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Sample records for anethum graveolens foeniculum

  1. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  2. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

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    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  3. The Effects of Drought Stress on Morphological Traits and Yield of Three Medicinal Plants ( Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens in Greenhouse Conditions.

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    S. R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the important problems in arid and semi_arid regions. drought stress take place in plants when available water is lesser than evapotranspiration. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on morphological traits and yield of three medicinal plants an experiment was carried out during the 2010 year in research greenhouse of faculity of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in a factoriel arrengement based on a Completely Randomized Block Design with four replications. factors include 4 drought stress levels: Field capacity (100%, 75%, 50% and FC25% and 3 medicinal plants include: Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Aniethum graveolens. The traits such as plant height, leaf number per plant, number of lateral branches per plant, umbrellas per plant, umbels per umbrellas, seed number per plant, seed weight per plant, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were measured. Results showed that decreasing content of water in soil lesser than field capacity had significant effects on all of these traits. Coriandrum sativum in FC25% had maximum seed number in umbrellas(14 number, seed number per plant(27 number, Umbrellas per plant(4 number, umbels per umbrellas(10 number and 1000 seeds weight (6.5 gr. also Foeniculum vulgare in FC25% had minimum seed number in umbrellas(2 number, seed number per plant(2 number. Umbrellas per plant(0.25number, umbels per umbrellas(0.5 number and 1000 seeds weight (0.15 gr. Harvest index positive correlation with seed weight per plant and 1000 seeds weight.

  4. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

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    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily for 2 months. The blood lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol from each group were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Use of gemfibrozil brought about increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (P < 0.05 and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% (P < 0.05 and 9.41% (P < 0.05, respectively. Applying Dill tablet for 2 months resulted in reduction of total cholesterol up to 18% (P < 0.05 and triglyceride by 7.38% (P < 0.05. However, circulating HDL-cholesterol was not affected by this treatment. In this study, gemfibrozil decreased triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol more than anethum (P < 0.05. Anethum decreased total cholesterol more than gemfibrozil (P < 0.05. Patients treated with anethum did not report any side effects. Conclusion: The results of this trial indicate that Dill might be beneficial for hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglycemic patients.

  5. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

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    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006 and AGEs formation (P=0.003 significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  6. The effect of radiation of LED modules on the growth of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

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    Frąszczak Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light quality is thought to affect the growth and development of plants. We examined how light influences the growth and content of some chemical compounds in dill (Anethum graveolens L.. The plants were grown under different light quality. The share of orange and green light in the spectrum was constant and amounted to 10% for either colour. In the first combination (A, 70/10, there was 70% of red light and 10% of blue light. Other combinations had the following proportions: B 60/20, C 50/30, D 40/40 and E 30/50 of red and blue light. The PPFD was about 155 μmol m-2 s-1. Blue light inhibited the elongation growth as well as leaf area. It had positive influence on the accumulation of dry mass, glucose and fructose in the herb. In the combinations with higher percentage of red light the plants were characterised by higher content of essential oils, macronutrients and zinc. To sum up, we can say that the proportion of red and blue light has significant influence on the morphological qualities, chemical composition and dynamics of photosynthesis in these plants. On the other hand, the selection of spectral composition of LEDs will depend on the result we want to achieve.

  7. The effects of Anethum graveolens essence on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice

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    Azadeh Mesripour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Anethum graveolens (Dill has phytoestrogenic compounds and it is proven that estrogens exert beneficial effects on cognition; the aim of this study was to understand if this plant can improve memory performance. Male Balb/c mice weighing 25-30 g were used in this study and memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task. In this method, the difference in the exploration time between a familiar object and a novel object is taken as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI. Scopolamine significantly reduced memory index (RI = -15.5% ± 3.0. Dill essence (100 mg/kg, ip prevented the harmful effects of scopolamine on memory (RI = 40% ± 5.5, thus RI did not differ with control animals (RI = 50% ± 5.8. In addition, 17-β estradiol also prevented memory impairment in animals (0.2 mg/kg, ip; RI = 35.8% ± 6.5. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of dill essence were antagonized by prior injection of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg, ip; RI = -30% ± 7.8. Although phytoesrogens are not steroids, the beneficial effect of dill on memory, at least in part, may have been achieved by estrogenic receptors present in the brain. Thus dill essence could be promising in improving memory and cognition, mainly in postmenopausal women.

  8. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

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    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME.

  9. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

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    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  11. Effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum and dill (Anethum graveolens leaves

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    Sahar Mostafa Kamel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum and dill (Anethum graveolens leaves. Water blended parsley and dill were heated for one, two and three min. Total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and color indices were determined before and after treatment. Dill leaves had higher total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoid and antioxidant activity (1287.00 mg / 100g, 33.97 mg/kg, 45.98 mg/kg and 48.14%, respectively than parsley leaves (1031.39 mg / 100g, 32.47 mg/kg, 40.00mg/kg and 40.10%, respectively. Total phenols and antioxidants activity of water blended parsley leaves were decreased after 2 min by 32.4 and 8%, as well as after 3 min by 80.2 and 38.27% respectively compared to the unheated sample. Meanwhile, total phenols and antioxidants activity of dill sample recorded 23.7and 30.3% decrease after 2 min reached to 33.0 and 54.8% after 3 min. This work indicated that most of the bioactive compounds of parsley and dill were stable only after one min of microwave heating, however, after 3 min of heating a marked decrease was observed in the tested parameters.

  12. Biotransformation of menthol and geraniol by hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens: effect on growth and volatile components.

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    Faria, Jorge M S; Nunes, Inês S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

    2009-06-01

    Two oxygen-containing monoterpene substrates, menthol or geraniol (25 mg l(-1)), were added to Anethum graveolens hairy root cultures to evaluate the influence of the biotransformation capacity on growth and production of volatile compounds. Growth was assessed by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight measurement. The volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The total constitutive volatile component was composed, in more than 50%, by falcarinol (17-52%), apiole (11-24%), palmitic acid (7-16%), linoleic acid (4-9%), myristicin (4-8%) and n-octanal (2-5%). Substrate addition had no negative influence on growth. The relative amount of menthol quickly decreased 48 h after addition, and the biotransformation product menthyl acetate was concomitantly formed. Likewise, the added geraniol quickly decreased over 48 h alongside with the production of the biotransformation products. The added geraniol was biotransformed in 10 new products, the alcohols linalool, alpha-terpineol and citronellol, the aldehydes neral and geranial, the esters citronellyl, neryl and geranyl acetates and linalool and nerol oxides.

  13. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Thawatchai PRABSATTROO; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Supaporn MUCHIMAPURA; Panee SRISAARD; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Wipawee THUKHAMMEE

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency,histology of testis and epididymis,and sperm physiology.Methods:Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50,150,and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1,7,and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency,testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting,sperm concentration,sperm acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis,respectively.Results:AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group.Additionally,rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group.In histological analyses,AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration,acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis.Conclusions:AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  14. The Effects of Anethum graveolens L. Seeds on the Male Reproductive Functions and CREM Gene Expression in the Testis of Rat

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    Parisa Shojaee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the increasing of the population in the developing countries is an anxiety, therefore finding safe and effective contraceptive materials can be very useful. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Anethum graveolens L. on the reproductive system of male rat and CREM gene expression in testis of rat. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of control (treated with normal salin for the period of 56 days, n = 8 and experimental (treated with 150 mg/kg/day of Anethum graveolens extract for 56 days, n = 8. RT-PCR and histological studies, hormonal assay and sperm analysis were carried out for evaluating of extract on reproductive function of rat. Results indicated no significant differences between body weights of control and experimental groups. Sperm counts and motility were reduced however there was an increase sperm abnormality by applying of extract. Indeed existence of disorganized germinal epitheliums, degeneration, necrotic cells in some of seminiferous tubules and lower concentration of sperms in the center of seminiferous tubules of experimental group was noticeable. Results also showed reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules of experimental groups comparing with control groups. Administration of extract caused a significant decline in the plasma level of testosterone. Our RT-PCR data revealed that CREM mRNA levels decreased significantly in testes from the experimental group in compared to control group. In conclusionAnethum graveolens has strong anti-spermatogenic activity by decreasing sperm parameters. This study strongly proposes that this plant can be a good candidate for manufacturing antifertility drugs.

  15. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

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    Rahim Golmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  16. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

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    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  17. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

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    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  18. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

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    Mansouri Masoume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12 or placebo (n = 12 for 3 months. Results Across lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01 with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period. Conclusion In this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components.

  19. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

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    Bagher Larijani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome.MethodsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12 or placebo (n = 12 for 3 months.ResultsAcross lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01 with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period.ConclusionIn this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components.

  20. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

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    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  1. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

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    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  2. Ruta Graveolens intoxication.

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    Seak, Chen-June; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of unintentional poisoning from Ruta Graveolens, a medicinal herb that is used for heart protection in Taiwan. A 78-year-old woman developed bradycardia, acute renal failure with hyperkalemia, and coagulopathy after three days of consuming a decoction made from Ruta Graveolens for the treatment of palpitations and heart protection. She was treated with hemodialysis in the emergency department for hyperkalemia. Her bradycardia and hypotension improved gradually three days later. Ruta use might cause multi-organ toxicity. We believe this case report helps in the recognition of the systemic toxicity of Ruta Graveolens.

  3. Antimicrobial constituents of Foeniculum vulgare.

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    Kwon, Yong Soo; Choi, Won Gyu; Kim, Won Jun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Myong Jo; Kang, Won Hee; Kim, Chang Min

    2002-04-01

    A phenyl propanoid derivative, dillapional(1) was found to be a antimicrobial principle of the stems of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) with MIC values of 125, 250 and 125/ against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides, respectively. A coumarin derivative, scopoletin(2) was also isolated as marginally antimicrobial agent along with inactive compounds, dillapiol(3), bergapten(4), imperatorin(5) and psolaren(6) from this plant. The isolates 1-6 were not active against the Escherichia coli.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

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    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  5. Environ: E00434 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit Anethi fructus Crude drug Carvone [CPD:C01767 C1138...3], Limonene [CPD:C06078] Anethum graveolens [TAX:40922] Apiaceae (carrot family) Anethum graveolens fruit (...dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit ...

  6. The Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Dill (Anethum graveolens on Morphine Withdrawal Symptoms in Addicted Male NMRI Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bakhtiyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Medicinal herbs with natural materials can be effective and have fewer side effects than drugs with chemical composition in reducing withdrawal symptoms and are more effective in treating addiction. In recent years, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-anxiety effects of Dill has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Dill ethanol extract on some withdrawal syndrome behaviors such as jumping, standing, climbing in male mice addicted to morphine. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 21 male NMRI mice with weighting 25 to 30 gr. Animals were divided into three groups: Group 1 received saline + naloxone (SN,  group 2 received morphine + saline + naloxone (MSN and the third group received   morphine + ethanol extract of dill (500 mg kg ip + naloxone (MDN respectively. Simultaneous with the injection of morphine, the dill extract was injected at the same time. In order to induce the development of morphine dependence, the mice received increasing doses of morphine (10, 20, 30, and 40 mg during four days for ten times, respectively. To induce the withdrawal symptom, two hours after the last injection of morphine, naloxone at a dose of 5 mg kg was injected intraperitoneally. Two hours after the last injection of morphine, naloxone at a dose of 5 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally. Jumping, standing on both feet and climbing the walls were counted during 30 minutes. The data were analyzed using the software Graph Pad prism. Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract of plant significantly reduces the number of jumping due to naloxone injection in the addicted rats (p <0.001, but in the rearing behaviors and climb the walls of the container, a significant difference was observed with morphine. Conclusions: The findings suggested that the Dill Ethanolic extract can decrease the jumping number due to Naloxone-induced effect.  Therefore, Dill Ethanolic extract may have an impact in reducing of withdrawal induction by morphine.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, H; Uğraş, S; Dülger, H; Bayram, I; Tuncer, I; Oztürk, G; Oztürk, A

    2003-04-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl(4) administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that FEO has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  8. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  9. Rutin from Ruta graveolens L

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    Dj. Afshar

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of rutin in Ruta Graveolens, L. which is easily cultivated in Iran, is necessary for its economic importance, diversity of specialities and their pharmacological activity in blood vessels disorders. For this purpose, the plant was cultivated in botanical garden of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and rutin was determinated at different stages of plant growth. The extraction was done from the crude plants by ethanol, boiling water and hydroalcoholic solvents. Rutin was subsequently purified by crystalization."nStructure elucidation was confirmed by the U.V spectrum in the presence of shift-producing reagents, and TLC by using different systems, HPLC and HPTLC in the presence of standard."nSugars and their sequence of bonding to genine were known by acidic hydrolysis, sequential hydrolysis and TLC in the presence of standards. For quantitative determinations of rutin two methods were selected i.e. HPLC and colorimetery. In the colorimetrey method, cyanidin reaction was used for color producing and the absorbances of other compounds of extract were eliminated in coincidence with rutin absorption.. In the HPLC method, separation was done on CN- column with mobile phase including dioxan/phosphate bnffer (pH=2.6; 2:8. In the end the results of two methods were compared.

  10. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration.

  11. Investigating Genetic Diversity of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill using Molecular Markers

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    Omid Jadidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are considered valuable genetic resources in Iran. One of these medicinal as well as spice plants is Foeniculum Vulgare Mill from Umbellifetae family used in different industries such as food, medicine, and cosmetics. It seems that due to different climate conditions in Iran this plant represents a high and valuable genetic diversity; therefore, management of genetic resources protection and obtaining information about genetic diversity will help awareness of evolution processes as well as genetic erosion of this valuable plant. Genetic diversity in local masses of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill can be investigated using molecule markers such as AFLP, RAPD, ISSR, SRAP, RFLP, and so on. In investigation of over 30 ecotype of local Foeniculum Vulgare Mill, different markers have shown that mean polymorphic content (PIC is about 36% and mean genetic diversity is estimated about 40% in different samples. Data obtained from molecule software analyses help to categorize Foeniculum Vulgare Mill genotype in different groups based on climate and geographical conditions. Principle components analysis (PCOA has also confirmed the results of cluster analysis. Dendrogram obtained by cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient of simple matching (SM and UPGMA algorithm can also categorize population of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill in different groups. Results of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA have shown that most genetic variance between geographical groups can be seen in populations. In general, according to investigations, there is a significant genetic diversity regarding agronomic and molecular traits of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill masses in Iran and knowing this genetic diversity will help in breeding programs, complementary studies, categorization, and so on.

  12. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.

  13. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view.

  14. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

    OpenAIRE

    Sa'roni Sa'roni; Imono A. Donatus

    2012-01-01

    Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas) secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap h...

  15. Discrete nanoparticles of ruta graveolens induces the bacterial and fungal biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Deepa, Oyyappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-08-01

    Ruta graveolens silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed the color change within 30 min and characterized using UV-visible spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). UV-visible spectrum of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the sharp peak at the wavelength of 440-560 nm. XRD patterns confirmed that crystalline nature of R. graveolens AgNPs and FTIR results revealed that phytochemical reaction of these R. graveolens is responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. TEM results showed the size of the R. graveolens AgNPs around 30-50 nm with spherical and triangular nature. Further, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the effective inhibitory activity against clinically important Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Our findings suggest that R. graveolens AgNPs can be exploited toward the development of potential antibacterial agents for various biomedical and environmental applications.

  16. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  17. AGASTACHE FOENICULUM – A PERSPECTIVE SOURCE OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS

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    V. V. Chumakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical study has been conducted to explore Agastache foeniculum (Lamiaceae, which is widely used in oriental medicine for colds, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary system; exter-nally for fungal dermatitis, seborrhea, hair growth and strengthening. In the course of the experiment methods of chemical (such as alkalimetry, permanganatometriya, chelatometry and physico-chemical (such as mass spec-trometry coupled with GC, differential UV spectrophotometry, HPLC, planar chromatography analysis have been applied. The established range of biologically active compounds, especially essential oils and phenolic compounds, indicates the possibility of using Agastache foeniculum herb as a raw material source for producing drugs with antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimycotic and pilotropnym effect

  18. Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent.

  19. AGASTACHE FOENICULUM – A PERSPECTIVE SOURCE OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chumakova; O. I. Popova

    2013-01-01

    A phytochemical study has been conducted to explore Agastache foeniculum (Lamiaceae), which is widely used in oriental medicine for colds, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary system; exter-nally for fungal dermatitis, seborrhea, hair growth and strengthening. In the course of the experiment methods of chemical (such as alkalimetry, permanganatometriya, chelatometry) and physico-chemical (such as mass spec-trometry coupled with GC, differential UV spectrophotometry, HPLC, pl...

  20. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdi Snuossi; Najla Trabelsi; Sabrine Ben Taleb; Ameni Dehmeni; Guido Flamini; Vincenzo De Feo

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leav...

  1. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  2. Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial

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    Reza Heidarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has negative effects on women′s life. Due to side-effects of chemical drugs, there is growing trend toward herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dill compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted on 75 single female students between 18 and 28 years old educating in Nursing and Midwifery School and Paramedical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences of Iran in 2011. They were allocated randomly into one of the three groups: In Dill group, they took 1000 mg of Dill powder q12h for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles. Other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 500 mg starch capsule as placebo, respectively. Dysmenorrhea severity was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analog scale (VAS. Students with mild dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data were analyzed by SPSS using the descriptive statistic, paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences between three groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants of Dill and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1 st and the 2 nd months after treatment, whereas in the placebo group this was only significant in the 2 nd month (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

  3. Effects of aqueous fraction of Anethum graveolens L. (dill extracts on fertility and terminal sugar of female rat\\\\\\'s reproductive system

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    Malihezaman Monsefi

    2013-02-01

    Results: Duration of diestrus phase under high dose of aqueous extract increased 2 times compared to the control group. Uterus thickness, longitudinal and transverse diameters of ovaries, granulosa cells of corpus luteum diameters of the experimental groups decreased 1.5 to 2 times compared to the control group's. Female rats of the experimental groups did not get pregnant. Intensity of reactions of α-mannose, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetyl galactoseamine of endometrium and ovarian cell surfaces changed after being stained by ConA, DBA and SBA. Conclusion: Oral administration of ethanol fraction and aqueous dill seeds extracts can induce infertility in female rats.

  4. Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rose Marie O F; Rosa, José S; Oliveira, Luisa; Cunha, Ana; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.

  5. COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF IAJULA VISCOSA, I.GRAVEOLENS AND I. HELENIUM SUBSP. TURCORACEMOSA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Steam distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Inula viscosa, I. graveolens andfrom rhizomes of I. helenium subsp. turcoracemosa (Asteraceae) were analysed by GCMS. The main components of essential oils were identified as carvacrol(18.6 %) in I. viscosa, L-borneol (63.96 %) in I. graveolens and alantolactone (59.6 %) in I. helenium subsp. turcoracemosa.Key Words: Inula viscosa, Inula graveolens, Inula helenium subsp. turcoracemosa,essential oils.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Karine; Tran, Thi Lê Minh; Doerper, Sébastien; Hehn, Alain; Lacoste, Paul; Thomasset, Brigitte; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to develop a genetic transformation method for a medicinal plant Ruta graveolens. The direct plant regeneration strategy is preferred to callus line establishment. In vitro seedlings, 2- -to 3-wk-old, are used to excise hypocotyls and co-cultivated for 3 d with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1Rif containing plasmid pTDE4 harbouring neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II, kanamycin resistance) and beta-glucuronidase encoding genes. The Southern blot analysis has shown that 78% kanamycin resistant plants contain gene encoding beta-glucuronidase. The GUS histochemical assay shows that 67% transgenic plants exhibit the corresponding enzymatic activity. Routine transformation efficiency of R. graveolens L. is 11% and could reach up to 22%. Transgenic plants are grown in the greenhouse within 4 months after the initial seedlings.

  7. Furanocoumarins: novel topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2009-10-01

    Topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens are reported for the first time. Potent topoisomerase I inhibitory activity from in vitro culture extracts R. graveolens were observed. Stabilization of DNA-topoisomerase covalent complex was observed in all the tested extracts. The mechanism of topoisomerase inhibition was determined by preincubation studies. The irreversible topoisomerase I mediated relaxation of plasmid in enzyme-substrate preincubation study, indicated that the observed inhibitory activity of extract constituents was not mediated through conformational changes in the DNA. Furthermore, the affinity of inhibitors with the enzyme was tested by enzyme-extract preincubation study. Increase in inhibition of topoisomerase activity and promotion of DNA-enzyme complex was observed after enzyme-extract preincubation. The activity could be assigned to furanocoumarins-psoralen, bergapten and xanthotoxin, identifying them as novel, potent topoisomerase I inhibitors.

  8. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  9. A New Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpene from Casearia graveolens Twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Sripisut, Tawanun; Maneerat, Wisanu; Machan, Theeraphan; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The first phytochemical investigation of Casearia graveolens twigs led to the isolation and identification of a new clerodane diterpene, caseariagraveolin (1), together with six known compounds (2-7). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against oral cavity and breast cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 2.48 and 6.63 µM, respectively.

  10. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.

  11. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity.

  12. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

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    Sa'roni Sa'roni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

  13. Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice.

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    de Freitas, Tanise Gonçalves; Augusto, Patrice Martins; Montanari, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is used in many countries, including Brazil, as an abortifacient. To determine its effect on pregnancy, the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of its aerial parts was administered orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day to mice between the first and third day of pregnancy (DOP), between the fourth and sixth DOP or between the seventh and ninth DOP. The extract did not cause preimplantation embryonic loss or reabsorptions. Fetal death was found. Estrogenic activity was not exhibited by the extract.

  14. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

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    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  15. Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effects of Foeniculum vulgare on guinea pig tracheal chains.

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    Boskabady, M H; Khatami, A; Nazari, A

    2004-07-01

    In a previous study the relaxant (bronchodilatory) effect of Foeniculum vulgare on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains was demonstrated. To study mechanisms responsible for this effect the present study evaluated the inhibitory effect of this plant on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. The relaxant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts and an essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare were compared to negative controls (saline for aqueous extract and essential oil and ethanol for ethanol extract) and a positive control (diltiazem) using isolated tracheal chains of the guinea pig precontracted by 10 microM methacholine (group 1) and 60 mM KCl (group 2, n = 7 for each group). In the group 1, experiments diltiazem, ethanol extract, and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare showed a significant relaxant effect on methacholine induced contraction of tracheal chains compared to those of negative controls (p Foeniculum vulgare. However with regard to the effect of KCl on calcium channels, the results indicated that the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare on calcium channels is not contributing to their relaxant (bronchodilatory) effects on guinea pig tracheal chains. However the results suggest a potassium channel opening effect for this plant, which may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains.

  16. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

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    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  17. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

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    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  18. Free phenolic acids in Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture.

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    Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A; Kuś, A

    2009-10-01

    Eight phenolic acids were determined using HPLC method in methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) shoots cultured in vitro on four variants of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium differing in contents of growth regulators, NAA and BAP (ranging between 0.1-3.0 mg/l). Four compounds: protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and p-coumaric acid were detected and quantified. The total content of metabolites was dependent on LS medium variants. The contents of protocatechuic acid, quantitatively dominating on all tested LS medium variants, were considerable (from 67.15 to 93.24 mg/100 g d.w.) in comparison with its contents in the plant material under analysis (46.36 to 218.27 mg/ 100 g d.w.). This is the first report of the isolation of protocatechuic acid from an in vitro plant culture.

  19. Fototoxicidad tras exposición a ruta graveolens

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    P. Zayas-Pinedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La fototoxicidad es un tipo de reacción cutánea inflamatoria que se produce como consecuencia de la exposición a una sustancia química en combinación con la exposición a radiaciones lumínicas. Ruta graveolens, comúnmente llamada ruda, ha sido descrita en numerosas publicaciones como sustancia causante de reacciones de fototoxicidad. Presentamos el caso de una pareja que sufrió una reacción de fototoxicidad que requirió ingreso en la Unidad de Quemados como consecuencia del contacto con una infusión de ruda y posterior exposición solar. Consideramos que todo profesional que se ocupa del tratamiento de quemaduras debe incluir las fitofotodermatitis dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de las pérdidas cutáneas de espesor parcial.

  20. Phenolic glycosides from Foeniculum vulgare fruit and evaluation of antioxidative activity.

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    De Marino, Simona; Gala, Fulvio; Borbone, Nicola; Zollo, Franco; Vitalini, Sara; Visioli, Francesco; Iorizzi, Maria

    2007-07-01

    Two diglucoside stilbene trimers and a benzoisofuranone derivative were isolated from Foeniculum vulgare fruit together with nine known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS and chemical methods. Antioxidant activity was tested using three methods: DPPH(), total antioxidant capacity and assay of lipid peroxidation.

  1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

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    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  2. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  3. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

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    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  4. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin by Pelargonium graveolens essential oil against selected uropathogens.

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    Malik, Tripti; Singh, Padma; Pant, Shailja; Chauhan, Nirpendra; Lohani, Hema

    2011-08-01

    The recent approach of using herbs and antibiotics in combination constitutes a strategy to overcome the problems of resistance and side effects associated with conventional antibiotics. In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Pelargonium graveolens L' Hér essential oil in combination with ciprofloxacin was evaluated on uropathogens, namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae KT2, Proteus mirabilis PRT3 and Staphylococcus aureus ST2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin were determined by the microbroth dilution method and further, the interaction between these two agents was studied by a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated to be 0.375 for both K. pneumoniae KT2 and P. mirabilis PRT3, while for S. aureus ST2 it was found to be 0.5. The values of FICI for the tested microorganisms were found to be ≤0.5, which indicates synergism between P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin. The concave shaped curve in the isobolograms also depicted a synergistic effect of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin against the tested microorganisms. Hence, the synergistic action of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin may be applied for the treatment of UTIs, which have hitherto been treated by using only synthetic drugs.

  5. Infraspecific morphological variations in Acinos graveolens (M.B. Link

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    Seyed M. Talebi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of ecological factors on phenotype plasticity in the natural populations of Acinos graveolens in Iran. In total, twenty six quantitative and qualitative morphological traits were examined in the sixteen populations at two sections: inter- and intrapopulation. In the interpopulation section, averages amounts of morphological characteristics of populations were examined, while in the intrapopulation, morphological features of the seventy six plant samples of the populations were investigated. The obtained data showed that these characteristics differed between and within the populations and the analysis of variance test and one-sample test have shown significant differences of all quantitative characteristics. The biplot Principal Correspondence Analysis (PCA-biplot of traits showed some populations had indicator morphological characteristic(s which were useful in detecting of these populations. Significant correlations were found between some quantitative characteristics with ecological factors. The studied populations were separated from each other in the PCA and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO plots and the Unweighted Paired Group using Average method (UPGMA tree. The PCA plot of morphological features showed that some characteristics separated from others and the rest ones were together and had overlapping. The individuals of the studied populations were separated from others in the PCA and PCO plots and the UPGMA tree of the morphological characteristics. Individuals of some populations arranged separately and placed far from others, but this condition was reverse in the rest populations and most of individuals placed near each other. The obtained data confirmed high variations within some populations.

  6. [Fatal poisoning caused by oil of epazote, Chenopodium graveolens].

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    Montoya-Cabrera, M A; Escalante-Galindo, P; Meckes-Fisher, M; Sánchez-Vaca, G; Flores-Alvarez, E; Reynoso-García, M

    1996-01-01

    We present a case of acute lethal poisoning by oil of "epazote" (oil of chenopodium), in a 2 y 9 m female. The volatile oil was administered according to the advice of a "curandera" (female healer), in a total quantity of 40 ml. Clinical features of the poisoning were: vomiting, deep coma, seizures, mydriasis, apnea, metabolic acidosis, neurogenic shock and death. The EEG suggested a diffuse encephalopathy, the CT scan with an image of severe brain edema and ventricular collapse. Relevant postmortem findings were brain edema and neuronal necrosis, pneumonia, enteritis, pericholangitis, mild pancreatitis and tubular necrosis. The phytochemical analysis of volatile oil identified ascaridol, the main active compound of the chenopodium herbs, in a quantity of 39 mg/ml (1,560 mg in the dose administered), and Chenopodium graveolens as the plant employed to prepare it. According to the age of the patient, 60 mg of ascaridol would be the recommended dose formerly used in the treatment of parasitic disease. Thus 1,560 mg was 26 times higher than the recommended dose, and exceeded by 56% the dose of 1,000 mg reported as lethal in humans.

  7. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FT-IR SPECTRAL STUDIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE

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    V. Devika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Medicinal plants as a group comprise approximately 8000 species and account for about 50% of all the higher flowering plant species in India. In the present study, the plant Foeniculum vulgare was subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy. FT-IR-is a vibrational spectroscopy that records absorptions of IR light by chemical bonds in all molecules incl. polymers. Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The results showed the detections of the bands in organic molecules. Thus the study became evident that the plant posses some bioactive compounds at various bands obtained after FT-IR.

  8. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds.

  9. Inhibitory effects of Ruta graveolens L. extract on guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase.

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    Pirouzpanah, Saieed; Saieed, Pirouzpanah; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Reza, Rashidi Mohammad; Delazar, Abbas; Abbas, Delazar; Razavieh, Seyyed-Vali; Seyyedvali, Razavieh; Hamidi, Aliasghar; Aliasghar, Hamidi

    2006-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plant with various biological properties. In the present study, the effects of R. graveolens extract on aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum hydroxylase, are investigated. Aldehyde oxidase was partially purified from liver homogenates of mature male guinea pigs by heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation. The total extract was obtained by macerating the aerial parts of R. graveolens in MeOH 70% and the effect of this extract on the enzyme activity was assayed using phenanthridine, vanillin and benzaldehyde as substrates. Quercetin and its glycoside form, rutin were isolated, purified and identified from the extract and their inhibitory effects on the enzyme were investigated. R. graveolens extract exhibited a high inhibition on aldehyde oxidase activity (89-96%) at 100 microg/ml which was comparable with 10 microM of menadione, a specific potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effect of extract against the oxidation of benzaldehyde, vanillin and phenanthridine were 10.4, 10.1, 43.2 microg/ml, respectively. Both quercetin and rutin at 10 microM caused 70-96% and 27-52% inhibition on the enzyme activity, respectively. Quercetin was more potent inhibitor than rutin, but both flavonols exerted their inhibitory effects mostly in a linear mixed-type.

  10. Extraction, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

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    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was extract, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. The leaves and stems of S. graveolens were collected in the district of Puquio 3800 m.s.n.m., Lucanas province, and department of Ayacucho. The essential oil was obtained by steam water destilation dried leaves and stems with yield 1.26% (w/w to which physical testing were performed. The chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS. Antibacterial activity of S. graveolens oil was tested by agar diffusion method in wells against Gram positive strains such as S. aureus ATCC 29923 and Gram negative as E. coli. The density a 20 ºC was 0.8755 g/ml; the index refraction was 1.4726 and the rate rotation was 102° 85' and the solubility miscible in ethanol. The GC-MS showed the main components sabinene (52.39 %, (+-4-carene (8.20 %, τ-terpinen (7.11 %, β-myrcene (6.74 %, 4-terpinenol (3.78 % and pulegone (3.67 %. The results showing activity strong antibacterial activity and moderate, respectively, for the strains tested, observing formation of inhibition halos for essential oil concentrations at 80, 90 and 100 % in both strains. The essential oil of S. graveolens presented with promising antibacterial activity.

  11. In Vitro Trials of Dittrichia graveolens Essential Oil Combined with Antibiotics.

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    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Kocić, Branislava D; Marković, Marija S; Miladinović, Ljiljana C

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil were examined. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil. The antibacterial activity was investigated by the broth microdilution method against thirteen bacterial strains. The interactions of the essential oil and three standard antibiotics: chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin toward five selected strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay in combination with chemometric methods: principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant compound class in the essential oil (40.6%), with bomyl acetate (21.7%) as the major compound. The essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro, but the combinations D. graveolens essential oil-chloramphenicol and D. graveolens-tetracycline exhibited mostly synergistic or additive interactions. These combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotics and, consequently, minimized their adverse side effects. In contrast, the association of D. graveolens essential oil and streptomycin was characterized by strong antagonistic interactions against E. coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 29213 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), streptomycin against these bacterial strains stood out and formed a separate group.

  12. Influences of various factors on hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum (Pursh Kuntze

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    Elnaz NOUROZI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium rhizogenes is known as a natural tool of genetic engineering in many plant species. For the first time, hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum using A. rhizogenes, rosmarinic acid content and the effect of different culture media and inoculation methods on hairy root growth rate were investigated. Hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was established by inoculation of the 1-month-old leaf explant with A4 strain of A. rhizogenes and the effectiveness of light – dark conditions and two inoculation methods (immersion and injection were tested. Furthermore, in immersion method, the effects of inoculation time (3, 5 and 7 min on root induction were investigated. In the second part of the study, the hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was studied using different basal culture media (MS, 1/2 MS and B5. Rosmarinic acid content in hairy roots and non- transformed roots was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was no significant difference between various inoculation methods in the ability of hairy roots induction. Observations showed that percentage of hairy root induction was higher when the explants were immersed for 5 min in bacterial suspension. Light conditions displayed the highest hairy root induction rates compared with dark condition. Various culture media are different in terms of types and amounts of nutrients and have influence on growth rate. The maximum growth rate (1.61 g fr wt/50 ml of hairy roots were obtained in 1/2 MS medium. Rosmarinic acid content in transformed roots (213.42 µg/g dry wt was significantly higher than non-transformed roots (52.28 µg/ g dry wt.

  13. The Effect of Citrus Aurantium, Foeniculum Vulgare and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils on Peroxidase Activity

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    Maryam Mohajerani (PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Peroxidases catalyze protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The activity of these enzymes in nerve cells is involved in causing disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study investigated the effect of Citrus aurantium, Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils on activity of peroxidase enzyme. Methods: All three medicinal plants were dried at room temperature. Their essential oil was extracted by steam distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. Optimal reaction conditions were determined in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and guaiacol as substrate and hydrogen donor, respectively. Enzyme kinetics of zucchini peroxidase were evaluated by increasing the amount of essential oils in optimal reaction conditions. Enzyme reaction rate for each of the essential oils and the Km and Vmax values were determined. Results: The results indicated concentration-dependent effect of the extracted essential oils on enzyme kinetics at optimum temperature of 50 °C and optimal pH of 6.5. The essential oil of Citrus aurantium had non-competitive inhibitory effects on the enzyme with Km of 6.25 mM, while the enzyme’s Vmax significantly reduced by increasing the concentration. Foeniculum vulgare showed mixed inhibition effect with Km of 7.14 mmol per 20 μl of the essential oil, but had a decreasing effect on the Vmax in smaller amounts. Finally, Rosmarinus officinalis showed activating effects by reducing the Km to 4-5.88 mM. Conclusion: The essential oils of Citrus aurantium and Foeniculum vulgare are inhibitors of the peroxidase enzyme and can be further studied as natural herbal medicines.

  14. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

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    Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

    2003-04-01

    The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered.

  15. A striking and frequent cause of premature thelarche in children: Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkyilmaz, Zafer; Karabulut, Ramazan; Sönmez, Kaan; Can Başaklar, Abdullah

    2008-11-01

    Isolated premature thelarche is a common disorder characterized by breast development, usually younger than 2 years, with no other signs of puberty. Although it is usually associated with adrenal or ovarian disorders, hypothyroidism, and use of exogenous hormones or drugs, it may also be associated with long-term use of herbal medicine. Thus, long-term use of preparations such as Foeniculum vulgare, which is used to eliminate gas and regulate intestinal function in children, may cause premature thelarche, and thus, the use of such preparations should be limited.

  16. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2004-09-01

    Oral administration (200 mg/kg) of Foeniculum vulgare fruit methanolic extract exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions and showed a central analgesic effect. Moreover, it significantly increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. On the contrary, the malondialdehyde (MDA) (as a measure of lipid peroxidation) level was significantly decreased in F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract group compared to the control group (P<0.05). These results seems to support the use of F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract in relieving inflammation.

  17. 小茴香及其混淆品莳萝子的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓君丽

    1998-01-01

    @@ 小茴香为常用中药,系伞形科植物茴香Foeniculum vulgare Mill.的干燥成熟果实.有些地区则把同科植物莳萝Anethum graveolens L.的干燥果实作小茴香入药.据文献[1~3]记载,小茴香和莳萝子是功效不同的2种中药,不宜混淆使用.为保证临床用药的准确,本文从性状、紫外吸收光谱和薄层色谱三方面进行了比较鉴别.

