Sample records for anestrus

  1. Risk factors for postpartum anestrus in crossbred cows in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ultrasonography and a structured questionnaire were used in a cross-sectional study to gather data on the prevalence and risk factors for anestrus in crossbred cows at ≥60 days postpartum in 273 smallholder farms. The prevalence of anestruc was 18%. The odds ratio (OR) for true anestrus was 17.52 and 2.81 times higher (P < 0.05) in cows with poor (≤2.0) and excessive (>3.5) body condition score (BCS), respectively, compared to those with optimal BCS (2.5-3.5), 2.82 times higher in suckled than in nonsuckled cows (P = 0.03), and 2.53 times higher in cows that calved during the cold season than in those that calved during the hot season (P = 0.03). The OR for anestrus was 1.62 times higher (P = 0.017) in cows managed by an employee than in those managed by the farmers themselves (P = 0.001), and 2.66 times higher (P = 0.003) in small farms (≤5 cows) than in large farms (≥11 cows). The OR was 0.71 to 0.46 times lower in farms having a guaranteed market to sell milk than those with an uncertain traditional milk market (P < 0.05). Maintaining optimal BCS of cows, farmers' training on management of cattle reproduction, and development of a market linkage to sell milk would improve the number of cows for breeding by 60 days postpartum. (author)

  2. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo. (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio


    Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality. PMID:27157389

  3. Photoperiodic versus metabolic signals as determinants of seasonal anestrus in the mare. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B P; McManus, C J


    The objectives of this study were to compare the timing and mechanisms controlling the onset of anestrus in young and mature mares treated either continuously with melatonin and in those that remained untreated. Changes in body weight, subcutaneous body fat measured to provide an estimate of total body fat, and circulating concentrations of leptin were compared throughout the 1-yr experimental period. The results demonstrate that in young mares the timing of anestrus occurs significantly earlier in the year than in mature mares and that mature mares are more likely to exhibit continuous reproductive activity during the nonbreeding season. The propensity of mature mares to exhibit this phenomenon is not modified by continuous treatment with melatonin but is associated with higher mean circulating concentrations of leptin, body weight, and estimated percent of body fat. In both young and mature mares, body weight, percent of body fat, and circulating concentrations of leptin are higher during summer than winter months. We conclude that, in the mare, the reproductive response to a decrease in photoperiod or a presumptive inhibitory melatonin signal is modified by energy availability, which may be signaled to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis via a change in the circulating concentration of leptin. An additional observation confirmed that the prolactin axis is responsive to continuous treatment with melatonin but that a suppression of prolactin secretion is limited to the spring months. PMID:10859276

  4. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers. (United States)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N


    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P < 0.05). Body condition score, uterus horn diameter, absence of a CL, largest follicle of less than 13 mm, and pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables

  5. Comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols on estrus induction response, fertility and plasma progesterone and biochemical profile in crossbred anestrus cows

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    A. J. Dhami


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate estrus induction response and fertility including plasma progesterone and biochemical profile following use of three standard hormonal protocols in anestrus crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 40 true anestrus and 10 normal cyclic cows. 10 anestrus cows each were treated with standard intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR device, Ovsynch (GPG protocol, and Norgestomet ear implant with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. 10 anestrus cows were kept as untreated control while 10 cows exhibiting the first estrus within 90 days postpartum without any treatment served as normal cyclic control. Blood samples were obtained from treated cows on day 0, 7, 9 (AI of treatment and day 21 post-AI, and from control groups on the day of AI and day 21 post-AI for estimation of plasma progesterone, protein, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus profile. Results: The use of CIDR, Ovsynch, and Norgestomet ear implant protocols resulted in 100% estrus induction with conception rates at induced estrus of 60%, 50%, and 50%, and the overall of three cycles as 80%, 80%, and 70%. In untreated anestrus control (n=10, only three cows exhibited spontaneous estrus within 90 days of follow-up and conceived giving the first service and overall conception rates of 66.66% and 30.00%, respectively. In normal cyclic control (n=10, the conception rates at first and overall of three cycles were 50% and 80%. The overall mean plasma progesterone (P4 concentrations in anestrus cows studied on day 0 (initiation, 7 (prostaglandin injection and/or removal of implant, 9 (FTAI of treatment and on day 21 post-AI revealed that the values on day 7 and 21 were significantly (p<0.01 higher than other two periods in all three groups. The concentrations were significantly (p<0.05 higher in conceived than non-conceived group on day 21 post-AI in CIDR (4.36±0.12 vs. 1.65±0.82 ng/ml and Ovsynch (4.85±0.62 vs. 1.59±0

  6. Reason Analysis on Butcher Cow Anestrus Infertility and Countermeasures on Prophylaxis and Treatment%张掖市肉用母牛乏情不育原因分析与防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢汝学; 朱跃明


    With the current institution of increase of butcher cow lacking affection infertility rate in re cent years,this article randomly investigated the cow feeding management, the type, constituent and ori gin,artificial insemination status in Shajing, Linze and other six towns in Zhangye city. Combined with and analyzed the reproductive disorders and systemic change of cows,it could reached the nutritional anestrus infertility conclusion. And the prophylaxis and treatment countermeasures were put forward.%文章根据张掖市近年来户养肉用母牛乏情不育发病率上升现状,随机调查了甘州区沙井镇、临泽县倪家营乡等6个乡镇母牛饲养管理、饲料的种类、成分及来源和人工授精状况,结合母牛生殖机能紊乱和全身变化等情况进行研究分析,得出母牛营养性乏情不育结论并提出防治对策。

  7. Reproductive behaviour of Saint Croix and Suffolk rams at medium latitudes (19º N during long days while being exposed to Suffolk ewes in seasonal anestrus Actividad reproductiva de carneros Santa Cruz y Suffolk en latitudes medias (19º N durante días largos mientras son expuestas ante hembras Suffolk en anestro estacional

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    N Clemente


    Full Text Available Sexual behaviour decreases in sheep breeds of temperate origin during long day length, while tropical rams have been reported to be almost aseasonal. However, changes in sexual behaviour have not been compared between these two breeds, and besides day length no further analysis has been made for other environmental factors. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the sexual behaviour of Saint Croix and Suffolk rams at medium latitudes (19º N during long day length, while being exposed to Suffolk ewes in seasonal anestrus, to avoid sexual feedback from the females. In the first group (T1, three Suffolk males were exposed continuously to females during 13 days, while in the second group (T2 three Saint Croix rams were used. Saint Croix rams displayed more (P En las razas de origen templado, la conducta sexual disminuye durante los días largos, mientras que en los carneros tropicales se observa poco este efecto. Sin embargo, los cambios en la conducta sexual entre estas dos razas no se han comparado, y tampoco se han considerado para su análisis otros factores ambientales que pudieran estar involucrados, diferentes a la longitud del día. El propósito de este estudio preliminar fue el de evaluar la conducta sexual de carneros Santa Cruz y Suffolk a latitudes medias (19º N, durante días largos, durante su exposición a borregas Suffolk en anestro estacional, con el fin de evitar la retroalimentación sexual de las hembras. En el primer grupo (T1, tres machos Suffolk se expusieron de manera continua por 13 días a las hembras, mientras que en el segundo grupo (T2 se utilizaron tres machos Santa Cruz. Los machos Santa Cruz realizaron más (P < 0,05 vocalizaciones y olfateos que los Suffolks (60,6 ± 12.4 vs. 26,8 ± 5,4 y 141,9 ± 17,1 vs. 62,5 ± 11,2, frecuencias/h, respectivamente. La actividad sexual disminuyó (P < 0,01 en los carneros Suffolk a medida que el experimento transcurrió (y = -1,72x + 42,76; P < 0,05, sugiriendo

