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Sample records for anestrus

  1. Profil Hormon Progesteron pada Anjing Kintamani Fase Anestrus Setelah Disuntik Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (THE PROGESTERONE PROFILE IN ANESTRUS KINTAMANI BITCHES AFTER INJECTED USING PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN

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    I Ketut Puja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Profil Hormon Progesteron pada Anjing Kintamani Fase Anestrus Setelah Disuntik Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (THE PROGESTERONE PROFILE IN ANESTRUS KINTAMANI BITCHES AFTER INJECTED USING PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN

  2. Risk factors for postpartum anestrus in crossbred cows in Bangladesh

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    Kamal, M.M.; Uddin Bhuiyan, M.M.; Parveen, N.; Momont, H.W.; Shamsuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Ultrasonography and a structured questionnaire were used in a cross-sectional study to gather data on the prevalence and risk factors for anestrus in crossbred cows at ≥60 days postpartum in 273 smallholder farms. The prevalence of anestruc was 18%. The odds ratio (OR) for true anestrus was 17.52 and 2.81 times higher (P < 0.05) in cows with poor (≤2.0) and excessive (>3.5) body condition score (BCS), respectively, compared to those with optimal BCS (2.5-3.5), 2.82 times higher in suckled than in nonsuckled cows (P = 0.03), and 2.53 times higher in cows that calved during the cold season than in those that calved during the hot season (P = 0.03). The OR for anestrus was 1.62 times higher (P = 0.017) in cows managed by an employee than in those managed by the farmers themselves (P = 0.001), and 2.66 times higher (P = 0.003) in small farms (≤5 cows) than in large farms (≥11 cows). The OR was 0.71 to 0.46 times lower in farms having a guaranteed market to sell milk than those with an uncertain traditional milk market (P < 0.05). Maintaining optimal BCS of cows, farmers' training on management of cattle reproduction, and development of a market linkage to sell milk would improve the number of cows for breeding by 60 days postpartum. (author)

  3. Estrus induction and Fertility response in true anestrus buffaloes using lugolAND#8217;s iodine

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    Raman Gupta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to see the efficacy of lugol's iodine for the initiation of ovarian cyclicity in post-partum true anestrus buffaloes. Confirmation of true anestrus in 30 buffaloes was done by finding smooth ovaries at rectal examination, out of 30, 15 buffaloes was treated with Lugol's iodine (1:50 ratio @ 30ml I/U once only whereas, the remaining 15 buffaloes were serve as control for treated group and no treatment was given to such animals. The result for induction of estrus was 73.34 %( 11/15 and the conception rate was 53.33% (8/15. This result shows that there are better possibilities of inducing ovarian cyclicity in functionally anestrus buffaloes and its cost effectiveness. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 77-78

  4. Reproductive Hormone and Transcriptomic Responses of Pituitary Tissue in Anestrus Gilts Induced by Nutrient Restriction.

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    Xu, Shengyu; Wang, Dingyue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    The onset of estrus is a critical sign of female sexual maturity. The pituitary plays a vital role in this process by the secretion of reproductive hormones. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanisms involved, deep RNA sequencing of pituitary gland tissue was carried out to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between gilts in normal estrus, and gilts in which anestrus was induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts which had gone through two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86kg/d, n = 10) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1kg/d, n = 10) diet. The NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated 6th and 7th cycles. Body weight gain in NR gilts was significantly decreased by nutrient restriction. Gilts were considered as anestrus when blood progesterone concentrations lower than 1.0 ng/mL from three consecutive blood samples were recorded. Circulating concentrations of progesterone (gilts than in the CON gilts. Between 5,360,000 and 5,370,000 sequence reads per sample from the CON and NR gilts' pituitaries were obtained and mapped to the porcine genome. Analysis of read counts revealed 185 DEGs. Expression of selected genes was validated by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis identified that the genes identified were enriched in the GO terms "neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction", "GnRH signaling pathway" and "immune response system". Our findings provide a new perspective for understanding the nutrient restriction-induced reproductive impairment at the pituitary transcriptional level, and how this is linked to hormone secretion. Moreover, the transcriptomic changes in anestrus gilts associated with nutrient restriction could be a resource for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in the regulation of reproductive function and animal health.

  5. Reproductive Hormone and Transcriptomic Responses of Pituitary Tissue in Anestrus Gilts Induced by Nutrient Restriction

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    Xu, Shengyu; Wang, Dingyue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    The onset of estrus is a critical sign of female sexual maturity. The pituitary plays a vital role in this process by the secretion of reproductive hormones. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanisms involved, deep RNA sequencing of pituitary gland tissue was carried out to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between gilts in normal estrus, and gilts in which anestrus was induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts which had gone through two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86kg/d, n = 10) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1kg/d, n = 10) diet. The NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated 6th and 7th cycles. Body weight gain in NR gilts was significantly decreased by nutrient restriction. Gilts were considered as anestrus when blood progesterone concentrations lower than 1.0 ng/mL from three consecutive blood samples were recorded. Circulating concentrations of progesterone (gilts than in the CON gilts. Between 5,360,000 and 5,370,000 sequence reads per sample from the CON and NR gilts’ pituitaries were obtained and mapped to the porcine genome. Analysis of read counts revealed 185 DEGs. Expression of selected genes was validated by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis identified that the genes identified were enriched in the GO terms “neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction”, “GnRH signaling pathway” and “immune response system”. Our findings provide a new perspective for understanding the nutrient restriction-induced reproductive impairment at the pituitary transcriptional level, and how this is linked to hormone secretion. Moreover, the transcriptomic changes in anestrus gilts associated with nutrient restriction could be a resource for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in the regulation of reproductive function and animal health. PMID:26580562

  6. Estrus synchronization and Fixed Time Artificial Insemination (FTAI in dairy buffaloes during seasonal anestrus

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    Luciana Ferri Frares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study estrus synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI in dairy buffaloes during season anestrus. One hundred thirty-nine dairy buffaloes in seasonal anestrus were divided in two groups as G1(n=66 and G2(n=73. The protocols for both the groups were the same until day (D14:D0 administration of 2.0 mg estradiol benzoate and implantation of progesterone device (P4 for 14 days; D14 removal of P4 plus 150 mg of cloprostenol and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin. On D16, G1 received 10 mg of buserelin and G2 100 mg deslorelin acetate. On D17, both the groups were submitted to FTAI. Ultrasonographic examinations of ovaries were performed on D0, D14, D16 and D17. Results showed that pregnancy rates in G1 and G2 were 20 and 41% (p0.05. Thirty-five percent of the animals in G1 and 54.1% in G2 showed a diameter DF greater than 8.0 mm on D16 (p>0.05. Thus, it could be concluded that the protocols synchronized the estrus, leading the concentration of the parturitions in the period of low milk production. Deslorelin was more efficient than buserelin due the higher percentage of DF ovulation and higher pregnancy rates.

  7. Effects of anestrus dog serum on superovulation in rats and mice

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    Hanieh Vaseghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of anestrus dog serum in rodents (contains high amount of FSH compared with two common superovulatory programs. Methods: Rats (n=30 at diestrus phase were evenly divided into pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG group (administrated with 30 IU PMSG, and 48 h later following by 25 IU hCG, recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH group (reducing dose every 12 h from 5 to 1 IU, then following by 25 IU hCG and anestrus dog serum group (reducing dose every 12 h from 0.6 to 0.1 mL, then following by 25 IU of hCG. Mice (n=30 were also evenly divided into PMSG group (5 IU PMSG used at 13 pm, and 48 h later following by 5 IU of hCG, rFSH group (from 13 pm, reducing dose every 12 h from 2.5 to 0.5 IU, then following by 5 IU hCG and anestrous dog serum group (from 13 pm, reducing dose every 12 h from 0.100 to 0.025 mL, then following by 5 IU hCG. Mice and rats placed with males for 24 h after last injection. Histology samples of ovaries were prepared and the numbers of corpus lutea were counted on day 14 after mating. Results: In mice, the differences among mean number of corpus lutea in all groups (P=0.01 and between FSH and dog serum group were significant (P=0.000 7. But no significant differences were found between the mean number of corpus lutea in dog serum and PMSG, or between FSH and PMSG groups. In rats, mean number of corpus lutea were significant differences among three groups (P=0.01, and between PMSG and dog serum groups (P=0.02. Conclusions: Superovulatory response in anestrus dog serum group is similar to PMSG group in mice, which is relatively similar to FSH in rats.