  18. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

    2009-01-01

    There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines.

  19. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  20. Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn

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    Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter, water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101 and C. illinoensis (4.33×102 extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

  1. Triterpenos aislados de corteza de Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae y su actividad biologica

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    Jorge Robles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae, known in Colombia as "sasafrás", is useful for its medicinal properties and is rich in secondary metabolites. In our research, we carried out antimicrobial tests of several fractions and ethanolic extracts from aerial parts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, that showed growth inhibitory activity when applied at 250 mg/mL for extracts and 150 mg/mL for fractions. We carried out an antiinflamatory assay also, that showed 71% of inhibition by extracts (81% of Indomethacin and 70% of inhibition by fractions (78% of Indomethacin. Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae yielded three tetracyclic triterpene acids that have oxygenation in C-3, carboxylic acid in C-21 and unsaturation in C-24 and have been identified as 3-oxotirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (b-elemonic acid, 3a-hydroxytirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (a-elemolic acid and 3a-hydroxytirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid. The isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY experiments and comparison with published data. This is the first report of the isolated compounds in Bursera graveolens and they have a very important chemotaxonomic significance within the Burseraceae family and related families from the order Rutales.

  2. Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Multivariate Analysis, and Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitic, Violeta; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Ilic, Marija; Jovanovic, Olga; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil was studied. Moreover, using agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHC) and principal component analyses (PCA), the interrelationships of the D. graveolens essential-oil profiles characterized so far (including the sample from this study) were investigated. To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil, GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were performed. Altogether, 54 compounds were identified, accounting for 92.9% of the total oil composition. The D. graveolens oil belongs to the monoterpenoid chemotype, with monoterpenoids comprising 87.4% of the totally identified compounds. The major components were borneol (43.6%) and bornyl acetate (38.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that the compounds borneol and bornyl acetate exerted the greatest influence on the spatial differences in the composition of the reported oils. The antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and one fungal strain was determined using a disk-diffusion assay. The studied essential oil was active only against Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Evaluation of Salt Stress at Gerimination and Seedling Stages of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in Hydroponic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of medicinal plants with tolerance to salinity stress has an economical importance in Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on different Morpho-Physiological traits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill in germination and seedling stage in hydroponic condition. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four (in first experiment and three (in second experiment replications. Salinity effects of NaCl [0, 50, 100, 150 200 (Mm] was evaluated on three genotypes of  Foeniculum vulgare (Estahban, Isfahan, Shiraz. Analysis of variance showed that salinity levels reduced the percentage of germination, seed vigor index, rootlenght, stem length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, biomass, the ratio of shoot to root, chlorophyll index, chlorophyll a and b and caroteniod content. Significant variation was observed between different genotypes on different levels of salinity. Tolerance to salinity in seedling was more than germination. In two experiments, the genotype of Shiraz showed superiority in view point of tolerance.

  4. [Spectral analysis of elements in different samples of processed Foeniculum vulgare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Hamulati, Wufuer; Tian, Shu-Ge

    2010-03-01

    The compositions and contents of chemical compounds in traditional Chinese medicines would be changed after being processed using different methods, and their pharmacological activity may be influenced. ICP-AES, AAS and AFS were the first methods to be used to scan and analyze macro elements, trace elements and heavy metals in Foeniculum vulgare and its nine different processed samples in the present paper, which were correlated with people's health and lives. The experiment results showed that the three kinds of analyzing methods could be used to judge the contents and the changing trend of all elements in traditional Chinese medicine quickly and truly. Thirty two elements were found in F. vulgare, and there were noticeable changes in the contents of some elements in processed samples compared with F. vulgare without processing. These results indicated that there is great relevance between changes in the contends of elements with different processing methods, and auxiliary materials can not only change the contents of elements but also play a role in treating ills with effective constituents. Also, it was firstly found that the content of Hg rose greatly in the experiment, and these showed there was notable potential safety hazard when processed Foeniculum vulgare was used. These experiments widen the application of spectrum analyzing methods in safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2004-05-19

    Acaricidal activities of components derived from Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using direct contact application and compared with that of the commercial repellent benzyl benzoate. The major biologically active constituent of Foeniculum fruit oil was characterized as (+)-fenchone by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae was p-anisaldehyde (11.3 mg/m(2)) followed by (+)-fenchone (38.9 mg/m(2)), (-)-fenchone (41.8 mg/m(2)), benzyl benzoate (89.2 mg/m(2)), thymol (90.3 mg/m(2)), and estragol (413.3 mg/m(2)). Against D. pteronyssinus, p-anisaldehyde (10.1 mg/m(2)) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (67.5 mg/m(2)), thymol (68.5 mg/m(2)), and estragol (389.9 mg/m(2)). These results indicate that the acaricidal activity of F. vulgare fruit oil likely results from (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone was 20.3 times more abundant in the oil than p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone and p-anisaldehyde merit further study as potential house dust mite control agents or as lead compounds.

  6. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  7. BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DEL ORÉGANO MEXICANO (Lippia graveolens Kunth) EN TRES CONDICIONES DE APROVECHAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) se recolecta de casi todo el territorio nacional y su aprovechamiento coincide con el periodo de floración de la planta limitando la formación de frutos y semillas. Se estudiaron aspectos de la reproducción de L. graveolens en individuos de una población silvestre sin aprovechamiento (San Juan Raya, estado de Puebla, México) y de otra población silvestre pero con aprovechamiento constante (La Salitrera, estado de Guanajuato), y de una población cu...

  8. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  9. Fitoterapide karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiaceae Meyvaları (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalışmada halk arasında karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiacea bitkileri Foeniculum vulgareve Pimpinella anisum'un kimyasal özellikleri ve biyolojik etkileri literatür verilerine dayanılarak incelenmiştir.Pimpinella anisum uçucu yağının büyük kısmını anetol oluşturmaktadır. Uçucu yağda ayrıcaöstragol, kumarin yapısında bileşikler (bergapten, umbelliferon ve skopoletol), lipitler(petroselinik asit, palmitik asit, linoleik asit) ve flavonoitler de bulunmaktadır.Pimpinella ...

  10. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

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    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  11. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer's disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. extract as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Methanolic extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare Linn. administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging- induced memory deficits in mice. The passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral model for assessing memory. F. vulgare extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. Hence, F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, K; Dastgheib, L; Mohammadi Samani, S; Nasiri, A

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  13. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; De Marco, Adriana; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2004-12-29

    Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising.

  14. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  15. PHENOLIC PROFILE, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES FROM THE Apiaceae FAMILY (DRY SEEDS

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    Valentina Lubomirova Christova-Bagdassarian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, a comparative evaluation of the phenolic compounds antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity to several kinds of seeds from the Apiacea family, to which belong: Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel, Anethum graveolens (Dill, Pimpinella anisum (Anise, Carum carvi (Caraway and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander were carried out. Methods: The total phenolic content of seeds was measured spectrophotometrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the total flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminum chloride colorimetric. Antioxidant capacity was analysed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the seeds and was determined also spectrophotometrically. Antibacterial activity was analysed by ISO standards. Results: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel varied between 115.96 mg GAE/100g and 68.10 mg CE/100g .The Coriandrum sativum (Coriander content is lower (from 17.04 mg GAE/100g to 11.10 mg CE/100g, respecively. The highest radical scavanging effect was observed in the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel with IC50 of 113.19 ml/L. In our study, the methanol extract of seeds didn’t have any antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: An original data for total phenolic and total flavonoid contents are present in this study. They are a basis for assessment of the role of Apiaceae family dry seeds against free radicals effect and antibacterial activity. The results show that methanolic extract has the highest of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, high potential of antioxidant activity of dry seeds from Apiaceae family, to which belong: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Dill (Anethum graveolens, Anise (Pimpinella anisum, Caraway (Carum carvi and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum. From all results, the solvent extracts of dry seeds are rich in phytochemical contents, which possessed high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore the data found in

  16. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals.

  17. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  18. Pelargonium oil and methyl hexaneamine (MHA): analytical approaches supporting the absence of MHA in authenticated Pelargonium graveolens plant material and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Weerasooriya, Aroona; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas; Eichner, Amy; Bowers, Larry D

    2012-09-01

    Methylhexaneamine (MHA) has been marketed in dietary supplements based on arguments that it is a constituent of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves, stems, roots or oil, and therefore qualifies as a dietary ingredient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether P. graveolens plant material (authenticated) or its oil contains detectable quantities of MHA. Two analytical methods were developed for the analysis of MHA in P. graveolens using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results were further confirmed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty commercial volatile oils, three authenticated volatile oils and authenticated P. graveolens leaves and stems (young and mature, and fresh and dried) were analyzed for MHA content. In addition, three dietary supplements containing MHA that alleged P. graveolens as the source are analyzed for their MHA content. The data show that none of the authenticated P. graveolens essential oils or plant material, nor any commercial volatile oil of Pelargonium (geranium oil) contain MHA at detectable levels (limit of detection: 10 ppb). The dietary supplements that contained MHA as one of their ingredients (allegedly from geranium or geranium stems) contained large amounts of MHA. The amounts of MHA measured are incompatible with the use of reasonable amounts of P. graveolens extract or concentrate, suggesting that MHA was of synthetic origin.

  19. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

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    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  20. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view.

  1. Identification of Ruta graveolens L. metabolites accumulated in the presence of abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Kumirska, Jolanta; Maliński, Edmund; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Gajdus, Jerzy; Lojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and saccharin on the biosynthesis of simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins, and furoquinolone alkaloids in shoots of R. graveolens cultivated in vitro. The biosynthesized metabolites were analyzed and identified by GC-MS and by comparison of Kovats indices. Eight coumarin metabolites were identified: bergapten, chalepin, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, rutacultin, rutamarin, and xanthotoxin, and also four alkaloids: dictamnine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, and kokusaginine. Each of the tested BTH concentrations induced a significant production of furanocoumarins and furoquinolone alkaloids. The use of saccharin also increased the production of bergapten, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, and xanthotoxin several times.

  2. Headspace solvent microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile compounds from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lianghua; Qi, Meiling; Li, Ting; Shao, Qinglong; Fu, Ruonong

    2006-06-07

    A novel and rapid headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS) for the analysis of the volatile compounds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill is described. HSME parameters including extracting solvent, extraction temperature and time, headspace volume and particle size were optimized. As a result, benzyl alcohol was finally used for the extraction at 70 degrees C for 20 min with headspace volume of 12.1 ml and particle size of 120 mesh. Under the determined conditions, the powered samples of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were directly applied for the analysis. A comparison of HSME-GC-MS, solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS and steam distillation (SD)-GC-MS methods was made and showed that the HSME-GC-MS method was simple, inexpensive and effective and can be used for the analysis of volatile compounds in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs).

  3. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant induced model of arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Helen, A

    2009-04-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (MER) exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 20 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug indomethacin. The activities of cycloxygenase-2 and myeloperoxidase and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C & E and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with MER. The increment in ESR and total WBC, reduction in RBC count and haemoglobin and aberrant changes to the C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin levels observed in the arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in MER treated rats. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased oedema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with MER. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

  4. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Zakir; Shad, Anwar Ali; Bakht, Jehan; Ullah, Inam; Jan, Saleem

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates the phytochemical screenings, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assay of Apium graveolens L. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids in Apium graveolens while terpenoids was absent. The total phenolic content was slightly higher in methanolic fraction (63.46 ± 12.00 mg GAE/g) followed by ethanol (36.60 ± 12.28 mg GAE/g) and hexane fractions (34.86 ± 6.96 mg GAE/g). The flavonoid content was high in methanolic extract (56.95 ± 7.14 mg Quorcetin/g) and low level of the content was found in methylated spirit extract (29.2 ± 3.15 mg Quercitin/g). Antioxidant activity assayed by FRAP was higher in methanolic fraction (12.48 ± 1.06 mmole of FeSO₄equivalent/litre of extract) compared with other extracts. Likewise, good antimicrobial activity was measured by crude ethanol fraction against S. aureus (MIC=0.12 ± 0.03 μg/ml) and S. typhi (MIC= 0.5 ± 0.2 μg/ml). Results also that ethanolic fraction was effective against A. flavus (MIC= 05 ± 1.0 μg/ml).

  7. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

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    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  8. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

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    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian

  9. Aspectos anatômicos de plântulas Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Anatomical aspects of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seedling

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    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-doce, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, é uma erva entouceirada, aromática que apresenta propriedades condimentares e medicinais; tem origem Européia e é amplamente cultivada em todo o Brasil. Devido à deficiência de informações relativas à organização estrutural de plântulas de espécies medicinais, o presente estudo teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre a anatomia e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de F. vulgare. As sementes de erva-doce foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias, sendo realizadas regas diárias. Foram selecionadas plântulas normais e de padrão uniforme, que tiveram raiz, zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e primeiras folhas seccionados à mão livre. Este material foi corado e montado em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Em todos os órgãos da plântula de erva-doce a epiderme é unisseriada, cuticularizada e com estômatos; sendo que as duas últimas estruturas não são encontradas na raiz, porém esta apresenta pêlos unicelulares e cônicos. Os cotilédones e as folhas apresentam funções fotossintéticas e nutricionais, indicadas pela presença de grande quantidade de estômatos, cloroplastos e amido. A caracterização anatômica de plântulas de F. vulgare auxilia na identificação da espécie e no conhecimento da organização celular, fornecendo informações que auxiliam em estudos fisiológicos, taxonômicos e ecológicos.Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, is a forming clumps herb and presents aromatic, medicinal and condimental properties. It has European origin and is widely cultivated and used in Brazil. Due to lack of information concerning the structural organization of seedlings of medicinal species, this study aimed to provide information about the anatomy and development of F. vulgare seedlings. The seeds fennel was sowed in sand and maintained in greenhouse for 25 days, with daily waterings. Were selected

  10. Application of chitin and chitosan as elicitors of coumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids in Ruta graveolens L. (common rue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Malinski, Edmund; Kumirska, Jolanta; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Łojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    Common rue (Ruta graveolens L.) accumulates various types of secondary metabolites, such as coumarins furanocoumarins, acridone and quinolone alkaloids and flavonoids. Elicitation is a tool extensively used for enhancing secondary-metabolite yields. Chitin and chitosan are examples of elicitors inducing phytoalexin accumulation in plant tissue. The present paper describes the application of chitin and chitosan as potential elicitors of secondary-metabolite accumulation in R. graveolens shoots cultivated in vitro. The simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids biosynthesized in the presence of chitin and chitosan were isolated, separated and identified. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of R. graveolens shoots in the presence of either chitin or chitosan. Moreover, the results of the elicitation of coumarins and alkaloids accumulated by R. graveolens shoots in the presence of chitin and chitosan show that both compounds induced a significant increase in the concentrations of nearly all the metabolites. Adding 0.01% chitin caused the increase in the quantity (microg/g dry weight) of coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7, rutacultin up to 287.0, bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5 and rutamarin up to 133.7). The higher concentration of chitosan (0.1%) induced production of simple coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7 and rutacultin up to 287.0), furanocoumarins (bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5) and dihydrofuranocoumarins (chalepin up to 18 and rutamarin up to 133.7). Such a dramatic increase in the production of nearly all metabolites suggests that these compounds may be participating in the natural resistance mechanisms of R. graveolens. The application of chitin- and chitosan-containing media may be considered a promising prospect in the biotechnological production of xanthotoxin

  11. 小茴香生理活性成分的研究进展%Research progress in physiologically active compounds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲

    2013-01-01

    对小茴香的生理活性成分及其提取分离、保健作用等研究作了归纳与论述,为小茴香在食品和医药上的进一步研究开发提供理论依据.%Extraction,seperation and health function of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were summarized and discussed respectively. It provided theoretical evidence for future research and development of Foeniculum vulgare Mill in food industry and medicine.

  12. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

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    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  13. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

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    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  14. Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih Mehmet Birdane; Mustafa Cemek; Yavuz Osman Birdane; (I)lhami Gül(c)in; Mehmet Emin Büyükokuro(g)lu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated;whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels were measured in all the groups.RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage.This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels.CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity.

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. The IC50 was 3.2 μg/ml. From this extract, 12 major compounds including sabinene, fenchone, γ-terpinene, α-pinene, limonene, p-anisylacetone, p-anisylaldehyde, estragole (4-allylanisole), trans-anethole, scopoletin, bergapten and umbelliferone were isolated. And it was found that several terpene derivatives including γ-terpinene and fenchone as well as phenylpropanoid, trans-anethole, showed considerable inhibitory action of 5-LOX. In particular, the IC50 of trans-anethole was 51.6 μ M. In contrast, FR and the isolated compounds did not show considerable inhibitory activity on the degranulation reaction of β-hexosaminidase release from antigen-treated RBL-2H3 cells. Against arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice, FR and trans-anethole showed significant inhibition by oral administration at doses of 100-400 mg/kg. In conclusion, FR and several major constituents are 5-LOX inhibitors and they may have potential for treating 5-LOX-related disorders.

  16. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  17. Cytotoxicity of syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol isolated from Foeniculum vulgare on selected human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Binneman, Brigitte; Twilley, Danielle; van de Venter, Maryna; du Plessis-Stoman, Debbie; Boukes, Gerhardt; Hussein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effect of seven plant extracts and the isolated compounds - syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol - on cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare was found to exhibit the most significant toxicity with an IC50 value of 19.97 μg/mL on HeLa cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, syringin (1) and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol (2). Both compounds showed toxicity against MCF-7, HeLa and DU145 cancer cell line. The results showed that compound 2 showed high toxicity against all the cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 14.24, 7.82 and 22.10 μg/mL, respectively. 4-Methoxycinnamyl alcohol also showed no apoptotic effect in cell cycle analysis after 48 h at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. However, DNA fragmentation study revealed that necrosis took place at a concentration of 10 μg/mL after 48 h exposure.

  18. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  19. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

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    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  20. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

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    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  1. [Determination of thirteen metal elements in the plant Foeniculum vulgare Mill. by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guo-qing; Liu, Qing; Han, Yu-qi; Wei, Hui-guang; Dong, Ting

    2006-10-01

    The objective of the paper is to determine the amount of metal elements of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb in the planted Foeniculum vulgare Mill. by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), after the cinefaction and the digestion with HNO3-HClO4 (phi 4:1) at 90-95 degrees C and normal pressure. The optimum parameters of FAAS and the effects of solution medium on the results were investigated. The analytical results show that the amount of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb was 1508.7, 27653.0, 2036.0, 4848.1, 24.8, 323.5, 15.2, 23.7 and 10.8 microg x g(-1), respectively, and that of Co, Ni, Cd and Cr was not checked out in the samples. The recovery of standard addition is 97.45%-102.50%, the relative standard deviation (n=9) was 0.34%-2.77%. The characteristic method is quick, simple and convenient and the results are satisfactory.

  2. Assessment of safe bioactive doses of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, C; Miranda, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2017-03-02

    This study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil; concomitantly, the safety of bioactive doses was also unveiled, for the first time, in several mammalian cells. The chemical characterisation was made by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophytes and Aspergillus strains and germ tube inhibition assay was evaluated using Candida albicans. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. The main constituents of the oil are E-anetol (47%), α-phellandrene (11%), α-pinene (10.1%) and fenchone (10.8%). The oil was more active against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. albicans (MICs 0.32-0.64 μL/mL) and the filamentation of C. albicans was totally inhibited with 0.08 μL/mL. The oil is safe for keratinocytes, hepatocytes and fibroblasts in concentrations up to 1.25 μL/mL, and to macrophages up to 0.64 μL/mL. These findings highlight safe bioactive concentrations that should be deeper investigated for further application in pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), α-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and α-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23 ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24 ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (≥98.0%), α-phellandrene (≥95.0%), fenchone (≥98.0%), (E)-anethole (≥99.0%), myrcene (≥99.0%), and α-pinene (≥99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (≥98.0%) and (E)-anethole (≥99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11 ppm and 102.41 ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil.

  4. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0 mL kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5 mL kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages.

  5. Antimycobacterial Activity of Constituents from Foeniculum vulgare Var. Dulce Grown in Mexico

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    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100–200 µg/mL, undecanal (MIC 50–200 µg/mL, and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25–50 µg/mL, the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  6. Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognolini, Massimiliano; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Impicciatore, Mariannina; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2007-09-01

    In a previous screening work, Foeniculum vulgare essential oil emerged from a pool of 24 essential oils for its antiplatelet properties and its ability to destabilize the retraction of the coagulum. In the present work the main component of the oil, anethole, tested in guinea pig plasma was as potent as fennel oil in inhibiting arachidonic acid-, collagen-, ADP- and U46619-induced aggregation (IC(50) from 4 to 147 microg ml(-1)). It also prevented thrombin-induced clot retraction at concentrations similar to fennel oil. The essential oil and anethole, tested in rat aorta with or without endothelium, displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations which have been proved to be free from cytotoxic effects in vitro. In vivo, both F. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection, respectively). At the antithrombotic dosage they were free from prohemorrhagic side effect at variance with acetylsalicylic acid used as reference drug. Furthermore, both F. vulgare essential oil and anethole (100 mg kg(-1) oral administration) provided significant protection toward ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for F. vulgare essential oil, and its main component anethole, a safe antithrombotic activity that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity, clot destabilizing effect and vasorelaxant action.

  7. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  8. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  9. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  10. Effect of polyamines on shoot multiplication and furanocoumarin production in Ruta graveolens cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2012-07-01

    The influence of the polyamines putrescine (Put), spermine (Spr) and spermidine (Spd) on growth and furanocoumarin production was investigated by exogenous addition, at different concentrations, to shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens at different phases of growth. Preliminary studies indicated that addition of Put (20 microM) and Spr (80 microM) had a promotive effect on shoot multiplication rate and number of multiple shoots formed. Spd was toxic, even at lower concentrations. The growth-phase of the culture at the time of exogenous addition of polyamines was found to be an important factor. Put was most effective when added at the lag phase, while Spr was most effective when added in the log phase. Time course studies of growth and furanocoumarin content were carried out for each polyamine and phase of addition. It was seen that maximum production of furanocoumarins (256.8 mg/10 g DW) occurred in the second week when Put was added in the lag phase and 260.5 mg/10 g DW in the fourth week when Spr was added in the log phase. Put addition resulted in a 3.10 fold increase in psoralen, 6.12 in xanthotoxin and 1.46 fold in bergapten production. Spr addition resulted in a 1.31 fold increase in psoralen, 4.11 fold in xanthotoxin and 1.49 fold in bergapten production. Results indicate that alteration of growth and furanocoumarin production kinetics is a combined outcome of choice of polyamine and the phase of culture at the time of exogenous addition. Polyamine addition enabled significant enhancement in production of pharmaceutically important bergapten and xanthotoxin in shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens, which could be explored for commercial production.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  12. In silico target fishing for rationalized ligand discovery exemplified on constituents of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Danzl, Birgit; Schwaiger, Stefan; Markt, Patrick; Schmidtke, Michaela; Gertsch, Jürg; Raduner, Stefan; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    The identification of targets whose interaction is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease is of growing interest for natural product scientists. In the current study we performed an exemplary application of a virtual parallel screening approach to identify potential targets for 16 secondary metabolites isolated and identified from the aerial parts of the medicinal plant RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. Low energy conformers of the isolated constituents were simultaneously screened against a set of 2208 pharmacophore models generated in-house for the IN SILICO prediction of putative biological targets, i. e., target fishing. Based on the predicted ligand-target interactions, we focused on three biological targets, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein and the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB (2)). For a critical evaluation of the applied parallel screening approach, virtual hits and non-hits were assayed on the respective targets. For AChE the highest scoring virtual hit, arborinine, showed the best inhibitory IN VITRO activity on AChE (IC (50) 34.7 muM). Determination of the anti-HRV-2 effect revealed 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and arborinine to be the most active antiviral constituents with IC (50) values of 11.98 muM and 3.19 muM, respectively. Of these, arborinine was predicted virtually. Of all the molecules subjected to parallel screening, one virtual CB (2) ligand was obtained, i. e., rutamarin. Interestingly, in experimental studies only this compound showed a selective activity to the CB (2) receptor ( Ki of 7.4 muM) by using a radioligand displacement assay. The applied parallel screening paradigm with constituents of R. GRAVEOLENS on three different proteins has shown promise as an IN SILICO tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research.

  13. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander; Mukerji, Krishna G

    2004-07-01

    Two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum significantly improved growth and essential oil concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. However, AM inoculation of plants along with phosphorus fertilization significantly enhanced growth, P-uptake and essential oil content of plants compared to either of the components applied separately. Among the two fungal inoculants, G. fasciculatum registered the highest growth at both levels of phosphorus used with up to 78% increase in essential oil concentration of fennel seeds over non-mycorrhizal control. The essential oil characterization by gas liquid chromatography revealed that the level of anethol was significantly enhanced on mycorrhization.

  14. Specific accumulation and revised structures of acridone alkaloid glucosides in the tips of transformed roots of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovkina, Inna; Al'terman, Irina; Schneider, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    The root tips of Ruta graveolens (common rue) show strong autofluorescence of acridone alkaloids, which are characteristic secondary metabolites of this plant. To study the specific distribution and accumulation of acridone alkaloids in various root segments of Ruta graveolens, root material was harvested from genetically transformed root cultures and extracts were investigated by chromatographic techniques and HPLC-(1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cells of the elongation and differentiation zones contained acridone glucosides and large amounts of acridone alkaloids, mainly rutacridone. Gravacridondiol glucoside was identified as the dominant secondary compound of the root tips and its structure revised by means of spectroscopic methods. In addition, minor acridones, including the structurally revised gravacridontriol glucoside and unknown natural products, were found in the root tip.

  15. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, MR; Abedi, D.; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. ...

  16. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  17. Protective effects of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fractions of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2010-02-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India, were evaluated for their protective effect in acute and chronic models of inflammation. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and adjuvant induced arthritis were employed as the experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation respectively. Isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction (AFR) from Ruta graveolens and evaluated its anti inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced acute model. AFR with a dose 10 mg/kg showed higher anti inflammatory effect than polyphenols and standard drug diclofenec. AFR significantly decreased the paw edema in arthritic rats. TBARS, COX-2, 5-LOX and MPO level were decreased and the levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH level were increased on treatment with AFR. The increment in CRP level and ceruloplasmin level observed in arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in AFR treated rats. The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats.

  18. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  19. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

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    Hsouna Anis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  20. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

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    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  1. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  2. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice Kermanshah, Iran

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    Mohammad Rasool Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliativeand anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The presentstudy aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into fourgroups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bodyweight (BW/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and group 4 (positive controlwas administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups weresacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histologicalexaminations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbersof ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE, 27.2 ± 4.1for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE, 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control and 17.2 ± 3.9 for thesaline control group (group 4. The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increasedsignificantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05,however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups.The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMSanalysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound.Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number ofgrowing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect.

  3. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  4. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

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    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  5. STUDY ON PHARMACOGNOSY OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.AN ETHNODRUG%茴香根的生药学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦群辉; 朱兆云

    2000-01-01

    目的:为开发利用民族药茴香提供理论依据。方法:采用来源鉴别、性状鉴别、显微及理化鉴别的方法。结果:证明其主要有效成分为挥发油,主要显微特征为木栓层下具有一列红棕色色素细胞层。结论:茴香根是一味具有开发前景的民族药。%To provide the basis for development and utilization of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.METHODS:To study its sources,shapes properties,microscopic and physiochemical characteristics used in pharmacognostic identification.RESULTS:The experiments prove its main effective component is volatile oils and main microscopic featares are that there is a row of light brown cells under the layers of bark.CONCLUSION:Foeniculum vulgare Mill.is worth of development in future  

  6. Chemical Constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.%小茴香根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嫩玲; 马青云; 胡江苗; 周俊; 赵友兴

    2011-01-01

    Five known compounds were isolated from the roots of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.. On the basis of MS and NMR analysis, these compounds were determined as dillapiol ( 1 ), sucrose linoleate (2),3R, 8S,9Z-falcarindiol (3) ,β-sitosterol (4) ,and stigmasteryl-β-D-glueopyranoside (5) ,among which two compounds (2 and 3) were obtained from this plant for the first time.%从小茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)根的乙醇提取物中分离得到了5个化合物,通过MS和NMR等方法鉴定为:莳萝脑(1),亚油酸蔗糖苷(2),镰叶芹二醇(3),β-谷甾醇(4),豆甾醇-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(5),其中化合物2和3首次从该种植物中分离得到.

  7. Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Ahn, Y J

    2001-03-01

    The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, against adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne were examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as the phenylpropenes (E)-anethole and estragole, and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone, by spectroscopic analysis. Responses varied with insect species, compound, dose and exposure time. In a filter paper diffusion test, estragole at 0.168 mg cm-2 caused 91% mortality to S oryzae adults within 1 day after treatment (DAT), whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 DAT, respectively. Against C chinensis adults, all test compounds revealed potent insecticidal activities at 0.021 mg cm-2 at 2 DAT. Against L serricorne adults at 0.105 mg cm-2, (E)-anethole gave 100% mortality at 1 DAT, whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 DAT was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone, respectively. In a fumigation test, the compounds were much more effective against adults of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the F vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne.

  8. Unusually divergent 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Alexander; Martens, Stefan; Wellmann, Frank; Matern, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Most angiosperms encode a small family of 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases (4CLs) activating hydroxycinnamic acids for lignin and flavonoid pathways. The common rue, Ruta graveolens L., additionally produces coumarins by cyclization of the 4-coumaroyl moiety, possibly involving the CoA-ester, as well as acridone and furoquinoline alkaloids relying on (N-methyl)anthraniloyl-CoA as the starter substrate for polyketide synthase condensation. The accumulation of alkaloids and coumarins, but not flavonoids, was enhanced in Ruta graveolens suspension cultures upon the addition of fungal elicitor. Total RNA of elicitor-treated Ruta cells was used as template for RT-PCR amplification with degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from conserved motifs in AMP-binding proteins, and two full-size cDNAs were generated through RACE and identified as 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases, Rg4CL1 and Rg4CL2, by functional expression in yeast cells. The recombinant enzymes differed considerably in their preferential affinities to cinnamate (Rg4CL1) or ferulate (RgCL2) besides 4-coumarate, but did not activate hydroxybenzoic or (N-methyl)anthranilic acid. Most notably, the Rg4CL1 polypeptide included an N-terminal extension suggesting a chloroplast transit peptide. The genes were cloned and revealed four exons, separated by 1056, 94 and 54 bp introns for RgCL1, while Rg4CL2 was composed of five exons interupted by four introns from 113 to 350 bp, and the divergent heritage of these genes was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Both genes were expressed in shoot, leaf and flower tissues of adult Ruta plants with preference in shoot and flower, whereas negligible expression occurred in the root. However, Rg4CL1 was expressed much stronger in the flower, while Rg4CL2 was expressed mostly in the shoot. Furthermore, considerable transient induction of only Rg4CL1 was observed upon elicitation of Ruta cells, which seems to support a role of Rg4CL1 in coumarin biosynthesis.

  9. [The fatty acid composition of Ruta graveolens seed oil and its byological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabishvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Nikolaĭshvili, M N

    2013-11-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography methods are qualitatively and quantitatively identified most biological important high fatty acids, contained in Ruta graveolens seed oil grown on the experimental plot of Kutateladze Institute of Pharmakochemistry (Georgia) and compare its biological activity. Their relative concentration is expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The sample contained the range of fatty acids from С12:0 to С22:0. The investigation showed different sensitivity of components. In order of elution the list of compound are reported. The oil contained 2,08±0,1 mg% lauric, 2,18±0,1 mg% miristic, 3,98±0,1 mg% palmitic, 30,90±1,2 mg% stearic, 41,92±1,8 mg% oleic, 10,14±0,4 mg% linolic, 6,50±0,3 mg% linolenic, 2,00±0,1 mg% arachinic and 2,10±0,1 mg% begenic acid. The chromatography signals with retention values 7,96 and 14,08 minuts are qualitatively not identified.

  10. Algicidal and antifungal compounds from the roots of Ruta graveolens and synthesis of their analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Schrader, Kevin K; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-11-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens roots yielded rutacridone epoxide with potent selective algicidal activity towards the 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB)-producing blue-green alga Oscillatoria perornata, with relatively little effect on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. The diol-analog of rutacridone epoxide, gravacridondiol, which was also present in the same extract, had significantly less activity towards O. perornata. Rutacridone epoxide also showed significantly higher activity than commercial fungicides captan and benomyl in our micro-bioassay against the agriculturally important pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and Botrytis cineara and Fusarium oxysporium. Rutacridone epoxide is reported as a direct-acting mutagen, precluding its use as an agrochemical. In order to understand the structure-activity relationships and to develop new potential biocides without toxicity and mutagenicity, some analogs containing the (2-methyloxiranyl)-dihydrobenzofuran moiety with an epoxide were synthesized and tested. None of the synthetic analogs showed comparable activities to rutacridone epoxide. The absolute stereochemistry of rutacridone was determined to be 2'(R) and that of rutacridone epoxide to be 2'(R), 3'(R) by CD and NMR analysis.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Ruta graveolens L. on oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in reducing oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. For the study rats were divided into three groups - control group, hypercholesteremic group and treatment group (20 mg MER/kg/d orally) - and were fed for 90 days. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, total WBC count, CRP level, TBARS, atherogenic index, activities of COX, 15 LOX in monocyte and serum myeloperoxidase were increased in cholesterol fed rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration reduced glutathione in liver and heart tissue and serum HDL-C were decreased in cholesterol fed rats. The results showed that level of total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index was decreased and HDL-C was increased in MER treated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be increased and the activity of MPO, COX and 15 LOX were decreased on supplementation with MER. Concentration of TBARS and total WBC count were decreased and GSH was increased on supplementation with MER. Histopathology of aorta of cholesterol fed rat showed marked alterations whereas the aorta of MER administrated rat showed no significant changes. These results suggested that MER reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. Thus the plant may therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment of clinical conditions associated atherosclerosis.

  12. Immobilising effect of Ruta graveolens L. on human spermatozoa: coumarin compounds are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Harat, Z; Lakpour, N; Sadeghipoor, H R; Kamalinejad, M; Eshraghian, M R; Naghibi, B; Akhondi, M M; Binaafar, S; Sadeghi, M R

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to find out Ruta graveolens L. functional components, which have immobilisation effect on human spermatozoa for contraceptive use. A five-step fractionation method was used to derive different components from rue aqueous extract by using hexane, chloroform, ethanol, acetone and ultrapure water. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometery (GC-MS) of all fractions and the aqueous extract were performed to determine the chemical components. The immobilisation assay and membrane integrity test were also performed with four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Hexane, chloroform, acetone and ethanol fractions could significantly decrease motility of sperms within the first and the second hours. Hexane fraction had also significant immediate effect. The aqueous fraction had no effect on sperm motility. Meanwhile, GC-MS revealed that aqueous extract and effective fractions had similar coumarin compounds. We performed the immobilisation assay on four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Reduction of sperm motility was only significant for xanthotoxin. In the sperm viability and membrane integrity tests, hexane and ethanolic fractions could impair sperm vitality significantly, in contrast to coumarins. These results indicated that a part of immobilising effect of rue could be due to its coumarins. The possible mechanism could be blocking of spermatozoa potassium channels.

  13. New quinoline alkaloid from Ruta graveolens aerial parts and evaluation of the antifertility activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Hassan, Emad M; Shafik, Nabila H; Abdel-Latif, Sally M; Brouard, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanol extract of Ruta graveolens L. leaves yielded a new quinoline alkaloid, (4S) 1,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-1,4-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)quinoline 2,7-diol, and nine phenolic compounds including rutin as a major compound. Structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using chromatography, UV, HR-ESI-MS and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The uterotonic activity of methanol extract fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) as well as the isolated major compounds was tested in the isolated mouse uterus in vitro. The n-butanol-soluble fraction was found to demonstrate the most potent uterotonic activity in a dose-dependent manner, also the major isolated compound rutin revealed the occurrence of an uterotonic response, which was maximum at a concentration level of 0.25 mg/mL, accounting for 68.7% of that exhibited by the chosen concentration of oxytocin.

  14. Biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ruta graveolens (L.) and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, K.; Raja Naika, H.; Manjunath, K.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.; Suresh, D.