  8. Medicinal Product Use Reglandin D-(+ - Cloprostenol, Synthetic Analogue of Prostaglandins F2α Natural Body in Fighting with Anestrus Lute (CL in Cattle

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    George Florea Tobă


    Full Text Available The studies made by us are based on fundamental biological role of prostaglandin modulator of hormonal actions, influxs nerve transmission and cellular ionic exchange. One of the main actions of PGF2α is luteolyse, a process that includes the secretion of progesterone and regression yellow body. PGF2α is a luteolitic for almost species: cow, buffalo, sow, mare, sheep, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters and rats, except primates. At present it is considered that PGF2α have their specific receptors, which are fixed and through their model would enable guanidine monophosphate or cyclic GMP's Goldberg. The effect of ocitocic luteolitic and pharmacodynamics basis of PGF2α, used in breeding biotechnologies and hormonal therapy. In medicine veterinary prostaglandines are used after 1973. Were injected with 2 ml Reglandin (150 mg D-(+ - cloprostenol 24 women diagnosed with corpus luteum anestris and 22 females (87.5% came in to oestrus at a mean of 59 hours, and after an average interval of 70 hours.şi were artificially inseminated (AI a total of 20 female (83.33%.

  9. Efecto de la nutrición sobre la duración del anestro postparto en vacas de cría Effect of nutrition on the length of postpartum anestrus in beef cows


    M.V. Donzelli; R. C. Catalano; J.C. BURGES; Machado, C. F


    Unos de los aspectos fundamentales para el éxito económico y productivo en los rodeos de cría es la eficiencia reproductiva. El estado nutricional es uno de los principales factores que regulan la respuesta reproductiva y se ha señalado que el mismo puede ser evaluado a través de la condición corporal. Un inadecuado consumo de nutrientes pre y postparto puede afectar la duración del anestro postparto. Es posible que las hormonas IGF-I, tiroideas y prolactina interactúen en el restablecimiento...

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of AV/UTL/17 in cases of post-partum gynaecological disorders in cows: a field study

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    Rajiv Walia1

    Full Text Available Cross bred cows with the history of retained placenta (n=5, endometritis (n=5 and two of postpartum anestrus (n=2, were presented at Veterinary Hospital, Darang, (H.P., India. The animals were treated with the polyherbal uterine tonic, restorative and ecbolic coded product AV/UTL/17. 83.33% recovery was recorded in this case study which reveals that the administration of herbal uterine tonic preparation is helpful in the treatment of reproductive disorders viz. retained placenta, post partum anestrus and endometritis in cows. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 544-545

  11. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (United States)

    Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (estrus not detected until 8 mo of age, i.e. delayed puberty) is the major reason for culling about 30% of the total number of gilts selected for reproduction at the large breeding farm units in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). It is important to determine whether...

  12. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction. (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R


    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (P<0.01), and OOS ewes were intermediate to, and tended to differ from (P<0.10), the other two breeds. We conclude that OOS ewes developed by selection for fertility in spring matings had an abbreviated seasonal anestrus that is one of the shortest ever reported for temperate breeds, and that tropical St. Croix sheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. PMID:23528712

  13. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin


    Stančić Ivan B; Bošnjak Darko V; Radović Ivan B; Stančić Blagoje L.; Harvey Roger B; Anderson Robin C


    Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty) is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal) or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on the...

  14. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow


    Rossi, Federico


    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  15. Reproductive performance following unilateral ovariectomy for treatment of ovarian tumors in 7 mares


    GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet C.; KAŞIKÇI, Güven; KILIÇARSLAN, Ragıp; UÇMAK, Melih


    Unilateral ovariectomies were performed on 7 mares under inhalation anesthesia for treatment of ovarian tumors. All mares were evaluated for a 2-year history of infertility; 6 mares showed persistent anestrus while 1 mare showed persistent estrus. The presumptive clinical diagnosis of the tumors was made by rectal palpation and ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries. The affected ovaries were large, spherical, and hard, and the contralateral ovaries were small and inactive. The flank approac...

  16. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India (United States)

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.


    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  17. Induction and Synchronization of Estrus in Gilts with P.G.600

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    Ion Valeriu Caraba


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent developments in understanding the physiological mechanisms of reproduction control can be adapted to swine reproductive management. This article points out the procedures that can be used to induce estrus, in pre-pubescent and anestrus gilts, and heat synchronization. For estrus induction and heat synchronization, we used P.G. 600 commercial product (400 IU of PMSG and 200 IU of hCG, Intervet, Millsboro, DE. A total of 36 gilts, from Large White breed, were used, divided in two lots: pre-pubescent gilts (5months of age, no = 19 and gilts in anestrus (8 months of age, no = 17. The efficacy of hormonal P.G. 600 product was different for the two lots. Estrus manifestation rate was different between lots 73.68% of pre-pubescent gilts compared with 76.47% of anestrus gilts. The use of P.G. 600 hormonal product is effective in inducing and synchronizing estrus in gilts. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  18. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan profiles in the canine cervix during different stages of the estrous cycle and in open- and closed-cervix pyometra. (United States)

    Linharattanaruksa, Pichanun; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee


    The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson's trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  19. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

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    M. H. Khan


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross from all districts (n=11 of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195 were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62, 24.61% (n=48, 14.35% (n=28, and 11.25% (n=22, respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%, prolapse (1.53%, endometritis (4.61%, and pyometra (6.66% were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility.

  20. Immunolocalization of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype 4 (EP4 in the Cervix of Cyclic Bitches and Those with Pyometra

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    P Linharattanaruksa1, K Chatdarong1, S Ponglowhapan1, M Khalid3 and S Srisuwatanasagul2*


    Full Text Available Cervix is an important part of the reproductive tract; in non-pregnant animals it remains closed during anestrus and diestrus and is open only during estrus. In pathological conditions like pyometra, the cervix may be open or closed but the control mechanism is not clearly known. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is considered to be involved in changes of extracellular matrix via coupling to prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4. This study investigated the expression of EP4 in the cervices of bitches during different stages of estrous cycle and those with pyometra. After ovariohysterectomy, cervices were collected from anestrus (n=6, estrus (n=12 and diestrus (n=6, open- (n=10 and closed-cervix pyometra (n=10 bitches. Cervical EP4 expression was observed at all the layers and the stages but the differences in EP4 expression either among bitches in different stages of the estrous cycle and between open- and closed-cervix pyometra were limited to only surface epithelium (SE. In cyclic bitches during estrus and in open-cervix pyometra bitches, significantly higher (P<0.05 EP4 expression was found in SE of uterine part than vaginal part. In SE of the uterine part, the expression was higher in the bitches during estrus than in anestrus and diestrus, and in the bitches affected by open-cervix than those with closed-cervix pyometra. The results suggest that regulation of cervical dilation appeared in the uterine part of the cervix. Moreover, EP4 may be involved in stimulating dilation of the cervix in both estrus and open-cervix pyometra bitches.

  1. Test accuracy of metabolic indicators in predicting decreased fertility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C;


    status, measured as anestrus (ANEST), delayed first artificial insemination (DFAI), or delayed conception. Positive and negative predictive values (PV+; PV−) were calculated considering different levels of (within-herd) prevalence. Strata (i.e., subgroup)-specific Se and Sp and associations between test......—in predicting decreased fertility. One plasma sample per cow was collected from 480 cows in 12 herds during the period from d 4 to 21 in milk and analyzed for NEFA, BHBA, and IGF-1. For each cow, data on breed, parity, calving date, gynecological examinations, and insemination dates were obtained. Milk samples...