  8. Domestic queens under natural temperate photoperiod do not manifest seasonal anestrus.

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    Faya, M; Carranza, A; Priotto, M; Abeya, M; Diaz, J D; Gobello, C

    2011-11-01

    Domestic cat seasonality between the tropics and the arctic zones is scarcely described and results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to describe domestic feline seasonal patterns under a natural temperate photoperiod. A total of 372 estrous cycles were studied in 34 post pubertal cats during 900 days. The queens were housed in a cat colony (31°25' South Latitude, 64°11' West Longitude), acclimated under natural photoperiod and daily observed for reproductive behavior. Vaginal cytology was conducted three times a week. For each cat the number of estrous cycles and days in estrus per month for each year were recorded. The months of the year were grouped in four periods of 3 months each according to day length and photoperiod. Comparisons of estrous days among periods were performed by ANOVA for repeated measures. All the cats had estrous cycles throughout the year without intervals of anestrus. Mean number of estrous days differed among the periods (Pphotoperiod being greater (12.5±0.6) to those of descending photoperiod either with long (8.9±0.7) or short (9.3±0.7) days. When the two periods with ascending day lengths were merged and compared to the two periods with descending day lengths merged, the number of estrous days were greater when day length ascended (Pphotoperiod have estrous cycles throughout the year showing peak activity the months with increasing photoperiod. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol

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    Dayanidhi Jena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine the serum levels of certain hormones in post-partum anestrus cows following treatment with controlled internal drug release (CIDR and Ovsynch protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 postpartum anestrus cows were divided into three equal groups after thorough gynecoclinical examination. The Group 1 animals received an intravaginal progesterone device on day 0 and 2 ml of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α on day of CIDR removal (7th day, Group 2 cows were treated with ovsynch protocol (gonadotropinreleasing hormone [GnRH]-PGF2α-GnRH on day 0, 7 and 9, respectively, and Group 3 cows were supplemented with mineral mixture and treated as control. The serum estrogen, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentration were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and absorbance was read at 450 nm with Perkin Elmer Wallac 1420 Microplate Reader. Results: There was a significant increase in progesterone level in Group 1 after withdrawal of CIDR as compared to other two groups. However, the estrogen assay revealed a greater concentration in Group 2 against Group 1 on day 7 of sampling. However, there was no significant difference for serum triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 irrespective of treatment protocols and days of sampling. Conclusion: Treatment with CIDR based progesterone therapy and drug combinations may affect the reproductive hormonal balance like estrogen and progesterone, which is inevitable for successful return to cyclicity and subsequent fertilization and conception. However, as far as serum T3 and T4 concentration concerned it may not give an astounding result.

  10. The effect of melatonin treatment in combination with progestagen on reproductive performance of ewes during the anestrus period

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    s.m Mousavy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate effects of melatonin treatment in combination with progestagen on reproductive performance of ewes during the anestrus period, 60 ewes were used and allocated randomly in two groups during the anoestrous peiod: All ewes synchronize by CIDR and receive PMSG (600 IU on the day of CIDRs removal. Ewes in group treatment( n=30 resived melatonin implants(18 mg 35 days before inserting the CIDRs. The other group of ewes( n=30 served as control. Fertile rams were introduced into both groups at CIDRs removal. Induce estrus , Fertility, litter size and fecundity were calculated. data were analyzed in Chi- Square method by SAS soft were. Induce estrous during fierst cycle in group treatment and control were 95, 100 percentage, Fertility were 93.4, 40 percentage and fecundity were 0.54 and 1.6 and litter size were 1.71 and 1.4 respectively. Results shown that melatonin treatment signgficantly improved reproductive performance in the Lori ewes in out of season.

  11. The effects of kisspeptin agonist canine KP-10 and kisspeptin antagonist p271 on plasma LH concentrations during different stages of the estrous cycle and anestrus in the bitch.

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    Albers-Wolthers, C H J; de Gier, J; Rutten, V P M G; van Kooten, P J S; Leegwater, P A J; Schaefers-Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S

    2016-07-15

    Kisspeptin (KP) plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via the release of GnRH. As normal KP signaling is essential for reproductive function, it could be an interesting new target for therapeutic interventions, e.g., nonsurgical contraception in dogs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of KP-10 administration on plasma LH concentration in different stages of the reproductive cycle and to investigate the suitability of p271 as KP antagonist in the bitch. Two groups of six adult Beagle bitches were used. In one group, plasma LH concentration was determined before (40 and 0 minutes) and 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after the intravenous administration of 0.5-μg/kg body weight (BW) canine KP-10. In the other group, the bitches received a continuous intravenous infusion with p271 (50 μg/kg BW/h) for 3 hours, and 0.5-μg/kg BW canine KP-10 was administered intravenously 2 hours after the start of the p271 infusion. Their plasma LH concentration was determined before (-40 and 0 minutes) and 30, 60, 90, 120, 130, 140, 160, and 180 minutes after the start of the p271 infusion. In both groups, the experiments were performed during the follicular phase, the first and second half of the luteal phase, and during anestrus. Canine KP-10 induced an increase of plasma LH concentration during all estrous cycle stages and anestrus. There was no difference in LH response between the two groups. The lowest LH response was seen during the follicular phase and the highest response during anestrus. The area under the curve (AUC) for LH and LH increment in the follicular phase were lower than those in anestrus. The AUC LH and LH increment in the first half of the luteal phase were lower than those in the second half of the luteal phase and anestrus. The AUC LH and LH increment in the second half of the luteal phase were not different from those in anestrus. Continuous administration of the antagonist p271 did not alter

  12. The effect of estrus synchronization treatment on somatic cell count of transitional-anestrus local-Damascus cross breed goats' milk.

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    Talafha, A Q; Lafi, S Q; Ababneh, M M

    2008-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of estrus synchronization protocols and steroid hormones concentrations on somatic cell count (SCC) of transitional-anestrus local-Damascus cross goats' milk. Fifty-six goats (2-4-year old) were randomly assigned to three groups: fluorogestone acetate (FGA, n = 19), FGA-Prostaglandin (FGA-PGF, n = 19) and control (n = 18) groups. Intravaginal sponge containing 40 mg FGA was inserted for 13 days and an injection of 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) was administered for goats of FGA and FGA-PGF groups at the time of sponge removal (day 0). In addition, goats of FGA-PGF group were injected with 10 mg dinoprost tromethamine (PGF2alpha) on day 0. Five fertile local-Damascus cross bucks were turned-in with all goats on day 0. Blood and milk samples were collected from all goats on days -13 (beginning of experiment), -6, 0, 1, 2, 7, 13 and 20 (end of the experiment). Four-year old and second-parity goats had significantly higher (p kids born in the last kidding season on SCC of both udder halves. Neither estradiol nor progesterone concentrations were correlated with SCC in goats in this experiment. The SCC of both udder halves and left udder halves in goats of the control and FGA groups, respectively, increased significantly (p milk. In conclusion, induction of estrus with progestagen based programs and buck introduction may cause temporary significant increase in SCC. However, the SCC values during this period of temporary increase were still in the range of acceptable values for normal milk. With the current standards for SCC of 1,000,000/ml as legal limit for abnormal milk control programs in goats, estrus synchronization programs and the estrus status should not be considered when bulk-tank milk SCC is being investigated.

  13. Review of The Artificial Insemination Result Based on Anestrus Post Insemination in Bali Cattle Herds at The Regency of Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara

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    Tarsisius Considus Topianong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anestrus is one of indirect clinical signs of cattle pregnancy. Based on the present of sufficient progesterone on the blood,  the cattle with pregnancy condition will not show the signs of estrus.  The success of artificial insemination (AI is the occurrence of fertilization followed by pregnancy and parturition. This involves a complex relationship between semen quality and oocytes, estrus detection, AI punctuality, inseminator and farmers ability. Artificial insemination should be performed at the relative optimum time to ovulation. Estrus detection is an important factor to determine the time of AI. Estrus Detection of Bali cattles of the farmer is often difficult observed or not observed, especially in semi-intensive system maintenance. From this review it can be seen that there is the different proportion of inseminators on the incidence of estrus after AI. However, determination of  the role of inseminator on the success of AI and  then the other factors that affect the success of the AI should be under ideal conditions. Straw from the different bulls breed gave the same of AI result. The estimate of pregnancy rate of 80 cows after AI is 55 %.  Estrus detection on 21st days after AI can be used as a detection method for early diagnosis of pregnancy, especially for the  farmers who did not have any ability or authority to perform  medical acts of reproduction which is only owned by a veterinarian. Observation, recording and evaluation of the implementation of the AI should be made until the end of pregnancy  followed by the process of parturition.