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by biological method using aqueous stem extract of Ruta graveolens act as reducing agent. Formation of ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were subjected to biological properties such as antibacterial and antioxidant studies. The PXRD pattern reveals that ZnO sample belongs to hexagonal phase with Wurtzite structure. The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows an absorption band at 355 nm due to ZnO nanoparticles. SEM images show that the particles have spherical like structure with large surface area and the average crystallite sizes were found to be in the range ~28 nm. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis. The ZnO nanoparticles are found to inhibit the antioxidant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals effectively. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Gram -ve bacterial strains such as Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method.

  15. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  16. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively).

  17. IMPROVED PLANT REGENERATION AND IN VITRO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN Ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraida AR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro callus cultures initiated from stem segments of Ruta graveolen which later on differentiated into somatic embryoids and subsequently regenerated whole plants. Callus formation was observed in culture medium containing low concentrations of the plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. At 0.2 mg/L NAA was showing the highest rate (85% of callus induction. The callus appeared watery, but showed no sign of browning after a month of culture. Sub-culturing the callus on to medium with 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D showed enhanced the callus proliferation rate up to 95%. Somatic embryogenesis from callus was most successful on MS medium containing either 6 g/L agar and supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 9 g/L agar, supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN. The former medium was more successful in plantlet regeneration when the embryoids were subsequently transferred to regeneration medium with 3 g/L agar and 0.5 mg/L BAP.

  18. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  19. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  20. Phenolic compounds from Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp. Piperitum (Apiaceae herb and evaluation of hepatoprotective antioxidant activity

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    Mona T. M. Ghanem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc and butanol (BuOH fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum. In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%, successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH· . Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250-300 g. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ΅g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM was exerted at 12.5 ΅g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare herb is a potential source of natural

  1. 驱蚊草挥发物化学成分分析%Chemical components of Pelargonium graveolens volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 金荷仙; 蔡宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Under the condition of TDS, the volatile matter was extracted by dynamic headspace collection method with good adult Pelargonium graveolens, and the composition of the extract was detected by gas chrom atograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There were 58 kinds of volatile matter,including ten types of compounds, such as alkane, olefins etc. There were 32 types terpenoid (relative content of 61. 35% ), and the content of citronellal was the highest in simple carbohydrate (relative content of 14.46% ). Then, our work demonstrated that retention index could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis of the volatile matter from leaves of P. Graveolens. The results obtained may be helpful for the further exploitation of P. Graveolens.%以长势优的成年驱蚊草为研究材料,采用顶空套袋法收集挥发物,并在TDS条件下用气相色谱一质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对收集挥发物进行分析检测,测出叶片挥发物有58种.包括烷烃、烯烃等10类化合物,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物有32种(相对含量为61.35%),其中香茅醛含量最多(相对含量为14.46%);同时结合保留指数分析驱蚊草叶片挥发物化学成分,比单独使用GC-MS其结果更加准确、可靠,有助于驱蚊草的进一步开发利用.

  2. Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be β-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium.

  3. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  4. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  5. Investigation of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing effects of estragole isolated from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Milena; Pagiotti, Rita; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; Vannini, Samuele; Levorato, Sara; Moretti, Massimo

    2014-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate, in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line, the in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of estragole (1), contained in the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and suspected to induce hepatic tumors in susceptible strains of mice. Toward this end, an MTT cytotoxicity assay, a trypan blue dye exclusion test, a double-staining (acridine orange and DAPI) fluorescence viability assay, a single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay, a mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) assay, and a DNA fragmentation analysis were conducted. In terms of potential genotoxic effects, the comet assay indicated that estragole (1) was not able to induce DNA damage nor apoptosis under the experimental conditions used.

  6. Inhibition of aldose reductase and anti-cataract action of trans-anethole isolated from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Vandana; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Kondawar, Manish; Magdum, Chandrakant; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-05-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruits are routinely consumed for their carminative and mouth freshening effect. The plant was evaluated for aldose reductase inhibition and anti-diabetic action. Bioguided fractionation using silica gel column chromatography, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis revealed trans-anethole as the bioactive constituent possessing potent aldose reductase inhibitory action, with an IC50 value of 3.8μg/ml. Prolonged treatment with the pet ether fraction of the F. vulgare distillate demonstrated improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin and other parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Trans-anethole could effectively show anti-cataract activity through the increase in soluble lens protein, reduced glutathione, catalase and SOD activity on in vitro incubation of the eye lens with 55mM glucose. Trans-anethole demonstrated noncompetitive to mixed type of inhibition of lens aldose reductase using Lineweaver Burk plot.

  7. Studies on gamma irradiated medicinal plants and spices (1): Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Sudiro, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakartc (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre); Syuib, F. (Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia). Pharmacy Dept.)

    1981-10-01

    Medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of myristica argentea, myristica fragrans, coriandrum sativum and foeniculum vulgare were stored for 0 and 6 months, with and without gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. No detectable changes were seen in infrared and UV spectra, GLC chromatograms and refraction indices of steam distilled, essential oils from the irradiated medicinal plants. The same results were also obtained from irradiated samples stored for 6 months at ambient conditions. Storage for 6 months caused significant changes in the gas liquid chromatograms and UV spectra of all samples compared to non-stored samples. The moisture content of all samples packed in polyethylene bags seems to be constant after 6 months of storage. No measurable changes were found in the amount of essential oil content caused by irradiation.

  8. Extraction and characterization of Foeniculum vulgare pectins and their use for preparing biopolymer films in the presence of phaseolin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosafatto, Concetta V L; Mariniello, Loredana; Ring, Steve

    2007-02-21

    Pectins from Foeniculum vulgare were extracted under acidic conditions. The obtained pectins were mainly composed of uronic acid but also contained traces of rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose. Extracted pectins were used as a carbohydrate source to prepare biopolymer films in the absence and in the presence of phaseolin protein. The swelling characteristics of the films were examined as a function of ionic strength, pH, and the applied osmotic stress. The swelling behavior was dominated by a Donnan-type effect, which decreases with increasing ionic strength and counterion valency. In all cases the swelling of films containing phaseolin was reduced, suggesting a network formation between protein and pectins. Mechanical property studies have also estimated the validity of the obtained novel biopolymer films in terms of mechanical resistance.

  9. Chemical Constituents of the Root of Foeniculum vulgare%茴香根化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武拉斌; 黄波; 肖朝江; 董相; 姜北

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the chemical constituents of the root of Foeniculum vulgare. Methods: Compounds were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidences. Results: Five compounds were obtained from ethyl acetate fraction of the extract root of F. vulgare and were identified as dillapiol (1), butyl isobutyl phthalate (2), β-sitosterol (3), linoleic acid (4), and trilinolein (5). Conclusion: This research provides basic understanding about the medicinal values of F. vulgare root.%目的:研究茴香(Foeniculum vulgare)根的化学成分。方法:采用硅胶柱层析等分离方法对茴香根提取物中的化学成分进行分离,并运用NMR、MS等波谱学技术对所分离得到的化合物进行结构解析。结果:从茴香干燥根70%乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了5个化合物:莳萝脑(1)、邻苯二甲酸丁基异丁基二酯(2)、β-谷甾醇(3)、亚油酸(4)、亚油酸甘油三酯(5)。结论:该研究为了解茴香根的药用价值提供了研究基础。

  10. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.R Lucca; L.H.P. NÓBREGA; ALVES, L.F.A.; Cruz-Silva,C.T.A.; PACHECO,F. P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.). T...

  11. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  12. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.

  13. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  14. Antibacterial Activity and Composition of Essential Oils from Pelargonium Graveolens L’Her and Vitex Agnus-Castus L

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    Alireza Ghannadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities.Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity.Results and Conclusion: Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  15. Isolation of Insecticidal Constituent from Ruta graveolens and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies against Stored-Food Pests (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Isolates from essential oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of Ruta graveolens and commercial phenolic analogs were evaluated using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against adults of the stored-food pests Sitophilus zeamais, Sitophilus oryzae, and Lasioderma serricorne. The insecticidal activity of these compounds was then compared with that of the synthetic insecticide dichlorvos. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol and its analogs was examined against these stored-food pests. Based on the 50% lethal dose, the most toxic compound against S. zeamais was 3-isopropylephenol, followed by 2-isopropylphenol, 4-isopropylphenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and 2-methylphenol. Similar results were observed with phenolic compounds against S. oryzae. However, when 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol isolated from R. graveolens oil and its structurally related analogs were used against L. serricorne, little or no insecticidal activity was found regardless of bioassay. These results indicate that introducing and changing the positions of functional groups in the phenol skeleton have an important effect on insecticidal activity of these compounds against stored-food pests.

  16. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. D’Ávila

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.

  17. Sazonalidade dos ductos secretores e óleo essencial de Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae Seasonality of the secretory ducts and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os ductos secretores e o óleo essencial das folhas de Foeniculum vulgare em diferentes épocas do ano. Para esta finalidade, foram realizados estudos de caracterização anatômica, bem como anatomia comparada dos ductos secretores e testes histoquímicos das folhas. O óleo essencial foi obtido de folhas e frutos, por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa, realizando-se análises seguidas de três réplicas para folhas coletadas durante o inverno e primavera, e frutos no verão. Os resultados encontrados para os ductos secretores de óleo corresponderam à redução do teor de óleo essencial nas folhas coletadas no final da primavera. O componente majoritário do óleo essencial de folhas e frutos foi o trans-anetol, durante todas as estações do ano. Portanto, evidenciou-se que os ductos secretores e teor de óleo essencial estão relacionados, bem como os constituintes químicos também estão sujeitos a sazonalidade, conforme o estágio fenológico da planta.This work aimed to analyze the secretory ducts and the essential oil of the leaves of Foeniculum vulgare in different periods of the year. For this purpose, the anatomic characterization, and histochemical tests of the leaves were performed as well as the comparative anatomy of the secretory ducts. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves and fruits by hidrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, each analysis was repeated three times for leaves collected during the winter and spring, and for fruits collected in the Summer. The results obtained for the secretory ducts, corresponded to the yield reduction of essential oil in the leaves collected in the end of the spring. The major substance of the essential oil of the leaves and fruits, in all

  18. 宁夏海原小茴香发展现状及前景展望%Development Status and Prospect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.in Haiyuan of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷茜; 张欣; 贝盏临; 吕云熙

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the distribution, biological characteristics, chemical composition and industry status of Foeniculum vulgare Mill, in Ningxia, analyzed the main issues restricting the development of Haiyuan Foeniculum vulgare Mill. , and finally forecasted the development potential and prospect of Haiyuan Foeniculum vulgare Mill, industry in future.%介绍了小茴香在宁夏的分布、生物学特性、化学成分及其产业现状;分析了目前制约海原小茴香发展的主要问题;展望了未来海原小茴香产业发展的潜力及前景.

  19. 茴香茎叶提取物对菜粉蝶生物活性的影响研究%Preliminary Studies on Biological Activity of Extracts from Foeniculum vulgare to Pieris rapae L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利民; 陆宁海; 蒋国锋; 魏旺; 蒋坤; 李德兵

    2012-01-01

    为了探索番茄茎叶提取物对菜粉蝶生物活性的影响.采用水蒸气蒸馏法从茴香( Foeniculum vulgare)茎叶中提取获得其挥发性物质,测定了茴香提取物在室内对菜青虫的拒食作用及对菜粉蝶的产卵忌避作用.结果表明:茴香粗提取物对菜青虫3龄幼虫具有较强的拒食活性,且非选择性的拒食作用均大于选择性的拒食作用;茴香提取物对菜粉蝶的产卵具有较强的忌避作用.%This paper objective was to explore biological activity of extracts from Foeniculum vulgare to Pieris rapae. Extract volatile matter was extracted from stem and leaves of Foeniculum vulgare Mill by steam distillation. Biologial activity of antifeedant effect and oviposition repellent on Pieris rapae L. Was tested with extraction of Foeniculum vulgare. The results showed that extracts of Foeniculum vulgare have strong antifeedant effect on Pieris rapae 3-instar larvae, which the antifeeding activities of Pieris rapae L. Of non-choice was higher than that of choice tests. Moreover, that extracts of Foeniculum vulgare had strong effect of repellent effect on Pieris rapae.

  20. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

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    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  1. Investigation of cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines of arborinine and furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthy, Borbála; Zupkó, István; Minorics, Renáta; Hohmann, Judit; Ocsovszki, Imre; Falkay, George

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of a series of furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) and of two further acridone alkaloids (arborinine and evoxanthine) were investigated by means of the MTT assay, using the human cell lines HeLa, MCF7 and A431. Arborinine proved best in inhibiting the proliferation of all three cell lines. The cytotoxic potency of the furacridone alkaloids was a function of their lipid solubility, which was determined by means of PAMPA. The capacity of the most effective furanoacridones to induce apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and by staining with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. This finding was reinforced by determining the apoptosis-regulating factors Bcl-2 and Bax, which were revealed by means of RT-PCR to change dose-dependently. The data presented here indicate that naturally occurring furanoacridones can be regarded as excellent starting structures for the potential development of new anticancer agents.

  2. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  3. Effective biotic elicitation of Ruta graveolens L. shoot cultures by lysates from Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, A; Sidwa-Gorycka, M; Malinski, E; Czerwicka, M; Kumirska, J; Golebiowski, M; Lojkowska, E; Stepnowski, P

    2008-03-01

    Growth of Ruta graveolens shoots was induced when Bacillus sp. cell lysates were added to the culture medium. Elicitation of coumarin by this lysate was also very effective; the concentrations of isopimpinelin, xanthotoxin and bergapten increased to 610, 2120 and 1460 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively. It also had a significant effect on the production of psoralen and rutamarin (680 and 380 microg g(-1) dry wt) and induced the biosynthesis of chalepin, which was not detected in the control sample, up to 47 microg g(-1) dry wt With lysates of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum, their effect on growth was not so significant and had no effect on the induction of coumarin accumulation. But elicitation with this lysate was much more effective for inducing the production of furoquinolone alkaloids; the concentrations of gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, dictamnine and kokusaginine rose to 99, 680, 172 and 480 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.

  4. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Seledri ( Apium graveolens L. terhadap Kumbang Kacang Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

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    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Activity Test of Celery Leaf Extract (Apium graveolens L. Against Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus cinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management,Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the activity of celery leaf extract against bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. The experiment was Randomized Complete Design, with five treatments of formulation concentration. The activities of celery leaf extract was indicated through i.e. contact poison test, repellent test, and the placement of eggs (oviposition test. The results showed that the celery leaf extract has activity as a contact poison with concentration 75% formulations caused over 50% death of the total insect. The extract with 100% concentration acted as a repellent and anti oviposition as well.

  5. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of volatile oils from Sardinian Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare (Apiaceae): chemical composition and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results on the composition and antifungal effect of volatile extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Sardinian wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation (HD). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for qualitative composition and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector to establish the percentage of constituents. The main components were fenchone (7.1% vs. 8.8%), estragole (34.9% vs. 42.6%) and (E)-anethole (24.6% vs. 43.4%) in the SFE and HD extract, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution protocols. Minimum lethal concentrations were determined by subsequent subculturing of the same cell suspensions in solid medium. The essential oil was more active against Candida albicans, whereas the supercritical fluid extract possesses higher activity against Candida guillermondii and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.32 μL/mL.

  6. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  7. Investigation of antimutagenic potential of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pankaj; Tripathi, Rina; Patel, Rakesh K; Pancholi, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration (CA), micronucleus, and sperm abnormality assays were employed to measure genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver were also investigated spectrophotometrically. Animals were administered two different doses of FEO (1 and 2 mL/kg) continuously for 3 days at intervals of 24 hours by the oral route before tissue sampling. The results showed that CP produced a significant increase in the average percentage of aberrant metaphases and CAs, excluding gap and micronuclei formation in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), produced cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, and induced abnormal sperms in the male germ line. CP also markedly inhibited the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH and increased MDA content. Pretreatments with FEO significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases, CAs, micronuclei formation, and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by CP and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of CP-induced SOD, CAT, and GSH activities and inhibited increased MDA content in the liver. FEO inhibits genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CP.

  8. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

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    Amaral Karine M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT, measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2 in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1 during the placebo treatment (p Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430

  9. Potent inhibitory effect of Foeniculum vulgare Miller extract on osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2012-06-01

    Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss. To find natural compounds that may inhibit osteoclastogenesis, we screened herbal extracts on bone marrow cultures. In this study, we found that an aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller seed (FvMs) at low concentration, which has traditionally been used as a treatment for a variety of ailments, inhibits the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts. We further investigated the effects of FvMs on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss using microcomputed tomography, biomechanical tests and serum marker assays for bone remodeling. Oral administration of FvMs (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks had an intermediary effect on the prevention of femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and other parameters compared to OVX controls. In addition, FvMs slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were accelerated by OVX. The bone-protective effects of FvMs may be due to suppression of an OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, our findings indicate that FvMs have potential in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis by reducing both osteoclast differentiation and function.

  10. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  11. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  12. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Piarulli, Monica; Mazzotta, Manuela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Mallamaci, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the Nystatin dose via combination is very important. Our findings showed an experimental occurrence of a synergistic interaction between two of these essential oils and Nystatin. The essential oil O. vulgare appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated in this study. Some combinations of Nystatin and P. graveolens essential oil did not have any synergistic interactions for some of the strains considered. Associations of Nystatin with M. alternifolia essential oil had only an additive effect.

  13. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens l'Herit e Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith

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    Edenilson dos S. Niculau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens, Lippia alba and compounds geraniol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, limonene, carvone, citral and Azamax® were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Topical application assay showed essential oil of P. graveolens has acute toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (third instar with LD50 1.13 µg/mg per insect and LD90 2.56 µg/mg per insect. Three essential oils of L. alba also exhibited insecticidal activity with LD50 ranging from 1.20 to 1.56 µg/mg per insect and LD90 from 2.60 to 3.75 µg/mg per insect. Geraniol, linalool, carvone and citral caused significant mortality of 30, 90, 84 and 64% respectively, compared to negative control. The bioinsecticide, Azamax®, caused lower mortality than the compounds of the essential oils.

  14. 小茴香挥发油的抗炎镇痛作用%Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Volatile Oil Extracted from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光寿; 刘曼玲; 毛峰峰; 韩燕; 杨鹏; 石磊; 畅敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the efects of anti-inflammatory and analgesic of volatile oil extracted from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Seeds and offer pharmacological and experimental basis for its safe and effective use in clinic.Methods: The pharmacodynamic effects were obsersed in three experimental models of inflammation and pain: (l)mouse auricular edema induced by xylen; (2) Feet tumefaction caused by albumen in rats; (3)writhing induced by acetic acid in mice.Results: Volatile oil from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Seeds could distinctively inhibit the inflammatory edema caused by various inflammatory agents and reduce the times of writhe induced by acetic acid in mice.Conclusion: Volatile oil from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Seeds has analgesic effect and could inhibit inflammation in animals.%目的:研究小茴香挥发油的抗炎、镇痛作用,为指导临床合理用药提供科学依据.方法:应用二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀、蛋清致大鼠足肿胀2种动物模型进行抗炎药效学实验;采用醋酸致小鼠扭体反应进行镇痛实验.结果:小茴香挥发油能显著抑制上述各种动物模型的炎症反应及醋酸引起的小鼠扭体反应.结论:小茴香挥发油具有抗炎和镇痛作用.

  15. Overview of Pharmaceutical Research on Pelargonium graveolens L%香叶天竺葵药学研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党璇; 张晓珍; 姚默; 高昂; 巩江; 倪士峰

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of extensive literature search, the flora, composition, pharmacology and clinical application of Pelargonium graveolens L. Have been reviewed, to provide reference for further development and utilization.%在广泛检索文献基础上,综述了香叶天竺葵种属、成分、药理及临床应用,为深入开发利用提供参考依据.

  16. Extracción, caracterización y evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

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    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue extraer, caracterizar y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya frente a Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. Las hojas y tallos se recolectaron a una altitud de 3800 m.s.n.m. en el distrito de Puquio, provincia de Lucanas, departamento de Ayacucho. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua, a partir de las hojas y tallos desecados de S. graveolens, con rendimiento de 1,26 % (p/p. La muestra extraída fue caracterizada a través de ensayos físicos. La composición química del aceite se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gas con detector de masa (CG-SM. La actividad antibacteriana del aceite de S. graveolens se realizó por el método de difusión en agar en pocillos, utilizando cepas de microorganismos gram positivo como S. aureus y gram negativo como E. coli. La densidad del producto resultó 0,8755 g/ml a 20 ºC; índice de refracción 1,4726; índice de rotación 102°85’ y soluble en etanol; el cromatograma mostró componentes mayoritarios con un contenido de 52,39 % Sabineno, 8,20 % (+-4-careno, 7,11 % τ-terpineno, 6,74 % β-myrceno, 3,78 % 4-terpinenol, 3,67 % Pulegona. Los resultados mostraron actividad antibacteriana marcada y moderada, para S. aureus y E. coli, respectivamente, observándose formación de halos de inhibición para concentraciones del aceite esencial a 80, 90 y 100 %. El aceite esencial de S. graveolens se presenta con actividad antibacteriana promisoria.

  17. Chemical constituents and toxicity of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh kuntze essential oil against two stored-product insect pests Componentes químicos y toxicidad del aceite esencial de Agastachefoeniculum (Pursh Kuntze contra dos plagas de insectos de productos almacenados

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled use of synthetic insecticides is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Essential oils were introduced as low toxic agents against mammals and non-targeted insects. In this study, essential oil from aerial parts of blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae was isolated by the water steam distillation method with a Clevenger apparatus, and its chemical composition was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The toxicity of A. foeniculum essential oil against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, and lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F. was evaluated by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Estragole and 1,8-cineole were identified as major constituents of the A. foeniculum oil. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A.foeniculum oil had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. Insecticidal activity varied with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Probit analysis showed that increased exposure time and essential oil concentration increased mortality. These results indicated that A. foeniculum essential oil can be applied in the management of stored-product insects to decrease the detrimental effects of synthetic insecticides.El uso incontrolado de los insecticidas sintéticos causa gran peligro para el medio ambiente y los consumidores. Los aceites esenciales se presentan como agentes tóxicos leves contra mamíferos e insectos no objetivo. En el presente estudio, el aceite esencial de las partes aéreas del hisopo gigante azul (Agastache Foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae se aisló por el método de destilación al vapor de agua, utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se estudió su composición química mediante cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. La toxicidad del aceite esencial de A. foeniculum se evaluó por métodos de fumigación a las 24

  18. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  19. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces.

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    Mohammad Reza Lashkarizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE. At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model.Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5-20 mg/ml, Ag-NPs (0.5-4 mg/ml, F. vulgare essential oil (0.125-1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline (10-20% were used for 5-60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces.Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively.The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model.

  20. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, A Young; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel oil) and of trans-anethole, the main component of fennel oil, on extracellular Ca(2+)-induced store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) into vascular endothelial (EA) cells and their mechanisms of action. Components of fennel oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in EA cells was determined using Fura-2 fluorescence. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), fennel oil significantly increased [Ca(2+)]c in EA cells; this increase was significantly inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) and nifedipine. In contrast, fennel oil induced [Ca(2+)]c was significantly lower in Ca(2+)-free solution, suggesting that fennel oil increases [Ca(2+)]c mainly by enhancing Ca(2+) influx into EA cells. [Ca(2+)]c mobilization by trans-anethole was similar to that of fennel oil. Moreover, SOCE was suppressed by fennel oil and trans-anethole. SOCE was also attenuated by lanthanum (La(3+)), a non-selective cation channel (NSC) blocker; 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor and SOCE blocker; and U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC). Further, SOCE was more strongly inhibited by La(3+) plus fennel oil or trans-anethole than by La(3+) alone. These findings suggest that fennel oil and trans-anethole significantly inhibit SOCE-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase in vascular endothelial cells and that these reactions may be mediated by NSC, IP3-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization, and PLC activation.

  1. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

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    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DOS FRUTOS DE FUNCHO (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. UTILIZADOS NO PREPARO DE CHÁS

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    Renato Farina Menegon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Foeniculum vulgare Mill. conhecida popularmente como funcho ou falsa erva-doce, apresenta óleos essenciais em sua composição, onde está contido o princípio ativo que caracteriza a ação estomática, diurética, carminativa, anti-inflamatória, bactericida e espasmolítica da planta. Por esses efeitos, pelo seu fácil acesso à população e pelo baixo custo, foi verificado que seu consumo vem aumentando significativamente entre a população e, diante disso, observa-se a necessidade de intensificar a fiscalização quanto ao controle da qualidade desses chás, objetivando maior segurança no uso e maior garantia dos efeitos desejados. A qualidade de amostras de funcho, comercializadas na cidade de São José dos Campos, foi avaliada por determinação de material estranho, determinação do teor de óleos essenciais, determinação de umidade e cinzas totais, além da análise das informações contidas nos rótulos. Para esses testes, foram adquiridas 5 marcas comerciais diferentes da erva, comercializadas em diferentes estabelecimentos da cidade. Parte das amostras analisadas estava em desacordo com a legislação vigente e com a Farmacopéia Brasileira 5ª Ed., destacando as falhas quanto ao controle de qualidade desses produtos em todos os aspectos analisados.

  3. Efeitos de diferentes substratos e temperaturas na germinação de sementes de Foeniculum vulgare

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    R.E. RANZANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O funcho (Foeniculum vulgare é uma espécie medicinal nativa da Europa e amplamente cultivada em todo o Brasil. Possui propriedades carminativas, digestivas e diuréticas. Dada a grande importância dessa espécie no âmbito medicinal, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos e temperaturas na germinação de sementes de funcho. Os tratamentos foram compostos de duas temperaturas sendo uma constante de 20ºC e outra alternada de 25-30 °C e três diferentes substratos: papel mata borrão (Germitest, areia e vermiculita, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foi avaliado o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, porcentagem de germinação (PG, comprimento da radícula (CR, massa fresca (MF e seca (MS de plântulas. A temperatura de 20 ºC proporcionou maiores IVG, porcentagens de germinação, comprimento de radícula e massa seca. A germinação de sementes de funcho não foi influenciada pelos diferentes substratos testados. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que a condição que permitiu maior porcentagem de germinação das sementes de funcho foi a temperatura de 20 °C atingindo 91% de germinação.

  4. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  5. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

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    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  6. UJI IRITASI DAN AKTIVITAS PERTUMBUHAN RAMBUT TIKUS PUTIH: EFEK SEDIAAN GEL APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

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    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerasan seledri (Apium graveolens L. biasa dipergunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan rambut. Salah satu senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam seledri adalah apigenin. Penelitian ini membahas tentang pengaruh pemakaian gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri sebagai penumbuh rambut, meliputi uji iritasi dan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih jantan galur Spraque-Dawley. Uji iritasi menggunakan metode Kamkaen dan Rao, sedangkan uji aktivitas penumbuh rambut menggunakan metode Hattori-Ogawa dan Suzuki-Hamada. Berdasarkan indeks iritasi primer, semua formulasi gel tidak potensial menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit tikus putih (p>0,05. Gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dalam memacu pertumbuhan rambut (p<0,05 dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Apigenin menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik (p<0,05 dalam meningkatkan ketebalan rambut dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Namun perlakuan perasan herba seledri tidak nyata (p>0,05 meningkatkan ketebalan rambut. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Kata kunci : seledri, apigenin, gel, iritasi kulit, penumbuh rambutAbstractCelery (Apium graveolens L. juice is widely used for promoting hair growth. One of the main compounds in celery is apigenin. This research discusses about the effect of gel containing apigenin and celery juice application as hair growth in term of skin irritation and its hair growth activity on Spraque-Dawley male mice. The irritation test was Kamkaen and Rao methods, while hair growth activity was HattoriOgawa and Suzuki-Hamada methods. Based on primary index irritation, all of the gel formulations did not signifiantly potential in resulting skin irritation on the mice (p>0,05. Gel containing apigenin andcelery juice showed better activity in promoting hair growth (p<0,05 than

  7. Study on the Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides to prevent Leucocytozoonosis%驱蚊草驱除库蠓预防鸡白冠病的应用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代友洪; 蒋清蓉; 叶兆美; 赖守勋

    2012-01-01

    This test. used sticky paper to collect Culicoides, understanding the effect of Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides inside and outside henhouse. The resuhs showed that using Pelargonium graveolens could effectively reduce the number of Culicoides in the range of 1.5 m (P〈0.05). Placing Pelargonium graveolens in the house dispelling Culicoides better than without placing Pelargonium graveolens significantly (P〈0.05). Pelargonium graveolen had no significant effect on laying rate and death rate for laying hens. So we summarized that Pelargonium graveolens had significant effect of dispelling Culicoides, also reached the purpose of preventing white-crowned disease.%本试验采用粘蚊帖收集库蠓的方法,了解在鸡舍内和鸡舍外使用驱蚊草对库蠓的驱除作用。试验结果证明:使用驱蚊草在鸡舍外能够在1.5m范围内有效地减少库蠓的数量(P〈0.05):放置了驱蚊草的鸡舍相比未放置驱蚊草的鸡舍其库蠓数量明显减少(P〈0.05);另外,驱蚊草对蛋鸡的产蛋率与死淘率无明显影响。由此可见,驱蚊草有明显的驱库蠓效果,能达到预防鸡白冠病的目的,

  8. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species.

  9. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shagun; Tandon, Simran

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of various potencies of Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, migration, clonogenecity, morphological and biochemical changes and modification in the levels of genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle. On treatment of COLO-205 cells maximal effects were seen with mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies, wherein decrease in cell viability along with reduced clonogenecity and migration capabilities were noted. In addition morphological and biochemical alterations such as nuclear changes (fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin) and DNA ladder-like pattern (increased amount of fragmented DNA) in COLO-205 cells indicating apoptotic related cell death were seen. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory genes assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an up-regulation of caspase 9, caspase-3, Bax, p21 and p27 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The mode of cell death was suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic pathway along with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals present in Ruta showed potential for natural therapeutic product development for colon carcinoma.

  10. Unusual pseudosubstrate specificity of a novel 3,5-dimethoxyphenol O-methyltransferase cloned from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Laura; Wellmann, Frank; Lukacin, Richard; Witte, Simone; Schwab, Wilfried; Schröder, Joachim; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA was cloned from Ruta graveolens cells encoding a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) with high similarity to orcinol or chavicol/eugenol OMTs, but containing a serine-rich N-terminus and a 13 amino acid insertion between motifs IV and V. Expression in Escherichia coli revealed S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent OMT activity with methoxylated phenols only with an apparent Km of 20.4 for the prime substrate 3,5-dimethoxyphenol. The enzyme forms a homodimer of 84 kDa, and the activity was insignificantly affected by 2.0 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, whereas Fe2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ or Hg2+ were inhibitory (78-100%). Dithiothreitol (DTT) suppressed the OMT activity. This effect was examined further, and, in the presence of Zn2+ as a potential thiol methyltransferase (TMT) cofactor, the recombinant OMT methylated DTT to DTT-monomethylthioether. Sets of kinetic OMT experiments with 3,5-dimethoxyphenol at various Zn2+/DTT concentrations revealed the competitive binding of DTT with an apparent Ki of 52.0 microM. Thus, the OMT exhibited TMT activity with almost equivalent affinity to the thiol pseudosubstrate which is structurally unrelated to methoxyphenols.

  11. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

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    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  12. Comparative Study of the Analgesic Activity of Two Iraqi Medicinal Plants, Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla Extracts

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    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of different fractions of the extracts of Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted with 70% ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of each plant were evaporated to dryness and analyzed by HPLC. The analgesic activity of these extracts was evaluated using writhing reflex test and compared with that produced by a standard drug (Diclofenac sodium. Results: Flavonoids were found in all fractions of both plants (i.e ethyl acetate and n-butanol, while trace of alkaloids in were found in the ethyl acetate fraction of Ruta. The prepared extracts showed better analgesic activity than the standard drug; when compared with each other, Matricaria extracts showed better analgesic activity compared to Ruta extracts. Conclusion: There is similar efficacy of chamomile and common rue as analgesic agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 79-83

  13. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  14. 中国伞形科5个引种栽培的模式种果实比较解剖学研究%Comparative anatomical study on structural features of mericarp of 5 type species introduced into China in Apiaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 刘启新

    2006-01-01

    对中国伞形科中长期引种栽培的旱芹(Apium graveolens L.)、茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Miller)、欧当归(Levisticum officinale Koch)、欧防风(Pastinaca sativa L.)和莳萝(Anethum graveolens L.)5个模式种的果实进行了比较解剖学研究,详细描述了各种类分生果的解剖结构及主要特征,并从分生果横切面的轮廓形状、果棱、维管束、油管和合生面等解剖学性状系统分析了各种类的异同,提出果体腹面及合生面的长度及其比值、果棱间距离及其比值、果体侧面与腹面间的角度、侧棱与腹面间的角度、果体长宽比等新的数量化的伞形科解剖性状特征,并按果体压扁程度将5个种类分成几不压扁(旱芹)、轻度压扁(茴香)、中度压扁(莳萝和欧当归)和高度压扁(欧防风)4大类,同时探讨了果实解剖特征与它们的演化程度的关系.

  15. Review of scientific evidence of medicinal convoy plants in traditional Persian medicine

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    Seyede Nargess Sadati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh. According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs, which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort, the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory, and Apium graveolens (celery seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, and Cucumis melo (melon seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper, Piper longum (long pepper, red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea, hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal, Anethum graveolens (dill, Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  16. Estudio de las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos sobre Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) y Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) en la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina Study of the associations of aphids-entomophagous in Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) and Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) in the central region of Santa Fe, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Romina G. MANFRINO; Salto, César E.; Leticia Zumoffen

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller) y Conyza bonariensis L, a fin de implementar el Control Biológico Conservativo (CBC) en agroecosistemas de la región central de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se realizaron estudios, a campo, de la entomofauna presente mediante la observación directa de las plantas; las mismas se llevaron a cabo con una frecuencia semanal. En invernáculo, se procedió a la identificación de las especies ...

  17. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Ciniglia, Claudia; Reccia, Mafalda G; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  19. 蚊净香草叶片离体培养研究%Study on leaves in vitro culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊辉; 杨妙贤; 冼元香

    2005-01-01

    以蚊净香草(Pelargonium graveolens L'herit)不同叶龄的叶片为外植体进行离体培养,结果表明,只有成熟的叶片可诱导形成愈伤组织,培养基MS+6-BA 1.00mg/L+NAA 0.20mg/L最适于愈伤组织的诱导、不定芽分化和丛生芽的增殖,培养基MS+NAA 0.20 mg/L最适合根系诱导及幼苗生长.

  20. Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) coutinho seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Uzunov, Dimitar; Menichini, Francesco

    2006-10-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum seeds were determined. Differences were found in the total phenolic content of fennel. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fractions showed a different composition between wild and cultivated plants. Cultivated laurel had a high content of terpenes such as linool, alpha-terpinol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, thymol, caryophyllene, aromandrene, selinene, farnesene, and cadinene, while wild laurel had a high content of eugenol and methyl eugenol, vitamin E, and sterols. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was determined using three complementary methods. Wild plants showed greater radical scavenging activity than the cultivated plants. The extracts also exhibited a significant antioxidant capacity also in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test system. A high level of antioxidant activity was observed in wild laurel (IC50 = 1 microg/ml). Significant antioxidant activity measured in bovine brain was observed in wild laurel.

  1. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Hossein Kari; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Jaimand, Kamkar; Rohani, Neda; Varma, Ajit

    2011-02-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera.

  2. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  3. 药用植物茴香的细胞学研究%Cytological Study on the Medical Plant Foeniculum vulgare Miller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓瑞宁; 刘冰冰; 蔡明历; 郝大翠; 李润芳; 刘焰

    2006-01-01

    采用压片法,对生长在武汉地区的药用植物茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Miller)进行细胞学研究.结果表明:茴香的绝大多数花粉母细胞减数分裂过程中染色体的行为正常,终变期形成11个二价体,为染色体计数的最佳时期;茴香的染色体数目为2n=2x=22,核型公式为K(2n)=22=20m+2sm,其染色体相对长度组成为2n=2s+8M1+10M2+2L,属于"1A"对称型核型.