  2. Reproductive cycle of dogs and artificial insemination


    Zvolská, Helena


    The first sexual cycle of a bitch begins in the period of pubescence, approximately between 6th and 24th month of life. Considering breed and individuality, estrus is repeated mostly twice a year. The whole cycle is divided into 4 stadiums: proestrus (5 – 20 days), estrus (3 – 21 days), metestrus (diestrus, 50-80 days) and anestrus (80 – 240 days). The cycle is initiated due to the evaluation of inner and extinor impulses by the central nervous system. In the first stadium of the cycle, ...

  3. Immunolocalization of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype 4 (EP4) in the Cervix of Cyclic Bitches and Those with Pyometra


    P Linharattanaruksa1, K Chatdarong1, S Ponglowhapan1, M Khalid3 and S Srisuwatanasagul2*


    Cervix is an important part of the reproductive tract; in non-pregnant animals it remains closed during anestrus and diestrus and is open only during estrus. In pathological conditions like pyometra, the cervix may be open or closed but the control mechanism is not clearly known. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is considered to be involved in changes of extracellular matrix via coupling to prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4). This study investigated the expression of EP4 in the cervices of bitch...

  4. Pathologies of the puerperium in the cow


    Hanzen, Christian; Rao, Anne-Sophie; Theron, Léonard; Siewruk, Katarzyna; Gajewski, Zdzislaw


    Conférence donnée le 10 octobre 2015 à la faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de Varsovie .Les questions suivantes ont été développées 1. In which context are we working ? 1 2. Is puerperium important for cow reproductive performances ? 2 3. How to define these pathologies ? 3 1.1. Dystocia 3 1.2. Placental retention 3 1.3. Uterine involution and uterine involution delay. 4 1.4. Uterine infections 4 1.5. The postpartum anestrus 5 4. What’s the prevalence of these pathol...

  5. Estrus cycle effect on muscle tyrosine kinase activity in bitches. (United States)

    Gomes Pöppl, Álan; Costa Valle, Sandra; Hilário Díaz González, Félix; de Castro Beck, Carlos Afonso; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Silveira Martins Da Silva, Roselis


    Estrus cycle is a well recognized cause of insulin resistance in bitches. The insulin receptor (IR) as well as the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor belong to the same subfamily of tyrosine kinase (TK) receptors. The objective of this study was to evaluate basal TK activity in muscle tissue of bitches during the estrus cycle. Twenty-four bitches were used in the study (7 in anestrus, 7 in estrus, and 10 in diestrus). Muscle samples, taken after spaying surgery to determine TK activity, were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80°C until the membranes were prepared by sequential centrifugation after being homogenized. TK activity was determined by Poly (Glu 4:Tyr 1) phosphorylation and expressed in cpm/μg of protein. TK activity was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the animals in estrus (104.5 ± 11.9 cpm/μg of protein) and diestrus (94.5 ± 16.9 cpm/μg of protein) when compared with bitches in anestrus (183.2 ± 39.2 cpm/μg of protein). These results demonstrate, for the first time, lower basal TK activity in the muscle tissue of female dogs during estrus and diestrus, which may represent lower insulin signaling capacity, opening a new field of investigation into the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in dogs. PMID:22139063

  6. Prostaglandin release by cultured endometrial tissues after challenge with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor α, in relation to the estrous cycle, treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and pyometra. (United States)

    Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Socha, Piotr; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta


    To better understand the pathogenesis of endometrial changes in cats associated with administration of progestagen contraceptives and with pyometra, we examined local variability of the prostaglandin synthesis system after challenge with either tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in organ cultures of endometrial tissues derived from cyclic cats, cats treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), or cats with pyometra, as well as in cultured endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, spontaneous prostaglandin secretion was compared in endometria from different experimental groups. Data gathered in the present study show that the concentration of PGE2 in supernatants was increased only in endometrial organ cultures from cats with pyometra (P < 0.001) compared with other groups. This was also true for PGF2α in pyometra, compared with cats treated either short- or long-term with MPA and cats during late diestrus (P < 0.001), anestrus (P < 0.01), and estrus and middiestrus (P < 0.05). Treatment with LPS and TNF-α combined stimulated PGE2 secretion in all groups compared with the control (P < 0.001 for endometria of cats during anestrus or middiestrus, cats treated short-term with MPA, and those with pyometra; P < 0.01 for endometria of cats treated long-term with MPA; and P < 0.05 for the endometria of cats during estrus and late diestrus). The combined treatment with LPS and TNF-α increased PGF2α secretion in the endometria of cats treated short-term with MPA (P < 0.001), during anestrus and pyometra (P < 0.01 for both), and estrus and middiestrus (P < 0.05 for both), compared with the control. Spontaneous secretion of prostaglandins was several times greater in the endometria of queens with pyometra, compared with other groups, which may further regulate the local inflammatory response. Data gathered from endometrial cell culture and endometrial organ culture lead to the conclusion that disturbances in prostaglandin release

  7. Effect of dexamethasone on the estrous cycle length in Black Bengal goats (Capra hircus ). (United States)

    Alam, M G; Ahmed, J U; Jahan, S


    In an experiment to examine the relationships between adrenals and reproductive cycle, 10 mg dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) were injected intramuscularly twice daily for 10 d to four Black Bengal goats, beginning on Day 11 of the synchronized estrous cycle. The extended length of the sexual cycle was monitored by the clinical signs of anestrus. Laparotomy was performed to examine the status of the ovary of an 8, 9, 10 and 8 d extended cycle, respectively. The length of the next cycle was normal. Endogenous cortisol values were suppressed for 11, 13, 20 and 24 d, respectively. It is thought that dexamethasone caused prolonged luteal function either by the suppression of prostaglandin F(2)alpha synthesis or by the suppression of pituitary stimulation of follicular growth. PMID:16726609

  8. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction. (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M


    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  9. Prevalence of ergot derivatives in natural ryegrass pastures: detection and pathogenicity in the horse. (United States)

    Lezica, F P; Filip, R; Gorzalczany, S; Ferraro, G; de Erausquin, G A; Rivas, C; Ladaga, G J B


    In the present study, we determined the incidence and effects of season and weather on clinical manifestations of endophyte-infected ryegrass toxicity, performed chemical detection and pharmacological bioassays on ryegrass extracts, and conducted trials on: (i) effects of domperidone or metochlopramide on ovarian inactivity induced by endophyte-infected ryegrass; (ii) efficacy of buspirone or dihydrochloro phenyl piperazine (m-CPP) for preventing suppressed milk production induced by endophyte-infected ryegrass; and (iii) efficacy of domperidone to induce ovulation during winter anestrus. Mares with toxicosis had prolonged gestation, embryonic losses, dystocia, poor mammary gland development, low milk production, prolonged uterine involution, and suppressed ovarian activity. Foals had respiratory failure, abnormalities of the skin, umbilicus, bone, and muscle, failure to thrive, blindness, testicular atrophy, and decreased serum total immunoglobulin concentrations. Endophyte-infected ryegrass and the incidence of toxicosis were correlated (r=0.861, P=0.03). Ergot alkaloids were not detected in extracts of endophyte-infected ryegrass by either thin-layer chromatography or spectrophotometry, but their presence was inferred in bioassays of extracts (dose-related increases in the contractile response of rat uterus). Mares given metoclopropamide (0.6 mg/kg/d), given orally every 8h for up to 7d) ovulated earlier (4-7d vs. 15-18d, Pmilk production, the latter did not induce ovarian cyclicity in healthy mares during seasonal anestrus. Based on these findings, we inferred that endophyte-infected ryegrass is associated with ergot alkaloid intoxication in horse. PMID:18823653

  10. Identifying diagnostic endocrine markers and changes in endometrial gene expressions during pyometra in cats. (United States)

    Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Siemieniuch, Marta J


    Pyometra is a significant reproductive problem in cats. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the immunological profile of queens by studying plasma concentrations of metabolites of prostacyclin I2 (6-keto-PGF1α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4); and (ii) the gene transcription profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 (TLR2/4), PGE2-synthase (PGES), PGF2α-synthase (PGFS) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in the feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment and during pyometra. The concentration of plasma 6-keto-PGF1α in pyometra was increased in comparison to other groups studied (p<0.01). Endometrial mRNA coding for TLR2 was up-regulated in cats suffering from pyometra compared to other groups (p<0.001). Expression of mRNA for TLR4 was up-regulated in endometria originating from MPA-treated cats, pyometra and late diestrus cats, compared with tissues from cats during estrus and anestrus (p<0.05). As expected, endometrial mRNA for PTGS2 was up-regulated only in pyometra, compared with other groups (p<0.001). Similarly, endometrial mRNA for PGFS was up-regulated in pyometra, compared with endometria from anestrus, late diestrus and from MPA-treated cats (p<0.05), or from cats during estrus (p<0.01). Overall, these results indicate that plasma concentrations of LTB4 and LTC4 are not useful diagnostic markers since they were not increased in queens with pyometra, in contrast to 6-keto-PGF1α. In addition, treatment with MPA evoked neither endocrine nor molecular changes in endometria of cats. PMID:27288342

  11. Características Morfológicas de Ovarios y Ovocitos de Nutrias (Myocastor coypus en Condiciones de Criadero Morphological Characteristics of Ovaries and Oocytes of Otters (Myocastor coypus, in Breeding Conditions

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    Clara Larocca


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar las características morfológicas de los ovarios y ovocitos de la nutria (Myocastor coypus, coypu en las diferentes estaciones del año y etapas del ciclo estral. La nutria (MC es un roedor autóctono de Sudamérica, muy utilizado en la industria peletera. Se sacrificaron 20 hembras, de un peso promedio de 4996,2 g recogiéndose muestras vaginales para realizar colpocitología y determinar el momento del ciclo estral, 11 se faenaron en invierno de las cuales 7 estaban en anestro, 1 en proestro y 3 en diestro y 9 en verano, encontrándose 1 en anestro, 1 en proestro y 7 en diestro. Cada ovario fue transportado en una solución de cloruro de sodio isotónico estéril a 37C al laboratorio. Los ovarios fueron pesados y medidos y se desmenuzaron en placas de Petri con 2 agujas n28, bajo microscopio estereoscópico. Se identificaron los ovocitos, se lavaron en solución Buffer Fosfato Salino (PBS y se caracterizaron en A, B y C. Los resultados de las medias y desviación típica de los pesos de los ovarios fueron: 0,304 g (0,062; largo 9,05 mm(0,19 y ancho 5,05 mm (0,69. Se realizó el análisis de varianza para la condición de los ovocitos, y no se constató diferencias estadísticamente significativas asociadas a la estación ni a la condición estral sobre la condición de los ovocitos (pThe aim of this work was to study the morphological characteristics of ovaries and oocytes of the otter (Myocastor coypus, coypu in different seasons and stages of the estrous cycle. The otter (MC is a rodent native to South America and is widely used in the fur industry. Twenty females with a mean weight of 4996.2 g were sacrificed, vaginal swabs or colpocytology were collected and the time of the estrous cycle was determined. Eleven were slaughtered in winter, of which 7 were in anestrus, 1 in proestrus, and 3 in diestrus; of the 9 slaughtered in summer, 1 was in anestrus, 1 in proestrus and 7 in diestrus. Each

  12. Aspectos histopatológicos da adenomiose em úteros bovinos nas diferentes fases do ciclo estral Histophatological aspects of adenomyosis in bovine uteri in different phases of the estrous cycle

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    L. Moreira


    Full Text Available Relacionaram-se as características da adenomiose com as fases do ciclo estral em 61 peças de úteros de bovinos colhidas em matadouros. A adenomiose foi classificada em superficial e profunda. A fase do ciclo estral foi estimada pela morfologia, pela coloração e pela vascularização do corpo lúteo e presença ou não de folículos ovarianos maiores que 8mm. Os animais que estavam em anestro (n=11 apresentaram a menor ocorrência de adenomiose (8,2%, e os que estavam na fase lútea média (n=21, a maior (31,0%. Nas fases lútea inicial (n=13 e folicular (n=16 as ocorrências foram semelhantes, 18,0 e 22,9%, respectivamente. A maior porcentagem de adenomiose profunda ocorreu nas fases lútea inicial e média, 45,0 e 47,4%, respectivamente, e durante o anestro e a fase folicular foram de 20,0 e 14,3%, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que a fase do ciclo estral influencia na ocorrência de adenomiose e no grau de infiltração miometrial das glândulas endometriais.The relationship of the adenomyosis characteristics and the phases of the estrus cycle in 61 cows bovine’s uteruses collected in slaughterhouses was studied. The adenomyoses were classified as superficial and deep. The morphology, staining and vascularization of the corpus luteum and the presence or not of larger ovarian follicles than 8mm helped to estimate tthe estrus cycle. The cows in anestrus (n=11 showed the least occurrence of adenomyosis (8.2% and the animals in the medium luteal phase (n=21 the largest one(31,0%. In the initial luteal phase (n=13 and the follicular phase (n=16 the occurrences of adenomyosis were similar and equals to 18.0 and 22.9%, respectively. The largests percentage of deep adenomyosis were found in the initial and in the medium luteal phases, 45.0 and 47.4%, respectively, and during the anestrus and the follicular phase they were 20.0 and 14.3%, respectively. The data suggest that the cycle phase influences in adenomyosis occurrence and in the

  13. Detección del Polimorfismo en el Gen del Receptor de Melatonina (MT1 en la Oveja Criolla Araucana Detection of MT1 Melatonin Receptor Gene Polymorphism (MT1 in the Araucana Creole Sheep

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    J Quiñones


    Full Text Available La melatonina es una hormona que regula los ciclos circadianos y muchos de los aspectos reproductivos de los mamíferos y es secretada por la glándula pineal en las horas de ausencia de luz. Esta hormona posee receptores de alta afinidad acoplados a proteínas de tipo G, denominados MT1. Un polimorfismo de la secuencia que codifica para estos receptores estaría involucrado en el control de la reproducción estacional de los ovinos. El propósito de este estudio busca determinar la presencia del polimorfismo del receptor MT1 en la oveja criolla Araucana, un ovino local en el que se ha registrado un corto anestro reproductivo. Para poder realizar este trabajo se utilizó la técnica denominada reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para polimorfismo en el tamaño de los fragmentos de restricción PCR-RFLP, para lo cual, se obtuvieron muestras de ADN genómico de 50 ovejas Araucanas, las cuales fueron digeridas con la endonucleasa de restricción Mnl1. Se logró identificar la presencia del polimorfismo del receptor MT1 en la oveja Araucana. Los genotipos se hallaron en una frecuencia de 68% para el genotipo +/+, 28% para el genotipo +/- y4% para el genotipo -/-. Este alto porcentaje de animales con genotipo +/+ podría explicar el corto anestro reproductivo que presenta esta raza.Melatonin is a hormone that regulates circadian rhythms and many of the reproductive aspects of mammals and is secreted by the pineal gland during the hours of absence of light. This hormone has high affinity receptors coupled to G-like proteins, termed MT1. A polymorphism of the sequence coding for these receptors was involved in the control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MT1 receptor polymorphism in Araucana creole sheep, a local breed with a short reproductive anestrus. To carry out this work, we used a technique called polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lengh polymorphism PCR-RFLP, for which

  14. Endocrine and Ovarian Changes in Response to the Ram Effect in Medroxyprogesterone Acetate-primed Corriedale Ewes During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Season

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    Rubianes E


    levels than ewes that did not ovulate, none of which had an LH surge. We conclude that (a the effect of ram introduction in cyclic ewes treated with MAP may vary depending on the time of the breeding season at which teasing is performed; (b patterns of FSH, and estradiol-17β concentrations, as indicators of activity of the reproductive axis, may be used to classify depth of anestrus; and (c the endocrine pattern of the induced follicular phase, which is related to the depth of anestrus, may be reflected in the behavioral responses to MAP priming and the ram effect.