  14. Estudo histomorfométrico do músculo esquelético de ratos em anestro Skeletal muscle histomorphometric study of rats in anestrus

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    Manoel de Almeida Moreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A castração, assim como a menopausa, representa estágio de supressão endócrina em que prevalece o hipoestrogenismo e sua conseqüência maior sobre o músculo esquelético é provocar sarcopenia. OBJETIVOS: estudar as alterações histomorfológicas do músculo esquelético de ratos fêmeas castrados. MÉTODOS: vinte e seis ratos Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos, A e B, submetidos inicialmente à pesagem, citologia vaginal, ovariectomia e biópsia do músculo rectus femoris das patas traseiras, grupo A na direita e B na esquerda. Decorridos 20 dias foi colhido citologia vaginal para comprovar o estado de anestro. Após 70 dias os animais foram pesados e passaram por biópsia muscular, grupo A na pata E e grupo B na D. A histomorfometria foi realizada com o auxílio de uma lente gradiculada de 1cm², com retículo de Weibel de 1mm²; contou-se as miofibrilas com seis leituras na vertical e cinco na horizontal em cada lamina, obtendo-se um número múltiplo que aplicado sobre uma formula especifica para calcular o Coeficiente de Densidade Muscular. RESULTADOS: em A a densidade muscular variou de 60.0 para 52.33 (pCastration, as well as the menopause, represents endocrine suppression that prevails the hipoestrogenism and their larger consequence on the skeletal muscle is to provoke sarcopenia. OBJETIVE: To study the morphometric alteration of striated muscle of castrated female rats. METHODS: Twenty six female rats Wistar , distributed in two sub-groups, A and B, submitted initially to weigh-in place, vaginal cytology, ovariectomy, and biopsy of the muscle rectus femoris on the back paws, A group on right paw, and B on the left. Elapsed 20 days it was collected vaginal cytology to prove the anestrus status. After 70 days the animals went through weigh-in place, and new muscle biopsy, A group in left paw and B in right paw. The morphometric study was accomplished with the aids of a graduated lens, with reticules of 100 mm², it was counted

  15. Pre-pubertal and postpartum anestrus in tropical Zebu cattle.

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    Abeygunawardena, H; Dematawewa, C M B

    2004-07-01

    Bos indicus breeds, commonly known as Zebu cattle, have spread from their center of origin in Western Asia into large areas of Asia (including the Asia-Pacific basin), Africa, South and Central America (including the Caribbean islands). The original Zebu genotype, however, has been modified by planned and unplanned cross-breeding programs involving many native and Bos taurus breeds in their new habitats. Though accurate estimates are not available, more than half of the world's cattle population includes a proportion of B. indicus germ plasma. B. indicus native breeds have developed by natural selection over centuries for their ability to survive in rough, harsh tropical environments. Most of these non-described breeds still exhibit high fertility, in terms of calving rates, and disease resistance but they grow very slowly and take well over 3 years to reach puberty and produce only a few liters of milk over a short lactation period. Selection has been carried out in some areas and distinct Zebu breeds have been developed that have moderately high growth rate and milk production. However, they are slow breeders and have extended pre-pubertal and postpartum anestrous periods, compared to their temperate counterparts exposed to similar environment and management. The reproductive biology of B. indicus is similar to that of B. taurus. Most of the proven management, nutritional, hormonal and biotechnological interventions developed through experimentation with B. taurus breeds are equally applicable to B. indicus and their crosses. Zebu breeds predominate in most tropical countries where the majority of the human population lives. If meat and milk production are to be increased in the tropics, Zebu cow productivity, in terms of number of calves produced per lifetime or per unit area of land, must be increased and the time from birth to slaughter must be reduced. This goal could be achieved either by selection within local Zebu populations or through planned cross-breeding with B. taurus breeds. Because the productive and reproductive potentials of Zebu cattle are relatively low, worthwhile gains could only be achieved by selection over many generations. This would require substantial investment in labor, feed and drugs that may not be economic since the return from such investment is relatively low. However, many studies have shown that cross-breeding with B. taurus, which combines additive, dominance and epistatic effects of the two genotypes, ensures high productive and reproductive performance. Therefore, planned cross-breeding with suitable B. taurus breeds, although demanding additional investment in labor, feed and drugs, will still be economic because the return far exceeds the costs.

  16. INDUKSI ESTRUS DENGAN PMSG DAN GN-RH PADA SAPI PERAH ANESTRUS POSTPARTUM

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    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the effect of Gn-RH and PMSG on onset of oestrusin the postpartum anoestrus dairy cattle. The total of twenty one postpartum anoestrus dairycattle for used for this study. They were divided into three groups i.e. (I treated with singledose injection of 500 ug Gn-RH /im/head (Gn-RH 1x, (II treated with twice injection 250ug Gn-RH/im/head (at 24 hours interval (Gn-RH 2x, and (III treated with single doseinjection of 1000 IU PMSG/im/head. The result showed that the onset of oestrus wichtreated with PMSG was earlier (3,43 ± 0,79 days than Gn-RH 1x (7,17 ± 3,24 days. Incoclusion, The PMSG was as effective as Gn-RH to the onset of oestrus

  17. KADAR PROGESTERON AKIBAT PEMBERIAN PMSG DAN GN-RH PADA SAPI PERAH YANG MENGALAMI ANESTRUS POSTPARTUM

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    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the level of progesterone associated with injectionofGn-RH and PMSG in the postpartum anoestrus dairy cattle. The total of twenty onepostpartum anoestrus dairy cattle used for this study. They were divided into three groupsi.e. (I treated with single dose injection of 500 ug Gn-RH /im/head (Gn-RH 1x, (IItreated with twice injection of 250 ug Gn-RH/im/head (at 24 hours interval (Gn-RH 2x,and (III treated with single dose injection of 1000 IU PMSG/im/head. The result showedthat the concentration of progesterone was no significantly different (P > 0.05 amongPMSG and Gn-RH. However the concentration of progesterone significantly (P < 0.05increased at 4 days on PMSG and Gn-RH treatmen. In coclusion, PMSG and Gn-RH havethe same respone to elevated of the progesterone.

  18. Evaluation of hormone-free protocols based on the "male effect" for artificial insemination in lactating goats during seasonal anestrus.

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    Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Boissard, Karine; Forgerit, Yvonnick; Pougnard, Jean Louis; Bonné, Jean Luc; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2016-03-15

    Goat estrous and ovulatory responses to the "male effect" were characterized to determine the time range over which fertile ovulations occur after buck exposure. The results were used to explore the efficacy of different hormone-free artificial insemination (AI) protocols aimed at diminishing the number of inseminations needed to optimize fertility. Adult bucks and does were exposed to artificially long days during winter and then exposed to a natural photoperiod before buck exposure (Day 0). Most goats (>70%) ovulated twice, developing a short cycle followed by a normal cycle over 13 days after buck exposure. Among them, 21% were in estrus at the short cycle and 94% at the normal cycle. This second ovulation occurred within 48 hours of Day 6 and was the target for AI protocols. In protocol A (n = 79), goats were inseminated 12 hours after estrus detection from Day 5 to Day 9. Up to six AI times over 4 days were needed to inseminate goats in estrus. Forty-nine percent of the inseminated goats kidded. In protocol B (n = 145), estrus detection started on Day 5. The earlier (group 1) and later (group 2) buck-marked goats received one single insemination at fixed times on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8, respectively; unmarked goats (group 3) were inseminated along with group 2. In protocol C (n = 153), goats were inseminated twice on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8 without needing to detect estrus. Goats induced to ovulate by hormonal treatment were used as the control (n = 319). Fertility was lower in protocol B than in protocol C and controls (47% vs. 58% and 65% kidding; P ≤ 0.05), whereas this was higher in buck-marked goats than in unmarked ones (64% vs. 33%; P ≤ 0.05). In protocol B, fertility can increase (>60%) when only goats coming into estrus are inseminated. The best kidding rate (∼70%) was achieved when does were inseminated within 24 hours of the LH surge. Protocols involving insemination on Day 7 instead of Day 6.5 led to more goats being inseminated during this favorable time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medicinal Product Use Reglandin D-(+ - Cloprostenol, Synthetic Analogue of Prostaglandins F2α Natural Body in Fighting with Anestrus Lute (CL in Cattle

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    George Florea Tobă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies made by us are based on fundamental biological role of prostaglandin modulator of hormonal actions, influxs nerve transmission and cellular ionic exchange. One of the main actions of PGF2α is luteolyse, a process that includes the secretion of progesterone and regression yellow body. PGF2α is a luteolitic for almost species: cow, buffalo, sow, mare, sheep, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters and rats, except primates. At present it is considered that PGF2α have their specific receptors, which are fixed and through their model would enable guanidine monophosphate or cyclic GMP's Goldberg. The effect of ocitocic luteolitic and pharmacodynamics basis of PGF2α, used in breeding biotechnologies and hormonal therapy. In medicine veterinary prostaglandines are used after 1973. Were injected with 2 ml Reglandin (150 mg D-(+ - cloprostenol 24 women diagnosed with corpus luteum anestris and 22 females (87.5% came in to oestrus at a mean of 59 hours, and after an average interval of 70 hours.şi were artificially inseminated (AI a total of 20 female (83.33%.