  4. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHITAL BONDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bonde S. 2011. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 59-63. We report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, saunf. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was detected by changing color from green to brown after treatment with AgNO3 (1mM and the UV-visible spectrophotometer analysis showed the absorbance peak at about 427 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticle Tracking and Analysis (NTA by LM-20 was used for multi-parameter analysis, allowing for characterization of particle size and particle distribution of silver nanoparticles synthesized from extract of F. vulgare. NTA revealed the polydispersed nanoparticles in the range of 18-83 nm. Phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC-39403. The silver nanoparticles also demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against two human pathogenic bacteria when used in combination with commercially available antibiotics. The bactericidal activity of the standard antibiotics was significantly enhanced in presence of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria, viz. E. coli-JM-103 (ATCC-39403 and S. aureus (ATCC-25923. Silver nanoparticles in combination with vancomycin showed maximum activity against E. coli (increase in fold area 5.76. and followed by S. aureus (1.08 and Gentamicin showed the maximum activity S. aureus (2.6 while E. coli (0.96. The approach of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using F. vulgare appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of synthesis.

  5. Contribution à l'étude de l'activité antimicrobienne des lipides totaux et des composé phénoloique des graines de foeniculum vulgar mill "besbes" de la région de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    hamedi, sara née guaour

    2015-01-01

    Le rendement en poly phénol et en huile fixe ainsi que i'activite antimicrobienie ont été .étudiés sur les graines de fenouil (Foeniculum vulgar miii) « Besbes ». La teneur en eau a diéj vaIéur de 10% et l'huile fixe extraite par soxhiet a mentionné un rendement de 10.8%. Dans cette étude, les principes actifs de Foeniculum vuigar mill sont extraits par la méthode des solvants successifs: éthanol, eau et éther diétylique.. La détermination du rendement en phénols totaux a donné un...

  6. Caracterização da produtividade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. no sertão de Sergipe Characterization of the of fennel's (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. yield semi-arid areas of Sergipe state

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    L.M. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e qualidade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. produzido nas condições edafoclimáticas de Sergipe, foi conduzido cultivo orgânico de funcho em Frei Paulo-SE. Em junho de 2008 e de 2009, início do período de chuvas, foram instalados plantios por meio de mudas. Adicionalmente, em dezembro de 2010 foi realizada colheita de frutos a partir de plantas obtidas após poda drástica e rebrota. Foi realizada colheita de frutos e determinação da produtividade de dezembro a janeiro de 2008, 2009 e em dezembro de 2010. Verificou-se produtividade de 720 Kg.ha-1, no primeiro plantio e de 349 Kg.ha-1 no plantio de 2009. As plantas obtidas por rebrota em 2010 resultaram em produtividade de 589 Kg.ha-1. Sugere-se que a maior produtividade verificada no primeiro ano seja decorrente da maior precipitação média e conseqüente maior disponibilidade de água. A produtividade verificada nas plantas que rebrotaram em 2010 foi também superior a verificada em 2009, o que pode ser explicado tanto em função da maior precipitação, quanto em função do provável maior desenvolvimento das raízes e maior número de ramos após poda, devido à quebra da dominância apical. Esses dados sugerem importância da disponibilidade hídrica na determinação da produtividade na região e explicam a variação na produtividade verificada. A massa seca dos frutos (5, 29 g para 1000 frutos e o alto teor de óleo essencial verificado (3,2%, assim como a composição do óleo, revelam a alta qualidade dos frutos produzidos na região.Aiming to evaluate the productivity and quality of fennel fruits produced in the countryside of Sergipe, with no irrigation, they were evaluated organic crops in Frei Paulo-SE. They were installed crops in 2008 and 2009 from seeds, on beginning rainy time. Seedlings obtained from seeds were transplanted in June 2008 and 2009. Besides, after the last harvest of the plants, grown in 2009, it was done a

  7. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50 µL on Petri dish of 8.5 cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5 µL/20 mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses.

  8. Optimization Experiment to Extract Citronellol from Pelargonium graveolens with Ethanol%利用乙醇提取香叶天竺葵中香茅醇研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 谭乐和; 徐飞; 刘向阳; 郝朝运; 吴刚; 张翠玲

    2012-01-01

    本文利用香叶天竺葵的叶片,对香叶天竺葵中香茅醇的提取率进行研究.对提取香茅醇的最适乙醇浓度、温度、时间、料液比分别进行了测定.结果表明,乙醇提取法的最佳工艺条件为乙醇浓度75%、温度40℃、时间4h、料液比1:20的最佳组合,在该条件下香茅醇提取率可达0.88 mg/g.%The extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens were determined. The optimum ethanol concentration, temperature, time, and solid-liquid ratio for extracting the citronellol were examined. The results of statistical analysis showed that the ideal extraction condition was as follows; 75 % ethanol concentration, 40℃, 4 h, and 1:20 of the solid-liquid ratio. Under this condition, the extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens was 0.88 mg/g.

  9. Molecular identification of Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence%ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其常见混伪品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义梅; 罗焜; 陈科力; 陈士林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基于ITS2序列鉴定小茴香及其混伪品的新方法.方法 对小茴香4份样品的ITS2序列进行PCR扩增和测序,同时从GenBank上下载小茴香及其常见混伪品共6个物种42个样本.用MEGA4.1计算其种间、种内的K-2-P距离,并分析各物种间ITS2序列二级结构的差异,最后利用ITS2序列构建其系统发育树.结果 小茴香种内最大K-2-P距离为0.0307,与混伪品的种间最小K-2-P距离为0.0405;小茴香及其混伪品的ITS2二级结构存在明显差异;构建的系统发育树显示小茴香的不同来源样本聚在一支,能很好与混伪品区分.结论 ITS2序列能够成功鉴定小茴香及其易混伪品,可以作为小茴香及其混伪品的分子鉴定方法.%Objective To explore the new method of discriminating Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants by using ITS2 sequence. Method DNA samples were extracted from Foeniculum vulgare.ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced hidirectionally. Sequences were assembled hy CodonCode Aligner. The intra-specific and inter-specific K-2P distances of Foeniculum vulgare ancl its adulterants were calculated. and NJ tree was constructed by MEGA V 4. 1. ITS2 and secondary structure were predicted by the web tool established by Schultz etc. Results The maximum intra-specific K-2P distance was0. 0307 . while the minimum inter-specific K-2P distance was 0. 0405. Different samples of Foeniculum vulgare were gathered together and could be distinguished from its adulterants by NJ tree. And Foeniculum vulgare could he differentiated obviously from its adulterants by their ITS2 secondary structure. Conclusion Our study shows that ITS2 sequence is able to identify Foeniculum vulgare from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular identification method for Foeniculum vulgare and its adulterants.

  10. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética Efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, nos níveis de glucose, colesterol e triacilglicerídeos num modelo do rato diabético Induced effects by Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, and Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, on glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (Diversas plantas com propriedades hipoglicêmicas foram usadas na medicina popular e em sistemas tradicionais de curas em torno do mundo. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L, Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, em modelo do rato diabético onde níveis da glucose foram determinados a cada 24 h em um mês antes da administração gástrica do extrato das plantas. Colesterol e triacilglicerídeos foram avaliados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Os resultados mostraram que a administração de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dose de 0,5 a 1,5 g/kg induz um aumento hipoglicêmico ( 200 mg/dL. Outros resultados, mostraram que Citrus aurantium exerce mudanças na concentração de triacilglicerídeos (158-172 mg/dL e colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, a administração de Ruta graveolens na dose de 0.5 g/kg induziu um efeito hipoglicêmico (Several plants with hypoglycemic properties have

  11. An experimental study of foeniculum oil-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes%小茴香挥发油环糊精包结物的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延方

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To elucidate the inclusion effect of foeniculum oil andβ-Cyciodextrin(β-CD) in different proportion, and heat stability.METHODS Using grinding method to determine foeniculum oil-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with diffrernt proportion, and then to determion recovery of the complexes.The stability wsa tested at 50 ℃ in an oven.RESULTS Recovery of inclusion complexes of five different proportion(oil:β-CD:1∶10,1:12.5,1∶15,1∶18,1:20 ml·g-1)were 73.56%, 85.83%,91.20%, 92.18% 92.85%,respetively.CONCLUSIONS The best proportion of the oil andβ-CD is 1∶15.%目的:探讨小茴香挥发油与不同比例β-环糊精(β-CD)包结的效果和规律,以及包结物的热稳定性。方法:用研磨法制成包结物,用常规方法测定包结物回收率,以电热干燥箱加热至50℃,测定其热稳定性。结果:小茴香挥发油与β-CD5种不同比例(1∶10,1∶12.5,1∶15,1∶18,1∶20)包结物的回收率分别为73.56%,85.83%,91.20%,92.18%,92.85。含1.25ml挥发油的包结物经70℃168h干燥后回收其挥发油的体积为1.02ml。结论:用研磨法进行包结时小茴香挥发油与β-CD之比(ml·g-1)以1∶15为宜,并且包结物的热稳定性良好。

  12. Effect of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Used as a Feed Additive on The Egg Quality of Laying Hens Under Heat Stress

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    H Gharaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, one hundred and twenty 40-wk-old White Leghorn laying hens were submitted to two different thermal conditions (24° C vs. 34° C and were fed three levels (0, 10, or and 20 g/kg of dietof fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. as a feed additive in. This study was carried out according to a factorial design consisting of two temperatures and three fennel levels with five 5 replicates each (n = 2 × 3 × 5. Performance, egg production, egg quality, and oxidative product levels (malondialdehyde, MDA, and carbonyl in the eggs were measured before and after heat exposure. The results showed that the tested temperatures did not affect egg production (p>0.05, but the production of eggs with broken shell and feed intake were affected by heat stress (p0.05, but increased yolk triglyceride levels. Hens that consumed fennel presented lower yolk cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. In general, fennel fruit influenced egg yolk cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and because of its antioxidant properties, it may alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on laying hens.

  13. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  14. The Effect of Drought Stress on the Essential Oil Content and Some of the Biochemical Characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze

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    Sajedeh Saeedfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plot trials were carried out in a research field in Tehran (Iran to determine the effect of drought stress on the essential oil content and some of the plant biochemical characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze, which is a valuable medicinal plant. Drought stress was conducted at different levels including: well-water (100% FC, mild drought stress (85% FC, moderate drought stress (70% FC, severe drought stress (55% FC, 100% FC (vegetative stage 85% FC (reproductive stage, 100% FC (vegetative stage 70% FC (reproductive stage, and 85% FC (vegetative stage 100% FC (reproductive stage. The experiment was arranged as a RCBD with three replications. The output results showed that, water deficit stress significantly (P≤0.05 increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase as well as Essential Oil yield and Abscisic Acid content. Lipid and protein oxidation (malondialdehyde and dityrosine contents also increased significantly under severe water deficit stress. According to the results, severe drought conduction (55% FC is the optimum level of soil moisture to plant Anise Hyssop under water deficit stress.

  15. Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B; Kale, R K

    2008-12-01

    The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel) seeds was examined on DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Fennel seeds exhibiting a significant reduction in the skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. Further, biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes were observed with all the doses of test diet under study. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel. Glyoxalase I activity and the content of reduced glutathione were significantly elevated. Expectedly, the levels of peroxidative damage along with lactate dehydrogenase activity, exhibited a significant reduction at all three doses of test diets. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of Fennel against carcinogenesis.

  16. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  17. 小茴香根皮化学成分研究%On the chemical constituents from the root barks of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健博; 古丽娜·沙比尔

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析新疆小茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill)根皮中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱层析法反复分离纯化技术,通过质谱分析、核磁共振等现代波谱技术对新疆小茴香根皮中的化学成分进行结构鉴定.结果 从新疆小茴香中分离得到6种化合物:7-羟基-6-甲氧基香豆素(Scopoletin,Ⅰ).5-羟甲基糠(5-Hydroxymethylfurfural,Ⅱ)、焦谷氨酸乙酯(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid;(±)-form,ET ester,Ⅲ)、胡萝卜苷(Daucosterol,Ⅳ)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sitosterol,V)、蔗糖(Sucrose,Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅲ为首次从茴香属植物中分离得到,为进一步研究新疆小茴香的化学成分提供理论依据.

  18. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. LUCCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.. The treatments were: fennel, anise, cloves extracts at 10%; fennel, anise, cloves oils at 1% and control with distilled water. The mortality tests were carried out with aphids in laboratory, with three replications, after 1, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. During laboratory trials , it was found out that fennel oil at 1% showed the best rate of mortality on aphid nymphs (70% at 72 h, followed by clove extract at 10% with 37% mortality. Tests in pots were only carried out only with cloves extracts at 10% and fennel oil at 1% treatment, in which such efficiency was alsoindicated on aphid nymphs.

  19. A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Ruta graveolens L. exhibits p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase activity (C2'H): a missing step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialart, Guilhem; Hehn, Alain; Olry, Alexandre; Ito, Kyoko; Krieger, Celia; Larbat, Romain; Paris, Cedric; Shimizu, Bun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2012-05-01

    Coumarins are important compounds that contribute to the adaptation of plants to biotic or abiotic stresses. Among coumarins, umbelliferone occupies a pivotal position in the plant phenylpropanoid network. Previous studies indicated that umbelliferone is derived from the ortho-hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid by an unknown biochemical step to yield 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, which then undergoes spontaneous lactonization. Based on a recent report of a gene encoding a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibited feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase activity (Bourgaud et al., 2006), we combined a bioinformatic approach and a cDNA library screen to identify an orthologous ORF (Genbank accession number JF799117) from Ruta graveolens L. This ORF shares 59% amino acid identity with feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and converted feruloyl CoA into scopoletin and p-coumaroyl CoA into umbelliferone with equal activity. Its bi-functionality was further confirmed in planta: transient expression of JF799117 in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded plants with leaves containing high levels of umbelliferone and scopoletin when compared to control plants, which contained barely detectable traces of these compounds. The expression of JF799117 was also tightly correlated to the amount of umbelliferone that was found in UV-elicited R. graveolens leaves. Therefore, JF799117 encodes a p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase in R. graveolens, which represents a previously uncharacterized step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants. Psoralen, which is an important furanocoumarin in R. graveolens, was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, and it may exert this effect through negative feedback on the enzyme at an upstream position in the pathway.

  20. Comparison of leaf morphology and anatomy among Malva sylvestris ("gerânio-aromático", Pelargonium graveolens ("falsa-malva" and Pelargonium odoratissimum ("gerânio-de-cheiro" Comparação da Morfologia e da anatomia foliar entre as espécies Malva sylvestris (gerânio-aromático, Pelargonium graveolens (falsa-malva e Pelargonium odoratissimum (gerânio-de-cheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Romitelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris is generally confused with Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium odoratissimum due to similarities in their leaf morphology. The leaves of M. sylvestris have anthocyanins with scientifically proven cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. The leaves of P. odoratissimum have essential oil with antibacterial and spasmolytic properties, while the essential oil from P. graveolens has antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to morpho-anatomically analyze the leaves of these species, indicating differences that can be used to clarify controversies about their use as medicinal plants. To anatomically compare the structure of each plant, samples were observed by Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Leaf anatomy among species was quite different. Malva sylvestris showed capitate starry tector trichomes, as well as druses and mucilaginous cells. P. graveolens and P. odoratissimum differed as to trichomes. Both species had tector and glandular trichomes, and P. graveolens is distinguished for the greater height of tector trichomes and less quantity of the latter relative to P. odoratissimum. This study allowed the detection of anatomical differences, assisting in the taxonomy and classification of these species.Malva sylvestris é comumente confundida com Pelargonium graveolens e Pelargonium odoratissimum devido às semelhanças na morfologia foliar. As folhas de M. sylvestris possuem antocianinas com propriedades citotóxicas, antiinflamatória, antitumoral e antioxidante já comprovadas cientificamente. As folhas de P. odoratissimum apresentam óleo essencial com propriedades antibacteriana e espasmolítica, e o óleo essencial da folha de P. graveolens possui atividade antimicrobiana e antifúngica. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas destas espécies, apontando diferenças que possam ser utilizadas para esclarecer controvérsias na

  1. Determination of Linoleic Acid in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from Different Habitats by HPLC-ELSD%HPLC-ELSD 法测定不同产地小茴香中亚油酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱生勇; 顾湘

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立小茴香中亚油酸含量的 HPLC-ELSD 测定方法并测定不同产地小茴香的亚油酸含量。方法:采用 Cosmosil 5 C18-MS-Ⅱ柱,甲醇-水-冰醋酸(95∶5∶0.1%),流速1.0 mL· min-1,柱温35℃,漂移管温度40℃,雾化气 N2,载气流速3.0 L·min-1。结果与结论:本法测定小茴香中亚油酸含量简便可靠。测得4个产地小茴香中亚油酸含量最高为8.73 mg·g-1,最低为1.70 mg·g-1。不同产地小茴香中亚油酸含量差异明显。%Objective: To establish a quantitative HPLC-ELSD method for the determination of linoleic acid in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from different habitats. Methods: A column of Cosmosil 5C18-MS-Ⅱ was used with the mobile phase of methanol and water and acetic acid (95∶5∶0.1%), the fIow rate was 1.0 mL· min-1, and the column temperature was set at 35 ℃. The temperature of drift tube was set at 40 ℃ with an air fIow rate of 3.0 L·min-1 for ELSD. Results and Conclusion: The established HPLC-ELSD method is simple and suitable for the quality control of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The maximum content of linoleic acid in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from four habitats was 8.73 mg·g-1 and the minimum content was 1.70 mg· g-1. Great difference of linoleic acid content is shown in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from different habitats.

  2. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  3. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel Seed Extracts

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    Nandini Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel. The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%, AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L, and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO.

  6. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%, limonene (13.65%, and α-fenchone (8.27% in the fennel essential oil and linalool (28.63%, 1,8-cineole (18.65%, and 1-borneol (15.94% in the lavender essential oil were found as main components. Contact and fumigant toxicity of essential oils was assessed against adult females of T. urticae after 24 h exposure time. The essential oils revealed strong toxicity in both contact and fumigant bioassays and the activity dependeds on essential oil concentrations. Lethal concentration 50% for the population of mite (LC50 was found as 0.557% (0.445–0.716 and 0.792% (0.598–1.091 in the contact toxicity and 1.876 μL/L air (1.786–1.982 and 1.971 μL/L air (1.628–2.478 in the fumigant toxicity for fennel and lavender oils, respectively. Results indicated that F. vulgare and L. angustifolia essential oils might be useful for managing of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae.

  7. Estudio de las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos sobre Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae y Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae en la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina Study of the associations of aphids-entomophagous in Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae and Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae in the central region of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Romina G. Manfrino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar las asociaciones áfidos-entomófagos en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller y Conyza bonariensis L, a fin de implementar el Control Biológico Conservativo (CBC en agroecosistemas de la región central de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se realizaron estudios, a campo, de la entomofauna presente mediante la observación directa de las plantas; las mismas se llevaron a cabo con una frecuencia semanal. En invernáculo, se procedió a la identificación de las especies cuando esta no fue posible a campo. La especie de áfido encontrada fue Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Homoptera: Aphididae, colonizando a F. vulgare y se destacó Uroleucon (Lambersius sp. (Homoptera: Aphididae enC. bonariensis. Entre los enemigos naturales, se destacaron los parasitoides y depredadores en F. vulgare y C. bonariensis, respectivamente. Para el estudio de las relaciones áfidos - enemigos naturales, se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación; los valores indicaron una relación entre H. foeniculi y Diaretiella rapae (M'Intosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae (0,63 y entre Uroleucon (Lambersius sp. y coccinélidos (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae (0,43. Las especies vegetales estudiadas son muy importantes para mantener los distintos grupos de entomófagos en los agroecosistemas y su utilización en programas de CBC de pulgones plaga es posible, contribuyendo así a reducir las aplicaciones de insecticidas en cultivos.The objective of this work was to study the aphids-entomophagous associations in Foeniculum vulgare (Miller and Conyza bonariensis L. in order to implement Conservative Biological Control (CBC in agroecosystems of the central region of Santa Fe Province. Direct observation on plants was conducted on a weekly basis, from February to May 2008. The identification of species was carried out in the greenhouse when it was not possible to do it in the field. The aphid species identified on F. vulgare was Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini

  8. Effects of foeniculum vulgare mill on lipid peroxidation in rats with liver hepatic fibrosis%小茴香对肝纤维化大鼠脂质过氧化水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范强; 阿地力江·伊明; 王水泉; 甘子明

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究小茴香对肝纤维化大鼠的脂质过氧化水平的影响.方法:取Wister大鼠100只,随机取12只设为正常组,其余采用四氯化碳(CCL4)复合因素法复制肝纤维化大鼠模型,复制成功后随机分为模型对照组、小茴香组和复方丹参组(n=12);相应药物干预8周后,镜检肝组织形态学改变;全自动生化分析仪检测外周血清丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)水平与血清总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)含量;生化法检测肝组织羟脯氨酸(HYP)与血清丙二醛(MDA)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果:HE结果显示:模型组肝脏炎症与脂肪变性明显,经小茴香干预后明显改善.生化检测结果显示:与正常组比较,模型组ALT、AST水平显著升高(P<0.05),TP、ALB含量显著降低(P<0.05),HYP、MDA含量显著增加(P<0.05),而SOD、GSH-PX和CAT活性显著降低(P<0.05);与模型组比较,小茴香组ALT、AST水平显著下降(P<0.05),TP、ALB水平显著升高(P<0.05);HYP、MDA含量显著降低(P<0.05),SOD、GSH-PX和CAT活性显著提高(P<0.05).结论:小茴香的抗肝纤维化作用可能与调节大鼠脂质过氧化水平有关.%Objective: To observe the effects of foeniculum vulgare mill on liver fibrosis. Methods: 100 Wister rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as control group,model group, foeniculum vulgare mill group, and danshen group. Liver fibrosis models were established by the combination of injecting carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) subcutaneously. Drugs were lavaged for 8 weeks, rats livers tissue were examined with HE staining; the serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), albumin(ALB) and total protern (TP) were determined using corresponding test kits; the hepatic lipid peroxidation indexes, including malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase(SOD),Glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX),Catalase(CAT) were measured

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of a polyherbal formulation for its antispasmodic activity

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    Navdeep Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: The present study was aimed to evaluate pharmacologically to a polyherbal formulation containing volatile extracts of various umbelliferae plants. Materials and Methods: The umbelliferae family was found most effective against spasm by extensive literature review and study of various rational formulations. Plants material was procured from the local market of Rajasthan. Volatile extracts were isolated from powdered plant materials through Clevenger′s method. The volatile extracts of following plants Trachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare were used to make polyherbal formulation. Results: Antispasmodic effect of newly prepared polyherbal formulation demonstrated on guinea pig ileum in vitro; 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 was 172.5 ± 1.4 μl/ml. A very effective value identified, when compared to antispasmodic drugs, e.g. Atropine (IC 50 was 166.7 ± 1.2 μl/ml. Oral administration of polyherbal formulation dose-dependently reduced intestinal transit in mice when compared to atropine at 0.1 mg/kg i.p. and formulation at (300 mg/kg protected mice against diarrhea induced by castor oil significantly when compared to control and standard loperamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg orally. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation inhibits acetylcholine and calcium chloride induced contraction of guinea pig ileum dose-dependently. The current research validates antispasmodic effect of newly developed polyherbal formulation. It also concluded that polyherbal formulation inhibits the contraction produced by various spasmogens like acetylcholine and calcium chloride. This suggests that the activity of developed formulation is nonspecific to any spasmogen.

  10. Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Wannasan, A; Pitasawat, B

    2009-02-01

    The potential of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical product, as a repellent against natural mosquito populations was evaluated in comparison to commercial (Insect Block 28) and standard (25% DEET) repellents in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. These repellent products afforded encouragingly excellent personal protection against a broad range of mosquito species belonging to various genera, including Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia. No mosquito bite was observed on the volunteers treated with G10 and Insect Block 28 throughout the field study, whereas two species, i.e., six A. barbirostris and two A. subalbatus, came to bite or land on 25% DEET-treated volunteers. Thus, it can be concluded that while G10 and Insect Block 28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with complete (100%) protection, 25% DEET was effective in minimizing bites with 99.68% protection. G10 formula was also studied for physical properties and biological stability after being kept under two conditions; a heating and cooling cycle, and varying temperature and time storage. Most samples of stored G10 not only demonstrated a similarity in appearance and physical properties, but also provided comparable repellency to that of the fresh preparation. These findings encourage commercial development of G10 formula as an alternative to conventional synthetic repellents.

  11. Observation on Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells in Apium graveolens%芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 张蜀宁; 张宇; 李俊星; 刘惠吉

    2011-01-01

    The flower buds of celery (Apium graveolens ) were used to study the mitosis in pollen mother cells with enzyme - dye -squash technique.The results showed that the pollen mother cells carried on their meiosis and cytokinesis simultaneously and their tetrads were tetrahedral or decussate type; at metaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there showed a small number of chromosomes scattered outside their equatorial plate; at anaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there appeared chromosome bridges and lagged chromosomes in some pollen mother cells.%以中国芹品种铁杆芹花蕾为材料,采用改良卡宝染色压片法对芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂进行了细胞学研究.结果表明:花粉母细胞减数分裂为胞质同时型,四分体为正四面体型或十字交叉型,中期Ⅰ和中期Ⅱ细胞可见赤道板外染色体,后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ部分细胞出现染色体桥及落后染色体.

  12. Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (V): coumarins and alkaloids from Boenninghausenia japonica and Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Matsuda, Narumi; Kouguchi, Ai; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

    2017-01-01

    During the course of our studies towards the identification of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against two human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2), we screened 17 extracts from 9 rutaceous plants against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. The extracts from the aerial parts and roots of Boenninghausenia japonica, as well as the leaves and roots of Ruta graveolens showed potent antiproliferative effects. After activity-guided fractionation, we isolated 44 compounds from two rutaceous plants, including three new compounds (1-3), which were classified into 26 coumarin analogs (13 coumarins, 8 furanocoumarins, 4 dihydrofuranocoumarins and one dihydropyranocoumarin), 15 alkaloid analogs (7 quinolone alkaloids, 4 acridone alkaloids, 3 furanoquinoline alkaloids and one tetrahydroacridone alkaloid) and 3 flavonoid glycosides. Structure-activity relationship studies were also evaluated. The coumarin compounds (2, 3 and 7-9) bearing a 3-dimethylallyl moiety showed potent activity. Similarly, of all the furanocoumarins evaluated in the current study, compound 17 bearing a 3-dimethylallyl group also showed potent activity. A dihydrofuranocoumarin (27) bearing a 3-dimethylallyl moiety showed the most potent activity. Following 27, compound 28 showed potent activity. These results therefore suggested that the presence of a 3-dimethylallyl moiety was important to the antiproliferative activity of these coumarin analogs.

  13. Graveoline isolated from ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens triggers apoptosis and autophagy in skin melanoma cells: a novel apoptosis-independent autophagic signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samrat; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Anti-cancer drugs generally kill cancer cells by apoptosis but fail to do so when they become resistant and escape apoptosis signals. But these resistant cells can still be killed by autophagy. Therefore, drugs having both apoptotic and autophagic abilities are solicited in effective cancer management. In search of such a drug, we examined the efficacy of graveoline, a bioactive compound isolated from Ruta graveolens on skin melanoma A375 cells through the use of specific signaling cascades and their inhibitors. Cytotoxicity of graveoline was tested by conducting MTT assay. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis was checked. Expression of related proteins and their localization were studied by conducting immunoblot assay and through confocal microscopy, respectively. We found graveoline-induced Beclin-1 associated autophagy in A375 cells and 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy did not affect apoptosis. Conversely, caspase inhibitor that blocked apoptosis did not affect autophagic cell death, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers inhibited cell death, but blocking autophagy did not affect graveoline-induced ROS generation, suggesting that ROS generation ensued autophagy. Thus, graveoline-induced both apoptotic and autophagic cell death in skin melanoma cells, a desirable quality in effective anti-cancer drug design.

  14. Bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Yang; Zhongren Nan; Zhuanjun Zhao; Zhaowei Wang; Shengli Wang; Xia Wang; Wangqiang Jin; Cuicui Zhao

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium (Cd) in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the Cd-polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China.The results showed that Cd in the unpolluted oasis soil was mainly bound to carbonate fraction (F2) and Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3).However,marked change of Cd fractions was observed with increasing soil Cd concentrations,in which the concentration of Cd in F1 (exchangeable fraction),F2 and F3 increased significantly (p < 0.001 for F1,F2 and F3).The growth of cole and celery could be facilitated by low concentrations of Cd,but inhibited by high concentrations.The correlation analysis between the fraction distribution coefficient of Cd in the soil and Cd concentration accumulated in the two vegetables showed that Cd in FI in the soil made the greatest contribution on the accumulation of Cd in the two vegetables.The high bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor of Cd in both cole and celery were observed,and Cd had higher accumulation in the edible parts of the two vegetables.Therefore,both cole and celery grown in Cd-polluted oasis soil have higher risk to human health.And the two vegetables are not suitable to be cultivated as vegetables consumed by human in the Cd-polluted oasis soil.

  15. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  16. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  17. An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her for potential use by resource-limited animal owners

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    B.M. Botha

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary needs appraisals in rural, peri-urban and urban areas have indicated a need for affordable and accessible veterinary health care. It was also found that farmers and animal owners used indigenous plants for treating animals. In Africa, insects such as Culex, Culicoides and Stomoxys may transmit diseases, cause irritation to animals or prevent wound healing. Insect repellents used topically are generally safer and cheaper than insecticides. Using readily available commercial sources of ethanol 43 %v/v (brandy and cane spirits, it was shown that citronellol could be extracted from uncrushed leaves of the indigenous shrub Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. Efficacy of extraction was compared to that using reagent grade absolute ethanol. The peak concentration of citronellol was achieved within 7 days of extraction and thereafter remained constant for 4 months. Extraction methods using tap water and cooking oil were not successful. The extraction was also less successful when the leaves were crushed or macerated before being placed into ethanol. Gas chromatography was used to monitor the concentration of citronellol in the different extracts.

  18. 驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导和增殖%Effects on induction and proliferation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 刘树楠; 周吉源

    2006-01-01

    以驱蚊香草(Pelargonium graveolens)的幼嫩叶片为外植体,接种于附加不同浓度的NAA、2,4-D、6-BA、KT及其组合的MS固体培养基上,结果表明:单独使用4种植物生长调节物质对驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导在一定浓度范围内都有效果,其中单独使用KT时效果不太明显;最佳的组合培养基为MS+2,4-D0.2 mg/L +6-BA0.5 mg/L.在黑暗和光照培养条件下,愈伤组织的增殖呈"S"型,且生长周期均为30 d.

  19. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano.

  20. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  1. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K. and European (Origanum vulgare L. Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Hernández-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO’s of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO’s was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME. The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO’s was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO’s and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO’s varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol and γ-terpinene (pentane as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO’s showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO’s remained the same, while free EO’s decreased 41% (MXO and 67% (EUO from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO’s from oregano.

  2. Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun ZHANG; Jianbing WANG; Zhongyi YANG; Guorong XIN; Jiangang YUAN; Junliang XIN; Charlie HUANG

    2013-01-01

    To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.

  3. Ethnopharmacology, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter. Which Has Been Used as Remedies Antirheumatic, Anti-inflammation and Antiinfection against Leishmaniasis in the Traditional Medicine of Gorgan, Iran

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    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was survey to investigate of ethnopharmacology, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter extract in in vitro from waste ground region of Gorgan, Iran, which has been used in traditional as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene, and antiinfection. Materials and Methods: Ethnopharmacological data were obtained among well-known indigenous herbal practitioner (70 ages in Gorgan, Iran. Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Gorgan waste ground (80 m in October 2013. Methanol and acetone extracts were obtained by maceration, antioxidant activity were evaluated spectrophotometrically by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power to compare of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole antioxidant standard and antibacterial activity were determined by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs method against tree Gram-positive and negative pathogenic bacteria. Results: D. graveolens (L. W. Greuteris is usually wild grow in Golestan Province and has been used in traditional medicine as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene and antiinfection specially in treat of leishmaniosis metanolic extract of plant has strong antioxidant activity against free radical scavenging specially in DPPH methode than aceton extract with IC50 (6.2 ± 0.13 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus with inhibition zone 35, 30, 26, 21 mm were the most sensitive bacteria, with MIC ranging from 12.6 to 112 μg/ml, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium have moderate sensitivity and other bacteria were resistant to the plant extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the methanolic extract of D. graveolens can become good potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity for controlling certain Gram

  4. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

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    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  5. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2004-12-29

    Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON FOENICULUM MILLER IN CHINA AND THE TAXONOMIC TREATMENT%中国茴香属的比较研究及分类处理意见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范昌发; 何兴金; 贾敬芬; 李存勇; 冯陪章

    2001-01-01

    从细胞学、孢粉学、形态学角度,并辅以解剖学和胚胎学方法,对茴香属Foeniculum Miller植物球茎茴香F. vulgare subsp. copillaceum var.azoricum (Miller) Thellung与茴香F. vulgare Miller进行了比较研究.结果表明,孢粉学特征差异表现在花粉粒类型、形状、大小、萌发孔、纹饰等方面;细胞学特征差异表现在核型不对称系数、染色体组成、最长染色体与最短染色体之比值等方面;形态学特征差异包括基部茎、基部叶叶鞘及果实主棱的圆钝等方面;解剖学上发现数量性状差异;胚胎学方面则表现在珠被上.就上述对应特征而言,茴香均表现出比球茎茴香更为进化的特性.据此,支持Miller(1768)将球茎茴香视与茴香均作为种等级的处理意见,而不支持将球茎茴香视为茴香变种,以及为茴香异名的观点,并恢复其名称为Foeniculum azoricum Miller.