  15. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  16. Association between progesterone and estradiol-17beta treatment and protein expression of pgr and PGRMC1 in porcine luminal epithelial cells: a real-time cell proliferation approach. (United States)

    Kempisty, B; Wojtanowicz-Markiewicz, K; Ziółkowska, A; Budna, J; Ciesiółka, S; Piotrowska, H; Bryja, A; Antosik, P; Bukowska, D; Wollenhaupt, K; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M


    The correct functionality (sensitivity and receptivity) of endometrial tissue is regulated by paracrine and endocrine pathways that activate several mediators or metabolic pathways and gene cascades. This study aimed to investigate the influence of E2 and P4 on progesterone receptor (PGR) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) protein expression in porcine luminal epithelial cells and their influence on the proliferation of these cells in real-time. Surface uterine luminal epithelial cells were removed using sterile surgical blades from uterine horns of ten crossbred anestrus gilts. Following treatment with collagenase I, cells were separated and transferred into 48-well E-Plates for use in a realtime cell analyzer (RTCA). The luminal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro (IVC) in standard DMEM cell culture medium and incubated with E2 (10 pg/ml, 40 pg/ml, 500 pg/ml) and P4 (10 ng/ml, 40 ng/ ml, 500 ng/ml). The cell proliferation index was analyzed after 0-240 h, 0-120 h, 120-240 h. After using the RTCA analysis we found increased proliferation of luminal epithelial cells after treatment of low doses of P4 (10 and 40 ng/ml), (P porcine luminal epithelial cells. The relationship between PGR or PGRMC1 expression and the proliferation of luminal epithelial cells may be influenced (up- or down regulated) by E2 or P4 in a steroid type- and dose-dependent manner. PMID:25864740

  17. Analysis of reasons for sow culling and seasonal effects on reproductive disorders in Southern China. (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxiang; Liu, Xiaohong; Mo, Delin; Chen, Qingsen; Chen, Yaosheng


    Sow culling rates have a direct correlation to the economic efficiency of both breeding herd and commercial herd. Analyzing the reasons of sow culling could lead to improve production efficiency of farms. This study, which involved inspections of four farms in Southern China, manifested that the rate of unplanned sow-culling has reached to 78.1% in total culls. In which, reproductive disorders and lameness accounted for 35.3% and 22.5%, respectively. The average parity of culled sows was 4.9, but a high proportion (19.6%) of sows was culled at their first parity. Anestrus, the highest proportion of reproductive disorders, accounting for 47.7%, occurred in July followed by June (17.7% and 11.8% respectively). The frequency of culling due to reproductive disorders in Southern China was higher than others regions, which suffered from the high temperature and humidity in Southern China. The frequency of sow culling reached its peak in the summer, specifically in July (12.3%), which means that hot weather has an adverse effect on sow culling. Pig farmers should take effective measures to reduce heat stress as nutrition strategies or cooling systems in gestation and/or farrowing sow herds between May and July in Southern China. PMID:26139322

  18. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

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    Gorakh Nath Prajapati


    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  19. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle. (United States)

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen


    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. PMID:24961478

  20. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.


    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  1. Induction of ovulation in anestrous mares with pulsatile administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (United States)

    Johnson, A L


    Four seasonally anestrous mares (Standardbred), housed under a nonstimulatory photoperiod of 8 hours light:16 hours dark, were administered gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a pulsatile pattern (50 or 250 micrograms of GnRH/hour) for 8 to 18 days during February and March 1985. Treatment with GnRH, irrespective of dose or month, induced an increase in serum luteinizing hormone from a mean pretreatment value typical of anestrus (0.58 +/- 0.02 ng/ml +/- SE) to 10.84 +/- 1.27 ng/ml on day 8 of GnRH treatment. Ovulation in the 4 mares occurred 8.8 +/- 0.7 days after the initiation of pulsatile GnRH administration. In each instance, ovulation was followed by a functional corpus luteum, as indicated by a luteal phase (defined as the number of days on which serum levels of progesterone were greater than 1.0 ng/ml) which lasted 14.5 +/- 0.6 days. These results indicate that infusion of GnRH in a pulsatile pattern is effective in inducing follicular development and ovulation in anestrous mares in the absence of a stimulatory photoperiod. PMID:3521408

  2. Diagnosis of post-partum anoestrus in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

  3. The role of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the pathogenesis of feline pyometra. (United States)

    Jursza, E; Kowalewski, M P; Boos, A; Skarzynski, D J; Socha, P; Siemieniuch, M J


    Pyometra is the most common uterine disease in queens. To protect itself from infection, the female reproductive tract possesses several immune mechanisms that are based on germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptors [TLRs]). The aim of our study was to examine endometrial immunolocalization of TLR2/4, study the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α on messenger RNA expression of both receptors in pyometric queens, and compare these patterns between estrous cycling queens and those hormonally treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Thirty-six queens, ranging in age from 7 months to 11 years, were allocated into seven groups (anestrus, estrus, mid-diestrus and late diestrus, short-term and long-term hormonally treated queens, and pyometric queens). At the messenger RNA level, the real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied, whereas at the TLR2/4 protein level, the expression was tested by immunohistochemistry. In queens at estrus, gene expression of TLR2 was upregulated after stimulation of endometrial explants by TNF (P pyometra development. PMID:25481489

  4. Genome-wide association for the outcome of fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers in northern Australia. (United States)

    Porto-Neto, L R; Edwards, S; Fortes, M R S; Lehnert, S A; Reverter, A; McGowan, M


    Fixed-time AI (FTAI) is a powerful tool for genetic improvement of extensively managed beef cattle. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was conducted to investigate genes and genetic markers associated with the outcome (pregnant or not pregnant) of FTAI in 614 commercial Brahman heifers genotyped for 18,895 SNP and imputed to 51,588 SNP. The likelihood of Brahman heifers becoming pregnant after hormonal treatment to synchronize ovulation followed by FTAI was influenced by the content of their genomes, as determined by a principal component analysis. The principal component analysis involved comparisons between the studied heifers and populations of known and ancestry. The heritability of FTAI outcome was = 0.18, which is higher than for most other reproductive outcome traits. The number of SNP associated with FTAI outcome was 101 ( Brahman heifer puberty and postpartum anestrus interval, 3 genomic regions emerge as important for overall Brahman heifer fertility, which mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, and 9. Further analyses, including improved genome annotation, are required to elucidate the link between these regions and heifer fertility. Additional studies are needed to confirm SNP and gene associations reported herein and further elucidate the genetics of FTAI outcome. Future GWAS should target other Braham populations and additional cattle breeds with FTAI records, including breeds with higher ancestry. PMID:26641032

  5. Treatment of cystic ovarian disease in dairy cattle. Comparative observation of the effects of an intramuscular injection of corticosteroids and an intravenous injection of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone. (United States)

    Nakao, T; Ono, H


    Of 67 cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD), 34 were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg of betamethasone of 10 mg of dexamethasone (CC) and 33 intravenously with a combination of 3,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin and 125 mg of progesterone (HCG -P). Pregnancy rates and intervals between treatment and conception were 32.4% and 32.1 +/- 30.5 days, respectively, in the CC-treated cows and 30.3% and 51.6 +/- 29.5 days in the HCG -P-treated ones. Cows which had not responded to gonadotropin treatment showed a considerably higher pregnancy rate when treated with CC and a lower pregnancy rate when administered with HCG -P than those which had received no treatment before. There was a trend that the earlier a cow was treated, the more readily she recovered. CC injection gave a satisfactory result even when performed long after calving. The estrous behaviour seemed to be related with prognosis in cows with COD. In both CC-treated and HCG -P-treated cows, the pregnancy rate was the highest in cows showing anestrus and the lowest in those exhibiting irregular estrus. PMID:64331