  20. Efecto de la nutrición sobre la duración del anestro postparto en vacas de cría Effect of nutrition on the length of postpartum anestrus in beef cows

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    M.V. Donzelli; R.C. Catalano; J.C. Burges; C.F. Machado

    2010-01-01

    Unos de los aspectos fundamentales para el éxito económico y productivo en los rodeos de cría es la eficiencia reproductiva. El estado nutricional es uno de los principales factores que regulan la respuesta reproductiva y se ha señalado que el mismo puede ser evaluado a través de la condición corporal. Un inadecuado consumo de nutrientes pre y postparto puede afectar la duración del anestro postparto. Es posible que las hormonas IGF-I, tiroideas y prolactina interactúen en el restablecimiento...

  1. Fixed-time AI protocols replacing eCG with a single dose of FSH were less effective in stimulating follicular growth, ovulation, and fertility in suckled-anestrus Nelore beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Girotto, R W; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a single treatment with FSH on diameter of the largest follicle and on conception rates of suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). Four hundred fifty-six suckled anestrous Nelore beef cows at 30-60 days postpartum were assigned to treatments. At the first day of the estrous synchronization protocol (Day 0), all cows received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device plus 2mg of estradiol benzoate. On Day 8, cows were assigned to blocks according to the diameter of the largest follicle and then allocated to one of three treatment groups (Control, FSH, or eCG) within each block. Simultaneously to progesterone device withdrawal on Day 8, cows in the eCG treatment group (n=150) received 300 IU of eCG and cows in FSH treatment group (n=153) received 10mg of FSH, and Control cows (n=153) did not receive any additional treatment. Additional treatments with 150 μg of cloprostenol and 1mg of estradiol cypionate (EC) were also administered concurrently to progesterone device removal in all cows on Day 8. Two days later (D10), TAI and ovarian ultrasonic examinations to evaluate follicle size were performed in all cows. On Day 12, a subset of cows (n=389) were submitted a second ultrasonic exam to confirm ovulation. Final follicular growth (mm/day) was less (P=0.006) in both Control (0.95±0.11) and in FSH-treated cows (0.90±0.10) than in eCG-treated cows (1.40±0.13). Interestingly, there was a treatment-by-BCS interaction in ovulation results (P=0.03), in which, eCG treatment increased percentage of cows having ovulations with a lesser BCS. Similarly, there was a treatment-by-BCS interaction for conception (P=0.04), where the eCG treatment increased fertility in cows with a lesser BCS. In conclusion, FSH failed to stimulate final follicular growth, ovulation, and conception rate in sucked-anestrous beef cows submitted to TAI as effectively as eCG. However, physiological effects of eCG seem to be more evident in cows with a lesser BCS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gonadotropin and gonado-bormone concetrations in the pygmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during anestrus and the interval from first presumed ovulation to first overt estrus. Levels of estradiol were observed to be elevated a day before the LH/FSH preovulatory surges ofthc first pre.~umcd ovulation and the first overt estrus, respectively. Key words: Pygmy goats, anestrus, puberty, breeding activity, gonodotrophins, ...

  3. Induction and Synchronization of Estrus in Gilts with P.G.600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in understanding the physiological mechanisms of reproduction control can be adapted to swine reproductive management. This article points out the procedures that can be used to induce estrus, in pre-pubescent and anestrus gilts, and heat synchronization. For estrus induction and heat synchronization, we used P.G. 600 commercial product (400 IU of PMSG and 200 IU of hCG, Intervet, Millsboro, DE. A total of 36 gilts, from Large White breed, were used, divided in two lots: pre-pubescent gilts (5months of age, no = 19 and gilts in anestrus (8 months of age, no = 17. The efficacy of hormonal P.G. 600 product was different for the two lots. Estrus manifestation rate was different between lots 73.68% of pre-pubescent gilts compared with 76.47% of anestrus gilts. The use of P.G. 600 hormonal product is effective in inducing and synchronizing estrus in gilts.

  4. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  5. PLASMA LUTEINIZING HORIIONE LEVEIS IN EWES FAILING TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daar rrzs gesn betd(enisvolle verskil in die peil van luteiniscrcnde hormoon in die plaane vanr ooie wat gGen oertrus gedwende laktasie getoon het nie en die tusscn Gstrus peil van ooie wai gcrceld bronstfu was" Die LH pcil rres bcduidend her by ooie wat ven rarnme afgesorder was at by soortgelyke, mear anestrus, oob ...

  6. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of a noninvasive diagnostic tool to verify neuter status in dogs: The urinary FSH to creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers-Wolthers, C. H J; de Gier, J.; Oei, C. H Y; Schaefers-Okkens, A. C.; Kooistra, H. S.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the presence of functional gonadal tissue in dogs can be challenging, especially in bitches during anestrus or not known to have been ovariectomized, or in male dogs with nonscrotal testes. Furthermore, in male dogs treated with deslorelin, a slow-release GnRH agonist implant for

  8. Is the Santa Inês sheep a typical non-seasonal breeder in the Brazilian Southeast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaro, Mario Felipe Alvarez; da Fonseca, Jeferson Ferreira; Oba, Eunice; da Cruz Cardoso, Elyzabeth; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize the annual reproductive cycle of Santa Inês sheep in the Fluminense lowland region (latitude 22° 27' 45″ south, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) between September 2011 and August 2012. Ten ewes were maintained in a semi-intensive system under natural photoperiods with access to pasture and shelter. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks to determine plasma progesterone concentrations. The body condition score (BCS) was determined each month. There was no seasonal variation in the plasma progesterone concentration from the months of September to January, April, and May to August. In the months of February and April, the plasma hormone levels were higher than August to November. Seventy percent (7/10) of the sheep studied had short seasonal anestrus. The periods of anestrus were concentrated between the months of September and December (spring season) in 85.7 % (6/7) of the cases evaluated. In these cases, 57.1 % (4/7) also had short periods of reproductive inactivity during other months of the year. The progesterone values obtained in the spring corroborate the higher reproductive anestrus observed in this season. Higher plasma progesterone values were found in summer and autumn with reduction in the winter to lower values in the spring. No changes in the BCS during the study period were observed. Under the studied conditions, the Santa Inês sheep showed a low degree of reproductive seasonality. However, some individual ewes had seasonal anestrus during the spring. Further studies that include management techniques are needed to improve reproductive efficiency without hormone therapy in this breed under tropical conditions.

  9. Influência do ciclo estral no diâmetro oocitário em cadelas

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leda Maria Costa [UNESP; Bersano, Paulo Ricardo Oliveira [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The low meiotic competence of canine oocytes when subjected to conditions of artificial cultive is considered a major obstacle to the development of reproductive biotechnologies in this species. Low rates of IVM may be linked to the size of oocytes recovered from different phases of the estrous cycle. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the phases of the estrous cycle - luteal phase and anestrus, with oocyte diameter of bitches. A total of 41 female dogs, aged ...

  10. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  11. combined with either subcutaneous or intravenous administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was administered subcutaneously or intra- venously (Table 5). However, the ovulation rette tended to increase slightly with the higher levels of PMSG. 159. Tabfe5 Ovulation rate (corpora luteaf ewe) after. p r o g e s t o g e n w i t h d r a w a l i n t h e b r e e d i n g s e a s o n a n d seasonally anestrus period. Dose. PIv{SG.

  12. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan profiles in the canine cervix during different stages of the estrous cycle and in open- and closed-cervix pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linharattanaruksa, Pichanun; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2014-03-01

    The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson's trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra.

  13. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function.

  14. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; KHALID, Muhammad; CHATDARONG, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  15. Hexokinase 2 drives glycogen accumulation in equine endometrium at day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramer, Sarah A; Macedo, Alysson; Klein, Claudia

    2017-01-05

    Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy. In addition, hexokinase 2 (HK2) activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay. HK2 was the key regulator of glycogen accumulation during diestrus and pregnancy; hexokinase transcript abundance and enzyme activity were significantly higher during diestrus and pregnancy than estrus and anestrus. In addition, despite similar relative transcript abundance, hexokinase activity was significantly greater in the pregnant versus diestrous endometrium. Therefore, we inferred there was regulation of hexokinase activity through phosphorylation, in addition to its regulation at the transcriptional level during early pregnancy. Based on immunohistochemistry, HK2 was localized primarily in luminal and glandular epithelial cells, with weaker staining in stromal cells. Among glycogen metabolizing enzymes identified, expression of HK2 was significantly greater during the progesterone-dominated phase of the cycle.