  7. Atividade in vitro de plantas condimentares (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. contra o calicivírus felino

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    Thaís Felli Kubiça

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O calicivírus felino (FCV é um importante patógeno de gatos que causa lesões ulcerativas orais e infecções respiratórias. O vírus tem sido utilizado como modelo experimental para avaliação de agente antivirais contra norovírus (NoVs. Nesse estudo, investigou-se a ação dos óleos essenciais de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. frente ao FCV, in vitro. A toxicidade celular foi testada pelo método de MTT e os ensaios antivirais pelo teste de redução de placas. Três protocolos foram aplicados: a diferentes concentrações não tóxicas dos óleos essenciais (CNTOE foram incubadas com o vírus por 1 hora antes da inoculação (ensaio virucida; b CNTOE foram adicionadas às células CRFK e incubadas por 1 hora antes da adsorção viral (ensaio de pré-tratamento; c CNTOE foram adicionadas às células após a inoculação do FCV e mantidas por 18 horas (ensaio de pós-tratamento. A CC50 para os óleos de alecrim, orégano mexicano e tomilho foram: 1300,21 μg mL-1; 435,92 μg mL-1 e 675,34 μg mL-1; respectivamente. O óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou índice de seletividade [IS=CC50/CI50] de 8,57 para o ensaio de pré-tratamento e 6,2 no ensaio virucida. O óleo de alecrim mostrou atividade antiviral no ensaio virucida (IS=6,54 e de pós-tratamento (IS=6,86. O orégano mexicano apresentou IS de 5,75 no ensaio virucida e 5,59 no de pós-tratamento. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de tomilho e alecrim apresentaram atividade frente ao FCV em diferentes momentos da infecção viral.Palavras-chave: Norovírus. FCV. óleos essenciais. Citotoxicidade. MTT. ensaio de placa. ABSTRACTIn vitro activity of plants used as condiments (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. against the feline calicivirusThe feline calicivirus (FCV is an important pathogen of feline causing oral ulcerative lesions and respiratory disease. This virus

  8. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

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    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  9. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-12-02

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  10. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  11. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerol (TAG structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens, caraway (Carum carvi, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, anise (Pimpinella anisum, carrot (Daucus carota, celery (Apium graveolens, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Khella (Ammi visnaga, all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3 in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1n-9, stearic (C18:0, petroselinic (C18:1n-12, linoleic (C18:2n-6, linolinic (18:3n-3, and arachidic (C20:0 acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some

  12. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Isik, Ismail

    2008-01-10

    Today's world is increasingly seeking ways to replace the synthetic drugs with the therapeutic power of natural products. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) and Salvia officinalis (SO) waters infusions against carcinogen chemical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats. The chemopreventive potential of the plant infusions were evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)] and lipid peroxidation level (Malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 150-200 g, were randomly allotted into four experimental groups. While the control group (A) received only natural spring water, the treatment B group (0.2% TCA) supplied with the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA, the treatment C (TCA + FV infusion) and D (TCA + SO infusion) groups drank the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA and 2.5% the plant grains and leaves ad libitum for 50 days during experiment. At the end of the 50 days experiment, TCA and the plant's infusions caused different affect on the serum marker enzymes, tissues antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation against TCA-exposed in rats with comparison to those of TCA exposed and control rats. According to the results, both TCA and TCA + plants infusions caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT and CPK activity. Non-enzymic antioxidant GSH level significantly increased in the brain whereas reduced in the erythrocytes and kidney of TCA + FV and TCA + SO as compared to TCA group and control. While MDA content slightly increased in tissues of TCA group in comparison to those of control, significantly

  13. The Changes of Volatile Components in Foeniculum vulgare Mill During Storage%小茴香储存过程中挥发性成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 钟永科; 李明明; 范会

    2016-01-01

    The changes of volatile components in Foeniculum vulgare Mill during 12 months'storage are analyzed and discussed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)coupled to solid phase microextraction (SPME).It is found that besides the main ingredients trans-anethole and estragole (the relative total content is 72.2%,85.49%,93.06%,95.89%,90.13% in the origin and 3,6,9,12 months'storage respectively),the content of others changes significantly.The relative content of anisealdehyde increases to 6.1% from 0.47% after the storage of 12 months.The relative content of linalool reduces to 0.28% from 9.72% at the time of 6 months'storage.With the same storage time,the relative total content of terpenoids reduces to 2.5 1% from 14.87% (the main ingredient limonene reduces to 1.52% from 7.98%).Besides,small amount of esters (at the medium of storage),acids and alcohols (at the end of storage)is also detected in the storage.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用技术,测定了储存12个月的小茴香挥发性成分,探讨了其储存中挥发性成分的相对含量变化。结果发现:小茴香储存中除主要成分反式茴香脑和爱草脑的含量相对稳定外(在储存初始及3,6,9,12个月的总含量分别是72.2%,85.49%,93.06%,95.89%,90.13%),其他成分含量变化较大,其中,茴香醛含量增加,由起初的0.47%不断增加到6.1%;芳樟醇和萜类成分含量减小,且都在储存前半期,芳樟醇由初期的9.72%减少到0.28%,而萜类成分个数由14个减少到10个,总含量也由14.87%减少到2.51%(主要成分柠檬烯由初期的7.98%减少到1.52%)。此外,小茴香在储存中期还有少量酯类产生,尾期主要是酸类和醇类,它们的含量均不高。

  14. Larvicidal, Repellent and Irritant Potential of the Seed-derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L., the primary carrier for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures; the eco-friendly, bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens; was investigated for anti-mosquito potential against Ae. aegypti. Evaluation of larvicidal potential of celery seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti resulted in LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 ppm and 29.08 ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24 h; the toxic effect of the oil increasing by 1.2 fold with an LC50 value of 13.22 ppm after an exposure to 48h. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause rapid mortality, suggesting a delayed type of larval killing effect. The remarkable finding of the present study was effective repellency of the essential oil leading to 100% protection till 165 min as compared to control that did not show any repellency against mosquitoes. Only 1 bite was recorded in the 165th minute after which only 2 bites were scored until 180 min of exposure of the oil to the adult mosquitoes. An exciting observation was the knocked-down of mosquitoes caused by the exposure to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The exposure to 1% oil resulted in first flight only after 4 sec and a total of 63.66 average flights during 15 min exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97.The qualitative phytochemical study of the oil showed the presence of terpenoids, lactones and flavonoids as the major constituents suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Present investigations proved celery seed essential oil to be an efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms and the

  15. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC50=25.6μL·L(-1)), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC50=49.8μL·L(-1)) and A. citriodora (LC50=65.6μL·L(-1)), while the other essential oils showed LC50 values higher than 90μL·L(-1). The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC50=18.3μL·L(-1)). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC50 (72.5μL·L(-1)) higher than the LC50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito larvicides.

  16. 茴香提取液对地塞米松诱导大鼠胰岛素抵抗的影响%Foeniculum vulgare extract reduces dexamethasoneinduced insulin resistance in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩冰; 黄彦峰; 黄丽娟; 何显教; 晋玲; 赵善民

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact oifoeniculum vulgare extract on dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance (IR) in rats.METHODS: Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, model group, metformin group, low- and high-dose foeniculutn vulgare extract groups. Except for the normal control group, the remaining groups were intramuscularly given dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) every other day. The normal control group and model group were intragastrically given saline solution, while the metformin group and low- and high-dose foeniculum vulgare extract groups were intragastrically given metformin (40 g/L) and 300 and 600 g/L oifoeniculumvulgare extract once a day, respectively. After 15 days of drug use, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (FINS) were determined, and glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The OGTT120' recovery percentage, insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated.RESULTS: The metformin group, low- and high-dose foeniculum vulgare groups and normal control group had comparable FBG and OGTT120' recovery percentage. FBG was significantly lower and the OGTT120' recovery percentage was significantly higher in the three treatment groups than in the model group (all P < 0.05 or 0.01). FINS in the three treatment groups was significantly higher than that in the normal control group but lower than that in the model group (all P < 0.05 or 0.01). ISI in the three treatment groups was significantly lower than that in the normal control group but higher than that in the model group (all P < 0.01). HOMA-IR in the three treatment groups was significantly lower than that in the model group (all P < 0.01). The low-dose foeniculum vulgare group had significantly lower ISI than the high-dose group (P < 0.05). As foeniculum vulgare dosage increased, FBG, OGTT120', FINS, ISI and HOMA-IR were closer to levels in the normal control group.CONCLUSION: Foeniculum vulgare can enhance the sensitivity of

  17. Chemical components of volatile oil in roots of Foeniculum vulgare mill from different habitats by GC-MS%不同产地茴香根皮挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤凤; 美丽万·阿不都热依木; 周静

    2014-01-01

    To analyze and compare the chemical components of the volatile oil in roots of Foeniculum vul-gare mill from ten different habitats. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation. The components of volatile oil were separated and analyzed by GC-MS. The relative content of each constituent was calculated by normalization. Result showed that twenty-six components in the volatile oil of roots of Foeniculum vul-gare mill from ten different habitats were identified. 13,7,11,10,14,11,14,11,10,10 components were identified from Xiaoerbage,Lawati,Tacheng,Bageqi,Shufu,Lasikui,Manglai,Yili,Moyu,Buzhake of Xin-jiang. Dill Apiol and 1,3-benzodioxole,4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-and 1,3-benzodioxole,4-me-thoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-are its common and main ingredients,which account for 90. 81% ~96. 18% and 0. 54% ~2. 76% and 0. 10% ~3. 33% of the total oils.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取10个不同产地小茴香根挥发油,运用气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)进行化学成分分析,面积归一化法测定各成分的相对百分含量。结果表明,从10个不同产地的茴香根挥发油中共鉴定出26个成分,其中肖尔巴格乡、阿瓦提乡、塔城、巴格其镇、疏附县、拉丝奎镇、芒来乡、伊犁、墨玉县、布扎克乡分别鉴定出了13、7、11、10、14、11、14、11、10、10个成分,其中莳萝芹菜脑、洋芹脑和肉豆蔻醚是它们的共有成分和主要成分,莳萝芹菜脑占挥发油总量的90.81%~96.18%,洋芹脑占挥发油总量的0.54%~2.76%,肉豆蔻醚占挥发油总量的0.10%~3.33%。

  18. Study on preventive effect of volatile oil extracted from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds on postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions%小茴香挥发油对术后腹腔黏连的预防作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光寿; 王成果; 毛峰峰; 张琰; 刘兴友; 杨鹏; 石磊; 刘曼玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the preventive effect of volatile oil extracted from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds on the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion. Methods Thirty-eihgt SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (10), operation group (14) and volatile oil treated group (14):sham operation group was only operated by abdominal incision, the rest two groups were established animal model of abdominal adhesion by rubbing the procussus vermiformis of cecum with dry sterile gauze, clamping and scuffing abdominal wall. Half of rats were separately killed on day 7 and day 14 after surgery, respectively.The degree of adhesion was evaluated according to Phillips 5-scale grade and the feature of this model. Results The scores of intra-abdominal adhesion were significantly lower in the carbachol group than those in operation group both on 7 d and 14 d(P<0.01 ). Conclusion Volatile oil extracted from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds may take a significant role in the prevention of postoperative abdominal adhesion in rats.%目的 探讨小茴香挥发油对术后腹腔黏连的预防作用.方法 将38只雄性SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为假手术组(10只)、手术对照组(14只)及小茴香挥发油组(14只).假手术组只开腹,后两组开腹后无菌干纱布摩擦大鼠盲肠蚓突部,以钳夹和刮伤腹壁法制作大鼠腹腔黏连动物模型.各组于术后第7 d、14 d各处死一半动物,参考Phillips 5级分类法并结合本模型特点进行大体黏连程度分级评分.结果 小茴香挥发油组第7 d、14 d大体黏连程度评分均明显低于手术对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 小茴香挥发油可预防大鼠腹腔黏连形成.

  19. Analysis on Content and Composition of Essential Oil in Different Month of Growth in Pelargonium graveolens%不同月份香叶天竺葵精油的含有率与成分变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2006-01-01

    对生长在上海地区的香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L.)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在1月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  20. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase mechanism-based inactivation by psoralen derivatives: cloning and characterization of a C4H from a psoralen producing plant-Ruta graveolens-exhibiting low sensitivity to psoralen inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravot, Antoine; Larbat, Romain; Hehn, Alain; Lièvre, Karine; Gontier, Eric; Goergen, Jean Louis; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) complete cDNA was cloned from the leaves of Ruta graveolens, a psoralen producing plant. The recombinant enzyme (classified CYP73A32) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mechanism-based inactivation was investigated using various psoralen derivatives. Only psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were found to inactivate C4H. The inactivation was dependent on the presence of NADPH, time of pre-incubation, and inhibitor concentration. Inactivation stoichiometry was 0.9 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A1 and 1.1 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A32. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that [3H]psoralen was irreversibly bound to the C4H apoprotein. K(i) and k(inact) for psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen inactivation on the two C4H revealed a lower sensitivity for CYP73A32 compared to CYP73A1. Inactivation kinetics were also determined for CYP73A10, a C4H from another furocoumarin-producing plant, Petroselinum crispum. This enzyme was found to behave like CYP73A32, with a weak sensitivity to psoralen and 8-MOP inactivation. Cinnamic acid hydroxylation is a key step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds, psoralen derivatives included. Our results suggest a possible evolution of R. graveolens and P. crispum C4H that might tolerate substantial levels of psoralen derivatives in the cytoplasmic compartment without a depletive effect on C4H and the general phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  1. Karyotype analysis for pollen mother cells meiosis diakinesis of Apium graveolens L.%中国芹花粉母细胞减数分裂终变期的核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 张蜀宁; 郑金双; 刘惠吉; 侯喜林

    2011-01-01

    Using flower buds, karyotype analysis of Apium graveolens L during meiosis diakinesis in pollen mother cells was conducted,compared with chromosome karyotypc of root tip,and the best way to obtain diakinesis chromosomes was discussed. The results were the same: karyotype formula of Apium graveolens L. was K (2n) = 2x = 22 = 6m+2sm+8st+6t, both of which had 3 pairs of metacentric chromosomes (5,7,9), 1 pair of submetacentric chromosomes(6) ,4 pairs of with acrocentric chromosomes (2,3,8, 11 ) and 3 pairs of telocentric chromosomes(1,4,10). Relative length was 2n = 2S+2M 1 +6 M2 + 1 L, belonging to 3 B type.%以中国芹品种铁杆芹花蕾为材料.选取花粉母细胞减数分裂终变期进行染色体核型分析,将其与根尖染色体核型进行比较研究,并探讨了获得终变期分裂相的最佳制片方法.结果表明:二者核型公式均为K(2n)=2x=22=6m+2sm+8st+6t,其中第5、7、9对为中部着丝粒染色体,第6对为亚中部着丝粒染色体,第2、3、8、11对为近端部着丝粒染色体,第1、4、10对为端部着丝粒染色体,其染色体相对长度组成为2n=2S+2M1+6M2+1L,染色体核型为3B型.

  2. 不同倍性种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Ploidy Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the aroma characteristics of essential oils of different ploidy seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens,oils from tissue-cultured seedlings with normal and doubling chromosomes were analyzed by gas chromatography,respectively.It was shown that the aroma chemical constituents from two different seedlings were identical but differed in amounts.The contents of geraniol and iso-menthone were higher in polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings,while the contents of citronellol,citronellyl formate and citronellyl acetate were higher in normal tissue-cultured seedlings.The main constituents are citronellol 30.83 %-38.25 %,geraniol 5.30 %-9.72 %,and β-gurjunene 3.71 %-5.50 %,for normal tissue-cultured seedlings ; citronellol 26.1%-38.8%,geraniol 5.94%-14.81%,and β-gurjunene 3.21%-6.16%,for polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings.%以香叶天竺葵的不同倍性组培苗为研究材料,对不同采样时间的香叶油进行气相色谱分析,比较其香气特征.结果表明:常规组培苗和染色体加倍苗的香叶油的化学成分相同,且各个成分含量随月份变化的规律一致,但在各成分的含量上有差异.多倍体组培苗香叶油中香叶醇、异薄荷酮的含量较高,而常规组培苗香叶油中香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、乙酸香茅酯的含量较高.常规组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇30.83%~38.25%、香叶醇5.30%~9.72%、β-古芸烯3.71%~5.50%,多倍体组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇26.1%~38.8%、香叶醇5.94%~14.81%、β-古芸烯3.21%~6.16%.

  3. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  4. 和田茴香籽中黄酮类化合物提取工艺研究%Optimization of the extration of technology of the flavonoids from the seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Hotan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛居代·亚尔买买提; 朱江梅; 原慧; 布海力期木·伊米提

    2011-01-01

    采用正交设计法对新疆和田茴香籽中的黄酮类化合物提取工艺参数进行优化.结果表明:最佳提取工艺为70 ml 60%乙醇在70℃下提取2.5h.本实验采用分光光度法,以芦丁标准品测定新疆和田茴香籽提取物中总黄酮的含量,总黄酮含量为1.58%.该工艺稳定、简便、快速,可作为检测茴香籽提取物中黄酮含量的一种手段.%To optimize the parameters of the flavonoids from seeds of fennel by orthogonal design. The optimum extraction technology was 70℃and60%ethanol70 ml, extract time 2. 5 h. The total flavonoids contents are assayed by using spectroscopic methods with rutin as standard. The flvonoids content is 1. 58% at the optimum condition. This extraction technology is stable, repid, reproducible and suitable for the determination of total flavonoids in seeds of foeniculum vulgare mill.

  5. 比较研究新疆小茴香不同溶剂提取物的抗氧化活性%Comparison of antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill from Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 殷超; 彭秧

    2012-01-01

    研究新疆小茴香4种不同溶剂萃取物的抗氧化活性.采用DPPH、ABTS和还原能力法评估不同萃取物的抗氧化活性,并测定了萃取物中的总酚和总黄酮的含量.结果表明,各样品具有不同程度的抗氧化能力,甲醇萃取物的抗氧化活性显著强于其他溶剂萃取物.小茴香抗氧化活性的主要物质为酚类化合物,与其总黄酮的含量并没有明显的关联.%The antioxidant activity of four different solvent extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were determined by three different test systems, DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assay. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids of different extracts were also tested. The result shows that samples had different antioxidant ability; the antioxidant of methanol extract was significantly higher than those of the others. The main substances of antioxidant activities of F. vulgare Mill is phenolic compounds, and had no obvious correlation with the quantity of total flavonoids of extracts.

  6. 芹菜黄酮合成酶Ⅰ基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of flavone synthase I gene in Apium graveo-lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸云; 王枫; 徐志胜; 谭国飞; 李梦瑶; 熊爱生

    2014-01-01

    The flavone synthase I gene (AgFS I), the key gene for flavonoids synthesis, was cloned from Apium graveolens cultivars Liuhehuangxinqin, Jinnanshiqin and Meiguoxiqin, respectively. The length of AgFS I gene was 1 616 bp, containing 359-bp intronⅠ and 190-bp intronⅡ. The AgFS I gene encodes 355 amino acids, belonging to the 20G-FeII Oxy superfamily. There were differences in 5 nucleotide sites and 5 amino acid sites among the three cultivars of Api-um graveolens. Multiple sequence alignment of AgFS Is with FSIs from other plants showed that FSⅠs were highly conser-vative. Phylogenetic tree revealed the AgFS Is had the closest relationship to Daucus carota and Cuminum cyminum, which belong to the Apiaceae. Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that AgFS I belong to the hydrophobic protein. The AgFS Is from three cultivars of Apium graveolens are similar in three dimentional structure.%选用3个芹菜材料六合黄心芹、津南实芹和美国西芹,分别从中克隆了合成黄酮类化合物的关键酶基因---芹菜黄酮合成酶I基因( AgFS I)。该基因全长均为1616 bp,含有359 bp的内含子I和190 bp的内含子II。芹菜AgFS I基因编码355个氨基酸,属于20G-FeII Oxy超级家族。序列分析结果显示,3种芹菜中AgFS I基因在核苷酸水平上有5个碱基的差异,编码的氨基酸有5个位点的差异。芹菜黄酮合成酶I( AgFS I)与其他来源植物的FSI氨基酸多重序列比对分析结果表明,该酶具有高度保守性。对AgFS I进行进化树分析,氨基酸序列的疏水性/亲水性分析,三级结构预测与分析,结果显示AgFS I与同属于伞形科的胡萝卜和孜然芹的FSI进化关系最近, AgFS I属于疏水性蛋白质,3种芹菜AgFS I的空间结构相似。

  7. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1beta through suppression of NF-kappaB activation by 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Shrivastava, Anju; Das, Hasi Rani

    2007-03-29

    The Ruta graveolens L. plant is used in traditional medicine to treat a large number of diseases. The methanol (50%) extract of the whole plant was observed to inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells (J774A.1, [Raghav, S.K., Gupta, B., Agrawal, C., Goswami, K., Das, H.R., 2006b. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 234-239]). The effect of whole plant extract on the expression of other pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB) were investigated in LPS stimulated macrophage cells. An active compound was isolated from this methanol extract by further solvent fractionation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The purified compound was identified as 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin having IUPAC nomenclature of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-methyl but-3-en-2yl)-2H-chromen-2-one by ESI-MS, MALDI, FT-IR and NMR. Effect of this purified compound was assessed on iNOS, COX-2 and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and was observed to inhibit both the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1beta in LPS challenged macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analyses indicated that the plant extract and the isolated active compound blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB through the prevention of inhibitor-kB (IkB) degradation. The purified compound also showed the anti-oxidant activity. The active compound at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was observed to inhibit the iNOS and IL-1beta gene expression significantly in endotoxin-induced inflammatory model of BALB/c mice. The low level of nitric oxide production was also observed in the sera of compound treated mice

  8. Determination of Luteolin and Apigenin in Apium graveolen L. by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定旱芹中木犀草素和旱芹素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 孙莲; 孟磊

    2014-01-01

    建立HPLC法同时测定旱芹中木犀草素和旱芹素含量的方法。采用C18(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)柱,流动相为乙腈∶0.01 mol/L醋酸铵(pH=4.8)=40∶60,等强度洗脱,检测波长330 nm,柱温25℃,流速1.0 mL/min。木犀草素和旱芹素的质量浓度分别在0.93μg/mL~4.94μg/mL(r=0.9991)及1.03μg/mL~5.06μg/mL(r=0.9994)范围内与峰面积呈现良好的线性关系,平均加样回收率依次为99.7%(RSD为2.4%),99.0%(RSD为1.8%)。%To establish a method for simultaneous determination of Luteolin and Apigenin in Apium graveolen L. by HPLC. The sepration was performed on an C18 column with acetonitrile 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH=4.8)=60∶40 as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 330 nm at 25℃. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentrations and the peak areas of luteolin and apigenin in the ranges of 0.93μg/mL-4.94μg/mL(r=0.999 1)and 1.03μg/mL-5.06μg/mL (r=0.999 4) respectively. The average recoveries were 99.7%with RSD 2.4%and 99.0%with RSD 1.8%respectively. The method was quick,simple and repeatable for the determination of Luteolin and Apigenin in Apium graveolen L.

  9. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Ruta graveolens L. sob influência de fenantreno e benzo[a]pireno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomara Dias da Costa Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A exposição a contaminantes orgânicos como os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem atraído considerável atenção devido aos efeitos dessas substâncias sobre a saúde humana, o ambiente e o desenvolvimento vegetal. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do fenantreno e do benzo[a]pireno sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal in vitro de R. graveolens. Sementes comerciais descontaminadas foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio com meio MS suplementado com 0 (controle; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e 0 (controle; 0,001; 0,01 e 0,1 mg L-1 de benzo[a]pireno. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sementes germinadas, o índice de velocidade de germinação e a entropia. Após dois meses, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e radicular e contabilizou-se o número de folhas desenvolvidas. Durante o primeiro mês, a presença do fenantreno não alterou o processo germinativo, enquanto que o benzo[a]pireno na concentração de 0,01 mg L-1 proporcionou aumento significativo da germinação (p≤0,05. Durante o segundo mês, as concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e de 0,001 mg L-1 benzo[a]pireno resultaram em desenvolvimento radicular significativamente superior. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas quanto à fitomassa, ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e número de folhas por plântulas. Tais resultados sugerem potencial para o cultivo de R. graveolens em áreas contaminadas, nos níveis investigados.

  10. 维药小茴香根皮乙酸乙酯部位化学成分研究%study on chemical constituents of ethyl acetate portion of roots of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤凤; 美丽万·阿不都热依木

    2014-01-01

    To study on chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extract part of roots of FOeNiculum vulGare Mill. Ethyl acetate extract part were isolated and pured by silica gel column chromatography,Sephadex LH-20 and recrystallization,their chemical structures were elucidated by spectral data analysis( 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR). Result showed that five compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract part,they were identified as dillapiol(1),butyl isobutyl phthalate(2),3R,8S 9Z-falcarindiol(3),β-sitosterol(4), linoleic acid( 5 ). This research provides basic understanding about the medicinal values of F. vulGare roots.%采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20和重结晶等分离手段对维药小茴香根皮中乙酸乙酯提取部分进行分离纯化,通过1 H NMR、13 C NMR进行结构鉴定。结果表明,从乙酸乙酯提取部分分离5个化合物,分别鉴定为莳萝脑(1)、邻苯二甲酸丁基异丁基二酯(2)、镰叶芹二醇(3)、β-谷甾醇(4)、甘油酸(5)。该研究为了解维药茴香根皮的药用价值提供了研究基础。

  11. Fumigant Activities of Essential Oil from Foeniculum vulgare against Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) Adults at Different Temperatures%温度对小茴香精油熏杀谷蠹成虫活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍章; 李世广; 王小云

    2011-01-01

    采用滤纸栽药熏蒸法,测试了不同温度处理条件下小茴香精油在空仓和实仓两种模拟条件下对谷蠹成虫的熏杀活性.结果表明,小茴香精油在空仓模拟条件下对谷蠹成虫的熏杀活性好于实仓.在30℃条件下,小茴香精油6.67 μL/L空仓处理试虫48 h、100.00 μL/L实仓处理谷蠹成虫7d,试虫的校正死亡率均为100%.此外,小茴香精油对谷蠹子代种群也具有较强的控制作用.%The fumigant activities of essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare seeds against adults of Rhizopertha dominie a (Fab.) were tested by drug-paper method in simulation warehouses. When the pests were not fed with wheat kernels, the F. vulgare essential oil showed better fumigant activities than those fed with wheat kernels. When the non-fed pests were exposure by drug vapor with 6.67 μL/L for 48 h and pests fed with wheat were exposure by drug vapor with 100.00 μL/L for 7 d at 30 t, the corrected mortalities of R. dominica were both 100%. Furthermore, the F. vulgare essential oil could effectively restrain the R. dominica of next generation.

  12. Determination of 20 elements in Foeniculum vulgare Mill by microwave digestion and ICP-AES%微波辅助消解ICP-AES法测定小茴香中20种元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕芹; 刘红

    2014-01-01

    采用微波消解法处理小茴香样品,电感耦合等离子体发射光谱( ICP-AES)测定其中Na、K、Sr、Ca、Mg、P、As、Zn、Pb、Co、Cd、Ni、Ba、Fe、Mn、Cr、Cu、Al、Ti 和 B 20种常量和微量元素的含量。20种元素的检出限为0.00002~0.00468μg·mL-1,回收率为89.50%~107.89%,相对标准偏差( RSD)均小6%。结果显示,小茴香果实及其嫩叶中除含有人体必需的常量元素K,Na,Ca,Mg,P外,还含有Fe、Zn、Mn、Cr、Co等必需的微量元素和其他元素Ti、B、Ni、Al、Sr、Ba等。%The contents of 20 elements of Na,K,Sr,Ca,Mg,P,As,Zn,Pb,Co,Cd,Ni,Ba,Fe,Mn,Cr,Cu,Al,Ti and B in Foenicu-lum vulgare Mill were determined by ICP-AES,and the samples were pretreated by microwave digestion method. The detection limits were 0. 00002~0. 00468 μg·mL-1 ,and the recovery rates were 89. 50% ~107. 89%,the precisions were less than 6%. Five mac-roelements,K,Na,Ca,Mg and P,five essential microelements,Fe,Zn,Mn,Cr and Co,and seven other elements,Ti,B,Ni,Al,Sr and Ba were detected in all samples.

  13. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  14. Analysis on changes of chemical compounds in different samples of fried Foeniculum vulgare%民族药小茴香炮制前后化学成分的变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李臻; 田树革; 马丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the changes of chemical compounds in fried Foeniculum vulgare. Method: Cleaned F. vulgare were fried with honey, Pharbitis nil, salt solution, vinegar, wine and bran, respectively, according to different Chinese medicine frying theories. Different volatile ingredints were extracted from fried products, and their contents and physical constants were detected.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for analyzing the changes of chemical compounds in different samplesof fried F. vulgare. Result: The experimental results showed that the content of volatile oil in F. vulgare decreased after been fried.Among these effective ingredients in fried samples, trans-anethole was the ingredient of the maximum content, and the contents of all twenty-four ingredinets had changed. Furthermore, other eighteen compounds were created; Among them, linalylacetate, farnesene,p-allyiphenyl aromatic oxide, menthone, and hexyl octanoate were detected firstly in F. vulgare. Conclusion: GC-MS is effective to fleetly analyse the frying changes of herbs flectly.%目的:研究小茴香经不同方法炮制后化学成分的动态变化.方法:应用不同炮制原理对净制后的小茴香分别进行蜜制、黑牵牛制、"四"制和麸制,使用标准挥发油提取器提取炮制品中挥发油成分,检测其含量和物理常数,并利用毛细管气相色谱-电子轰击质谱联用仪对其进行分析.结果:小茴香经不同辅料炮制后挥发油含量显著降低;炮制前后反式-茴香脑含量均最高,生品中24种化合物经不同方法炮制后含量均发生了变化,且发生了转化,共新产生了18种化合物,其中乙酸里那酯、法尼烯、对-烯苯基芳香醚、薄荷酮和辛酸己酯为首次在小茴香药材中检测到.结论:扩展了气相色谱-质谱联用技术的应用范围,适用于对药材炮制变化的快速分析.

  15. The Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil in Pelargonium graveolens Polyloid Seedlings%香叶天竺葵多倍体精油的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰

    2014-01-01

    探讨香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L‘He’rit)染染色体加倍后精油的香气特征,为香叶新品种选育提供理论基础.对香叶天竺葵扦插苗、组培苗和多倍苗的香叶油进行GC-9A分析,并与玫瑰香叶油、法国波尔蓬香叶油的主成分进行对比.这5种油的化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异.组培苗及多倍苗香叶油中香叶醇、甲酸香叶酯、芳樟醇的含量显著提高,而香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、玫瑰醚的含量有所下降.其中,多倍苗香叶油含:香茅醇26.1%,香叶醇14.81%,p-古芸烯4.77%,这3个主香成分接近法国波尔蓬香叶油中的含量.香叶天竺葵染色体加倍后能改善其精油的品质,其精油中香茅醇、香叶醇的含量更接近法国波尔蓬等国外香叶油中的含量.

  16. Extraction of the Volatile Compounds in Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Extraction Coupled with Solid-phase Extraction%小茴香中挥发性成分的超声雾化-固相萃取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于翠; 杨金娟; 魏洪敏; 师宇华

    2015-01-01

    利用超声雾化-固相萃取法萃取,气相色谱法和气相色谱-质谱法测定了小茴香中的挥发油.采用正十四烷作为洗脱溶剂,体积为50μL、吹扫气流速为200 mL/min,吹扫时间为5 min.利用优化后的方法测定了小茴香中挥发性成分的种类和含量,与水蒸馏提取法所得结果相似.测定样品溶液中挥发性成分的回收率为65.8%~102.0%,相对标准偏差小于8.0%.%The ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction ( UNE-SPE) followed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and applied to extract and determine the vol-atile compounds from foeniculum vulgare mill.Experimental parameters, including the kind of extraction solvent ( n-tetradecane), solvent volume (50μL), flow rate of purging gas (200 mL/min) and purging time (5 min), were ex-amined and optimized.The contents of the constituents from foeniculum vulgare mill obtained by the proposed method were closed to those obtained by hydro-distillation ( HD) .The recoveries for determining the four constituents are be-tween 65.8%~102.0%and RSDs are less than 8.0%.

  17. Burdur İli Anason (Pimpinella anisum L., Kişniş (Coriandrum sativum L. ve Rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Agro-Ekosistemlerinde Böcek Biyolojik Çeşitliliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan AYDIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Burdur ilinde kültürü yapılan önemli tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerden pestisit uygulaması yapılmayan ve periyodik olarak münavebe yöntemi uygulanan anason (Pimpinella anisum L., kişniş (Coriandrum sativum L. ve rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. agro-ekosistemlerinde böcek biyolojik çeşitliliklerinin araştırılması amacı ile böcek aktivitesinin yoğun olduğu 2009 yılı nisan ve eylül ayları arasında yapılmıştır. Çukur tuzak örnekleme yönteminin uygulandığı habitatlardaki böcek biyolojik çeşitlilik değerleri Shannon-Wiener ve Simpson çeşitlilik, Simpson dominantlık, Shannon Populasyon yoğunluk ilişkisi parametreleri kullanılarak hesaplanmıştır. Buna göre hesaplanan biyolojik çeşitlilik indekslerinde rezene agro-ekosisteminde hem Shannon-Wiener hem de Simpson çeşitlilik indeks değerleri sırası ile 2.5838 ve 0.8742 ile diğer agro-ekosistemlere göre en yüksek bulunmuştur. Simpson dominantlık parametre sonucuna göre ise 0.2025 değeri ile kişniş agro-ekosistemi, anason ve rezene agro-ekosistemlerine göre dominantlığın en yüksek olduğu tarım alanı olarak belirlenmiştir. Habitatlardaki populasyon yoğunluk ilişkisi incelendiğinde Shannon Evenness değeri anason agro-ekosisteminde en dengeli olarak bulunmuş ve 0.7333 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Bu sonuçlara göre pestisit uygulaması yapılmayan ve periyodik olarak münavebe yöntemi uygulanan agro-ekosistemlerdeki böcek türleri ve birey sayılarından elde edilen çeşitlilik değerlerinin doğal habitatlara benzerlik gösterdiği ortaya çıkartılmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler: Tür Zenginliği, Shannon-Wiener Çeşitlilik, Simpson Dominantlık, Populasyon Yoğunluk İlişkisi, Çukur Tuzak

  18. 2个芹菜品种泛变应原Api g 4基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of panallergen Api g 4 gene from two cultivars of Apium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦瑶; 王枫; 侯喜林; 蒋倩; 马静; 熊爱生

    2013-01-01

    从芹菜(Apium graveolens Linn.)品种‘津南实芹’(‘Jinnanshiqin’)和‘美国西芹’(‘Meiguoxiqin’)中分别克隆获得泛变应原基因Api g 4;2个品种的Api g4基因均包含1个长度为405 bp的开放阅读框,二者间有3个核苷酸位点的差异.2个品种的Api g4基因均能编码134个氨基酸,但二者编码的氨基酸序列有2个位点的差异.多重比对以及进化树分析结果均表明:2个芹菜品种Api g 4基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他植物的泛变应原氨基酸序列同源性较高,氨基酸序列高度保守;与同科植物欧芹[Petroselinum crispum (Miller) Nyman ex A.W.Hill]和胡萝卜(Daucus carota Linn.)的泛变应原氨基酸序列的同源性均达到90%以上,在进化树上也归为同一支.2个品种的泛变应原Api g 4均为疏水性蛋白,具有相似的三维空间结构,均包含3个α螺旋和7个β折叠.实时定量PCR分析结果显示:Api g 4基因在‘津南实芹’和‘美国西芹’根中的表达水平均最高,在茎和茎尖分生组织中的表达水平相对较低,在叶中的表达水平很弱,且2个品种间同一组织的Api g4基因表达水平也有差异,表明Api g 4基因的表达具有明显的组织特异性.

  19. 维药小茴香抗肝纤维化作用及对TGF-β/smad信号转导通路的影响%Effects of foeniculum vulgare mill of anti liver ifbrosis on TGF-β/smad signal pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽高; 肖琳; 詹欣宇; 银皓; 鲁晓擘; 张跃新

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨小茴香提取物抗肝纤维化的作用及其对TGF-β/smad信号转导通路和肝星状细胞活化的影响。方法选择44只SD大鼠给予40%四氯化碳(CCl4)橄榄油溶液4 ml/(kg·体重)皮下注射5周制备肝纤维化模型,成模后随机分成治疗组和模型对照组,同时取6只正常大鼠做空白对照。治疗组给予小茴香提取物灌胃,模型对照组给予生理盐水灌胃,4周末处死大鼠检测血清ALT、AST、HA、LN,肝石蜡切片行Masson染色和抗α平滑肌动蛋白(α-SMA)、TGF-β受体Ⅰ型(TGF-βRⅠ)、TGF-β1免疫组织化学染色,反转录实时荧光定量PCR分析肝组织TGF-β1、smad2 mRNA相对内参基因甘油醛-3-磷酸脱氢酶(GAPDH)的表达量。结果小茴香提取物治疗组血清ALT、AST、HA水平,肝组织内胶原纤维含量、α-SMA、TGF-βRⅠ、TGF-β1表达以及TGF-β1、smad2 mRNA相对表达量均明显低于模型对照组。结论小茴香提取物可通过抑制TGF-β/smad信号转导通路抑制肝星状细胞活化,从而减轻大鼠肝纤维化。%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill in liver ifbrosis rats, and to investigate how it work on TGF-β/smad signal pathways and hepatic stellate cell activation. Methods Total of fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:a blank control group (BC group, 6 rats), a hepatic ifbrosis model control group (HFC group, 22 rats), a foeniculum vulgare mill treatment group (FVMT group, 22 rats). Forty-four rats of HFC group and FVMT group were given 40%CCl4 olive oil mixture by subcutaneous injection to make hepatic ifbrosis models for 5 weeks. Rats in FVMT group were given FVMT by intragastric administration, while rats in HFC group were treated with saline for weeks and then were sacriifced. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) were detected. Histopathologic changes

  20. Aqueous two phase system and ultrasonic wave coextraction of total flavonoids from Foeniculum vulgare stems and study on its antioxidation efficacy%超声波协同双水相体系提取茴香茎中总黄酮及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾贵华; 王金辉; 任雪峰

    2012-01-01

    Uhrasonic extraction technology integrated with ethanol and ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase separation was used to extracl total flavnnoids from Foen,iculum vulgare stem. Based on single factor and orthogonal experiment, the optimum extracting conditions were as follows: 50% of ethanol, solid to liquid ratio of 1:15 and ultrasonic extracting for 20 rain. The order of factors to affect total flawmes extraction was: ethanol concentration〉ultrasonic time〉solid to liquid ratio. Determination showed thai ifs antioxidation efficacv was enhanced with the increasing of its concentration.%将超声波技术和双水相体系萃取技术综合应用于提取茴香茎中总黄酮。通过单因素试验和正交试验相结合,得出影响茴香茎中黄酮提取因素的主要次序为提取液浓度〉提取时间〉料液比。最佳提取工艺条件为乙醇体积分数50%、料液比1:15、超声时间20min。抗氧化能力检测表明,该提取物抗氧化性显著,且浓度越高,其抗氧化性越强。

  1. 铅处理对茴香植株生长及精油组分的影响%Effect of Pb on growth and essential oil components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳辉; 何金明; 潘春香; 张振明; 淡豫

    2014-01-01

    为了揭示铅对茴香(Foeniculum vulgare L.)生长和次生代谢产物-精油组分的影响及茴香植株对铅的吸收累积特性,本试验采用水培方法,在霍格兰营养液中加入铅,设计0(对照)、1 mg·L-1、5 mg·L-1、10 mg·L-1处理,研究了不同铅质量浓度对茴香植株生长、精油组分及茴香植株对铅吸收累积的影响。结果表明:不同铅质量浓度处理对茴香植株的形态、生物量、色素质量分数、碳和氮质量分数、铅的吸收累积及精油组分均有影响。随着铅质量浓度的增加,茴香植株的株高呈降低趋势,且各处理之间差异显著,真叶数大致也呈降低趋势,但仅10 mg·L-1处理显著低于对照,各处理的最大叶长差异均不显著,最大叶宽仅对照与5 mg·L-1处理之间差异显著。随着铅质量浓度的增加,地上部鲜质量和干质量均呈逐渐降低趋势,且铅处理后的地上部鲜质量和干质量均显著低于对照,地下部鲜质量和干质量呈逐渐升高趋势,但铅处理后的地下部鲜质量和干质量与对照差异均不显著,根冠比呈逐渐增加趋势,但仅10 mg·L-1处理显著高于对照。随着铅质量浓度的增加,叶绿素a、叶绿素b、叶绿素a+b和类胡萝卜素质量分数均呈降低趋势,且均低于对照,叶绿素a/叶绿素b以5 mg·L-1处理最高,但仅显著高于1 mg·L-1处理。铅处理后,可溶性蛋白质质量分数均高于对照,但仅1 mg·L-1处理和5 mg·L-1处理显著高于对照,全氮质量分数与可溶性蛋白质质量分数的变化趋势基本一致,但各处理之间差异均不显著;随铅质量浓度的增加,可溶性糖质量分数呈降低趋势,除1 mg·L-1处理显著高于对照外,其余铅处理均显著低于对照,各处理的全碳质量分数与对照差异均不显著。随铅质量浓度的增加,茴香植株对铅的吸收累积显著增加。不同铅质

  2. 两种天竺葵不同生长时期的精油含有率及成分研究%Monthly Variation of the Content and Composition of Essential Oils of Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium × fragrans in Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2007-01-01

    本文对生长在上海地区的香天竺葵(Pelargonium × fragrans)和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,香天竺葵在一月份精油含有率最低,七月份达到了最高点.其精油成分的含量在各个月份不稳定.香叶天竺葵精油成分在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在一月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  3. Comparison of Current Chemical and Stereochemical Tests for the Identification and Differentiation of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. (Geraniaceae Essential Oils: Analytical Data for (--(1S, 4R, 5S-Guaia-6,9-diene and (--(7R,10S-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.