  6. Sustained delivery of exogenous melatonin influences biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in summer-stressed anestrous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Narayanan, K; Das, G K; Soni, Y K; Singh, Mahak; Mahla, A S; Srivastava, N; Verma, M R


    High ambient temperature during summer in tropical and subtropical countries predisposes water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to develop oxidative stress having antigonadotropic and antisteroidogenic actions. Melatonin is a regulator of seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic species and highly effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the effect of sustained-release melatonin on biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). For the study, postpartum buffaloes diagnosed as summer anestrus (absence of overt signs of estrus, concurrent rectal examination, and RIA for serum progesterone) were grouped as treated (single subcutaneous injection of melatonin at 18 mg/50 kg body weight dissolved in sterilized corn oil as vehicle, n = 20) and untreated (subcutaneous sterilized corn oil, n = 8). Blood sampling for estimation of serum TAC and MDA (mmol/L) and NO (μmol/L) was carried out at 4 days of interval from 8 days before treatment till 28 days after treatment or for the ensuing entire cycle length. Results showed serum TAC concentration was higher in the treatment group with a significant (P stress resulting in the induction of cyclicity in summer-stressed anestrous buffaloes. PMID:25805692

  7. Recovery rate, morphological quality and nuclear maturity of canine cumulus-oocyte complexes collected from anestrous or diestrous bitches of different ages. (United States)

    Lopes, G; Sousa, M; Luvoni, G Cecilia; Rocha, A


    Canine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were recovered from ovaries of post-pubertal animals (1-3, 4-6 and 7-10 years old) at different ovarian estrous phases (anestrus and diestrus). The number of COCs, and the number and nuclear maturity of high-quality (grade-1) oocytes were assessed. For all animals, no significant differences were found between the two reproductive phases relatively to the total number of COCs and grade-1 oocytes recovered. However, significant higher numbers of COCs were recovered from young than from elderly animals, and the proportion of grade-1 oocytes was also significantly higher in the younger group than in the other two age-groups. Of 226 grade-1 oocytes, 73% were at the germinal vesicle stage (GV), 10% had resumed meiosis (9% at germinal vesicle breakdown; 1% at metaphase-I) and 17% were degenerated. A significant effect of the reproductive phase on oocyte nuclear maturity was found only for adult animals, with a higher number of GV oocytes being found at anestrous (79%) due to higher rates of meiosis resumption (34%) at diestrous. The high number of grade-1 oocytes with meiosis resumption and fragmented or unidentified nuclear contents, indicates that current criteria for the selection of viable canine COCs are not optimized and need a new definition. PMID:17714773

  8. Effect of photoperiod on reproductive activity and hair in mares. (United States)

    Kooistra, L H; Ginther, O J


    The effects of photoperiod on reproductive activity and hair changes in pony mares were studied in 2 experiments. In experiment I, the effect of a fixed daily photoperiod on the onset of the breeding season was studied in 36 mares from Nov 13, 1973, to June 13, 1974. The 4 treatment groups were as follows: daily photoperiod equivalent to the normal day length (control group); constant light 24 hours a day with no dark (L24:D0 group); 16-hour daily photoperiod with 8 hours of dark (L16:D8 group); and 9-hour daily photoperiod with 15 hours of dark (L9:D15 group). The intervals from beginning of experiment to 1st ovulation of breeding season, to shedding of hair in tufts, and to appearance of a smooth coat were shorter (P less than 0.05) for L16:D8 group (107.1 +/- 11.1, 56.0 +/- 0, and 145.8 +/- 4.0 days, respectively) than for control, L24:D0, and L9:D15 groups and were shorter (P less than 0.05) for L24:D0 group (less than 156.1 +/- 12.2, 99.5 +/- 9.5, and 173.9 +/- 9.9 days, respectively) than for control group (192.1 +/- 3.3, 134.9 +/- 8.9, and 205.0 +/- 0 days, respectively) or L9:D15 group (less than 200.3 +/- 5,8, 150.6 +/- 12.9, and 201.7 +/- 3.3 days, respectively). These intervals were not significantly different between the control group and the L9:D15 group, but fewer (P less than 0.05) mares in the L9:D15 group had at least 1 ovulation by termination of the project. In experiment II, the effect of photoperiod on onset of anestrus was studied in 3 groups of 7 mares each. Mares in group A, as part of a previous experiment, were induced to enter the breeding season earlier than normal by a gradual increase in daily photoperiod beginning on Oct 13, 1972. From Feb 16, 1973, to June 22, 1973, group A mares were maintained at a fixed daily photoperiod of 15 hours 23 minutes. Mares in group B, as part of a previous experiment, were kept under environmental conditions simulating normal conditions in southern Wisconsin. On June 22, 1973 (beginning of the present

  9. Saliva ferning, an unorthodox estrus detection method in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). (United States)

    Ravinder, R; Kaipa, Onnureddy; Baddela, Vijay Simha; Singhal Sinha, Eshu; Singh, Prashant; Nayan, Varij; Velagala, Chandra Sekhar Naidu; Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer


    Estrus detection is a major problem in buffalo husbandry because of inconsistent expression of estrous signs at different seasons, and a high prevalence of the silent heat and postpartum anestrus in this species. Around 50% of the estrus events in buffaloes are currently undetected in the field conditions, resulting in a huge economic loss. Although the cervicovaginal fluid fern patterns confirm the estrus for a breeding decision, the fluid discharge is absent during the silent-heat condition. Therefore, the present study focused on the crystallization patterns of the saliva as an alternative method for estrus detection in buffaloes. Saliva is a body fluid available regularly, and its ferning ability before ovulation was established in women. In this study, eight female nonpregnant Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were considered during two experimental periods of 3 months each. One period was in summer with five animals, and another period was in rainy season with three animals. Estrus was determined by the estrus symptoms, ovarian ultrasonography, and salivary estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) ratio. A total of 450 saliva samples were collected from these animals on the daily basis. The salivary smear was prepared with 20 μL of the cell-free saliva on a clean glass slide, and its microscopic images were captured at a magnification of × 200. The images were used for fractal analysis as the salivary crystallization or fern patterns follow the fractal geometry. Saliva at estrus showed a typical symmetrical fern-like crystallization patterns with significantly (P buffaloes on the basis of distinct salivary crystallization patterns. The proportion of estrus detection by the salivary fern patterns was very significantly (P buffaloes. PMID:27181055

  10. Endometrial cytology and computerized morphometric analysis of epithelial nuclei: a useful tool for reproductive diagnosis in the bitch. (United States)

    Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Arrighi, S; Di Giancamillo, A; Cremonesi, F


    New diagnostic approaches are required to recognize early canine hypofertility or infertility. We suggest that the identification of different cytologic types, cellular aspects, and nuclear features of the endometrial epithelial cells may be suitable for this purpose. This study was performed on the bitch (Canis familiaris) during the physiologic reproductive cycle and in uterine diseases. We also applied computerized cytomorphometry to evaluate nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, density, aspect, and roundness of endometrial epithelial cells in healthy dogs (N=35) at different stages of the reproductive cycle (before puberty, during proestrus, estrus, diestrus, and anestrus) and in bitches affected by uterine disorders (N=10). The stage of the estrous cycle was determined by vaginal cytology and progesterone evaluation and also confirmed by clinical and histologic observations. Samples for endometrial cytology were collected in vivo by uterine flushing with transcervical uterine cannulation. After uterine sampling, each dog underwent OHE or uterine stump revision. Cytologic analyses were compared with histologic examinations to verify the uterine condition. The uterine cellular population was represented by endometrial epithelial cells, erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, macrophages, plasma cells, and cervical or incidental vaginal cells. Bacteria and amorphous material were observed. The proportion of different cells and nuclear features in the cytologic samples varied throughout the stages of the reproductive cycle and between normal and pathologic uterine conditions. The computer-assisted nuclear morphometry, performed in cytologic specimens by means of the six nuclear parameters chosen to evaluate the endometrial epithelial cell population, proved to be useful for determining the stage of the reproductive cycle. Furthermore, this system was demonstrated to be a valid support to diagnose and distinguish uterine disorders. PMID:20116837