  16. Long-day suppressed expression of type 2 deiodinase gene in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the Saanen goat, a short-day breeder: implication for seasonal window of thyroid hormone action on reproductive neuroendocrine axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Shinobu; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Ohkura, Satoshi; Iigo, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Satoko; Goto, Akemitsu; Ando, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Miwa; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Oda, Sen-ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Lincoln, Gerald A; Okamura, Hiroaki; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In most animals that live in temperate regions, reproduction is under photoperiodic control. In long-day breeders such as Japanese quail and Djungarian hamsters, type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) plays an important role in the mediobasal hypothalamus, catalyzing the conversion of prohormone T4 to bioactive T3 to regulate the photoperiodic response of the gonads. However, the molecular basis for seasonal reproduction in short-day breeders remains unclear. Because thyroid hormones are also known to be involved in short-day breeders, we examined the effect of an artificial long-day stimulus on Dio2 expression in the male Saanen goat (Capra hircus), a short-day breeder. Dio2 expression was observed in the caudal continuation of the arcuate nucleus, known as the target site for both melatonin and T4 action. In addition, expression of Dio2 and T3 content in the mediobasal hypothalamus was suppressed by artificial long-day conditions, which is the opposite of the results of long-day breeders. Thyroid hormone action on the development of neuroendocrine anestrus is known to be limited to a specific seasonal window. This long-day suppression of Dio2 may provide a mechanism that accounts for the lack of responsiveness to thyroxine during the mid to late anestrus.

  17. Insulin binding characteristics in canine muscle tissue: effects of the estrous cycle phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álan G. Pöppl

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hormonal fluctuations during the different estrous cycle are a well-recognized cause of insulin resistance in bitches, and little is known about insulin receptor binding or post-binding defects associated with insulin resistance in dogs. To evaluate insulin binding characteristics in muscle tissue of bitches during the estrous cycle, 17 owned bitches were used in the study (six in anestrus, five in estrus, and six in diestrus. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in all patients by means of injection of 1mL/kg of a glucose 50% solution (500mg/kg, with blood sample collection for glucose determination at 0, 3, 5, 7, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after glucose infusion. Muscle samples, taken after spaying surgery, were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80 ºC until the membranes were prepared by sequential centrifugation after being homogenized. For binding studies, membranes were incubated in the presence of 20,000cpm of human 125I-insulin and in increasing concentrations of unlabeled human regular insulin for cold saturation. The IVGTT showed no differences among bitches during the estrous cycle regarding baseline glycemia or glycemic response after glucose infusion. Two insulin binding sites - high-affinity and low-affinity ones - were detected by Scatchard analysis, and significant statistical differences were observed in the dissociation constant (Kd1 and maximum binding capacity (Bmax1 of the high-affinity binding sites. The Kd1 for the anestrus group (6.54±2.77nM/mg of protein was smaller (P<0.001 than for the estrus (28.54±6.94nM/mg of protein and diestrus (15.56±3.88nM/mg of protein groups. Bmax1 in the estrus (0.83±0.42nM/mg of protein and diestrus (1.24±0.24nM/mg of protein groups were also higher (P<0.001 than the values observed in anestrus (0.35±0.06nM/mg of protein. These results indicate modulation of insulin binding characteristics during different phases of the estrous

  18. Bitch pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Gentvilaitė, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Šio darbo uždaviniai įvertinti kalių, sergančių piometra, makšties citologinius ir kraujo parametrų pakitimus. Įvertinti amžiaus įtaką piometros pasireiškimui. Nustatyti laiką po rujos iki piometros klinikinių požymių atsiradimo. Nustatyti mirties atvejus dėl patologijos. Buvo tiriamos trys grupės kalių. I grupė – 16 piometra sergančių patelių. II grupė – 4 kalės, porujo periode, kliniškai sveikos. III grupė 4 – patelės, anestrus periode, kurioms kraujyje nustatyta leukocitozė, bet dėl kitų p...

  19. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  20. Distribution of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor, and leukocyte infiltration in the cervix of cyclic bitches and those with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2011-04-01

    The objectives were to localize estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR), and enumerate leukocyte infiltration in cervical tissue of normal bitches during various stages of the estrous cycle (n = 35), as well as in those developing open (n = 22) or closed-cervix pyometra (n = 19). Each pyometra group was subdivided into anestrus and diestrus. Cervical tissues were collected after ovariohysterectomy. Receptor expressions were determined by immunohistochemistry and leukocyte infiltration was evaluated in histological sections stained with haematoxylin-eosin. The assessment was performed in two parts of cervical sections: the uterine part in four tissue layers (surface epithelium (SE), lamina propria (LP), glandular epithelium (GE), and tunica muscularis (M)), and the vaginal part in three layers (SE, LP and M). An immunohistochemical total score consisted of the addition of both the intensity and proportional scores. The ERα and PR scores differed between groups (P pyometra bitches at anestrus and in closed-cervix pyometra bitches at diestrus. For all types of immune cells, there were no significant differences among stages of the estrous cycle in normal bitches, whereas neutrophils were lower in both sub-groups of closed-cervix versus open-cervix pyometra (P canine cervix. We inferred that cervical dilation in normal bitches and bitches with uterine pathology was likely controlled by different mechanisms. Receptor expressions were influenced by stage of the estrous cycle in normal bitches, whereas neutrophil infiltration in cervical tissue appeared to be involved in cervical dilation in bitches with pyometra, regardless of estrous stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 in the cyclic canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Celso; Pires, Maria Dos Anjos; Santos, Dario; Payan-Carreira, Rita

    2016-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are two important antioxidant enzymes involved in tissue homeostasis by protecting cells and tissues from an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Information concerning antioxidant enzymes in the canine uterus is almost inexistent. This work intends to establish the pattern of distribution of SOD1 and GPx1 immunoreaction in canine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, using 46 endometrium samples of healthy dogs representing different cycle stages (anestrus-10, proestrus-10, estrus-10, early diestrus-7, and diestrus-9). SOD1 distribution in canine endometrium showed cyclic variations (P ≤ 0.001), with higher immunoscores in the progesterone-associated stages. Changing immunoreaction also concerned the different epithelial structures considered (surface epithelium, superficial glandular epithelium, and deep glandular epithelium) (P ≤ 0.001), but it was always higher than in the stroma (P ≤ 0.001). Deep glandular epithelial cells usually showed higher scores of immunoreaction compared with the other epithelial cells. Interestingly, in epithelial cells, distinct subcellular patterns for SOD1 were seen: the nuclear labeling was observed in estrus and early diestrus (P ≤ 0.001), whereas an apical reinforcement was observed in estrus (P = 0.011) in the glandular epithelia but not in the surface epithelia. In general, GPx1 distribution in canine endometrium remained relatively unchanged throughout the estrous cycle (P = 0.169) despite the slight decrease observed from proestrus to early diestrus. The highest scores were found in anestrus and diestrus (P canine endometrium. The cyclic changes registered for both molecules suggest that they may play important roles in endometrial physiology, probably in apoptosis and proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal heat stress: Clinical implications and hormone treatments for the fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2015-09-15

    Heat stress has consequences on both the physiology and reproductive performance of cows, but the most dramatic effect for dairy producers is the decrease produced in fertility. The effects of heat stress on fertility include an increased number of days open, reduced conception rate, and larger number of cows suffering different types of anestrus. Once becomes pregnant, heat stress affects also the reproductive success of the cow through its direct effects on the ovary, uterus, gametes, embryo, and early fetus. This article reviews current knowledge of the effects of heat stress on fertility in dairy cows and the hormonal strategies used to mitigate these effects at the farm level. Administration of GnRH at the moment of artificial insemination can improve the conception rate. Breeding synchronization protocols for fixed-time insemination may reduce the calving conception interval and the number of services per conception. Progesterone-based protocols seem resolve better the reproductive disorders related to a hot environment (anestrus) than GnRH-based protocols. The use of combinations of GnRH, eCG, and hCG in progesterone-based protocols can improve results. Progesterone supplementation during the late embryonic and/or early fetal period would be useful in curtailing pregnancy losses, mainly in single pregnancies, whereas a more positive effect of treatment with GnRH than progesterone has been found in twin pregnancies. Melatonin therapy is emerging as a promising strategy to improve the natural reproductive performance of cows suffering conditions of heat stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The ram effect: New insights into neural modulation of the gonadotropic axis by male odors and socio-sexual interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDE eFABRE NYS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in mammals is controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis under the influence of external and internal factors such as photoperiod, stress, nutrition, and social interactions. Sheep are seasonal breeders and stop mating when day length is increasing (anestrus. However, interactions with a sexually active ram during this period can override the steroid negative feedback responsible for the anoestrus state, stimulate LH secretion and eventually reinstate cyclicity. This is known as the ram effect and research into the mechanisms underlying it is shedding new light on HPG axis regulation. The first step in the ram effect is increased LH pulsatile secretion in anestrus ewes exposed to a sexually active male or only to its fleece, the latter finding indicating a pheromone-like effect. Estradiol secretion increases in all ewes and this eventually induces a LH surge and ovulation, just as during the breeding season. An exception is a minority of ewes that exhibit a precocious LH surge (within 4h with no prior increase in estradiol. The main olfactory system and the cortical nucleus of the amygdala are critical brain structures in mediating the ram effect since it is blocked by their inactivation. Sexual experience is also important since activation (increased c-fos expression in these and other regions is greatly reduced in sexually naïve ewes. In adult ewes kisspeptin neurons in both arcuate and preoptic regions and some preoptic GnRH neurons are activated 2h after exposure to a ram. Exposure to rams also activates noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and A1 nucleus and increased noradrenalin release occurs in the posterior preoptic area. Pharmacological modulation of this system modifies LH secretion in response to the male or his odor. Together these results show that the ram effect can be a fruitful model to promote both a better understanding of the neural and hormonal regulation of the HPG axis in general and