  4. Determination of the contents of monosaccharide components in non-starch polysaccharides of aerial part of Apium graveolens L. By pre-column derivatization GC%柱前衍生化GC法测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮; 杨洋; 张琦; 霍鑫; 毕开顺; 贾英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish pre-column derivatization GC method for determination of monosaccharide component of non-starch polysaccharides of the aerial part of Apium graveolens L. Methods The derivatives were determined by GC and DB-17 column(30 m ×0. 25 mm,0. 25 μm)was used. The inlet temperature was maintained for 270 ℃. The column oven was begun at 180 ℃ ,then programmed from 180 ℃ to 225℃ at 3 ℃- min -1, hold for 2 min, then programmed from 225 ℃ to 260 ℃ at 6 ℃· min -1, and finally, hold for 7 min. Manner of sample injection was splitless. Detector temperature was maintained at 270 ℃. Sample amount was I. 0 μL. Results Seven monosaccharides L-( + )-rhamnose,L-( + )-arabinose,D-( + )-fucose, D-( + )-xylose,D-( + )-mannose,D-( + )-glucose and D-( + )-galactose were determined in INSP. Except D-( + )-fucose,other six monosaccharides were the same as from INSP in SNSP. Conclusions The method is accurate and reproducible,which is suitable for the determination of monosaccharide component in soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides in Apium graveolens L.%目的 建立测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量的柱前衍生化GC法.方法 非淀粉多糖经衍生化生成糖腈乙酯,采用GC法进行分析.色谱柱:DB-17柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm);柱温:程序升温;载气:N2;进样温度:270℃;进样方式:不分流;检测器温度:270℃;进样量:1.0μL.结果 水不溶性非淀粉多糖(insoluble non-starch polysaccharides,INSP)水解后得到7种单糖,分别是:L-(+)-鼠李糖、L-(+)-阿拉伯糖、D-(+)-岩藻糖、D-(+)-木糖、D-(+)-甘露糖、D-(+)-葡萄糖和D-(+)-半乳糖;水溶性非淀粉多糖(soluble non-starch polysaccharides,SNSP)水解后得到6种单糖,除无D-(+)-岩藻糖外,其余均同INSP水解后单糖.结论 本方法准确度高,重现性好,可用于测定旱芹水溶性和水不溶性非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分的含量.

  5. Umbelliferae Familyasından Bazı Önemli Kültür Türlerinin Isparta Ekolojik Koşullarında Tarımsal ve Teknolojik Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil KESKİN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anason (Pimpinella anisum L., dereotu (Anethum graveolens L., kimyon (Cuminum cyminum L., kişniş (Coriandrum sativum L., rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. dünyada ve ülkemizde kültürü yapılan çok değerli tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerdir. Bu araştırmada; anason, kimyon, kişniş, rezene ve dereotu türlerine ait çeşitlerin ve populasyonların Isparta ekolojik koşullarında bazı tarımsal ve teknolojik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi, uçucu yağ, sabit yağ ve petroselinik asit kaynağı olarak değerlendirme olanaklarının araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Tarla ve laboratuvar araştırmalarından elde edilen sonuçlara göre, en yüksek tohum verimi anasonda “Yeşilova” populasyonundan (47.01 kg/da, dereotunda “Akşehir” populasyonundan (77.75 kg/da, kimyonda “Egebir09” çeşidinden (97.00 kg/da, kişnişte “Erbaa” çeşidinden (82.85 kg/da ve rezenede “Denizli” populasyonundan (63.66 kg/da elde edilmiştir. En yüksek uçucu yağ oranı anasonda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%3.60, dereotunda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%3.73, kimyonda “Türkmen09” çeşidinde (%2.13, kişnişte “Gamze” çeşidinde (%0.47 ve rezenede “Burdur” populasyonunda (%3.13 tespit edilmiştir. En önemli ana uçucu yağ bileşeni anasonda trans-anetol (%95.56-95.88, dereotunda D-karvon (%37.87-67.76, kimyonda a-thujenal (%30.90-42.52, kişnişte linalool (%81.85-88.94 ve rezenede trans-anetol (%79.67-89.13 olarak bulunmuştur. En yüksek sabit yağ oranı anasonda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%30.17, dereotunda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%21.24, kimyonda “Egebir09” çeşidinde (%29.03, kişnişte “Erbaa” çeşidinde (%25.42 ve rezenede “Denizli” populasyonunda (%23.67 belirlenmiştir. En yüksek petroselinik asit oranı ise anasonda “Çardak” populasyonunda (%63.37, dereotunda “Burdur” populasyonunda (%87.28, kimyonda “Türkmen09” çeşidinde (%60.18, kişnişte “Erbaa” çeşidinde (%79.89 ve

  6. Efeito de sistemas de consórcio e inseticida na formação dos estômatos em plântulas de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Effects of intercropping systems and insecticide in formation of stomata in fennel seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill., pertencente à família Apiacea, é conhecida como erva-doce e apresenta grande importância medicinal e comercial, tanto no Brasil como em vários outros países. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa, estudar o desenvolvimento dos estômatos em plântulas de F. vulgare oriundas de sementes produzidas em sistemas de consórcio erva-doce X algodão e com aplicação do inseticida monocrotofós. A erva-doce foi cultivada em consórcio com algodão colorido cultivar BRS Safira, sendo utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: 1A2E, uma fileira de algodão e duas de erva-doce; 2A1E, duas fileiras de algodão e uma de erva-doce; ES, erva-doce solteira; onde foram distribuídos com e sem aplicação de inseticida, totalizando seis tratamentos. As sementes colhidas foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias. Partes das plântulas (zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e folhas foram seccionadas à mão livre, coradas e montadas em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: número de estômatos, diâmetro polar e equatorial dos estômatos e número de cloroplastos nas células-guarda. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 3X2; sendo realizado teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Na zona de transição e no caule observou-se aumento do número e do diâmetro polar dos estômatos quando foram utilizados sistemas de consórcio. Nos cotilédones, a erva-doce solteira proporcionou maior número de estômatos, porém com menor diâmetro e com menor quantidade de cloroplastos. Já na folha, os consórcios influenciaram positivamente o número de estômatos e de cloroplastos. De forma geral, os sistemas de consórcio e o inseticida influenciaram positivamente o desenvolvimento dos estômatos das plântulas de erva-doce.Foeniculum vulgare Mill., belonging to the family Apiaceae, is known as

  7. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  8. EFFECTS OF CO2 CONCENTRATION ON PLANT GROWTH, CONTENTS ANDCOMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE)%CO2浓度升高对茴香植株生长、精油含量和组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任安祥; 何金明; 肖艳辉; 王羽梅

    2008-01-01

    采用每日定时向密封人工气候室补充CO2的方法,研究了3种CO2浓度(平均浓度分别为287.11、532.88和780.46 μmol·mol-1)对茴香(Foeniculum vulgare)生长、精油含量和组分的影响.结果表明:随着CO2浓度的升高,茴香的株高、花序数、花序鲜重、花序干重、全株干重和植株的干物率均有所上升;植株可溶性糖和全碳含量不断升高,而全氮和蛋白氮含量不断减少;叶色素含量呈下降趋势,叶绿素a/b比的差异不显著;植株精油含量(分别为1.26、1.45和1.57ml·(100g)-1 DW)和单株精油产量(分别为0.019、0.023和0.033ml)均随之升高.从茴香植株的精油中鉴定出22种成分,用不同浓度的CO2处理,精油的成分种类没有差异,成分相对含量却有差别,差异达到极显著水平的有:α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、月桂烯、对聚伞花素、反式葑醇乙酸酯和顺式茴香脑;含量差异达到显著水平的有:香桧烯、水芹烯、罗勒烯、γ-萜品烯、3,4-二甲基.2,4,6-三烯、爱草脑、葑醇乙酸酯、古巴烯、金合欢烯和吉玛烯.茴香精油的主要成分反式茴香脑的含量(分别为55.94%、57.20%和59.55%)随着CO2浓度的升高而升高,而柠檬烯含量(29.60%、30.24%和26.12%)表现出相反的趋势,二者在不同的CO2浓度处理之间差异均不显著.

  9. 小茴香精油对肝纤维化大鼠抗氧化应激损伤作用的研究%Antioxidant effects of the Uygur herb, Foeniculum Vulgare Mill, in a rat model of hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽高; 鲁晓擘; 肖琳; 唐莉; 张丽娟; 张韬; 詹欣宇; 马秀敏; 张跃新

    2012-01-01

    .81,P=0.005),F组与D组比较差异有统计学意义(Z=-2.59P=0.015).结论 小茴香精油具有减轻肝脏炎症反应、防治肝纤维化进展的作用,其机制可能与抗氧化应激损伤有关.%Objective To evaluate therapeutic and antioxidant effects of Uygur Herb Foeniculum Vulgare Mill (FVM) in hepatic fibrosis rats.Method Hepatic fibrosis model was built in rats by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 olive oil mixture.At the same time the rats were given high lipoid-low protein animal feeds for 5 weeks.94 male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups:blank control group (A-group),8 rats were feed in normal; prevention model control group (B-group),10 rats were given saline solution by intragastric administration during make of hepatic fibrosis model; FVM prevention group (C-group),10 rats were given FVM by intragastric administration during make of hepatic fibrosis model; model control group (D-group),FVM treatment group (E-group); Fuzhenghuayu treatment group (F-group).22 rats in each D,E,F-group were respectively given saline solution,FVM and Fuzhenghuayu by intragastric administration after hepatic fibrosis model were built.At the 5-th weekend,A,B,C- group rats were sacrificed.At the 6-th,7-th,8-th,9-th weekend,4-6 rats in D,E,F-group were sacrificed.Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),hyaluronic acid (HA),laminin (LN) and 8 - hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were detected,liver tissue homogenate superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected.Histopathologic changes were observed after H.E and Masson staining.The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) were detected by immunohistochemical staining.The data were analyzed by SPSS17.0 software.Results The serum levels of ALT,AST,HA,and LN in the FVM prevention group were significantly reduced compared to the prevention model control group.(P < 0.05).Rats in FVM treatment group appeared a marked lower

  10. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  11. Direct somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Tabata, M

    1986-08-01

    Protoplasts prepared from an embryogenic cell suspension culture of fennel gave rise to somatic embryoids directly through unequal cell divisions of enlarged, ellipsoidal cells, when embedded in hormone-free LS agarose medium. On the other hand, protoplasts embedded in LS agarose medium containing 2,4-D and kinetin proliferated through unpolarized cell divisions to form calli, which gave somatic embryoids on the surface upon transfer onto the same medium. In either case, somatic embryoids germinated to develop into normal plantlets when cultured on hormone-free LS agar medium under illumination.

  12. 钾浓度对茴香植株生长发育、精油含量和组分的影响%The effect of potassium concentrations on growth, essential oil contents and components of fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金明; 肖艳辉; 王羽梅; 潘春香

    2013-01-01

      为了揭示钾浓度对植物生长发育和次生代谢产物——精油累积的影响特性及其内在关系,采用水培方法,以日本园试配方中钾含量为标准1K,设计1/8K、1/4K、1/2K、1K和2K处理,研究了不同钾浓度对茴香Foeniculum vulgare Mill.生长发育、精油含量和组分的影响。结果表明:不同钾浓度处理对植株形态(茴香分枝数、节数和花序数)、生物量(地上部鲜质量、全株鲜质量和全株干质量)、碳、氮含量(全氮、蛋白氮、全碳、可溶性糖、C/N)、精油含量、单株精油产量和色素含量(Chl.a、Chl.b、CAR.、Chl.a+b、Chl.a/b)影响显著,综合认为1K为利于茴香初生代谢产物累积(生长发育)的最佳处理,而1/4K、1/8K和1K为利于次生代谢产物累积(精油含量)的较好处理;相关分析表明,精油含量与全碳含量(r=0.72)、可溶性糖含量(r=0.70)成极显著正相关;单株精油产量与全氮含量(r=0.49)呈显著正相关。不同钾浓度处理茴香精油均鉴定出23种成分,其中17种成分的相对含量差异显著。精油第一主要成分反式-茴香脑含量为74.75%~79.15%,第二主要成分柠檬烯含量为8.25%~14.81%,第三主要成分莳萝芹菜脑相对含量2.04%~3.82%,处理间均差异显著。结论:钾浓度不但影响茴香的生长发育,还影响着茴香次生代谢产物精油的含量、产量和成分组成比例;适宜的钾浓度(1K)可以实现茴香初生代谢产物累积(生长发育)与次生代谢产物累积(精油产量)均高的结果。%The objective of this study was to reveal the response characteristics and the internal correlation of fennel plant growth and essential oil accumulation to potassium concentrations. Effect of different potassium concentrations to fennel plant growth, essential oil content and components was studied by using method of solution culture, and making

  13. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaquis, Pascal J; Stanich, Kareen; Girard, Benoit; Mazza, G

    2002-03-25

    Essential oils from dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.), cilantro (leaves of immature C. sativum L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) were separated into heterogeneous mixtures of components by fractional distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined for the crude oils and their fractions. Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes, likely due to the presence of long chain (C6-C10) alcohols and aldehydes. The strength and spectrum of inhibition for the fractions often exceeded those determined in the crude oils. Mixing of fractions resulted in additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual test microorganisms.

  14. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  15. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  16. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  17. The inhibitory effect of eupatorium japonicum thunb and foeniculum vulgare extract on prostatic hyperpla-sia in rats%泽兰与小茴香提取物抑制大鼠前列腺增生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐维; 代光成; 薛波新; 单玉喜; 张文芳

    2014-01-01

    能显著抑制大鼠前列腺增生,其作用机制在一定程度上与降低大鼠血清睾酮、双氢睾酮含量及睾酮/雌二醇值有关。%Objective Benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH) is one of common diseases in aged males , and searching for new therapeutic drugs to BPH has been a research hotspot in recent years .This article was to study the inhibitory effect of eupatorium ja-ponicum thunb and foeniculum vulgare extract ( EFE) on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats and its possible mechanism . Methods 48 male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups:normal control group without any treatment , model group of BPH treated with subcu-taneous injection of testosterone propionate , positive control group of BPH treated with dutasteride , high, middle and low dosage groups according to different EFE dosage (156 mg/kg, 234 mg/kg and 312 mg/kg).45 days after the treatment, the rats were sacrificed for measurement of the prostate glandular wet weight , the index of prostate gland ( PI ) , the morphological changes of prostate gland by light microscopy and the content of sex hormone . Results The prostate wet weight and PI decreased after EFE treatment for 45 days compared with the BPH model group(P<0.01 ).The hyperplastic glandular epithelium papilla waned and even disappeared in three EFE groups under the light microscope , and the epithelial cells became cubical or flat .High dosage EFE group (312 mg/kg) has simi-lar efficacy to dutasteride group .EFE significantly reduced serum testosterone content , dihydrotestosterone content and T/E2 ratio( P<0.05 ). Conclusion EFE can significantly inhibit prostatic hyperplasia in rats , and its mechanism is related to the decrease of the contents of serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone as well as T/E2 ratio.

  18. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  19. Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičius, Mantas; Akuņeca, Ieva; Jãkobsone, Ida; Maruška, Audrius

    2011-06-01

    Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants was carried out by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. Six spice plant samples, namely onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots and leaves, celery (Apium graveolens) roots and leaves and leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) were analyzed. Total amount of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity (RSA) was the highest in celery leaves and dill extracts and was the lowest in celery roots. Comparing commonly used spectrophotometric analysis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) RSA of extracts with the results obtained using reversed-phase chromatographic separation with on-line post-column radical scavenging reaction detection, good correlation was obtained (R(2)=0.848). Studies using HPLC system with electrochemical detector showed that bioactive phytochemicals can be separated and antioxidant activities of individual compounds evaluated without the need of a complex HPLC system with reaction detector. The results obtained using electrochemical detection correlate with the RSA assayed using spectrophotometric method (R(2)=0.893).

  20. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

  1. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  2. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  3. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity.

  4. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  6. 伞形科杀虫抑菌活性及其活性成分研究进展%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Umbelliferea Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娇; 张卫云; 周利娟

    2015-01-01

    对伞形科19个属:当归属(Angelica)、芹菜属(Aium)、阿魏属(Ferula)、独活属(Heracleum)、茴香属(Foeniculum)、茴芹属(Pimpinella)、柴胡属(Bupleurum)、蛇床属(Cnidium)、芹属(Prangos)、积雪草属(Centella、毒茴属(Conium)、芫荽属(Coriandrum)、石蛇床属(Petroselinum)、莳萝属(Anethum)、孜然芹属(Cuminum)、葛缕子属(Carum)、蔓芹属(Trachyspermum)、窃衣属(Torilis)和防风属(Saposhnikovia)中具有杀虫抑菌作用植物的生物活性及其活性成分的研究概况按属的顺序进行综述,为进一步将伞形科植物资源应用于植物源农药研究和开发利用提供理论参考.

  7. Exchangeable sodium induced changes in yield, water relation and cation composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Singh, P K; Pushpangadan, P

    2005-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with the objectives to assess the adaptation potential of fennel crop grown at 10, 20, 25, 35 and 40 ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) levels. Results showed that the rate of seed germination, plant growth including branching pattern, umbels per plant and 1000 test seed weight were adversely affected by sodic soils. Assuming that fifty percent reduction in seed yield and Na+/K+ ratio in leaf tissue as an index of alkali tolerance revealed that fennel was tolerant up to 25 ESP. The cell sap pH and EC reflected optimum osmoticum maintenance to withstand sodicity stress at this level and beyond this leaf water potential decreased (negatively) more to impede water uptake.

  8. Essential Oil Extraction of Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare Using Steam Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a potential country in developing essential oils which is each part of the plants produce essential oils such as leaf, seed, fruit, and root. One of the potential plants is fennel. Fennel oil distillation used fennel seed from Cepogo District, Boyolali Regency. The characteristics of the seed are; the color is black and the length is 0,2 centimeters. The condition operation to exctract of the fennel seed are 1 atm and 7,5 hours. The calculation of the time started when the first fennel oil dropped into the decanter. It finished when the fennel oil was not dropped anymore. The color is bright and muddy. The last process is add 1% (m/m Na2SO4 anhidrous into fennel oil to absorp remain water in it. The distillation process produce fennel oil102,125 grams. Sample of fennel oil tested which are density test, solubility on 90% alcohol, GC-MS test, and AAS test. The result shows that fennel oil from the fennel seed is 2,0425%. The tested samples contain the brightest and the muddies sample. The density of 0,9500 and 0,949 g/cc respectively that is not fulfill to  the Food Chemical Codex (FCC. Samples solubility in 90% alcohol (1:3 is fulfill to the the Food Chemical Codex (FCC.  Three main components of the brightest sample are anethole (47,51%, estragole (22,41%, and  α-fensone (21,92% while the muddiest sample’s components are anethole (52,38%, estragole (21,37%,and α-fensone (15,74%. The AAS test shows that fennel oil contains 65,1473 ppm which does not fulfill the Indonesian National Standards of  patchouli and clove leaf oil. [Keywords— essential oil; extraction; fennel seed; steam distillation

  9. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853).

  10. Effect of Freezing Stress on Electrolyte Leakage of Fennel Foeniculum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Nezami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigation of the effect of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of two fennel landraces that grown on the field, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2004. Treatments were two fennel landraces (Khorasan and Kerman, two planting dates and six temperatures (0,-3,-6,-9,-12,-15°C. Seedlings were selected in 4-6 leaf stage from the field and transferred to the laboratory and different organs of seedlings (root, leaf and crown were investigated for cytoplasmice membrane stability. Results indicated that electrolyte leakage percent of fennel landraces and those organs significantly affected by lowering temperature. LT50 in Kerman landrace was lower then Khorasan landrace and LT50 of second planting date was lower then first planting date in two landraces, and LT50 of crown was the lowest. According to the importance of the effect of cold injury on fennel, additional investigations are requested. Keywords: Planting dates, Landrace, Membrane stability, LT50

  11. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  12. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  13. Phytotoxicity and stimulatory impacts of nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Hassan; Kamali, Maryam; Jafari, Leila; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the this study was to compare concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L(-1) with bulk TiO2 for phytotoxic and stimulatory effects on fennel seed germination and early growth stage. After 14 d of seed incubation, germination percentage highly improved following exposure to 60 ppm nanosized TiO2. Similar positive effects occurred in terms of shoot dry weight and germination rate. Application of bulk TiO2 particles in 40 ppm concentration greatly decreased shoot biomass up to 50% compared to the control. Application of 40 ppm nanosized TiO2 treatment improved mean germination time by 31.8% in comparison to the untreated control. In addition, low and intermediate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 enhanced indices such as germination value, vigor index and mean daily germination. In general, there was a considerable response by fennel seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, particularly medicinal plants.

  14. Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Irene; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Burillo, Jesús; Codina, Carles

    2004-04-07

    A bioguided isolation of an aqueous extract of fennel waste led to the isolation of 12 major phenolic compounds. Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV/APCI-MS) combined with spectroscopic methods (NMR) was used for compound identification. Radical scavenging activity was tested using three methods: DPPH*, superoxide nitro-blue tetrazolium hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence. In addition to products described in the literature, eight antioxidant compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in fennel: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The structures of eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were completely elucidated by two-dimensional NMR experiments. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong antiradical scavenging activity, which may contribute to the interpretation of the pharmacological effects of fennel.

  15. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  16. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) for its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumor activities and for its capacity to serve as a nontoxic radioprotector in Swiss albino mice. We also assessed the natural antioxidant compounds of FSME for use in industrial application. Cytotoxic activity of FSME was evaluated in a mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on different types of human cell lines in vitro. The safety and optimum dose of FSME were determined. FSME, 100 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing EAC before the mice were exposed to three 2-Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After 30 days, mice were fasted for 18 hours and then sacrificed to observe the lifespan of EAC-bearing hosts. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, glutathione content, and total protein in serum, liver tissue, and ascitic fluid were determined. Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin, and ferritin were also evaluated in serum. The data showed the presence of different types of compounds in FSME, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, and sterols; estragole (71.099%) was the predominant alcohol, gallic acid was the phenolic compound (18.895%), and L-limonene was the most prevalent monoterpene hydrocarbon (11.967%). The mean±standard deviation 50% inhibitory concentrations were 50±0.03 μg/mL for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 48±022 μg/mL for the Hepg-2 liver cancer cell line. The significant increase in MDA levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing EAC were ameliorated after FSME administration. In contrast, total protein content was increased in ascitic fluid. Serum iron was inversely proportional to the levels of ferritin and transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. Administration of FSME before irradiation exerted a cytoprotective effect against gamma irradiation, as manifested by a restoration of the MDA level, catalase activity, and GSH content to near-normal levels. In conclusion, FSME may have remarkable anticancer potential against a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and liver cancer cell line (Hepg-2). It also showed strong free radical-scavenging activity (100%). Thus, FSME may reduce oxidative stress and protect mouse cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In addition, it could be used as a safe, effective, and easily accessible source of natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage. FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation.

  17. Extraction of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Seeds: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Capacity of the Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study on the extraction of bioactive substances from fennel seeds. The impact of the main process variables (solvent composition, liquid-to-solid ratio, temperature, contact time) on the concentration of the target substances (polyphenols and flavonoids) in the extracts is studied resulting in the selection of a set of operating parameters, at which their content is maximized. Extracts with higher concentration of target compounds demonstrate higher antioxidant capacit...

  18. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Jelínková, Marcela; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Elena; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David

    2016-02-01

    Research on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the synthesis of essential oils (EOs) by aromatic plants has seldom been conducted in field-relevant conditions, and then, only limited spectra of EO constituents have been analyzed. The effect was investigated of inoculation with AMF on the synthesis of a wide range of EO in two aromatic species, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and dill (Anethum graveolens), in a garden experiment under outdoor conditions. Plants were grown in 4-l pots filled with soil, which was either γ-irradiated (eliminating native AMF) or left non-sterile (containing native AMF), and inoculated or not with an isolate of Rhizophagus irregularis. AMF inoculation significantly stimulated EO synthesis in both plant species. EO synthesis (total EO and several individual constituents) was increased in dill in all mycorrhizal treatments (containing native and/or inoculated AMF) compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, EO concentrations in coriander (total EO and most constituents) were increased only in the treatment combining both inoculated and native AMF. A clear positive effect of AMF on EO synthesis was found for both aromatic plants, which was, however, specific for each plant species and modified by the pool of AMF present in the soil.

  20. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  1. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  2. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation...

  3. Chemistry, technology, and nutraceutical functions of celery (Apium graveolens L.): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbhagya, H B

    2014-01-01

    Celery is a commercially important seed spice belonging to the family Umbelliferrae. Celery is used in various forms such as fresh herb, stalk, seeds, oil, and oleoresin for flavoring of foods and for medicinal purposes. Celery seed contains 2% volatile oil that finds application for flavoring of foods and also in perfumery industry. Limonene and selinene form about 60% and 20% of the oil, respectively. However, the important flavor constituents of the oil responsible for the typical aroma are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butyl phthalide, sedanolide, and sedanonic anhydride present in very low levels (1-3%). Celery contains 15% fatty oil with the fatty acids: petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%), and palmitic acids. Phthalides especially sedanenaloide possess many health benefits. Celery extracts are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties, viz., antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-platelet aggregation. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of celery and the components responsible are discussed.

  4. Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on fruit yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, R.; Rezvani Moghaddam, P.; Nasiri Mahallati, M.; Nezhadali, A.

    2011-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of fennel essential oil, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental treatments included two organic (compost and vermicompost) and two biological (Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chroococcum) fertilizers, their all twin combinations (Ps. putida + A. chroococcum, Ps. putida + compost, Ps. putida + vermicompost, A. chroococcum + compost, A. chroococcum + vermicompost and compost + vermicompost) and control (non fertilized). There were significant differences between treatments in terms of seed essential oil percentage, essential oil yield; anethole, fenchone, limonene and straggle content in seed essential oil. Results showed that the highest and the lowest percentages of essential oil were obtained in control (2.9%) and A. chroococcum + vermicompost (2.2%) treatments, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (29.9 L ha{sup -}1) and anethole content of essential oil (69.7%) and the lowest contents of fenchone (6.14%), limonene (4.84%) and estragole (2.78%) in essential oil were obtained in compost + vermicompost treatment. It seems that compost + vermicompost treatment compared to other treatments supplied the highest equilibrium of nutrients and water in the root zone of sweet fennel which is led to increasing the anethole content, there upon, decreasing other compounds. Essential oil yield and percentage of anethole content in essential oil were significantly higher in all organic and biological treatments compared with control. (Author) 43 refs.

  5. The effect of foeniculum vulgare essence on production performance, egg quality and reproductive parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Taki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fennel essence on performance, egg quality and ovarian morphology of commercial laying eggs for ten weeks. In this experiment, one hundred and forty 30-wk-old commercial egg laying type Hy-Line (W36 were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 8 birds per each. Treatments were a control (0.0% essence and diets containing 200, 400 and 600 ppm fennel essence. Performance parameters include egg weight and egg production was recorded daily and feed intake, FCR and egg quality parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds of each replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered for analysis of ovarian morphology. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Levels of 200 and 400 ppm of fennel essence showed a significant increase in egg weight. Levels of fennel essence had no significant effect on feed intake and FCR but it caused significant increase in yolk color and had significant effect on the properties of egg shell. Levels of essence had no significant effect on the relative weight of the ovary, oviduct and stroma but 200 ppm of fennel essence had significant effect on weight of large yellow follicles. The results showed that the addition of fennel essence improved egg weight, egg shell and yolk color and had a significant effect on the large yellow follicles.

  6. Chemical Composition and Zootechnical Effects of Essebtial Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill and Anise (Pimpinella Anisum L. on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould sidi moctar Yacoub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the dietary oils from fennel and anise on the zootechnical performances of Turkey. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. One Hundred turkey males meat strain BUT 10 (Meleagris gallopavo, of one day old, were weighed and randomly allotted into 5 groups of 20 turkeys each. These groups were fed, for 35 days, the basal diet (Control or the basal diet supplemented with 0.2 g/kg of fennel oil (EOFVD1, 0.5 g/kg of fennel oil (EOFVD2, 0.2 g/kg of anise oil (EOPAD1 and 0.5 g/kg of anise oil (EOPAD2. The mean body weight of EOFVD2 group (807.85 g was higher than other groups at the end of the treatment (P<0.05. Likewise, mean body weight of the EOPAD1 group (782.45 g was different from those of EOFVD1 (769.89 g, EOPAD2 (756.77 g and Control group (768.35 g (P<0.01. The results related to the average day weight gain (ADG indicated that subjects belonging to the batches treated with EOFVD2, EOPAD1 and EOFVD1, expressed the best performance with ADG respective of 79.46±4.03 g/d, 51.12±27.88 g/d, 50.47±26.94 g/d, followed by control group (49.76±26.67 g/d, against 49.98 ±28.46 g/d for the EOPAD2 group with a difference which is statistically significant (P<0.05. These results concluded that supplementing diets with essential oils of fennel and anise, which improved body weight, could be interesting feed additives for growth promotion turkey.

  7. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) using liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Irene; Jauregui, Olga; Sánchez-Rabaneda, Ferran; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-06-16

    Liquid chromatography (LC) diode array detection (DAD) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the rapid and sensitive identification of water-soluble phenolic compounds in fennel waste. The plant material was first extracted and then chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to afford seven fractions, each of them being subjected to LC-MS analysis. Identification of the compounds was carried out by interpretation of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra. Forty-two phenolic substances were identified, 27 of which had not previously been reported in fennel, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, and flavonoid aglycons.

  8. Inhibition of grey mould in vitro and in vivo with essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane MOHAMMADI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal effects of the fennel essential oil against fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato fruit under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Treatments consisted of five concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 lL-1.The fennel oil had a remarkable effect on spore germination of grey mould. The growth of grey mould was completely inhibited by fennel oil at 600 and 800 lL-1.The results in vivo showed that fennel oil increased the shelf life and decreased decay rate of tomato fruits. Also, fennel essential oil positively affected on postharvest quality factors. Treated fruits with fennel oil had significantly higher titrable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and lycopene and -carotene content comparison to control. Thus, these results showed that fennel essential oil has impact on postharvest decay and fruit quality of tomato.

  9. 小茴香种子发芽特性的研究%Study on Germination of Foeniculum Vulgare Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羽梅; 任安祥; 潘春香

    2002-01-01

    茴香种子在浸种4小时后吸水就达饱和,最大吸水量相当于风干种子重的185%。茴香种子以浸种16小时、25℃下萌发时发芽率和发芽势最好.相同大小不同饱满程度种子的发芽率和发芽势均无差异,中粒种子的发芽势和发芽率优于大粒和小粒种子.但芽的伸长以大粒种子最快.裂为两半的单果的发芽率、发芽势和芽长均明显好于双悬果.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill%小茴香的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 王丽; 韩阳花; 孙华; 帕提古丽·马合木提

    2004-01-01

    以20%的乙醇溶液提取小茴香中的成分,测定了其提取液对常见食品腐败菌的抑菌效力(抑菌圈直径)及最低抑菌浓度(MIC).其结果为:苏云金杆菌和变形杆菌最敏感,金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌和根霉菌次之,青霉菌和酿酒酵母稍差.

  11. Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana Bano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol extract of fennel seeds was examined for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical constituents of the fennel extract were also analysed, that revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Total phenol content of the extract was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was found to be 3.48 ± 4.2 (mg GAE/g DM. The antimicrobial activity of fennel extract was evaluated against following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC. Maximum antimicrobial activity of the fennel extract was found against Staphylococcus aureus, showing an inhibition zone of 20.00 mm. DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the fennel extract and its IC50 value was also calculated. Thus, the results of the present investigation demonstrate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of fennel extract and also the presence of various phytochemicals.

  12. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bülent; Ozer, Hakan; Cakir, Ahmet; Polat, Taşkin; Dursun, Atilla; Mete, Ebru; Oztürk, Erdoğan; Ekinci, Melek

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28-71.69%), limonene (8.30-10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), beta-fenchyl acetate (3.02-4.80%), and perillene (2.16-3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), gamma-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

  13. Comprehensive Research on Essential Oil and Phenolic Variation in Different Foeniculum vulgare Populations During Transition from Vegetative to Reproductive Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of four fennel populations (England, Spain, Poland and Iran) were investigated during six developmental stages including two vegetative and four reproductive phases. In reproductive phase, the essential oil content of fruits decreased and the maximum content (5.9%) was obtained in immediate fruits. The essential oils were analyzed using GC/MS. trans-Anethole was the main component of the leaves and the fruits oil. In leaves, it ranged from 41.28% in England at late vegetative stage to 56.6% in Poland population at early vegetative stage. Other major compounds of leaves were limonene, α-pinene and (Z)-β-ocimene. In reproductive phases the trans-anethole increased dramatically. It varied from 85.25% in immature fruits from Poland to 90.7% in pre-mature stage from Spain. The highest phenolic content in the extracts at different growth stages obtained 189 mg TAE/g DW at full mature stage of seed in Iran population. The flavonoid of leaves extract ranged from 3 to 7.5 mg QUE/g DW, while in fruits extract varied from 3 to 10.3 mg QUE/g DW. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and β-carotene model systems. Immature and full mature growth stages of fennel population from Spain indicated the highest activity in quenching of DPPH radical (74.2% and 74.5, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the extracts had high positive correlation with their phenolic contents in all fruit maturity stages. Finally, it might probably be suggested that in fennel the hot and humid condition can lead to increase trans-anethole, while the hot and dry one can produce higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids.

  14. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  15. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.

