foeniculum vulgare and Tecoma stans) and two extraction procedures were used in the NP synthesis. The potential of AgNP as preventive/corrective treatments to protect stucco materials from biodeterioration, as well as the microbial inhibition on three stone materials (stucco, basalt and calcite) was analyzed. Twenty-three bacterial species belonging to eight genera and fourteen fungal species belonging to seven genera were isolated from colored stains, patinas and biofilms produced on the surfaces of archaeological walls from the pre-Hispanic city, Teotihuacan. AgNP from F. vulgare were more effective for in vitro microbial growth inhibition than those from T. stans. Bacteria were less sensitive to AgNP than fungi; however, sensitivity mainly depended on the microbial strain and the plant extract used to prepare AgNP. The use of AgNP as a preventive or corrective treatment to decrease microbial colonization in three kinds of stone used in historical walls was successful. Calcite was more colonized by Alternaria alternata, but less by Pectobacterium carotovorum. This is the first study at different scales (in vitro and tests on different stone types) of inhibition of biodeterioration-causing microorganisms isolated from an archaeological site by green synthesized AgNP. PMID:27015961

  8. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  9. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P=0.00 when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P=0.00 at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked.

  11. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate, in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the EMEPA-PB. Forty-eight hours after the product has been sprayed, one flower of the umbel was collected and removed her aphids, which were placed in a "petri" plate from 9cm in diameter. As a following step, the insects were counted as part of two groups, considering the number of insects dead and alive, being tabulated for later analysis. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the experimental design of randomized blocks composed of six treatments (doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am and pure water as check, with five repetitions. The data were submitted to the regression analysis. The orange oil (Prev-am controls effectively H. foeniculi at the concentration of 0.3%, increasing the control up to concentrations of 0.6 and 0.7%. The product does not kill ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and can be used in programs for integrated pest management.Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, aphid, vegetable oil, ladybug, umbel.

  12. Effects of trace quantity irrigation on yield, dry matter portioning and water use efficiency of spherical fennel grown in greenhouse%痕量灌溉对温室种植球茎茴香产量、干物质分配和水分利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸钧; 金基石; 杨春祥

    2014-01-01

    Trace quantity irrigation is a new irrigation technology based on soil capillary force principle and membrane filtering technology.A study was carried out to investigate the effects of trace quantity irrigation on crop yield,dry matter partitioning and water use efficiency of spherical fennel under greenhouse conditions.Drip irrigation was selected as control treatment.The results showed that yield and dry weight of edible part (bulb)and above-ground part (stem and leaf)were significantly higher under trace quantity irrigation than those under drip irrigation,while the total water consumption was significantly lower than that under the latter.Water use efficiency under trace quantity irrigation was 2.3 times as much as that under drip irrigation.%痕量灌溉是基于土壤毛细管力原理和膜过滤技术而发明的一种新的灌溉技术.以滴灌为对照处理,研究了温室条件下,痕量灌溉对球茎茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.subsp.vulgare var. dulce (Mill.)Batt.)产量、干物质分配和水分利用率的影响.结果表明,痕量灌溉条件下球茎茴香球茎和地上部分(茎和叶)的鲜重和干物质重量显著高于滴灌条件下栽培的球茎茴香,且痕量灌溉的总耗水量显著低于滴灌.试验条件下采用痕量灌溉的水分利用率是滴灌的2.3倍.

  13. Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan bitkisel ilaçlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Süzgeç-Selçuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available u çalışmada, 2012 yılında Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan, Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı bitkisel ilaçlar incelenerek; formülasyonunda aktif bileşik olarak standardize edilmiş bitkisel drog ekstresi veya drog preparatları bulunan müstahzarlar ele alınmıştır. Bitkilerden kimyasal işlemler sonucu elde edilen, bitkisel kaynaklı saf bileşikler (atropin, morfin, efedrin vb. bitkisel ilaç olarak değerlendirilmediklerinden, bu çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmemiştir. Bu kapsamda, bitkisel ilaçların içeriğindeki; bitkilerinin kullanılan kısımları (drog, etken maddeleri, etki ve kullanılışları incelenmiştir. İncelenen bu bitkiler: Aesculus hippocastanum L., Amygdalus communis L., Allium sativum L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Capsicum annuum L., Cassia acutifolia Del. (C. angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica L., Cimicifuga racemosa L., Cola nitida (Vent. Schott & Endl., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Ginkgo biloba L., Hamamelis virginiana L., Harpagophytum procumbens DC, Hedera helix L., Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Mentha piperita L., Passiflora incarnata L., Pelargonium sidoides DC., Pinus brutia Tenn., Populus sp., Rheum officinale Baill., Ricinus communis L., Serenoa repens (W. Bart. Small, Silybum marianum L., Thymus vulgaris L., Triticum aestivum L., Valeriana officinalis L, Vitex agnus-castus L., Vitis vinifera L., Zingiber officinale (Roscoe' dir. Sonuç olarak, 2012 yılında Türkiye eczanelerinde Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı 44 tane bitkisel ilaç tespit edilmiştir.