  5. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  6. Resident Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Canine Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, M A; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    Resident immune cells play a major role in endometrial immunity and in tissue homoeostasis. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of macrophages, B and T lymphocytes (respectively, Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym) in the canine endometrium throughout the oestrous cycle and in late involution (at the proestrus stage post-parturition). An immunohistochemistry technique was used on samples from 50 post-pubertal healthy female dogs, of which five in late post-partum. The distribution of resident immune cells was analysed in three endometrial layers (superficial, intermediate and basal areas). Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym were demonstrated to reside in the endometrium in all the stages of the canine cycle; their numbers being considerably higher during late involution. T-Lym were scattered in the stroma or amidst the glandular epithelium, constituting the predominant immune cell population in anestrus and proestrus, but decreased in number at all other stages. Endometrial B-Lym remained fairly constant during the canine cycle, although its numbers were higher in late involution. Mø counts were higher during anestrus compared to the other stages, the cells being displaced into the superficial endometrial layer. Mø demonstrated the highest level in late involution samples, forming small aggregates below the surface epithelium. The number of immune cells was not normally distributed, suggesting the influence of individual factors, such as age or parity, not explored herein due to limited sample availability. Still, this study provides important information for the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in dogs and for the understanding of the increased susceptibility to uterine infection during dioestrus found in the bitch. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Evaluation of von Willebrand factor during pregnancy, lactation and oestrous cycle in bitches affected and unaffected by von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoso, C R S; Takahira, R K; Beier, S L; Araujo, J P; Corrente, J E

    2013-06-01

    Plasmatic concentrations of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) increase during pregnancy in humans and dogs; however the mechanism of such increase is still not well defined. The aims of this study were: (i) to evaluate changes in vWF concentration during pregnancy and during the subsequent oestrous cycle in bitches affected and unaffected by von Willebrand Disease (vWD); (ii) to correlate the vWF levels and cortisol levels in both groups. Seven vWD affected (GI) and nine unaffected (GII) bitches were used. The animals were assessed during pregnancy, parturition, lactation and non-gestational oestrous cycle in 11 moments (Pregnancy 1, Pregnancy 2, Parturition, Lactation 1, Lactation 2, Lactation 3, Anestrus, Proestrus, Oestrus, Diestrus 1, and Diestrus 2). The following tests were performed; measurement of von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), albumin and cortisol. In both groups, vWF concentration remained stable during the non-gestational oestrous cycle, but increased during pregnancy, with the highest value observed at parturition. Increases of 70% and 124% in vWF were seen in GI and GII, respectively, compared to anestrus. No correlation was found between vWF and cortisol. Values of vWF:Ag changed during pregnancy, with a peak at parturition, both in vWD affected and unaffected animals. Values of vWF were not altered in the different phases of the oestrous cycle following pregnancy in both groups. Evaluation of vWF during pregnancy can cause false negative results for vWD, but assessment can be performed at any point in the oestrous cycle of non-pregnant bitches. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Reproduction in Domestic Ruminants during the Past 50 Years: Discovery to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael F; Geisert, Rodney D; Parrish, John J

    2018-04-19

    The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Early efforts to establish AI as a tool were initiated in Russia around 1899 and since that time major advances in methods of semen collection, evaluation of male fertility, cryopreservation of sperm, sex-sorted semen, and estrous cycle control have occurred. The preceding advances not only led to the widespread use of AI, but also contributed to our fundamental understanding of ovulation control, timing of insemination, gamete biology and cryopreservation. In regards to anestrus, our understanding of the concept of neuroendocrine control of the pituitary gland and the role of steroid feedback led to the Gonadostat Theory, which proposes that onset of puberty is due to a decrease in the negative feedback of gonadal steroids over time. Subsequent studies in prepuberal and postpartum sheep and cattle established that a short luteal phase frequently precedes the first normal length cycle that is accompanied by estrous expression. This observation led to the common practice of treating prepuberal heifers and anestrous postpartum cows with a short-term progestin treatment (e.g., CIDR) to induce normal estrous cycles. In domestic ruminants, fertilization rate is high (85 to 95%); however significant embryonic mortality before or around the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) reduces the pregnancy rate to a single breeding. Significant effort has been directed at determining the time of MRP, the signal for MRP, as well as elucidating the physiological, cellular, and molecular dialogue between

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P reproductive stages (P reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, and epidermal growth factor receptor expression and localization in the canine endometrium during the estrous cycle and in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, K; Maezono, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Tamada, H

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression and immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) were compared between the endometrium of bitches (Canis familiaris) with pyometra accompanied by cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and that of healthy bitches at similar stages of the estrous cycle. In normal bitches, endometrial TGF-alpha mRNA levels were highest at proestrus and gradually decreased as the cycle progressed to anestrus. Epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA levels were not significantly affected by the stage of the estrous cycle. Epidermal growth factor mRNA levels were higher at Day 35 of diestrus than at other stages of the estrous cycle (Ppyometra, endometrial TGF-alpha and EGF-R mRNA levels did not differ significantly from those at diestrus in normal bitches, but EGF mRNA levels were lower than those at Day 35 of diestrus in normal bitches (Ppyometra, immunoreactivity for EGF was clearly present in endometrial stromal cells. Inflammatory cells that had infiltrated the endometrial stroma stained strongly for TGF-alpha and EGF-R. Luminal and glandular epithelial cells also stained positive for EGF-R. In conclusion, expression of TGF-alpha by inflammatory cells and a low level of expression and differential localization of EGF may be involved in aberrant growth of endometrial glands and development of CEH.

  11. Analysis of LH receptor in canine ovarian follicles throughout the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Monica; Palomino, Jaime; Parraguez, Victor H; Ramirez, Fernando

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the mRNA LHR and LHR protein expression pattern in the canine ovarian follicles at different stage of development throughout the estrous cycle. Dog ovaries were obtained from 1-6y bitches at proestrus/estrus, anestrus and diestrus stages following ovariohysterectomy. Follicular cells were mechanically recovered from follicles distributed into four types (preantral, small antral, medium antral and large antral). Total RNA extraction was performed and the evaluation of gene expression levels was achieved by relative quantification q-PCR analysis. Intrafollicular amounts of LHR were assessed by western blot method. All results were evaluated by ANOVA. The expression levels of mRNA LHR in follicular cells were observed in every stage of development, however this gene expression varied over the estrous cycle. LHR transcripts increased (P cycle. The antibody against human LHR revealed two bands at ∼90 and ∼67 kDa, probably representing the matured protein and its precursor respectively. Both bands LHR appeared already at preantral follicles increasing (P cycle. In conclusion, the gene and protein of LHR are differentially expressed in dog follicles over the estrous cycle, increasing with growth and the precursor protein is the most predominant LHR form present in canine follicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

    2014-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  14. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  15. Public exposure and number of conspecifics have no influence on ovarian and adrenal activity in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Meeks, Karen; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-03-01