  16. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  17. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  18. Hoya thuathienhuensis and Hoya graveolens (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species and a new record for the Flora of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodda, M.; Trân, Thê Bách; Simonsson Juhonewe, N.; Sâm, Lý Ngọc

    2012-01-01

    A new species from the Annamite mountain range of central Vietnam, Hoya thuathienhuensis, is here described and illustrated. Its flowers bear similarity with Hoya lockii, a taxon recently described from the same area with which it shares the reflexed corolla and the thin coriaceous laves. Hoya locki

  19. Effects of calcium peroxide on arsenic uptake by celery (Apium graveolens L.) grown in arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-ping; Luo, Chun-ling; Xu, Xiang-hua; Wu, Chuang-an; Li, Fang-bai; Zhang, Gan

    2012-03-01

    The ability of calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) to immobilize As of contaminated soil was studied using pot and field experiments. In pot experiment, CaO(2) applied at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) significantly increased celery shoot weight and decreased shoot As accumulation, which was ascribed to the formation of stable crystalline Fe and Al oxides bound As and the reduction of labile As fractions in the soil. The labile As fractions were pH dependent and it followed a "V" shaped profile with the change of pH. In field experiment, the dose of CaO(2) application at 750 kg ha(-1) was optimal and at which the celery was found to produce the highest biomass (63.4 Mg ha(-1)) and lowest As concentration (0.43 mg kg(-1)). CaO(2) probably has a promising potential as soil amendment to treat As contaminated soils.

  20. 芸香根系生物学研究%Biological reserch on ruta graveolens root system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 齐红

    2003-01-01

    在时芸香根的外观形态、内部解剖、根系变化一般观察研究的基础上,重点研究了根中淀粉含量的变化,揭示芸香的根为须根状直根系,根的次生木质部有明显的年轮;芸香根一年中淀粉积累高峰有二个,一个在花前期(6月下旬),一个在入冬前(10月下旬).并对芸香的营养积累与抗寒性关系问题进行了讨论.

  1. De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker development using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences in celery (Apium graveolens L..

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    Nan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery is an increasing popular vegetable species, but limited transcriptome and genomic data hinder the research to it. In addition, a lack of celery molecular markers limits the process of molecular genetic breeding. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method to generate a large transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery, molecular marker development and marker-assisted selection breeding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Celery transcriptomes from four tissues were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 42,280 unigenes (average length of 502.6 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. 78.43% and 48.93% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein database (Nr and Swiss-Prot database respectively, and 10,473 (24.77% unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. 21,126 (49.97% unigenes harboring Interpro domains were annotated, in which 15,409 (36.45% were assigned to Gene Ontology(GO categories. Additionally, 7,478 unigenes were mapped onto 228 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG. Large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs were indentified, and then the rate of successful amplication and polymorphism were investigated among 31 celery accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information by Illumina paired-end sequencing and efficient assembling. Our results provide a valuable resource for celery research. The developed molecular markers are the foundation of further genetic linkage analysis and gene localization, and they will be essential to accelerate the process of breeding.

  2. EVALUASI, UJI STABILITAS FISIK DAN SINERESIS SEDIAAN GEL YANG MENGANDUNG MINOKSIDIL, APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

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    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMinoxidil, apigenin and celery are believed to have the same bioactivity as a vasodilator that can widen blood vessels. This study discusses about the gel formulation in the scope of evaluation of gel preparation, using carbomer as a gelling agent each containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice. The method used in gel evaluation were organoleptic observation, homogeneity, pH, consistency and viscosity; physical stability at 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C and syneresis. Based on the result, all gel formulations showed their consistency and viscosity were higher after 8 weeks of storage at room temperature. The rheogram of three gel formulations in term of flow properties remain unchanged after 8 weeks of storage. It was indicated that the flow properties of gel formulation was pseudoplastis tixotropic. The gel containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice showed good physical stability at 28±2 °C and 40±2 °C, but less stable at 4±2 °C after 14 weeks of storage. The highest number of syneresis was found in a gel containing celery juice.Keywords : Celery, Apigenin, Gel, StabilityAbstrakMinoksidil, apigenin dan seledri memiliki aktivitas biologi yang sama sebagai vasodilator yang dapat memperlebar pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini sebagai evaluasi sediaan gel, menggunakan karbomer sebagai gelling agentyang mengandung masing-masing minoksidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri. Metode yang digunakan dalam evaluasi gel adalah pengamatan organoleptis, homogenitas, pH, konsistensi dan viskositas; stabilitas fisik pada suhu 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C dan sineresis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketiga formula gel menunjukkan konsistensi dan viskositas yang lebih tinggi setelah 8  minggu  penyimpanan  pada  temperatur  ruang.  Hasil  rheogram  dari  ketiga  formula gel  menunjukkan  sifat  alir  yang  tetap  tidak  berubah  setelah  8  minggu  penyimpanan, yaitu pseudoplastis tiksotropik. Gel yang mengandung minoxidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan stabil fisik pada penyimpanan suhu 28±2 °C dan 40±2 °C, tetapi kurang stabil pada suhu 4±2 °C setelah 14 minggu penyimpanan. Angka sineresis tertinggi terdapat pada gel yang mengandung perasan herba seledri.Kata kunci : Seledri, Apigenin, Gel, Stabilitas

  3. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    californica var. californica California poppy 3 Filago californica California cotton rose Filago gallica narrow-leaved filago Foeniculum vulgare sweet...Lizardtail Erodium cicutarium Red-stem Filaree Erodium moschalum Whit-stem FilareeI Eschscholzia califomnica California Poppy Foeniculum vulgare Sweet...Bush), Rubus vitifollus (Blackberry), Foeniculum vular-e (Sweet Fennel), Toxicodendron diversilobum (Poison Oak) and Rhamnus ealifornica (Coffeeberry

  4. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  5. Comparison of the effect of Foeniculum vulgare and St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum on the climacteric symptoms and sexual activity in menopausal woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abdali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Menopause is the permanent ceasing of menstruation for one year and in this period, women potentially suffer from chronic signs and symptoms resulted from estrogen deficiency. With respect to heavy responsibility of women in the society, providing their health is highly required by health system. The objective of the current research is the comparison between the effects of Fennel and Hypiran on severity of climacteric symptoms and sexual performance in menopausal women. Methodology: In a blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 menopausal women of 45-60 of age in Shiraz were randomly categorized in three groups after a checkup for general health. The first group was given the daily dose of three 160mg tablets of Hypiran, the second group was given the daily dose of three 30mg tablets of Fennel and the third group was given three placebo all for the period of 8 weeks. The data was collected by filling out questionnaire for female sexual function and Greene climacteric scale in three phases (before treatment, 4weeks after treatment and 8 weeks after treatment. Thus, 33 individuals in Hypiran group, 33 individuals in Fennel group and 32 individuals in placebo group cooperated until the end of the research. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 20. Findings: The average age of the participants was 50/52. The score of climacteric symptoms was 42/12±5/1 in Hypiran group before treatment and it decreased to 30/42±4/77 after treatment. The score of climacteric symptoms was 37/81±7/2 in Fennel group before treatment and it decreased to 24/93±6/3 after treatment and regardless of the time, there was a significant difference between the three groups (P≤0.001. The score of sexual function was 18/2±2/61 in Hypiran group before treatment and it increased to 22/78±2/61 after treatment. The score of sexual function was 18/38±2/29 in Fennel group before treatment and it increased to 22/51±2/25 after treatment and there was a significant difference in the mean score of sexual function between the three groups (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Fennel and Hypiran are effective in improvement of menopausal signs and symptoms in women suffering from climacteric symptoms. Also they have positive effect on sexual function of menopausal women.

  6. Study of Ningxia Haiyuan Foeniculum vulgare Mill.cytological characteristics%宁夏海原小茴香细胞学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷茜; 张欣; 贝盏临

    2011-01-01

    以宁夏海原小茴香为材料,跟踪观察细胞的分裂过程,并对其染色体进行核型分析.结果表明,宁夏海原小茴香细胞的染色体数目为2n=2x=22,染色体平均总长度为272.55+1.08 μm,最长染色体为5.58 μm,最短染色体为1.48 μm,最长染色体与最短染色体之比为3.78;染色体平均长度为4.55+1.79 μm,长臂平均长度为2.67+0.90 μm,短臂平均长度为1.90+0.92.μm,平均臂比为1.52±0.29,臂比介于1.01-1.70之间,最长染色体臂与最短染色体臂之比为2.02;其核型公式为K(2n)=22=20 m(2SAT)+2 sm,具有1对随体;染色体相对长度组成为2n=2s+8M1+10M2+2L,属于“2B”对称型核型.

  7. 小茴香果实中总黄酮含量测定方法研究%Study on the Total Flavonoids Contents in Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽巴哈尔·阿巴拜克力

    2009-01-01

    目的:测定小茴香果实中的总黄酮含量,以利于后续的提取操作.方法:采用分光光度法,以芦丁为标准样品,测定小茴香中的总黄酮含量;通过单因素和正交试验确定果实中总黄酮的最佳提取条件.结果:总黄酮的最佳提取条件为:乙醇浓度70%,提取时间2 h,料液比1:30,提取温度70℃,在此条件下提取率可达2.871.结论:试验结果可能为以后小茴香资源的开发利用提供重要的理论依据.

  8. Inhibitory effect of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) samples and their phenolic compounds on formation of advanced glycation products and comparison of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-15

    In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76μg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125μg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity.

  9. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena; Scandolera, Elia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roscigno, Graziana; Zaccardelli, Massimo; De Falco, Enrica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of two different cultivars of Florence fennel cropped under three different fertilization treatments (Control not fertilized; Mineral Fertilization; Compost from Municipal Solid Wastes) have been analyzed. All the oils were characterized by high anethole concentration and some showed also a good percentage of limonene. Thus, the leaves of Florence fennel, which are agricultural wastes, could be used for the recovery of anethole to be used for its flavoring and biomedical properties. The antimicrobial activity expressed by assays on the examined oils indicates an appreciable effect, generally higher on Gram-positive bacteria. The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole.

  10. Antioxidant activities of phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C in two cultivars of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in responses to organic and bio-organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and bio-organic fertilizers on dry weight; yield, total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TFC, vitamin C and on their antioxidant activities of two sweet fennel cultivars Dolce and Zefa fino. Results strongly showed that there were significant differences between sweet fennel cultivars. Generally the highest values of all parameters were obtained when fennel plants were supplemented with 50% NPK + 50% organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer when compared with control treatment. The highest values of TPC, TFC and Vit. C were recorded by Zefa fino cultivar when received 50% NPK + 50% organic treatment. The antioxidant activities of both cultivars were evaluated and Dolce cultivar showed the highest DPPH·− scavenging activity expressed as IC50 compared with Zefa fino cultivar. In addition, Dolce cultivars exhibited the highest value for Fe2+-chelating activities for organic and bio-organic fertilizers followed by Zefa fino when compared to control treatment. Dolce cultivar generally showed superiority than Zefa fino in all measured parameters.

  11. 小茴香对小鼠免疫功能的影响%Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on the Immunological Functions in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华泽; 王艳苹; 袁新松; 王丽平

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究小茴香对环磷酰胺模型小鼠免疫功能的影响.[方法]以环磷酰胺制备小鼠免疫低下模型并结合体外药理试验,测定灌胃给药后小鼠体内巨噬细胞吞噬率、血清溶血素抗体水平,并观察植物血凝素诱导T淋巴细胞的增殖反应.采用含药血清体外培养小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞,MTT法考察巨噬细胞的活性,并观察体外培养的巨噬细胞吞噬红细胞的吞噬百分率和吞噬指数.[结果]小茴香提高免疫抑制小鼠碳粒廓清率,促进血清溶血素形成以及促进T淋巴细胞增殖.[结论]小茴香有提高小鼠免疫功能的作用.

  12. 正交法优选盐制小茴香工艺%Study on Processing Technology of Foeniculum vulgare Mill with Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 杜中梅; 贾天柱

    2009-01-01

    [目的]优选小茴香的最佳炮制工艺.[方法]以反式茴香醚和水溶性浸出物的含量为评价指标,选择加盐量、炒制度及炒制间为考察因素,采用正交设计L9(34),优选小茴香的最佳炮制工艺.[结果]小茴香的最佳炮制工艺为:小茴香每20g加15mL盐水(含0.4g盐),闷润1.5h,在110~120℃下炒4min.[结论]盐制小茴香的最佳炮制工艺合理可行.

  13. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%.

  14. 小茴香嫩茎的组织培养%Study on Tissue Culture of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fresh Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼·阿不都热合曼; 秦勇; 玉苏甫·阿不力提甫

    2007-01-01

    以小茴香嫩茎为外植体,进行了组织培养研究.结果表明,适合诱导小茴香愈伤组织的最佳培养基为改良MS培养基+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA0.5 mg/L,诱导愈伤组织所需的时间最短,诱导率也高,形成的愈伤组织颜色浓绿,生长速度适中,质地致密;最佳生根培养基为改良MS培养基+6-BA0.5 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L,生根率高,生根数多,质量好.

  15. 茴香复合调味酱的研制%Study on the Mixed-condiment of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀菊

    2010-01-01

    茴香不仅具有丰富的营养,而且具有特殊香味,是一种芳香类调料.将新鲜的茴香用盐腌,绞碎,浓缩,添加调味料之后制成复合调味酱.通过对腌制时间,离心时间,CMC含量以及调味品四个因素的调控,利用正交试验的直观分析,从而得到最佳组合的茴香复合调味酱.

  16. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  17. Evaluate of Some Germination and Emergence Characteristics of Fennel (foeniculum vulgare Mill Producted from Seeds under Application Organic and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B Amiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of manure and biofertilizers application that were applied on parent plants, on the germination and emergence indices of produced seeds of fennel, two laboratory and greenhouse experiments based on completely randomized design with four replications were conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatments were consisted of 11 different seed types that were produced on parent plants fed by: Compost (C, Vermicompost (V, Azotobacter (A, Pseudomonas (P, A+C, C+P, C+V, P+A, P+V, V+A and Control. Results of greenhouse study revealed that most studied treatments were effective on the height of fennel. Moreover, V and C+P treatments were superior in terms of emergence percentage and aerial dry weight, respectively. Results of laboratory experiment showed that C+V treatment were superior to other treatments in terms of germination percentage, germination rate, germination index and mean germination time. Overall, the experimental findings revealed that seed producing by manure and biofertilizers utilization on parent plants is a suitable method for production of organic seeds that have optimal germination and early seedling growth indices.

  18. Distribution of Trans-Anethole and Estragole in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill of Callus Induced from Different Seedling Parts and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim Mohamed Radwan AFIFY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seeds from local cultivar of fennel were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS without plant growth regulators. Different types of explants from the growing seedling such as cotyledonal leaves, hypocotyls, epicotyls and roots were cultured on MS medium, contained different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D either alone or with kinetin. Differential responses in the essential oil constituents were observed in the induction and development of callus. The major components of essential oils includes estragole, trans-anethole, limonene and fenchone were studied under different conditions to find out the best methods which could be used to reduce the amount of estragole (not favorite for human consumption and increase the amount of trans-anethole.

  19. Uptake and phytotoxicity of anthracene and benzo[k]fluoranthene applied to the leaves of celery plants (Apium graveolens var. secalinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jolanta; Sienkiewicz, Stanisław; Pietrzak, Monika; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2015-05-01

    The above-ground parts of celery plants were exposed to two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): 3-ring anthracene (ANT) and 5-ring benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), and the combination of ANT and BkF. After 43 days of exposure (overall dose of 1325µg/plant), celery plants retained only 1.4% of the total dose of ANT and 17.5% of the total dose of BkF. After exposure to a combination of ANT and BkF (1325µg of each compound per plant), the average ANT concentrations were more than twofold higher in/on leaf blades, whereas BkF levels were insignificantly higher. Under natural photoperiod conditions equivalent to a normal day, the combined application of ANT and BkF to the above-ground parts of celery plants slowed down physicochemical transformations of ANT. A similar effect was observed when PAHs were applied to glass surfaces. The combination of both PAHs probably led to stacking interactions, which decreased volatilization, in particular of ANT. Phytotoxicity of ANT and BkF could not be unambiguously established based on the results of this study. In all analyzed treatments, the chlorophyll content of leaf blades remained unchanged. Foliar application of ANT reduced ascorbic acid levels in all analyzed plant parts and increased the total acidity of celery leaves. In all experimental treatments, the total phenolic content of leaves increased up to 15%. Interestingly, ANT and BkF did not produce cumulative effects when applied in combination (when total PAH concentrations per plant were twofold higher).

  20. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L. y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisell Martelo C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura, considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1 y atmosférica (X y g, y la porosidad disponible (Ee al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por efecto de la posición. En las etapas de proceso se obtuvieron para el apio y el pepino valores de X1 (-14.32 ± 2.75 y -5.51±1.76%, g1 (-0.587±0.69 y -0.079±0.99%, X(13.49±2.32 y 6.72±2.72%, g (-1.40±1.042% y -2.33±1.26% y Ee (15.73±2.31 y 9.35±2.57%, respectivamente. Estos resultados indicaron una salida de líquido nativo (X1<0 y una ligera contracción volumétrica de las estructuras (g y g1<0, lo cual se evidenció microestructuralmente. Conclusiones. La respuesta a la IV en apio y pepino, permite identificar estas matrices alimentarias, como aptas para la incorporación de componentes que le proporcionen un valor agregado a estos productos.

  1. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L.) y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yisell Martelo C.; Misael Cortés R.; Diego Restrepo M.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV) en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura), considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1) y atmosférica (X y g), y la porosidad disponible (Ee) al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por e...

  2. 低温对芸香抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Ruta Graveolens Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺; 曾丽; 徐娜

    2010-01-01

    通过在低温胁迫下对芸香的研究,结果表明:在5℃低温胁迫下,芸香叶片的脂膜相对透性与MDA呈上升趋势;O2-呈波动性变化,H2O2呈线性增加;SOD先升高后下降,而POD呈波动性变化.证明,芸香通过体内一系列生理特性的变化来抵抗低温.

  3. Biological Study on overground organs of Ruta Graveolens%芸香地上器官的生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞

    2004-01-01

    对芸香的茎、叶及花等器官的形态结构进行了较为系统的观察研究,对花芽形成及开花过程进行了客观描述.芸香花有顶生和侧生两种,柱头为"湿柱头",叶片具有典型旱生型植物特点,茎叶中均含有簇晶和油腔,这些特征可作为分类学上鉴别该物种的性状.茎的淀粉积累过程:花前期淀粉积累很少(6月下旬),10月下旬达高峰,之后略有减少并保持稳定直至被冻死.对此结合当地温度及水分条件进行了抗寒、抗旱的讨论.

  4. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-01-11

    Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  5. 不同种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 任洪涛; 周斌

    2010-01-01

    为探讨不同种苗香叶油的香气特征,对7~9月扦插苗和组培苗的香叶油进行GC-9A气相色谱分析,结果发现,两者化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异,其中:扦插苗香叶油含香茅醇31.81%~34.79%,香叶醇6.84%~7.43%,β-古芸烯5.91%~6.59%;组培苗香叶油含香茅醇30.02%~31.64%,香叶醇10.21%~10.29%,β-古芸烯5.24%~5.33%.

  6. Study on tissue culture and rapid regeneration of Pelargonium graveolens%香叶天竺葵组培快繁体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玉华; 刘冰; 田艳春; 李学风

    2010-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵无菌苗叶片为外植体,MS为基本培养基进行组培快繁研究,结果表明:愈伤组织诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+2,4-D 0.1 mg/L;不定芽诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;不定芽增殖最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L,生根率达100%,且根系长势良好.

  7. 云南热区柑桔套种香叶天竺葵技术%Intercropping of citrus and Pelargonium graveolens in Yunnan hot area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文翠; 唐文冲; 李云平; 万福术; 陈艺齐; 袁理春

    2010-01-01

    为了提高云南热区柑桔种植区土地利用率,实施柑桔套种香叶天竺葵的栽种模式,有效地解决了果树幼龄期土地产出率低的问题,每年每公顷可增加经济收入12万元左右,为果树套种香料作物提供了可行的栽培模式,该模式具有很好的推广前景.

  8. 香叶天竺葵的组织培养和快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芳; 娄利华

    2003-01-01

    培养条件 种子萌发培养基:(1)MS。分化培养基:(2)MS+6-BA0.5mg·L-1(单位下同);(3)MS+6-BA0.5+NAA0.1;(4)MS+6-BA1.0;(5)MS+6-BA1.0+NAA0.1。壮苗培养基:(6)MS+6.BA0.5+GA1.0。生根培养基:(7)1/2MS+IBA1.0;(8)1/2MS+IBA0.5+NAA0.1:(9)1/2MS+IBA0.25。

  9. 香叶天竺葵的离体培养研究%Studies on Technology of Isolated Culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚莲; 李绅崇; 吴丽芳; 杨春梅; 贾玉梅; 黎霞

    2007-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵的嫩茎为外植体进行组织培养研究,结果表明:培养基MS+BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L既适合于愈伤组织的诱导,也适合于不定芽的分化增殖;培养基1/2MS+BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.7 mg/L为生根诱导的最佳配方.组培苗的过渡成活率可达到90%以上.

  10. Study on anatomical structure of stalks and roots of Inner Mongolia Foeniculum vulgare and "Youhui No.1" Foeniculum vulgare%内蒙古茴香与油茴1号根、茎解剖结构的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春香; 何金明; 仲兆清; 庞琢; 庞云; 冯艳红

    2010-01-01

    应用石蜡包裹法探讨内蒙古茴香与油茴1号的根、茎的解剖结构差异.结果表明:茴香的根和茎均由表皮、皮层、中柱组成,根发育到后期出现了木栓层、木栓形成层和栓内层;茎发育到一定程度,在皮层里形成了精油的分泌腔,且分泌腔的数量随着植株的发育呈增多的趋势.高精油含量品种"油茴1号"的根和茎各组织的细胞大小、导管数量、分泌腔数量及直径均比内蒙古茴香的大而多.为茴香解剖学研究及品种鉴定提供了解剖学依据.

  11. Capacity of earwig Marava arachidis (Yersin to access fennel plants Foeniculum vulgare Mill in laboratory and field Capacidade da tesourinha Marava arachidis (Yersin em acessar a planta de erva-doce Foeniculum vulgare Mill no laboratório e no campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ira Abramson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at obtaining data about earwig behavior (Marava arachidis Y. on fennel agro-ecosystems and evaluating its potential capacity to access plants in the absence of aphids under laboratory and field conditions. This study establishes a baseline to evaluate earwigs as biological controls to combat aphids that attack fennel plants. Two experiments were developed. In experiment 1, earwigs were studied under laboratory conditions, in experiment 2 under field conditions. Independent variables were sex, exposure to the essential oil of fennel for 24 or 48 hours, and whether the fennel plant was vegetative or flowering. The results indicated that earwigs will climb a fennel plant in the absence of aphids and that few statistical significant results were obtained among the independent variables examined. A difference between male and females was noted in the field experiment in animals receiving 48 h of exposure to the essential oil of fennel. The terminal height reached by males and females in the 48 h vegetative and flower condition also differed.Este trabalho objetivou obter os primeiros dados a respeito da tesourinha (Marava arachidis Y. em agroecossistema de erva-doce, além de avaliar sua capacidade potencial em acessar essas plantas na ausência de afídeos, em laboratório e campo, permitindo futuros trabalhos visando a seu uso no controle biológico para combater os afídeos que atacam essa cultura. Assim, dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo que no experimento 1 as tesourinhas foram estudadas em condições de laboratório e no segundo experimento em condições de campo. As variáveis independentes observadas foram: sexo, exposição a óleo essencial de erva-doce por 24 e 48 horas, em plantas no estágio vegetativo e reprodutivo. Os resultados indicaram que as tesourinhas acessam as plantas na ausência de afídeos e que existem poucas diferenças entre as variáveis estudadas. A diferença entre os machos e as fêmeas foi observada em campo quando os insetos foram expostos por 48 horas a óleo essencial de erva-doce. A altura máxima atingida pelos machos e pelas fêmeas, quando expostos ao óleo essencial de erva-doce por 48 horas nos estágios vegetativos e de florescimento, também diferiram.

  12. Produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com espécies aromáticas e medicinais Yield of tomato in monocrop and intercropping with aromatics plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro é cultivado, principalmente em monocultivos, com uso intensivo de defensivos químicos, atividade de risco econômico, social e ambiental. O consórcio vem sendo praticado como forma de reduzir os riscos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção do tomateiro solteiro e em consórcio com as espécies medicinais e aromáticas Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum e Ruta graveolens. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos. Avaliou-se altura, área do dossel, produção, produtividade e eficiência do uso da terra. Nos consórcios, verificou-se que, na densidade de plantio adotada, o funcho teve maior altura e área de dossel e causou redução significativa na produção total de tomates: de 12,23 kg, no cultivo solteiro, para 7,88 kg, no consórcio com funcho. No entanto, contribuiu com a menor porcentagem de perda de tomates por broqueamento (24%. As maiores perdas por broqueamento ocorreram no monocultivo e no consórcio com hortelã-pimenta. A arruda favoreceu aumento significativo na produção comercial de tomates, em média 26%. A produtividade relativa do tomateiro foi maior no consórcio com arruda (13,6 t ha-1, seguido pelo consórcio com hortelã-pimenta (9,8 t ha-1 e manjericão (9,1 t ha-1, e menor no consórcio com funcho (6,4 t ha-1, o que indicou que o consórcio com arruda foi mais vantajoso para a produção de tomates. Dentre as aromáticas estudadas, o manjericão teve maior produtividade (96,5 t ha-1. Concluindo, os consórcios permitiram maior aproveitamento no uso da terra, com aumento na produtividade dos tomateiros na presença da arruda e redução na presença do funcho. As demais plantas não reduziram significativamente a produção e portanto podem ser empregadas como fonte alternativa de renda.Tomato is mainly cultivated in monocrops, by intensive use of chemical products. It is an activity with economic, social and

  13. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes nigrum L Damiana leaves Turnera diffusa Willd Davana Artemisia pallens Wall Dill, Indian Anethum...

  14. Napa River Salt Marsh Restoration Project. Volume 1: Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Foeniculum vulgare) can invade higher elevations of this community, especially along the bases of levees. Iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis) is one of the...sweet fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare), and prickly lettuce. Urban Urban vegetation is dominated by landscaped grasses, flowers, shrubs, and trees, both

  15. Environmental Impact Statement for the New San Clemente Project, Monterey County, California - Regulatory Permit Application Number 16516S09. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    include: Artemisla dourlaslana (Mugwort), Baeharls pi.uraris (Coyote Bush), Rubus vitifollus (Blackberry), Foeniculum vul-are (Sweet Fennel...Baccharis pilularis), blackberry, mule ft (Saccharis viminea), and sweet(fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare). The most extensive stands of this habitat type occur in

  16. NaCl胁迫对茴香植株生长及生理指标的影响%Effect of NaCl stress on growth and physiological indexes in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤叶; 肖艳辉; 潘春香; 庞琢; 施胜坚

    2010-01-01

    利用营养液培养的方式,研究了NaCl胁迫对茴香植株生长、可溶性糖、脯氨酸以及丙二醛含量的影响.结果表明:随着NaCl浓度的增加,茴香植株的各项生长指标均呈下降趋势;经NaCl胁迫后,可溶性糖含量在120mmol·L-1NaCl处理下,达到最大,并与对照差异达显著水平,茴香中脯氨酸含量比对照有所增加,而丙二醛含量呈先降低再增加的趋势.

  17. 超临界流体萃取小茴香及其提取物在卷烟中的应用%Extraction from Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. With Supercritical Fluid and its Application in Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何书杰; 张高峰; 崔韬; 郭刚

    2009-01-01

    本文采用超临界流体技术对小茴香进行了萃取,考察了不同萃取条件下萃取物的性质,用GC-MS对提取物主要化学成分进行了鉴定,与溶剂浸提法所得的结果进行了对比.并进行了卷烟加香加料试验,旨在探索天然烟用香料的加工方法.

  18. 小茴香挥发油化学成分及抑菌作用的研究%Studies on chemical compositions and antibacterial activity of volatile oil of foeniculum vulgare mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 斯拉甫·艾白; 韩阳花

    2007-01-01

    通过GC/MS联用分析了小茴香挥油化学成分和各组分的相对含量,分离出17个峰,鉴定出了13个化合物,占所测挥发油总量的96.5%.其中主要成分是反式茴香脑(81.81%),α-水芹烯(4.15%)、爱草脑(3.52%)等.同时,对其抑茵作用做了研究,结果表明所选4种菌种的生长均明显受到了抑制,其中,对金黄色葡萄球茼抑制作用最强,其次是枯草芽孢杆茵和变形杆菌,大肠杆菌最差.研究结果还发现,样品用乙醚稀释后能加强其抑茵作用.

  19. 小茴香萃取物中脂肪酸成分的GC-MS分析%Analysis of fatty acids in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天林; 张抒峰; 杨敏丽; 吴茂江

    2000-01-01

    对宁夏固原种植的小茴香籽油用正己烷进行了回流提取,萃取物经皂化和甲酯化反应处理后,利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)进行分析,鉴定了产物中的脂肪酸组分.结果表明,17种脂肪酸中,含量最高的是十八碳烯-5-酸(78.562%),其次是十八碳二烯酸(8.352%)、棕榈酸(7.259%)和硬脂酸(2.103%).

  20. Influence of treatment of Foeniculum vulgare with multi salt on sprout and growth%复合盐处理对茴香发芽及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任安祥; 王羽梅

    2007-01-01

    在发芽期间用60 mmol/L的复合盐对茴香种子进行处理,出苗后再分别用30 mmol/L、60 mmol/L、90 mmol/L的复合盐进行幼苗处理,观测了复合盐对种子发芽和幼苗生长的影响.研究结果表明:种子发芽期用复合盐处理可以明显提高种子的发芽率和发芽势;盐处理组在出苗期前的干物质质量下降速度比未处理组快,而出苗后的干物质量比未处理组高.幼苗期用30 mmol/L、60 mmol/L的盐处理对幼苗的生长有促进作用,而用90 mmol/L的盐处理对幼苗生长有抑制作用;种子发芽期盐处理后再进行幼苗期盐处理,对幼苗的生长比单独处理种子或单独处理幼苗效果都好.

  1. Study on Foeniculum Vulgare Mill as Penetration Enhancer for the Permeation of 5-Fluorouracil%小茴香对5-氟脲嘧啶的促渗作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈琦; 徐莲英

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究小茴香提取物及主要成分茴香醛、茴香脑等对5-氟脲嘧啶(5-Fu)的促渗作用.方法:采用体外透皮实验方法,用Valia-Chien水平扩散池为实验装置,测定模型药物5-氟脲嘧啶的累积渗透量及渗透系数、增渗倍数,确定其促渗效果的强弱.结果:完成了小茴香所含成分小茴香油、茴香脑、茴香醛等对5-氟脲嘧啶的促渗实验,上述药物对5-氟脲嘧啶均有一定的促渗作用,增渗倍数分别为7.14、4.17、9.54.结论:小茴香油、茴香脑、茴香醛等对5-氟脲嘧啶具有一定的促渗作用.

  2. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds%小茴香籽精油成分及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟瑞敏; 肖仔君; 张振明; 刘健南; 王羽梅

    2007-01-01

    对小茴香籽精油的化学成分及其抗菌活性进行了研究.采用GC-MS技术结合Kovats保留指数(KI)对比法较好地鉴定了该精油的化学成分.小茴香籽精油的主体成分为反式茴香脑(70.78%)、爱草脑(7.78%)、小茴香酮(5.87%)、柠檬烯(5.85%)和δ-3- 蒈烯(2.01%). 对受试的7种食源性致病菌和2种腐败性真菌,小茴香籽精油表现出优良的广谱性抗菌活性,其中黑曲霉和副溶血性嗜盐菌对该精油最为敏感,最小抑菌量(MIC)分别小于 0.004% 和 0.015%(体积分数).

  3. 高速逆流色谱分离小茴香中香气成分研究%Separation of Flavors from Foeniculum Vulgare by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖阳; 谢建春; 马琳贺; 马洁峰

    2007-01-01

    以小茴香为原料,采用水中直接蒸馏的方法提取小茴香精油.采用V(正己烷):V(乙酸乙酯):V(甲醇):V(水)=5:2:5:2为溶剂体系,上相为固定相,下相做流动相,高速逆流色谱(HSCCC)转速854.6 r/min,流动相流速2 mL/min,UV检测波长254 nm,在保留时间95~100 min,分离出茴香醛,茴香脑,茴香酮一组化合物,结构经GC-MS确认.

  4. 维药小茴香根皮化学成分初步研究%Preliminary study on the chemical components of the roots of Foeniculum vulgare Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦迪乃·赛福丁; 美丽万·阿布都热依木

    2012-01-01

    目的 对维药小茴香根皮化学成分进行初步研究.方法 采用试管法和滤纸法对维药小茴香根皮的水、酸水、95%乙醇、石油醚提取物进行研究,通过预实验,初步推断维药小茴香根皮中可能合有的化学成分.结果 维药小茴香根皮中可能含有糖类及其苷、内酯化合物、酚类、鞣质、黄酮类、生物碱、挥发油、油脂、三萜及甾醇等化学成分.结论 本研究为维药小茴香根皮的进一步开发利用提供了实验基础.

  5. 阴离子对球茎茴香生长和精油含量的影响%The Effects of Anion on Plant Growth and Quantity of Essential Oil in Foeniculum vulgare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羽梅; 任安祥; 潘春香; 高野泰吉

    2002-01-01

    分别用60 mmol·L-1浓度的HCO-3、Cl-、SO2-4复合盐处理定植后的球茎茴香,结果Cl-对生长的影响不明显,HCO-3和SO2-4处理的生长略差些,但植株中Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+含量均增加,全氮、全磷和K+的含量则都下降.精油含量以Cl-处理的为最高,SO2-4的次之,HCO-3的无变化.Cl-和SO2-4的精油含量增加主要是苧烯的增加.

  6. Effect of Formula Fertilization on the Growth and Yield of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill%配方施肥对小茴香生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梦; 张益铭; 杨兴栋; 尹春梅

    2014-01-01

    通过施加不同肥料和施肥量,研究配方施肥对小茴香生长和产量的影响.以小茴香的施肥比例,微肥种类,N、P、K施用总量3个因素,每个因素设计3个水平,按照正交试验L9(33)表进行试验.以产量作为指标,综合考虑,选出小茴香的最佳施肥方案.优选出的小茴香最佳施肥方案为:施肥比例为2∶1∶2,微肥种类为Mn0.3%,N、P、K施用总量为150 kg/hm2.试验优选了小茴香的最佳施肥方案,为小茴香的进一步研究提供参考.

  7. 紫外分光光度法测定小茴香不同器官中总黄酮%Determination of the Total Flavonoids in Different Organs of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. by UV Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金霞; 郭生虎; 郑国保

    2010-01-01

    采用紫外分光光度法测定小茴香不同器官提取物中总黄酮的含量.结果表明:小茴香不同器官中总黄酮含量在38.4~76.8 μg/mL范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系,加标回收率在96.7%~99.22%范围内,相对标准偏差为1.01%;该方法简便、准确、重现性好,可用于总黄酮的含量测定.

  8. 民族药小茴香不同炮制品中各元素的光谱分析%Spectral Analysis of Elements in Different Samples of Processed Foeniculum vulgare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李臻; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔; 田树革

    2010-01-01

    中药材经过不同方法炮制后将改变其中物质的组成和含量,从而影响药理活性.利用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-AES),原子吸收光谱法(AAS)和原子荧光光谱法(AFS)全面扫描并分析民族药小茴香生品及其9种不同炮制品中与人体健康和生命相关的常量元素,微量元素和重金属的种类及含量.结果显示,3种光谱分析方法均能快速准确地分析中药材中各种元素含量及其变化趋势,从小茴香中共检测出32种元素,与生品相比,不同炮制方法使某些元素发生了明显不同的变化,表明炮制方法与元素变化有较强的相关性,说明辅料不仅能改变元素含量而且能与有效成分一道发挥协同治疗疾病,并旨次发现炮制将导致苇金属Hg的含量急剧增高,临床使用清炒小茴香时存在重大安全隐患.实验拓宽了光谱法在中药安全性评价中的应用.