  11. Morphometric Study of the Mare Oviductal Mucosa at Different Reproductive Stages. (United States)

    Mouguelar, Horacio; Díaz, Tomás; Borghi, Damiana; Quinteros, Rolando; Bonino, Facundo; Apichela, Silvana Andrea; Aguilar, José Javier


    The objectives of this work were to describe some morphometric characteristics and to establish quantitative parameters of different regions of the equine oviductal mucosa from the isthmus, ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ), and ampulla. Twenty-one mixed-bred mares were used for this study. Mares were selected in the following reproductive phases: anestrus, estrus, and diestrus. The left oviducts were examined with light microscopy, and rights ones were studied through the intraoviductal molds. The isthmus showed the smallest luminal area, mucosal area, epithelial perimeter, and luminal diameter. On the molds surfaces, some grooves extended as longitudinal canals, reducing their depth as they approached to the AIJ. Several small height projections, some obliquely positioned towards utero-tubal junction, were observed in all reproductive phases. These formations may represent pockets or cul-de-sacs in the basal areas of the epithelial folds. The AIJ mucosa gradually changed from the smooth isthmic region toward highly folded ampulla. The number and complexity of epithelial folds showed moderate increase in the same way that many of the morphometric parameters. Multiple curves were observed on the molds of the AIJ, creating a zigzag path in the oviductal lumen. In the ampulla, the high branched epithelial folds occupied most of the lumen, leaving a small luminal area free. A linear relationship between epithelial perimeter and mucosal area was found. The presence of glandular-like structures was observed in all the reproductive stages studied. The equine endosalpinx reveals a highly complex tridimensional arrangement where each region shows very particular and specific designs. PMID:26136388

  12. Metabolic profiles using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in postpartum dairy cows with ovarian inactivity. (United States)

    Xu, Chuchu; Xia, Cheng; Sun, Yuhang; Xiao, Xinhuan; Wang, Gang; Fan, Ziling; Shu, Shi; Zhang, Hongyou; Xu, Chuang; Yang, Wei


    To understand the differences in metabolic changes between cows with ovarian inactivity and estrus cows, we selected cows at 60-90 days postpartum from an intensive dairy farm. According to clinical manifestations, B-ultrasound scan, rectal examination, 10 cows were assigned to the estrus group (A) and 10 to the ovarian inactivity group (B). All plasma samples were analyzed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare plasma metabolomic profiles between the groups. We used multivariate pattern recognition to screen for different metabolites in plasma of anestrus cows. Compared with normal estrous cows, there were abnormalities in 12 kinds of metabolites in postpartum cows with ovarian inactivity (|r|> 0.602), including an increase in acetic acid (r = -0.817), citric acid (r = -0.767), and tyrosine (r = -0.714), and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.820), very low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.828), lipids (r = 0.769), alanine (r = 0.816), pyruvate (r = 0.721), creatine (r = 0.801), choline (r = 0.639), phosphorylcholine (r = 0.741), and glycerophosphorylcholine (r = 0.881). These metabolites were closely related to abnormality of glucose, amino acid, lipoprotein and choline metabolism, which may disturb the normal estrus. The decrease in plasma creatine and the increase in tyrosine were new changes for ovarian inactivity of postpartum cows. The decrease in plasma creatine and choline and the increase in tyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylalanine in cows with ovarian inactivity provide new directions for research on the mechanism of ovarian inactivity in cows. PMID:27291083

  13. Using UHF proximity loggers to quantify male-female interactions: a scoping study of estrous activity in cattle. (United States)

    O'Neill, C J; Bishop-Hurley, G J; Williams, P J; Reid, D J; Swain, D L


    Reproductive efficiency is an important determinant of profitable cattle breeding systems and the success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in wildlife conservation programs. Methods of estrous detection used in intensive beef and dairy cattle systems lack accuracy and remain the single biggest issue for improvement of reproductive rates and such methods are not practical for either large-scale extensive beef cattle enterprises or free-living mammalian species. Recent developments in UHF (ultra high frequency) proximity logger telemetry devices have been used to provide a continuous pair-wise measure of associations between individual animals for both livestock and wildlife. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using UHF telemetry to identify the reproductive cycle phenotype in terms of intensity and duration of estrus. The study was conducted using Belmont Red (interbred Africander Brahman Hereford-Shorthorn) cattle grazing irrigated pasture on Belmont Research Station, northeastern Australia. The cow-bull associations from three groups of cows each with one bull were recorded over a 7-week breeding season and the stage of estrus was identified using ultrasonography. Telemetry data from bull and cows, collected over 4 8-day logger deployments, were log transformed and analyzed by ANOVA. Both the number and duration of bull-cow affiliations were significantly (P<0.001) greater in estrous cows compared to anestrus cows. These results support the development of the UHF technology as a hands-off and noninvasive means of gathering socio-sexual information on both wildlife and livestock for reproductive management. PMID:25449547

  14. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases

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    A. Sharma


    Full Text Available The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23 during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05 and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05 during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl, plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l, magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l, potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l and significantly lower (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl, globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml and T4 (6.0±0.27 μg/ml concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 μg/ml concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep.

  15. Effect of some management and nutritional factors on the fertility of milking cows under traditional husbandry system in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six farms (A, B, C, D, E and F) of the intensive system type were selected. They were located 50 km south of Khartoum. Nutritional parameters with respect to metabolizable energy intake (MEI)and crude protein (CP) concentration of the diet were investigated . Other managerial practices were also closely examined. Cows that recently calved were monitored throughout the study period (300 days) for days to first progesterone (P4) rise and days to conception using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique and rectal palpation. The above fertility parameters were correlated with either body condition score (BCS) or body weight (Bwt) at calving, 30, 60 and 90 days from calving. Similar correlations were done after pooling all farms together excluding farm E which consisted of the pure exotic breed. Likewise same correlations were done for the cows grouped according to calving during wet and dry summer. Milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days from calving were also correlated with days to first P4 rise and days to conception. Regression analysis were carried out for correlations which showed high or moderate relationships. The interval from caving to ovulation or conception varied within and between farms. Farm E showed the shortest (17) days to first P4 rise while farm C showed the longest days. Likewise farm E showed the shortest (56) days to conception while farm F showed the longest (161) days. However farm F, showed the lowest conception rate and highest percentage of anestrus cows. Best conception rates within 90 days postpartum were observed in farm C followed by farm E, B, A, D and F. Days to conception was negatively correlated (P4 rise was negatively correlated (P<0.004, r=0.99) with body score at calving (BCS.Calv), but positively correlated with Bwt.Calv. (P<0.08, r=0.91), body weight change at 30 days from calving (P<0.13, r=0.86), and body weight change at 60 days from calving (P<0.08, r=0.91). No significant difference (P=0.29) between wet and dry summer for days to