    Cheetahs in managed zoological collections do not reproduce efficiently, a problem that may be related to environmental/management stressors. In this study, we examined 17 adult female cheetahs to determine the influence of two environmental factors, (1) being housed on- or off-exhibit and (2) number of adult conspecifics (males and/or females) in nearby enclosures, on profiles and concentrations of ovarian and adrenal hormones. Secondarily, we assessed a subset of group-housed siblings (n=5 females in groups of 2 or 3) for effects of long-term cohabitation. All of the females demonstrated waves of estrogen excretion (indicative of ovarian activity) as well as occasional periods of no estrogen production (anestrus). Glucocorticoid and estrogen concentrations were correlated within an individual (r s =0.53; P0.05) on estrogen or glucocorticoid metabolite excretory patterns. Although we recently reported that public exposure can negatively affect sperm production, ovarian steroidogenesis in females was unaffected. There also was no evidence of hyper-adrenal activity. Thus, different methods of ex situ management appear to have minimal influence on ovarian function or stress susceptibility of female cheetahs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Major role of suckling stimulation for inhibition of estrous behaviors in lactating rabbits: acute and chronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dalmán, Cipatli; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Lactation in rabbits induces anestrus: sexual receptivity and scent-marking (chinning) are reduced despite the brevity of suckling (one daily nursing bout, lasting around 3 min). The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown but, as chinning, lordosis, and ambulation in an open field are immediately inhibited by the peripheral stimulation received during mating we hypothesized that, across lactation, suckling stimulation would provoke a similar effect. To test this possibility we provided litters of 1, 3, 5, or 10 pups across lactation days 1-15 and quantified chinning and ambulation frequencies, the lordosis quotient, and milk output. Baseline chinning frequency, determined before the daily nursing bout, was low across lactation days 1-15 in does nursing 3, 5 or 10 pups but it increased steadily across days 1-10 in rabbits suckling one pup. Yet, a single young was sufficient to abolish chinning for about 1h, after which this behavior rose again. Suckling litters of all sizes reduced (but did not abolish) ambulation frequency, both chronically (baseline levels declined across days 1-5) and acutely. Sexual receptivity was significantly reduced on lactation day 15 only in does that had nursed 10 pups. Large litter size promoted a larger milk output and a normal duration of nursing episodes. Results support a major role of suckling stimulation for the suppression of estrous behaviors and ambulation through as yet unidentified mechanisms. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of melatonin supplementation prior to Ovsynch protocol on ovarian activity and conception rates in anestrous Murrah buffalo heifers during out of breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavita; Phogat, Jagat Bir; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Balhara, Ashok Kumar; Ghuman, Sarvpreet Singh; Gunwant, Pankaj

    2018-03-27

    Buffalo heifers have tendency to show anestrus during summer season. Melatonin has been used for correcting summer dependent anestrous via inducing resumption of ovarian activity. Therefore, the investigation was conducted to compare efficacy of melatonin for induction of estrus and conception rate with Ovsynch protocol in summer anestrous Murrah buffalo heifers. Thirty, summer anestrous Murrah buffalo heifers were selected and divided into two groups- treatment (n = 20; 12 melatonin implants) and control (n = 10; no treatment). On day 28 post-implant insertion, animals of both the groups were subjected to Ovsynch protocol. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were conducted to measure plasma melatonin, progesterone concentration and ovarian dynamics, respectively. No animal in either group showed estrus during first 28 days post-implant insertion. However, estrus induction rate was 100% after Ovsynch protocol in both groups. As compared to controls, treatment group exhibited higher (p AI, subsequently developed larger (p AI as compared to the control group. The overall conception rate was 50 and 20% in treatment and control groups, respectively. In conclusion, melatonin treatment along with Ovsynch protocol improved the luteal profiles as well as the conception rate in buffalo heifers when compared with animals treated with Ovsynch protocol alone during summer season. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Crepaldi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI in buffalo has limited use worldwide due the difficulties in the estrus detection and in finding an adequate moment for this procedure. Therefore, an alternative to increase the number of buffalo that are inseminated is the use of protocols that allow the AI without the need of estrus detection, usually called fixed-time AI (FTAI. Our expanding knowledge of the control of follicular wave dynamics during the buffalo estrous cycle has resulted in renewed enthusiasm for the prospects of precisely control of the follicular and luteal dynamics and finely controlling the time of ovulation. Follicular wave development can be controlled by treatments with GnRH or estradiol and progestogen/progesterone in combination. Treatment of buffalo with GnRH in combination with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α 7 d later and a second GnRH 48 h after PGF2α (known as Ovsynch has resulted in acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI in cycling buffalo during the breeding season. FTAI protocols using progestin devices, estradiol and eCG have resulted in synchronous onset of a new follicular wave, synchronous ovulation and consistent pregnancy rates in anestrous buffalo during the off breeding season. The combination of these protocols permits the use of AI throughout the year, obtaining conception and calving even in anestrus buffalo during the off breeding season.

  19. Use of enrofloxacin in the treatment of canine brucellosis in a dog kennel (clinical trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M M; Delpino, M V; Baldi, P C

    2006-10-01

    To date, no totally effective antibiotic for the eradication of canine brucellosis has been found. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin in a kennel infected with Brucella canis. Twelve dogs, 2 males and 10 females (including 1 in estrus, 3 pregnant, and 6 in anestrus) infected with B. canis were given 5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin orally every 12 h for 30 days. Females received additional courses of enrofloxacin during the estral and luteal phases of the subsequent cycles (0-2 cycles). They were repeatedly mated by infected males. A serological follow-up was carried out for 38 months. The clinical, serological and bacteriological findings were recorded. In a trial carried out 14 months after the beginning of this study, all dogs were negative on the Rapid Slide Agglutination Test (RSAT). No abortions were observed. All mated female dogs conceived and gave birth to healthy puppies. Cultures of postpartum vaginal discharges (lochia) were negative for B. canis. Similar to other treatments, although enrofloxacin was not completely efficacious in treating canine brucellosis, it maintained fertility and avoided the recurrence of abortions, transmission of the disease to the puppies and dissemination of microorganisms during parturition. We inferred that enrofloxacin could be used as an alternative drug for the treatment of canine brucellosis.

  20. KNDy (Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin) Neurons Are Activated during Both Pulsatile and Surge Secretion of LH in the Ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkley, Christina M.; Porter, Katrina L.; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Billings, Heather J.; Drews, Sara; Goodman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    KNDy (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) appear to mediate the negative feedback actions of estradiol and are thought to be key regulators of pulsatile LH secretion. In the ewe, KNDy neurons may also be involved with the positive feedback actions of estradiol (E2) to induce the LH surge, but the role of kisspeptin neurons in the preoptic area (POA) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to identify which population(s) of kisspeptin neurons is (are) activated during the LH surge and in response to the removal of E2-negative feedback, using Fos as an index of neuronal activation. Dual-label immunocytochemistry for kisspeptin and Fos was performed on sections containing the ARC and POA from ewes during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, or before or after the onset of the LH surge (experiment 1), and from ovary-intact, short-term (24 h) and long-term (>30 d) ovariectomized (OVX) ewes in anestrus (experiment 2). The percentage of kisspeptin neurons expressing Fos in both the ARC and POA was significantly higher during the LH surge. In contrast, the percentage of kisspeptin/Fos colocalization was significantly increased in the ARC, but not POA, after both short- and long-term E2 withdrawal. Thus, POA kisspeptin neurons in the sheep are activated during, and appear to contribute to, E2-positive feedback, whereas ARC kisspeptin (KNDy) neurons are activated during both surge and pulsatile modes of secretion and likely play a role in mediating both positive and negative feedback actions of E2 on GnRH secretion in the ewe. PMID:22989631

  1. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatic and Whole-Body Insulin Metabolism during Proestrus and Estrus in Mongrel Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Erin Nz; Winnick, Jason J; Edgerton, Dale S; Scott, Melanie F; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs during various stages of the estrus cycle in dogs. To quantify the effects of proestrus-estrus (PE) and determine whether PE affects liver insulin sensitivity, 11 female mongrel dogs were implanted with sampling and intraportal infusion catheters. Five of the dogs (PE group) entered proestrus after surgery; those remaining in anestrus were controls. The dogs were fasted overnight, [3-(3)H]glucose and somatostatin were infused through peripheral veins, and glucagon was infused intraportally. Insulin was infused intraportally, with the rate adjusted to maintain arterial plasma glucose at basal levels (PE, 294±25 μU/kg/min; control, 223±21 μU/kg/min). Subsequently the insulin infusion rate was increased by 0.2 mU/kg/min for 120 min (P1) and then to 1.5 mU/kg/min for the last 120 min (P2); glucose was infused peripherally as needed to maintain euglycemia. Insulin concentrations did not differ between groups at any time; they increased 3 μU/mL over baseline during P1 and to 3 times baseline during P2. The glucose infusion rate in PE dogs during P2 was 63% of that in control dogs. Net hepatic glucose output and the endogenous glucose production rate declined 40% to 50% from baseline in both groups during P1; during P2, both groups exhibited a low rate of net hepatic glucose uptake with full suppression of endogenous glucose production. The glucose disappearance rate during P1 and P2 was 35% greater in control than PE dogs. Therefore, PE in canines is associated with loss of nonhepatic (primarily muscle) but not hepatic insulin sensitivity.