  14. ESSENTIAL OILS AND NATURAL ZEOLITE INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Hengl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and their components, as a group of phytogenic feed additive, have great potential uses in broiler fattening. Due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and effects on improved food digestibility their positive impact on animals the health status can be expected, and therefore better final fattening results. In this research we studied the impact of XTRACTTM (a combination of essential oils components carvacrol, cinnamaldehid and capsicum Oleoresin, Arom Korm ® (essential oil combination of Foeniculum vulgare and Citrus limon, zeolite and a combination of zeolite with XTRACTTM or Aroma Korma ® on the fattening performance of chickens, their immunostimulating effect, the impact on the antioxidant status of the blood and muscle tissue, the impact on intestine micropopulation of chickens, effect on microbial contamination of meat, the impact on processing performances of broiler chicken and meat properties, and impact on the sensory quality of the chicken meat. The experiment was conducted on Ross 308 broilers, divided into 6 groups (control and treatment groups depending on the different supplements of essential oils, zeolites, or combinations thereof. The fattening lasted 42 days and total of 288 both sex chicks were included (48 per in each group. Influence of the addition of essential oils and natural zeolite had a different impact on the observed individual values. Separately added XTRACTTM and Aroma Korm ® had a good effect on the observed properties of fattening, the technological properties of meat, chicken health status, antioxidant parameters of blood and meat, microbiological contamination and organoleptic properties. Zeolite, as a standalone supplement, had the lowest impact on the observed properties, but in combination with Aroma Korm ® or XTRACTTM, Zeolite improved their activity.

  15. Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C I; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, C I; Koning, M M G

    2007-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as well as the amount of sodium in urine. There are a growing number of studies purporting diuretic effects with traditional medicines. The aim of this article was to review these studies and identify which extracts promote diuresis (which we assessed on terms of urine excreted and urinary sodium excretion) and also to identify the research needs in this area. We identified a number of species and genuses reporting diuretic effects. Of these, the most promising, at the present time, are the species Foeniculum vulgare, Fraxinus excelsior, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Petroselinum sativum and Spergularia purpurea, and species from the genuses Cucumis (Cucumis melo and Cucumis trigonus), Equisetum (Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hiemale var. affine and Equisetum myriochaetum), Lepidium (Lepidium latifolium and Lepidium sativum), Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus corcovadensis and Phyllanthus sellowianus) and Sambucus (Sambucus mexicana and Sambucus nigra). However, there the number of studies is limited and we recommend that further studies be conducted to confirm reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and even be helpful in the development of future medicines, treatments and treatment guidelines. PMID:17804183

  16. Changes in Volatile Compounds during Aging of Sweet Fennel Fruits-Comparison of Hydrodistillation and Static Headspace Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Mence; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Two extraction methods for subsequent gas chromatographic (GC) determination of volatiles from freshly harvested and aged fennel fruit samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,ssp. vulgare var. dulce) have been compared. Hydrodistillation followed by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis was used as a standard method for essential oil characterization, while static headspace followed by GC (SHS-GC-FID) was used as a comparative method for determination of volatile components. As the fennel fruit ages, there is a gradual loss of the volatile components as indicated by the lower yield of essential oil and lower content of volatiles, as indicated by the alternative SHS-GC-FID analysis. Slight differences observed for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and limonene) using the two methods are negligible, indicating that these volatiles did not undergo chemical transformation during the sample preparation procedures. A difference in anisaldehyde content was observed when the composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was compared with the SHS-GC-FIDanalysis of volatiles and explanation for the variation of anisaldehyde content and the origin of other compounds was suggested. Comparison of the obtained results showed that limonene oxides, carvone and carveolare detectable in SHS-GC-FID analysis of the aged fennel fruits, while in hydrodistilled samples analyzed by GC-FID they were not present. Another observed difference was the appearance of products in significant amounts with higher retention times than trans-anethole, namely threo- and erythro-anethole β-hydroxymethylether and anethole glycol that are not detectable in the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. So, the relative abundance of the major components is comparable between these two methods for fennel seed up to 3 years from harvest and they can be used interchangeably depending on the purpose and amount of material. Furthermore, SHS-GC-FID can be used for assessment of maximum storage time