  16. Investigation of melting point difference in the case of alfaprostol lactol intermediate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The modified prostaglandin, Alfaprostol (1) is a luteolytic agent used injectably for scheduling of estrus in mares for purposes of planned breeding and for treatment of postweaning anestrus in economically important farm animals. For these purposes, 1 is more potent than naturally occurring PGF2α (D. Lednicer et al., The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis, Vol. 4, J. Wiley and Sons, New York, 1990). It is remarkable that the molecular features of 1 are the acetylenic linkage at C-13, the methyl ester moiety and terminal cyclohexyl ring which inhibits some forms of metabolic inactivation. Nowadays clinical research work connected with this drug is in Phase II. (Prous Science Integrity, http:// The key intermediate of its synthesis is a lactol derivative (2) formed from Corey lactone reduction (3) which undergoes Wittig reaction to bind the chain (upper) of cyclopentane ring of 1. Melting point differences can be obtained between the individual samples of lactol type compound 2. (The melting points were measured in the range of 160-180 deg C.) To clear up the difference, DSC, TG, X-ray powder diffraction and NMR measurements have been carried out with some samples of 1 prepared at diverse time. On the DSC curves the endoterm temperature peaks increased in accordance with the order of the melting points. In the case of samples about 4-5% loss of mass (1 mole chemically bound water) appeared on the TG curves. Therefore it could be confirmed that the melting point difference was not caused by the different amount of residual solvents. But the difference of intensity ratio could be seen on the X-ray curves and NMR spectra. Since the substances are the same and probably contain a mixture of two epimers. All this can be also explained by the deviation of DSC curves. The reason why the two series of signals could be obtained on the NMR spectra is the reduction of the Corey lactone intermediate 3. It could be

  17. Induction of ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares under ambient lights using recombinant equine FSH (reFSH). (United States)

    Meyers-Brown, Geraldine A; McCue, Patrick M; Troedsson, Mats H T; Klein, Claudia; Zent, Walter; Ferris, Ryan A; Lindholm, Alicia R G; Scofield, David B; Claes, Anthony N; Morganti, Monica; Colgin, Mark A; Wetzel, Robert L; Peters, Andrew R; Roser, Janet F


    . Mares administered reFSH returned to anestrus and spontaneously ovulated at a similar calendar date as control mares. These data indicate that reFSH was effective in stimulating the development of ovarian follicles and advancing the first ovulation of the year in seasonally anestrous mares under ambient lights but was not successful in inducing continued cyclicity. PMID:23768752

  18. Validation of a noninvasive diagnostic tool to verify neuter status in dogs: The urinary FSH to creatinine ratio. (United States)

    Albers-Wolthers, C H J; de Gier, J; Oei, C H Y; Schaefers-Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S


    Determining the presence of functional gonadal tissue in dogs can be challenging, especially in bitches during anestrus or not known to have been ovariectomized, or in male dogs with nonscrotal testes. Furthermore, in male dogs treated with deslorelin, a slow-release GnRH agonist implant for reversible chemical castration, the verification of complete downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis can be difficult, especially if pretreatment parameters such as the size of the testes or prostate gland are not available. The aims of this study were to validate an immunoradiometric assay for measurement of FSH in canine urine, to determine if the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio can be used to verify the neuter status in bitches and male dogs, as an alternative to the plasma FSH concentration, and to determine if downregulation of the HPG axis is achieved in male dogs during deslorelin treatment. Recovery of added canine FSH and serial dilutions of urine reported that the immunoradiometric assay measures urinary FSH concentration accurately and with high precision. Plasma FSH concentrations (the mean of two samples, taken 40 minutes apart) and the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio were determined before gonadectomy and 140 days (median, range 121-225 days) and 206 days (median, range 158-294 days) after gonadectomy of 13 bitches and five male dogs, respectively, and in 13 male dogs before and 132 days (median, range 117-174 days) after administration of a deslorelin implant. In both bitches and male dogs, the plasma FSH concentration and the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio were significantly higher after gonadectomy, with no overlapping of their ranges. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio revealed a cut-off value of 2.9 in bitches and 6.5 in males to verify the presence or absence of functional gonadal tissue. In male dogs treated with deslorelin, the plasma FSH concentrations and urinary FSH to

  19. New concepts of the central control of reproduction, integrating influence of stress, metabolic state, and season. (United States)

    Clarke, I J; Arbabi, L


    Gonadotropin releasing hormone is the primary driver of reproductive function and pulsatile GnRH secretion from the brain causes the synthesis and secretion of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland. Recent work has revealed that the secretion of GnRH is controlled at the level of the GnRH secretory terminals in the median eminence. At this level, projections of kisspeptin cells from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are seen to be closely associated with fibers and terminals of GnRH cells. Direct application of kisspeptin into the median eminence causes release of GnRH. The kisspeptin cells are activated at the time of a natural "pulse" secretion of GnRH, as reflected in the secretion of LH. This appears to be due to input to the kisspeptin cells from glutamatergic cells in the basal hypothalamus, indicating that more than 1 neural element is involved in the secretion of GnRH. Because the GnRH secretory terminals are outside the blood-brain barrier, factors such as kisspeptin may be administered systemically to cause GnRH secretion; this offers opportunities for manipulation of the reproductive axis using factors that do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In particular, kisspeptin or analogs of the same may be used to activate reproduction in the nonbreeding season of domestic animals. Another brain peptide that influences reproductive function is gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Work in sheep shows that this peptide acts on GnRH neuronal perikarya, but projections to the median eminence also allow secretion into the hypophysial portal blood and action of GnIH on pituitary gonadotropes. GnIH cells are upregulated in anestrus, and infusion of GnIH can block the ovulatory surge in GnRH and/or LH secretion. Metabolic status may also affect the secretion of reproduction, and this could involve action of gut peptides and leptin. Neuropeptide Y and Y-receptor ligands have a negative impact on reproduction, and Neuropeptide Y production is markedly increased in

  20. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

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    Stančić Ivan B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  1. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

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    Álan Maia Borges


    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of h

  2. The applications of timed artificial insemination and timed embryo transfer in reproductive management of dairy cattle Aplicação da inseminação artificial e transferência de embrião em tempo fixo no manejo reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras

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    Divakar Justus Ambrose


    Full Text Available Fertility of dairy cattle is generally decreasing. Overall estrus detection efficiency in lactating dairy cattle is low, as expression of estrus is often compromised. Consequently, undetected estrus, low AI-submission rates, and long inter-breeding intervals are the main contributors to poor reproductive efficiency. Although failure to become pregnant is the most common reason for culling dairy cattle, pregnancy rates could be improved by increasing the AI-submission rate through increased estrus detection efficiency, timed insemination (Timed-AI, or timed embryo transfer (Timed-ET. In these protocols, ovarian follicular development and luteolysis are controlled, culminating in synchronous ovulation in most cows. There are several modifications to improve pregnancy rates in Timed-AI protocols, e.g. presynchronization with 2 doses of PGF2a 14 d apart, and starting the Ovsynch protocol 12 d after the 2nd PGF2a. Timed-AI programs ensure a timely first breeding; this should be followed with early pregnancy diagnosis to identify nonpregnant cows, and prompt re-insemination. However, in a recent field study involving 23 dairy herds, the mean interval between 1st and 2nd breeding was 42 d; only 28% of the cows were rebred within 24 d after 1st breeding. Fortunately, there are several resynchronization protocols to reduce inter-breeding intervals. Anestrus cows, or those with cystic ovarian follicles, have a good chance of conceiving when subjected to synchronization of ovulation and Timed-AI. Furthermore, Timed-ET is a practical and viable option for synchronizing and selecting recipient cattle for embryo transfers. In summary, systematic and judicious use of Timed-AI and Timed-ET protocols can greatly enhance reproductive performance, and improve herd productivity.A fertilidade em vacas de leite está em decréscimo e, de modo geral, a detecção eficiente do estro em vacas lactantes é baixa, já que a expressão do estro é frequentemente