  9. Research on the suppression on Aβ42 aggregation activity of extracts of food and drug Chinese medicine%小茴香等药食两用中药提取物抑制Aβ42聚集活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海强; 张嫽; 张昉; 蒙诺亚; 贺震旦; A.Tunnacliffe; 郑易之

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究几种药食两用中药提取物的A β42多肽聚集抑制活性.方法:选择小茴香、花椒、薄荷、玫瑰等10种药食两用中药为研究对象,分别用索氏提取法、溶剂浸取法制备石油醚、乙酸乙酯和甲醇提取物;用体外ThT荧光光谱法和E.coli细胞模型对各提取物进行A β42聚集抑制活性研究.结果:各中药石油醚和甲醇提取物在体外ThT试验和E.coli细胞模型中均没有明显活性;小茴香和玫瑰花乙酸乙酯提取物则可以显著降低样品作用体系ThT相对荧光强度,分别为0.64和0.59;同时对E.coli细胞具有显著的生长促进作用,相对生长率分别为56.88%和44.59%(200μ g/mL),超过阳性对照表没食子儿茶素没食子酸脂(EGCG)( 41.87%).结论:小茴香、玫瑰花等中药乙酸乙酯提取物在体外和E.coli模型中具有A β 42聚集抑制活性.%Objective: To research the suppression on A β 42 aggregation activity of extracts of some kinds of food and drug plants. Methods: Ten kinds edible herbals, such as: fennel, pepper, menthea haplocalyx, rose, etal, were selected as research objects. Soxhlet's and solvent extraction methods were used to get petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts and methanol extracts; ThT fluorescence spectrum assay in vitro and an E.coli model were used to study A β 42 aggregation activity from extracts. Results: Petroleum ether and methanol extracts were found no activity in ThT fluorescence spectrum assay in vitro and an E.coli model. Fennel and rose ethyl acetate extracts were found to lower THT fluorescence intensity, respectively 0.64 and 0.59. Meanwhile, they also had obviously growth promoting action to E.coli cell, respectively 56.88% and 44.59%. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts from Anethum graveolens Linn and Rosa rugosa and so on, could inhibit the aggregation of A β 42 in vitro and in E.coli cells.

  10. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L. Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)%旱芹籽粗提取物对埃及伊蚊的效果评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wej Choochote; 郑剑宁; 裘炯良; 杨定波

    2005-01-01

    埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)是众所周知的虫媒病毒性疾病——登革热的传播媒介,分布于东南亚、太平洋岛屿、非洲和美洲。它也是中美、南美和西非传播黄热病的媒介。登革热因报告的病例数逐年上升,尤其是因该病有多种类型——登革出血热、登革休克综合症和其他诸如侵犯中枢神经系统等少见类型,已成为当今社会严重的公共卫生问题。据2003年世界卫生组织的报告,全球受到登革热威胁的人口约占全球人口总数的40%。目前,减少该病发生的最有效措施是加强个人防护和控制埃及伊蚊。

  11. Study on the Bacteriostasis in Vitro of Compound Ruta graveolens L. Tablets%复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2001-01-01

    目的:实验研究复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用.方法:采用抑菌实验,观察复方芸香片及其组成的水提物、醇提物对所选用的8种细菌的最低抑菌浓度和相对抑菌浓度作用程度.结果:醇提的复方芸香片对化脓性链球菌、藤黄八叠球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、B群链球菌、肺炎链球菌、绿脓杆菌、大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌,均有同等的较弱的抑菌作用.复方芸香药材醇提物对上述细菌的抑菌作用大为增强,其中最强的是前两种,其次是金黄色葡萄球菌和B群链球菌.芸香醇提物对前4种菌的抑菌作用也较强.H对上述细菌也有一定抑制作用.结论:复方芸香片对一般细菌有抑菌作用.

  12. 香叶天竺葵精油及单体抗氧化能力比较%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Its Monomer from Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 徐志敏; 王淳凯; 瞿伟菁; 林承杰

    2005-01-01

    根据试样对二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH·)的清除作用,评价了香叶天竺葵茎和叶精油及其单体,以及蒸馏后的残渣和废水的抗自由基活性.所试样品中几乎都有一定的抗氧化作用,以中午采集的叶片提取物的DPPH·清除率最高,达99.70%.废水和残渣的清除率分别达97.56%和90.24%.提示天然香料工业所弃的废水和残渣可提取到具有较强的抗自由基活性的物质,为种植香叶天竺葵综合利用提供了可能.

  13. 香叶天竺葵离体芽的培养及生产应用研究%Study on in vitro Shoot Culture of Pelargonium graveolens and Its Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 江明; 任洪涛

    2010-01-01

    香叶天竺葵生产上采用扦插繁殖,存在病害加重,品种退化的现象.本实验用离体芽进行诱导培养,探索产业化快繁优质种苗的方法,从而达到改良品种的目的.试验表明:MS+BA 0.5~2.0 mg/L+NAA 0~0.2 mg/L的配比可直接诱导产生较多的不定芽;MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L可作为微型扦插的继代培养基;MS+IBA 0.5 mg/L为最佳生根培养基,试管苗移栽成活率可达95 %.

  14. Study on tissue culture and high frequency propagation of Pelargonium graveolens L.Her%香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷开荣

    2005-01-01

    对香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术进行了研究,建立了种苗快速繁殖技术规程.结果:适宜的增殖培养基为MS+6-BA为0.5~1.0 mg/ L,继代周期为25~30 d,繁殖系数5以上;生根培养基为1/ 2MS+IBA 0.2 mg/ L,生根诱导率达100 %;生根培养20 d后,将试管苗移栽到菜园土:河沙=1:1的混合基质中,保湿培养,移栽成活率达98.6 %.

  15. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  17. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens) y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris) en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco; Juan José Luna Guevara; Francisco Javier Pérez Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE) de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1), 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2), 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3), 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4), 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5); 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6) y agua destilada estéril (T7) que se utilizó como...

  18. Most Common Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Iranian Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Ghazanfarpour; Ramin Sadeghi; Mohammad Ali Kiani; Imaneh Khorsand; Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the efficacy of foeniculum Vulgar, menthe longifolia and Garlic in Iranian children. Methods and Matherials: Nine databases such as MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials as well as domestic  database (Persian) such as SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Medlib, Irandoc, and Google Scholar were searched using keywords such as  “child” and “complementary treatments or alternative treatments or herbal treatments or Anthum Foeniculum or Capillaceum or...

  19. Most Common Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Iranian Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ghazanfarpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess the efficacy of foeniculum Vulgar, menthe longifolia and Garlic in Iranian children. Methods and Matherials: Nine databases such as MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials as well as domestic  database (Persian such as SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Medlib, Irandoc, and Google Scholar were searched using keywords such as  “child” and “complementary treatments or alternative treatments or herbal treatments or Anthum Foeniculum or Capillaceum or Foeniculum Officinale or Foeniculum vulgare or menthe longifolia or Garlic in June 2014 Result: Five studies were included in the systematic review. Our systematic review showed beneficial effect of Foeniculum Vulgare on redacting of infant colic and also led to significant increase on prolactin levels in lactating mothers.  Base on only study, comparison between two groups (Shirafza and placebo Drops did not show any significant difference in regarding infant weight gain. Menthe longifolia combined with ORS improved frequency of defecation, Volume and consistency of stool. Also Review Systematic showed that Garlic significantly decreased fever, frequency and duration of diarrhea, leukocyte in stool.   Conclusion: herbals medicine (foeniculum Vulgar, menthe longifolia and Garlic had beneficial effect on Women's serum prolactin levels, infantile colic, frequency of defecation, Volume, consistency of stool. However, this result should be interpreted with caution which low number of sample and methodological quality.

  20. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    ão (Ocimum basilicum, melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia, arruda (Ruta graveolens, falso-boldo (Coleus barbatus, confrei (Symphitum officinalis, erva-de-bicho (Polygonum acre, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, funcho (Foeniculum vulgare, guiné (Petiveria alliacea, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e nim (Azadirachta indica. Água destilada foi adicionada ao solo como tratamento testemunha. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz e os números de galhas e de ovos por sistema radicular. Os extratos de hortelã, bardana e mamona reduziram o número de galhas em 75,6%, 65,7% e 54,4%, e o número de ovos em 81,7%, 75,9% e 56,6%, respectivamente.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

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    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  2. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

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    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1698 - Rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1698 Rue. (a) Rue is the perennial herb of several species of Ruta (Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L.). The leaves, buds, and...

  4. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  5. [Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavon-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzemann, J; Herrmann, K

    1977-07-29

    The flavonoid constituents of various spices were separated by means of chromatography on cellulose colums, and the following compounds were obtained crystalline: Quercetin 3-glucuronide from caraway, fennel, anise, and coriander; isoquercitrin from caraway and fennel; rutin from fennel and anise; quercetin 3-O-caffeylglucoside and kaempferol 3-glucoside from caraway; quercetin 3-arabinoside from fennel, and luteolin 7-glucoside, isoorientin and isovitexin from anise. Other constitutents which were however not obtained crystalline, but which could be identified by the usual procedures were kaempferol 3-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-arabinoside in fennel, apigenin 7-glucoside and a luteolin glycoside in anise, and isoquercitrin and rutin in coriander. The glycosides contained in the fruit of the four spices also occur in the leaves. Leaves of caraway and fennel in addition contain isorhammetin glycosides in low concentration.

  6. Study on Volatiles in Foeniculum Vulgare Mill by Gas Chromatrography-mass Spectrometry Combining with Simultaneous Distillation and Solvent Extraction%采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱/质谱分析小茴香的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建春; 孙宝国; 郑福平; 刘玉平; 崔奕

    2004-01-01

    通过比较精油收率及精油气相色谱分析含有的组分数量,确定同时蒸馏萃取方法提取小茴香挥发性成分较佳条件为: 乙醚萃取剂,小茴香∶乙醚∶水为10 g∶40 mL∶100 mL,提取时间3h.气质联机分析所提取的挥发油, 鉴定出反式-茴香脑(74.56%)、爱草脑(2.40%)、葑酮(1.05%)、茴香醛(3.51%)、1,8-桉树脑(0.15%)、樟脑(0.05%)、萜烯类(2.97%)、香豆素 (0.03%)、十八碳烯酸 (0.18%)等43种化合物,总相对百分含量为89.03%.

  7. 超临界CO2流体萃取法提取小茴香挥发油化学成分的研究%Study of Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil from Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 王晓华; 杨天祝

    2007-01-01

    采用超临界CO2流体萃取法(SFE)从小茴香中提取挥发油.用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对化学成分进行分析,共鉴定了50种成分,占挥发油总成分的81%以上.超临界CO2流体萃取法提取的挥发油能更真实、全面地反映小茴香中的化学成分.

  8. The influence of the foeniculum vulgare mill on cytokine in hepatic fibrosis rats%小茴香对实验性肝纤维化大鼠细胞因子结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 许晏; 甘子明

    2009-01-01

    和模型组有统计学差异(P<0.05).模型组和治疗组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.05).小茴香高剂量治疗组降低细胞分泌CTGF的作用高于小茴香中、低剂量治疗组和秋水仙碱治疗组(P<0.05).结论: 小茴香低、中、高剂量治疗组均有降低CTGF的分泌、抑制大鼠肝脏炎症、改善肝脏纤维化的作用.

  9. Analysis of the Volatile Constituents from Foeniculum Vulgare Mill by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Solid Phase Microextraction%固相微萃取/气相色谱-质谱法分析小茴香挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建春; 孙宝国; 郑福平; 刘玉平; 刘丽

    2005-01-01

    考察了萃取样品温度、萃取纤维吸附时间及解吸时间对于固相微萃取的影响,确定了固相微萃取小茴香挥发性成分较佳的实验条件为:萃取样品温度60 ℃,萃取纤维吸附时间40 min,脱附温度250 ℃,脱附时间5 min.用计算机谱库检索结合气相色谱保留指数二维定性方法,从小茴香的固相微萃取/气相色谱-质谱联用分析谱图中,鉴定出反式-茴香脑、顺式-茴香脑、爱草脑、葑酮、p-茴香醛、1,8-桉树脑、樟脑等35种小茴香挥发性成分,总质量分数98.70%.

  10. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  11. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  12. First record and redescription of Binodoxys brevicornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia ZUMOFFEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday se cita por primera vez en Argentina. Este afidiino se encontró parasitando al pulgón Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller, una especie vegetal de crecimiento espontáneo, comúnmente asociada a los bordes de cultivos de alfalfa. Binodoxys brevicornis se redescribe e ilustra.

  13. Ocorrência de Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae no Brasil Occurrence of Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833, were reared from the mummies of Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli, 1763 collected on Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae at the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State on September/2002. This is the first record of B. brevicornis in Brazil.

  14. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Al-Mazroa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  15. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report Disposal and Reuse of Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Oakland Vision 2000 Maritime Development. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    3.6.2.1 Rock Breakwaters, Piles, and Riprap i A two- to eight-foot wide strip of usually sparse vegetation (dominated by grasses, fennel [ Foeniculum ... vulgare ], a mustard [Brassica sp.], and blackberries [Rubus spp.D grows between the breakwater and the western edge of the developed Union Pacific

  16. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I: Records Search. Sunnyvale Air Force Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), 3-27 bristly ox tongue (Picris echioides), and sweet fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1981...glaucus), common barley (Hordeum vulgare ), and common foxtail (Hordeum hystrix). Introduced forbe common onsite are black mustard (Brassica nigra

  17. Bazı bitkisel kökenli uçucu yağların Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) üzerine kontakt ve repellent etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    TOPUZ, Emine; MADANLAR, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    In this study, contact and repellent effects of 5 different plant essential oils against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Essential oils of aerial parts, leaves or seeds of Mentha pulegium Linnaeus (Labiatae), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbellifera), Pistacia terebinthus Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae), Schinus molle Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) and Vitex agnus-castus Linnaeus (Verbenaceae) plants, grown around Antalya regio...

  18. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco S Fernandes; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias,José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Santos, Bárbara Davis B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (...

  19. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; BARROS, LILLIAN; Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Barreiro, M.F; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated ...

  20. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogeni...

  1. AcEST: DK954867 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pulus ... 162 1e-39 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 162 1e-39 sp|P37115|...140 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 5...TGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta graveolen... 161 3e-38 tr|Q6IV46|Q6IV46_CAMAC Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase OS

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFI740 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 CN254864 |CN254864.1 BIP1132 BIP up-regulated phloem library after plant infestation with Myzus persic...ae Apium graveolens cDNA, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 BE608405 |BE608405.1 sq30e12.y1

  3. Over Oenanthe crocata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.; Meijden, van der R.; Weeda, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    In 1975 two specimens of O. crocata were found in the dunes of Voorne. Since then the number increased to c. 50. The species is described and compared to other umbelliferous species, as it is likely to be mistaken for Petroselinum crispum or Apium graveolens vegetatively. Different observations on t

  4. 21 CFR 184.1699 - Oil of rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... distillation of the fresh blossoming plants of rue, the perennial herb of several species of Ruta—Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L. (b) Oil of rue meets...

  5. Study of antinociceptive effects of Pelargonium geraveolens L. leaves hydroethanolic extract in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Anti nociceptive, Pelargonium graveolens Abstract: Introduction: Pain is a somatosensory sense that as an indicator to diagnoses for diseases . Pelargonium graveolens is known as a medicinal plant with use in traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens leaves extract (PGE in male mice Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male mice were divided in 6 groups (n=7. The control group(taking normal saline,0.25 ml, i.p, morphine group( 1mg/kg, i.p, treated groups with PGE at doses of 100, 200 and 600mg/kg and group induced with naloxone (0.1mg/kg, i.p + 200mg/kg of PGE. In order to evaluate the analgesic effects of PGE the tail flick and writhing tests were used. The data for each test were compared with One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post test. Results: Our results showed that PGE (200 and 600 mg/kg increased pain thershold compared with control group in writhing and tail flick test significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion: The PGE has anitinociceptive effects in male mice. This analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens extract probably related to its flavonoids composition which has effect on opioid system.

  6. The antibacterial activity of some essential oils against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is categorized as a red alert pathogen that is increasingly associated with a high mortality rate in infected patients due to its resistance to extensive antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of some essential oils (Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Eugenia caryophyllata, Ziziphora tenuir and Trachyspermum copticum oils against 32 clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The antibacterial evaluations and chemical composition of essential oils was determined. Thymol, eugenol, -terpineol, -citronellol and thymol were the chief portions of T. copticum, E. caryophyllata, Z. tenuir, O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils, respectively. The MIC values of oils against these clinical isolates revealed the three subsets of oils including 1- T. copticum, E. caryophyllata and O. decumbens, 2- Z. tenuir and 3- P. graveolens oils. These oils showed the synergistic activity with amikacin, the lower Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI was for P. graveolens oil (0.23 and the higher FICI was for E. caryophyllata (0.325.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  8. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU, I., APERRIBAY, J.A., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cuscuta scandens Brot. subsp. cesatiana (BERTOL. Soó, Fallopia sachalinensis (FRIEDERICH SCHMIDT PETROP. Ronse Decraene, Galium debile Desv., Geum hispidum Fries y Myosurus minimus L.; se combina, además, Apium graveolens L. subsp. butronensis (D. GOMEZ and G. MONTSERRAT I. AIZPURU, stat. nov.

  9. First Report of Apium Virus Y on Cilantro, Celery, and Parsley in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently Apium virus Y (ApVY) was detected in field grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California. Previously, in 2003, cilantro plants from 3 different fields in California showed symptoms of mosaic, vein clearing and stunting. Whe...

  10. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype analysis in Carrot and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome localization of the rDNA gene clusters was determined for the first time in several Apiaceae using double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one Apioideae species including taxa of economic importance (e.g. Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cumin cyminum, Daucus c...

  11. AROMATIC PLANT OF LAMIACEAE FAMILY FOR USE IN PHYTOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Logvinenko; L. A. Khlypenko; N. V. Marko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Therapeutic action of terpenoids of essential oil in uncommon plants like Elsholtzia stauntonii, Agastache foenic-ulum, Monarda fistulosa, Perovskia atri-plicifolia, Majorana hortensis, therefore the study for these plants application in phyto-therapy is timely. The study for componen-tial content of essential oil of 18 uncommon species from Lamiaceae family from the collection of Nikitsky Botanical Garden to increase therapeutic possibilities and their practical use in phytothe...

  12. 小茴香的优质高产栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易思荣; 李娟; 全健

    2009-01-01

    @@ 小茴香别名小茴、谷茴、香丝菜等,为伞形科植物茴香(Foeniculum vulgare.)的干燥成熟果实,具有祛寒止痛、理气和胃之功能,用于胃寒胀痛、少腹冷痛、痛经、疝痛、食少呕吐等症.

  13. 小茴香的优质高产栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易思荣; 李娟; 全健

    2009-01-01

    小茴香别名小茴、谷茴、香丝菜等,为伞形科植物茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)的干燥成熟果实,具有祛寒止痛、理气和胃之功能,用于胃寒胀痛、少腹冷痛、痛经、疝痛、食少呕吐等症。

  14. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    resource management, pest control, erosion control, and tree removal. • Minimally maintaining structures and other facilities in such a manner as to...thistle {Centaurea solstitialis), sweet fennel { Foeniculum vulgäre), and Harding grass {Phalaris spp.). Small areas with remnants of native grassland are...County Mosquito Abatement District. Specific pesticide uses are controlled by the Mare Island Annual Pest Management Plan, which specifies each type

  15. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment: Demolition and Abandonment of Atlas and Titan Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-13

    ensure compliance with 40 CFR 61.14O, National Emission Standard for Asbestos and 29 CFR 1926.58, Asbestos Construction Standards. AFI 32-1053 Pest ...Management Program 1-Apr-1999 Provides guidance for pest management programs at Air Force installations. It also establishes a program to ensure...Surrounding vegetation mowed dominated by Foeniculum vulgare, Brassica nigra, Plantago coronopus, Avena barbata, and Melotis indicus. Survey for birds in

  16. Application of Hyperspectal Techniques to Monitoring & Management of Invasive Plant Species Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-09

    Foeniculum vulgare) –an aggressive invader into grasslands of the Coastal Sage Scrub and mixed chaparral semiarid shrublands of southern California ... Chaparral . 5.1.4. Extending Mapping Beyond the Image Space Using CART Modeling 5.1.4.1. Introduction As shown in previous sections remote sensing...contrast in canopy between invasive blue gum trees (Eucalyptus globulus) and the surrounding shrublands in California chaparral have proved useful for

  17. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from Pelargonium graveolens Ait. (family Geraniaceae, against one standard S. aureus strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical S. aureus strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from P. graveolens has strong activity against all of the clinical S. aureus isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  19. R-(+)-ABP a novel derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide possesses anti-convulsant and neuroprotective properties in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELESTAGE; A.ROGER; L.DANOBER; ERENARD; X-Q.PENG; Z.GUO; J.T.ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    ABP is a novel phthalide derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide (NBP) synthesized at the Beijing Institute of Materia Medica.NBP was isolated from several plants including Apium graveolens Linn. The juice squeezed from fresh celery leaves has long been used in Southeastern China for the treatment of epilepsy, and NBP has been reported to possess anti-convulsant properties (Drugs Future 2000; 25: 16-23). The present study

  20. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  1. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon

    2003-05-01

    The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogesternon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. flavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

  2. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  3. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  4. 6种芳香植物精油的提取及综合品质评价%Extraction of Essential Oils from 6 Aromatic Plants and Evaluation on Their Comprehensive Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小兰; 赵林森; 李恒安; 张蕴薇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为芳香精油的生产提供理论指导.[方法]分别从蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘中提取芳香精油,然后比较其出油率并采用灰色关联度法对6种精油的品质进行综合评价.[结果]蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘的平均出油率分别为0.86%、0.33%、0.24%、1.29%、1.27%和1.88%.精油颜色由亮到暗为:猴樟>薄荷>蓝桉>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>柑橘;香味强弱为:柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>猴樟>蓝桉>薄荷>柑橘;香味持久性为:蓝桉>柑橘>香叶天竺葵>柠檬草>猴樟>薄荷;透明度为:猴樟>薄荷>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>蓝桉>柑橘;香味好感度为:柠檬草>猴樟>香叶天竺葵>薄荷>柑橘>蓝桉.综合评价值最高的是柠檬草精油.[结论]该试验建立了精油品质的综合评价体系.%[Objective] The purpose was to provide theoretical direction for the production of aromatic essential oil. [Method] The aromatic essential oils were extracted from Eucalyptus globules, Cinnamomum bodinier, Pelargonium graveolens, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha haploca-lyx and Citrus reticulata. Then their oil yielding rates were compared and the qualities of 6 essential oils were evaluated comprehensively by gray related degreeMethod. [Result] The average oil yielding rates of E. globules, C. bodinier, P. graveolens, C. citralus, M. haplocalyx and C. reticulata were 0. 86% , 0.33% , 0.24% , 1.29% , 1. 27% and 1. 88% resp. The colors of these essential oils from bright to dark were; C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > E. globules > C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. reticulata; their fragrance intensities were; C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. bodinier > E. globules > M. haplocalyx > C. reticulata; their fragrance endurances were: E. globules > C. reticulate > P. graveolens > C. citrates > C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx; their transparencies were: C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > C. citrates > P. graveolens > E. globules > C. reticulata and

  5. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  6. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  7. 小茴香与伪品的鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙迎东; 汪风芹; 张静; 李风荣

    2005-01-01

    小茴香为伞形科植物茴香Foeniculum vulgare Mill.的干燥成熟果实。具散寒止痛、理气和胃之功,为临床常用中药。藏茴香、莳萝子、毒芹子、孜然和防风的种子作为小茴香的伪品在基层中药房时有出现。现将鉴别要点概述如下:

  8. 家庭百草园系列之十六小茴香

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝康; 梁婕

    2010-01-01

    @@ 小茴香(Foeniculum vulgate)为伞形科多年生草本植物,又名怀香、茴香.因能除肉之臭气,使之重新回香,故有"茴香"之名.小茴香原产欧洲地中海一带,现我国各地普遍有栽培.其植株高度0.6米~2米不等,全株表面有粉霜,植物有强烈的香气.

  9. 我国稀有蔬菜介绍(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立新; 徐践

    2002-01-01

    @@ (续2002年第4期62页) 5.球茎茴香 球茎茴香是伞形花科茴香属中茴香的一个变种[Foeniculum vulgareMill, var .azoricum(Mill)Thell],又称结球茴香,为二年生草木植物.原产地中海沿岸及西亚,我国近年引入,栽培较少,在北京、上海、广东、云南、湖北和浙江等地发展种植.

  10. Inhibition Mould of Distillation Extracts from Seven Species of Natural Plants%小茴香等7种植物蒸馏提取物的抑霉菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建清; 杨艳; 金政伟; 赵亚珠

    2011-01-01

    以存在于水果的常见霉菌中的灰霉、黑根霉、交链孢、青霉和黑曲霉为研究对象,采用滤纸片扩散法和时倍稀释法,对小茴香、柠檬草、孜然、广藿香、肉桂叶、桉树叶和鼠尾草这7种植物的蒸馏提取物有效抑菌成分(精油)进行抑菌筛选研究.结果表明:小茴香抑菌效果最好且得率高,为1.90%,对青霉、黑根霉最低抑菌浓度(MIC)均为3.2μL/mL,灰霉、黑曲霉和交链孢MIC为6.4μL/mL;其次为肉桂叶,对交链孢和灰霉有很强抑菌效果,9d内抑菌率为100%.%By filter paper diffusion method and dilution method,the inhibition characters of Foeniculum vulgare Mill,Cymbopogon citratus , Cuminum cyminum L., Pogostemon cablin Benth, Cinnamomum cassia Presl. , Eucalyptus leaves and Salvia japonica Thunb. essential oil extracted by steam distillation were studied. Common Botrytis cinerea,Rhizopus nigricans ,Alternaria.Penicillium citrinum,Aspergillus niger in the mould existing in fruits were chosed as research objects.The results show that Foeniculum vulgare Mill is the most effective bacteriostatic agent and has the highest extraction productivity which is 1.90%. Minimal inhibitory concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill effect on Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus nigricans is 3.2 μL/mL. Minimal inhibitory concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill effect on Botrytis cinerea,Aspergillus niger,Alternaria is 6.4 μL/mL. The latter is Cinnamomum cassia Presl,especially to Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria has the best effect. The Inhibitory rate was 100% in 9 d.

  11. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  12. 三种植物挥发油对菜青虫的拒食作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利民; 原国辉; 陆宁海; 许永霞

    2005-01-01

    用水蒸气蒸馏法从莴苣(Lactucasativa L.)、茴香(Foeniculum vulgare MILL.)、荆芥(Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.)茎叶中提取其挥发油,采用叶碟浸渍法测定不同浓度对3龄菜青虫(Pieris rapae L.)的选择性与非选择性拒食作用.结果表明茴香、荆芥挥发油对菜青虫具有较强的拒食作用.

  13. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for Space Division Proposed Housing, White Point, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Fml * Foeniculum vulgare SwveLL feninel P C APOCYNACEAE - Dogbane Family *Carissa grandiflura Natal plum SR ONerium oleander Oltonrider sR I...the sweet clover (Melilotus zndicuu•), w L-1 radish (1w juti, z;atLvus) and barley (Hordeum vulgare ). This den:,. v-1rotation : Il ,lin.keul und,,r...A F *Pelaragonum X hortorum Cult...vated geranium PR LAIAC1EAE - Mint Family Mix&rrubium vulgare H~orehound S R LAURACEAE - Lriurcl unl *Perstea

  14. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Lígia Helena de; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Breda, Mariana Oliveira; Marques,Edmilson Jacinto; Lima,Iracilda Maria de Moura

    2012-01-01

    Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri) of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%); Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%) and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L.), Ch...

  15. Insecticidal and biochemical effect of some dried plants against Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera-Silvanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Al Qahtani; Z.M. Al-Dhafar; M.H. Rady

    2012-01-01

    Dry powders of three plants, namely ginger (Zingiber afficinale), hail (Elettaria cardamomum) and shammar (Foeniculum vulgare) were tested, for their toxicity, against the adult beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, as date pest threatens the date product in Saudi Arabia. All the tested plants showed insecticidal activity against O. surinamensis. Ginger is the most potent plant, recording the lowest LC50 value (0.14 mg/g) followed by hail and shammar (LC50 = 0.4 and 0.7 mg/g) respectively. Tested...

  16. Plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, ADZ.; T. Ceolin; Vargas, NRC.; Heck, RM.; Vasconcellos, CL.; Borges, AM.; Mendieta, MC.

    2011-01-01

    Identificar las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil por familias de agricultores de base ecológica de la región Sur de Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. El enfoque de investigación es cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con datos recogidos de enero a mayo de 2009. Los sujetos fueron ocho familias de agricultores, residentes en los municipios de Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu y Arroio do Padre. Seis plantas fueron citadas (Chrysanthemun cinerariifolium, Foeniculum vulgare, Acca ...

  17. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate.

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  19. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  20. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  1. Chinese herbal extract dl-3n-butylphthalide A commonly used drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke as a novel therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfang He; Wensheng Zhou; Zhiping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Dl-3n-butylphthalide is the active component isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. A number of pharmacological and clinical studies have proven that dl-3n-butylphthalide is highly po-tent and multi-targeted with low toxicity and has a long time-window for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying dl-3n-butylphthalide include improving mi-tochondrial function and microcirculation, inhibiting apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress. Fur-thermore, dl-3n-butylphthalide may also be promising for the treatment of neurodegenerative dis-eases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.

  2. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion.

  3. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  4. Characterization of a member of a new Potyvirus species infecting arracacha in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, A F; Dusi, A N; Madeira, N R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2009-01-01

    An arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) plant collected in Brazil was found to be infected by a new virus. This viral isolate (named C17) systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana and Apium graveolens. A polyclonal antibody was raised, and analysis of our arracacha germplasm collection showed a high infection rate of C17-like viruses (93% infection). Sequencing of the ca. 1.7 kb 3'-terminal genomic region revealed a typical potyvirus genome organization. It shared less than 70% nucleotide identity with any other potyvirus sequence, which thus indicated that it is possibly a member of a new Potyvirus species tentatively named Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV).

  5. 'Buchu' -Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata (Rutaceae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, A; Viljoen, A M

    2008-10-28

    South Africa has offered the world two indigenous aromatic plants from which commercially important natural products have been developed: Pelargonium graveolens (and its hybrids) the source of geranium oil and Agathosma betulina, from which 'Buchu' oil is produced. Despite the historical use of 'Buchu' and the commercial interest developed around this coveted indigenous resource the (limited) research has not been coherently assembled. This overview aims to unite aspects on the botany, traditional and modern day uses, chemistry and pharmacological data on 'Buchu' which is undeniably one of South Africa's most renowned botanical assets.

  6. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  7. Caracteres morfológicos e número de cromossomos em Pelargonium Morphological characters and chromosome numbers in Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reune observações morfológicas e citológicas em dez cultivares e cinco espécies de Pelargonium aromático e em onze cultivares ornamentais. Os cultivares aromáticos são, morfològicamente, muito semelhantes ao P. x asperum, do qual possivelmente devem ter-se originado; apresentam meiose irregular, com alta freqüência de monovalentes. Os cultivares ornamentais pertencem todos à espécie P. zonale, e dentre êles uns são diplóides e outros tetraplóides. Das espécies em coleção algumas se identificam com as descrições anteriores, mas outras devem ter sido introduzidas erroneamente classificadas. Considerando o material estudado, foram encontrados, para Pelargonium, três números básicos de cromossomos: x = 8, x = 9 e x = 11.Morphological characters and chromosome number of ten cultivars and five species of aromatic Pelargonium, as well as ornamental cultivars, were compared. The oil cultivars are very alike morphologically and they are supposed to be clones of P x asperum. They have irregular meiosis with high frequency of univalents and are male sterile; their chromosome number is 2n=77. Some of the species (P. graveolens from Italy, P. odoratissimum, P. tomentosuni and P. grossularioides agree with previous descriptions, but others, as P. graveolens from Argentina and P. radula from Italy, were probably introduced with a wrong classification. Their chromosome number were counted and compared to previous determinations with excelent agreement. No data was found concerning P. grossularioides; the present chromosome counting seems to be the first. The ornamental cultivars studied here belong to the species P. zonale; some are diploid, others tetraploid; in the diploid cultivars mixoploidy is frequent. As chromosome number is concerned, three basic numbers were established; x=8 for P. odoratissimum, x = 9 for P. grossularioides cv. cocoanut, P. graveolens from Italy and P. zonale (ornamental cultivars, and x=11

  8. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Pérez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagación, composición química y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano. Los fitoquímicos presentes pueden clasificarse en tres categorías: compuestos volátiles, lípidos y fenólicos. Estos componentes presentan diversas propiedades nutracéuticas entre las que destacan la actividad antioxidante, hipoglucémica, hipotensiva, hipolipidémica y anticancerígena. Los avances en el estudio de la composición fitoquímica y su relación con nuevas propiedades nutracéuticas hacen del orégano un producto de alto valor comercial con amplias aplicaciones quimioterapéuticas.The oregano plant is distributed worldwide, and represented mainly by two species: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace native of Europa, and Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, native of America. Mexico is the second largest producer of oregano in the world, with the species L. graveolens H. B. K. However, most of the species used are wild, and raising them is done in a traditional and limited way. In this study we present an analysis of the dissemination strategies, chemical composition and nutraceutical properties of oregano. Phytochemicals present can be classified into three categories: volatile, lipids and phenolic compounds. These components present diverse neutraceutical properties, the most important of which are antioxidant activities, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolypidemic and anti-carcinogenic. The advances in the study of the phytochemical composition and its relationship with new

  9. Desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices

    OpenAIRE

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO; MISAEL CORTES RODRIGUEZ; HÉCTOR SUAREZ MAHECHA

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio), en terminos de la cuantificacio...

  10. Produtos naturais para o controle do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Laércio Bragança Castagnino; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido oxálico e de óleos essenciais de plantas no controle da infestação pelo ácaro Varroa destructor em colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em 30 colônias, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As colmeias foram tratadas com óleos essenciais de arruda (Ruta graveolens), eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) e hortelã (Mentha piperita), além de timol, ácido oxálico e do tra...

  11. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

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    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA

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    Om Prakash Rout

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a preliminary data of occurrence of elemental concentration in medicinal plants i.e Apium graveolens (seed, Sida cordifolia (root, Solanum surattense (whole plant, Tribulus terrestris(fruit and Withania somnifera (root used in Ayurveda, using Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS following standard procedures. The elemental concentration i.e. Mn, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were found in various proportions. The data obtained from the study can be used to evaluate the potentiality of these plants in their used for Ayurvedic drugs

  13. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  14. Leaf and whole-tree water use relations of Australian rainforest species

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    Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant species. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest trees. Eight tree species were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our trees varied in response to species, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between species and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

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    Elia P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paz Elia,1 Raya Zach,1 Sharon Hazan,2 Sofiya Kolusheva,2 Ze’ev Porat,1,3 Yehuda Zeiri1,3 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Ilse Katz Institute of Nanotechnology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 3Division of Chemistry, Negev Nuclear Research Center Beersheba, Israel Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Lippia citriodora, Salvia officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Punica granatum, antioxidants, size distribution, zeta potential

  16. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Rafael; Volpato, Andréia; Baldissera, Matheus D; Santos, Roberto C V; Baretta, Dilmar; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Giongo, Janice L; Boligon, Aline A; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2016-11-01

    The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis), palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), cedar (Cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia) at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total), egg's weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  17. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

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    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  18. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  19. Chemistry, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of volatile oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of several essential oils and their components. Analysis showed that three oils (Carum carvi L., Verbena officinalis L. and Majorana hortensis L.) contained predominantly oxygenated monoterpenes, while others studied (Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mainly contained anethole. C. carvi, V. officinalis and M. hortensis oils exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity, due their contents of carvacrol, anethole and estragol. Antibacterial action was assessed against a range of pathogenic and useful bacteria and fungi of agro-food interest. V. officinalis and C. carvi oils proved the most effective, in particular against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carvacrol proved most active against Escherichia coli, and completely inhibited the growth of Penicillium citrinum. The oils proved inactive towards some Lactobacilli strains, whereas single components showed an appreciable activity. These results may be important for use of the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products.

  20. Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomás; Adam, Martin; Galla, Lubomír; Ventura, Karel

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the following extraction techniques have been used for extracting isoflavonoids from the species Matricaria recutita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Agrimonia eupatoria L.: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, ultrasonic extraction in an ultrasonic bath (USE) and by means of an ultrasonic homogeniser (HOM), extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus (SOX), and solid phase extraction. Experimental optimization of all techniques has been carried out using a soybean flour. Subsequent analyses of the extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The maximum yields of daidzein and genistein were obtained by extraction with the SOX, USE, and HOM techniques. The maximum yields of apigenin and biochanin A from herb samples were obtained by SFE.