  17. Antioxidant, Anti-5-lipoxygenase and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils and Decoction Waters of Some Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia M. Albano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenging of free radicals and superoxide anion, the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and the antiacetylcholinesterase activities of essential oils and decoction waters of eight aromatic plants (Dittrichia viscosa , Foeniculum vulgare, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Thymbra capitata , Thymus camphoratus, Thymus carnosus and Thymus mastichina were studied. The essential oils were dominated by 1,8-cineole in S. officinalis (59%, T. mastichina (49% and T. camphoratus (21%; borneol (20% in T. carnosus; carvacrol in Thymbra capitata (68%; γ -terpinene (49% in O. vulgare; α -pinene (26% in F. vulgare; and trans-nerolidol (8% + β -oplopenone (7% in D. viscosa. O. vulgare decoction waters had the highest amount of phenols (4 5 ± 3 mg GAE/mL while F. vulgare only had 5 ± 0 mg GAE/mL. The decoction waters showed higher radical scavenging activity than the essential oils. O. vulgare decoction water showed the best antioxidant activity (IC 50= 3 ± 0 m g/mL, while the most effective essential oils were those of Thymbra capitata (IC 50=61 ± 2 m g/mL and O. vulgare (IC 50=15 6 ± 5 m g/mL. Thymbra capitata (IC 50= 6 ± 0 m g/mL decoction water showed the best superoxide anion scavenging activity. F. vulgare decoction water and essential oil revealed the best 5-lipoxygenase inhibition capacity (IC 50=2 7 ± 1 m g/mL and IC 50=6 8 ± 2 m g/mL, respectively. T. mastichina (IC 50=4 6 ± 4 m g/mL, S. officinalis (IC 50=5 1 ± 4 m g/mL, Thymbra capitata (IC 50=5 2 ± 1 m g/mL and T. camphoratus (IC 50=13 7 ± 2 m g/mL essential oils showed the best antiacetylcholinesterase activity.

  18. Methane emissions by livestock in India and mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India 92% enteric methane (CH4) is emitted by cattle and buffalo, about 7% by sheep and goats and only a very small fraction (less than 1%) is attributed to other ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores like yak, mithun, pig, horse, mules, ass, etc. Therefore the strategies to be adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions by livestock are primarily centred around cattle and buffalo. Keeping in mind the agricultural practices in India, the major mitigation techniques which might have some scope for practical application include replacement of non-productive or low productive animals with superior livestock, improving the quality of feeds offered to animals and the use of plant secondary metabolites which are present in many tropical plants. After screening more than 150 plant extracts, it was found that Terminalia chebula, Sapindus mukorossi, Populus deltoides, Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, Allium sativum, Psidium guajava, Mentha piperita and Eucalyptus globulus were capable of inhibiting methanogenesis and ciliate protozoa in an in vitro gas production test. Although these plant extracts exhibited more than 50% inhibition in in vitro experiments, the same plants/ plant extracts either showed no effect or a very poor effect in in vivo experiments. Probable reasons include the different concentrations of plant secondary metabolites used in in vivo and in vitro experiments and large variations in the chemical composition of different accessions of the plant products. Therefore, detailed experiments are needed to optimise the doses of plant secondary metabolites required to produce significant inhibition of CH4 emissions without adversely affecting animal performance. (author)

  19. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  20. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products. PMID:26553262

  1. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  2. Antifungal activity of plant-derived essential oils on Candida tropicalis planktonic and biofilms cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Caio Marcelo Cury; Pereira Junior, Silvio Alves; Moraes, Thaís da Silva; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Amorim Mendes, Suzana; Dias, Herbert Júnior; Stefani, Ricardo; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Pires, Regina Helena

    2016-07-01

    Dental prosthesis supports Candida species growth and may predispose the oral cavity to lesions. C. tropicalis has emerged as a colonizer of prosthesis and has shown resistance to clinically used antifungal agents, which has increased the search for new antifungals. This work describes the effectiveness of fifteen essential oils (EOs) against C. tropicalis The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antifungal activities of the EOs were evaluated by the microdilution method and showed that Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) (PG-EO) was the most effective oil. Geraniol and linalool were the major constituents of PG-EO. The 2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide (XTT) assay showed that all the clinical C. tropicalis strains formed viable biofilms. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the biofilms revealed a complex architecture with basal layer of yeast cells and an upper layer of filamentous cells. Treatments with PG-EO, linalool, and geraniol significantly reduced the number of viable biofilm cells and inhibited biofilm formation after exposure for 48 h. PG-EO, geraniol, and linalool were not toxic to normal human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A) at the concentrations they were active against C. tropicalis Together, our results indicated that C. tropicalis is susceptible to treatment with PG-EO, geraniol, and linalool, which could become options to prevent or treat this infection. PMID:26868902

  3. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  4. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.

  5. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  6. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  7. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  8. Activity of essential oils from spices against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dal Pozzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OE de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lipia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, e de suas frações majoritárias, carvacrol e timol, frente a 32 isolados de Staphylococcus spp, oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Orégano, tomilho e lípia (Orégano Mexicano apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana similar, médias geométrica de CIM de 1600µg mL-1; 1564µg mL-1; 1562µg mL-1, respectivamente, no entanto menos ativos que carvacrol, 584µg mL-1 e thymol, 427µg mL-1. Isolados com diferentes perfis de susceptibil idade aos antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina, quando subagrupados, foram inibidos por concentrações semelhantes de OE . Estes resultados confirmam a atividade antimicrobiana de OE e algumas frações majoritárias.

  9. Development of biosensor for phenolic compounds containing PPO in β-cyclodextrin modified support and iridium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano P; Franzoi, Ana C; Fernandes, Suellen C; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda C

    2013-04-10

    A biosensor based on the iridium nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (Ir-BMI·PF6) and a celery (Apium graveolens) extract as a source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was constructed. A modified support based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CDEP) was used for enzyme immobilization. The behavior of phenolic compounds was investigated by square-wave voltammetry and rutin was selected by presenting the greatest signal. The best performance was obtained with a composition of 70:10:10:10% (w/w/w/w) of the graphite powder:β-CDEP:Nujol:Ir-BMI·PF6 composition, a PPO concentration of 500unitsmL(-1), in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) with frequency, pulse amplitude and scan increment at 100Hz, 60mV, and 3.0mV, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the cathodic currents increased linearly for the rutin concentration range of 1.3×10(-7)-2.0×10(-6)M with a detection limit of 7.9×10(-8)M. This sensor demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and the results for the rutin recovery ranged from 92.8 to 103.4%. A relative error of 0.7% was obtained in the rutin determination in simulated samples.

  10. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  11. Anticancer Effects of HESA-A:An Herbal Marine Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrollah Ahmadi; Gholamreza Habibi; Mehdi Farrokhnia

    2010-01-01

    @@ HESA-A,a natural biological compound,is a mixture of herbal-marine substances that includes Penaeus latisculatus (king prawn),Carum carvi and Apium graveolens with anticancer properties(1,2).Although the exact mechanism of action of HESA-A on tumor cells is not fully understood,it appears to have multiple pharmacological effects(2). The lack of selectivity for tumor cells,which is associated with conventional cancer chemotherapy,is the main cause of chemotherapy complications and failure of anticancer agents.Many complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) studies are focused on products obtained from plants,animals or other natural sources to find compounds with high therapeutic indices.HESA-A inhibits the growth of cancer cells selectively and in a dose dependent manner.At the highest concentration (5.4 mg/mL),HESA-A completely inhibits the growth of cells and this effect gradually decreases as the dose is reduced.HESA-A is not cytotoxic towards normal cell lines unlike cancer cells.A major concern in this selectivity effect is the possible interaction with the cell DNA.The apoptotic effects of HESA-A may also have a major role in its anticancer properties(3,4).

  12. Methods for in vitro propagation of Pelargonium x Hortorum and others: from meristems to protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorion, Noëlle; Ben Jouira, Hatem; Gallard, Anthony; Hassanein, Anber; Nassour, Mazen; Grapin, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are among the most popular bedding and pot plants (25% of the French domestic market). On one hand, as vegetatively propagated plants, Pelargonium are submitted to pathogen pressure. On the other hand, innovation via interspecific hybridisation faces some difficulties. In this chapter, the two first protocols (from seeds and meristems) explain how in vitro plants free of virus could be obtained. The development of this technique is the long-term preservation of genetic resources via meristem cryopreservation. The third protocol describes propagation of Pelargonium with limited risks of variation. This technique also allows the constitution and the maintenance of a plant-stock from which explants can be taken for other studies. The two last protocols describe plant regenerations from leaf discs and mesophyll protoplasts, used for gene transfer and somatic hybridisation. These protocols were established mainly with Pelargonium x hortorum cultivars, but we propose possible solutions for the other species: P. x peltatum, P. x domesticum, P. capitatum and P. graveolens.

  13. Characterization of gallotannins from Astronium species by flow injection analysis- electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Viviane Cândida; Napolitano, Assunta; Eletto, Daniela; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Pizza, Cosimo; Vilegas, Wagner

    2011-01-01

    The species Astronium urundeuva (Allemao) Engl. and Astronium graveolens Jacq., which are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat allergies, inflammation, diarrhea and ulcers, were investigated for their composition. The aim of this study was to define a rapid and reliable analytical approach, based on the flow-injection analysis-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), to investigate the full range of hydrolyzable tannins present in the extracts of these Astronium species. The MALDI-ToF-MS analysis allowed us to ascertain the presence of hydrolysable tannins in both Astronium species as a series of gallotannins with degrees of polymerization of 7 to 13 galloyl units. Moreover, the analysis by FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS, as well as confirming this result and chemically defining gallotannins as galloylglucose compounds, highlighted the presence of further classes of hydrolysable tannins, such as hexahydrodiphenoyl esters of glucose and some gallic acid derivatives, providing information about their structure by a careful study of their fragmentation patterns. Finally, the evaluation of the number of positional isomers of gallotannins occurring in both Astronium species was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-IT-MS). This is the first mass spectrometric evidence relating to the existence of gallotannins in Astronium genus. PMID:22006629

  14. Efficacy of plant derived oils and extracts against white-fly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) on sesame crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a polyphagous pest and is reported on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and gera-nium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes. (author)

  15. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Apostolico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against some bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM4384, Escherichia coli (DMS 857 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071. All the oils showed different inhibitory activity. In the twentieth century this is an important result; we need possible new botanical drugs because the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become apparent. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their possible in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., and Ruta graveolens L. The results showed that both germination and radical elongation were sensitive to the oils.

  16. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems

  17. Effect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es, Sunila; Kuttan, Girija; Kc, Preethi; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2007-01-01

    Ultra low doses used in homeopathic medicines are reported to have healing potential for various diseases but their action remains controversial. In this study we have investigated the antitumour and antimetastatic activity of selected homeopathic medicines against transplanted tumours in mice. It was found that Ruta graveolens 200c and Hydrastis canadensis 200c significantly increased the lifespan of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites induced tumour-bearing animals by 49.7%, and 69.4% respectively. Moreover there was 95.6% and 95.8% reduction of solid tumour volume in Ruta 200c and Hydrastis 200c treated animals on the 31st day after tumour inoculation. Hydrastis 1M given orally significantly inhibited the growth of developed solid tumours produced by DLA cells and increased the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. Some 9 out of 15 animals with developed tumors were completely tumour free after treatment with Hydrastis 1M. Significant anti-metastatic activity was also found in B16F-10 melanoma-bearing animals treated with Thuja1M, Hydrastis 1M and Lycopodium1M. This was evident from the inhibition of lung tumour nodule formation, morphological and histopathological analysis of lung and decreased levels of gamma-GT in serum, a cellular marker of proliferation. These findings support that homeopathic preparations of Ruta and Hydrastis have significant antitumour activity. The mechanism of action of these medicines is not known at present. PMID:18159975

  18. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Saxena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  19. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  20. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S; Banerji, Pratip; Banerji, Prasanta

    2003-10-01

    Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.