  3. Using UHF proximity loggers to quantify male-female interactions: a scoping study of estrous activity in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, C J; Bishop-Hurley, G J; Williams, P J; Reid, D J; Swain, D L

    2014-12-10

    Reproductive efficiency is an important determinant of profitable cattle breeding systems and the success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in wildlife conservation programs. Methods of estrous detection used in intensive beef and dairy cattle systems lack accuracy and remain the single biggest issue for improvement of reproductive rates and such methods are not practical for either large-scale extensive beef cattle enterprises or free-living mammalian species. Recent developments in UHF (ultra high frequency) proximity logger telemetry devices have been used to provide a continuous pair-wise measure of associations between individual animals for both livestock and wildlife. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using UHF telemetry to identify the reproductive cycle phenotype in terms of intensity and duration of estrus. The study was conducted using Belmont Red (interbred Africander Brahman Hereford-Shorthorn) cattle grazing irrigated pasture on Belmont Research Station, northeastern Australia. The cow-bull associations from three groups of cows each with one bull were recorded over a 7-week breeding season and the stage of estrus was identified using ultrasonography. Telemetry data from bull and cows, collected over 4 8-day logger deployments, were log transformed and analyzed by ANOVA. Both the number and duration of bull-cow affiliations were significantly (Pcows compared to anestrus cows. These results support the development of the UHF technology as a hands-off and noninvasive means of gathering socio-sexual information on both wildlife and livestock for reproductive management. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovarian Cyst in Crossbred Cattle of Temperate Region- A Retrospective Study of 54 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective to extract all possible interrelated etiological factors of cystic ovary and to evaluate the best treatment protocol in dairy cattle under field condition of temperate region. A total of 54 cattle (47 cows and 7 heifers, suffering from ovarian cyst were retrospectively used to study prevalence and outcome of the disease over a period of 5 years. Highest prevalence was recorded in crossbred Jersey, in 2nd lactation and during summer. Major clinical signs showed by the animals with ovarian cysts (OC were either repeat breeding or anestrus. In case of repeat breeding, irregular cycle (sometimes short and sometimes long in the same cow in 23.33% (7/30, nymphomania in 13.33% (4/30, short cycle (10-15 days in 23.33% (7/30 and long cycle (23-30 days in 10% (3/30 cases were noticed. In remaining 30% cases (9/30 normal cycles were noticed. Right ovary affected more than left one and mean number of cysts recorded were 1.17 per animal. Follicular cysts could be treated with GnRH in 75% (9/12 cases, and, luteal cysts with cloprostenol in 83.33% (10/12 cases. However, in cases where cyst could not be differentiated by rectal palpation, administration of cloprostenol 9 days after HCG treatment was found 66.67% (8/12 effective in curing the disease. It is concluded that both follicular and luteal cysts can be treated successfully with GnRH/hCG and prostaglandin or its analogue, respectively.

  5. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases

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    A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23 during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05 and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05 during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl, plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l, magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l, potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l and significantly lower (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl, globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml and T4 (6.0±0.27 μg/ml concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 μg/ml concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep.

  6. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  7. Effects of a copper-bearing intrauterine device on the ovarian function, body weight gain and pregnancy rate of nulliparous heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turin, E M; Nagle, C A; Lahoz, M; Torres, M; Turin, M; Mendizabal, A F; Escofet, M B

    1997-05-01

    A copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD), designed to cause a slight distention of the uterus, was inserted through the cervix into each uterine horn of 230 heifers; an additional 230 heifers served as the control group. Blood was drawn at 0, 1, 2, 20 and 120 d for progesterone and testosterone assays. The heifers were checked twice daily for estrus and examined at 0, 60 and 120 d for weight gain. Thereafter they were bred over a 120-d period. The IUD caused anestrus in 98% of the heifers, with a daily weight gain 25.5 % higher than in the control heifers. Moreover, the device was 100% effective in preventing pregnancy. At 20 and 120 d after IUD insertion progesterone levels averaged 0.7 ng/ml, which was 4 to 5 times lower than in the control animals, suggesting a failure in ovulation or in corpus luteum (CL) formation due to the IUD. Simultaneously, testosterone values were increased up to 8 times in IUD-treated heifers, reaching a mean concentration of 163 pg/ml. Associated histological evaluations of the ovaries from UD-treated heifers revealed the presence of 2 or more cysts per ovary, with marked hyperthecosis in many antral follicles in which the granulosa cell layers were either thinned or lacking. The results suggest that the action of the copper-releasing IUD used in this study resulted in high contraceptive efficiency but also in disturbance of ovarian function. Our findings further raise the possibility of a cause and effect relationship between hyperandrogenism and the higher body weight gain observed in heifers treated with the IUD.

  8. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the breed (percentage of Rideau Arcott genotype) and lifetime lamb production in seasonally anestrous ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before

  9. Improvement of development of equine preantral follicles after 6 days of in vitro culture with ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R G; Lisboa, L A; Silva, C B; Max, M C; Marino, P C; Oliveira, R L; González, S M; Barreiros, T R R; Marinho, L S R; Seneda, M M

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of ascorbic acid (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) in supplemented minimum essential medium (MEM+) on the development of equine preantral follicles that were cultured in vitro for 2 or 6 days. The contralateral ovaries (n = 5) from five mares in seasonal anestrus were collected from a local abattoir. Nine ovarian tissue fragments of approximately 5 × 5 × 1 mm were obtained from each animal. One fragment was immediately fixed and subjected to histologic analysis (control group; Day 0), and the other eight were placed in PBS supplemented with penicillin (200 IU/mL) and streptomycin (200 mg/mL) at 4 °C for 1 hour (during transport to the laboratory). The fragments were cultured in situ for 2 days (D2) or 6 days (D6) in MEM+ or MEM+ plus ascorbic acid at three different concentrations, establishing the following nine groups: control; MEM+ (D2); MEM+ (D6); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); and MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6). The preantral follicles were classified according to their stage (primordial, primary, secondary, or antral) and their morphology (normal or abnormal). Slides (n = 951) including 4450 histologic sections were evaluated. Follicles were observed in only 4.85% (216 of 4450) of the histologic sections. Of the 407 follicles evaluated, 120 were in the primordial stage and 287 were in different developmental stages; additionally, 43.5% were morphologically normal. After 6 days of culture, the groups cultured with 50 and 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid differed in terms of follicular development compared with the other groups. On the basis of occurrence of follicular development and the presence of viable follicles, it can be concluded that a positive effect of culture for 6 days in MEM+ supplemented with 50 and 100 μg/mL of

  10. Effects of environment on buffalo reproduction

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    W. G. Vale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been long recognized that the environment has an important role to play in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive function. Environmental cues, such as changing day-light or increase temperature, are know to trigger off growth or regression of the reproductive organs in a whole variety of species and nutrition and stress can influence the onset of breeding and affect the fertility. Although the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis has been since long time considered as a short-day-breeder polyestral seasonal animal, indeed in the tropical areas near of equator line they are polyestral continuous. It would seem that photoperiod has a marked influence in buffalo reproduction in determinate areas of the world, however in some tropical areas like in Brazil, mainly in the Amazon valley and areas nearest of the equator the light seems to have a minimal effect or no effect on the reproductive cues however the nutrition and heat stress measured throughout temperature/ humidity indexes (THI play an important role in the reproductive functions of buffaloes and it is suggested that THI >75 has a negative effect on reproductive performances of buffaloes. The calving season is regulated by the availability of native pasture in the floodplain or in areas of artificial pasture On the other hand when buffaloes are raised in the southwest and southern regions (parallels 14 to 33 South they show a typical seasonal pattern when the calving season are concentrated between de February to July. The body condition score (BCS seems to affect directly the fertility of female buffaloes since females that calve with a BCS < 2.5 show delayed postpartum ovulation, weak estrus symptoms and more service per conception rate. Seasonal anestrus is a normal phenomenon in the out breeding season that occur in areas near, upon or down of the Cancer and Capricorn lines, respectively, however the anoestrus can be overcame by the use of hormone to synchronize heat and

  11. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-09-15

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age at neutering. Investigation of several hormone receptors has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary tissues. In other studies, increased levels of estrogens, progesterone and prolactin were found in serum and/or tissue homogenates of dogs with malignant neoplasms. However, the association between these entities within one animal population was never previously examined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between circulating serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and prolactin, and gene expression of ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), PGR, PRLR, PRL and GHR, with respect to reproductive state (spayed vs. intact) and cycle stage (anestrus vs. diestrus). Additionally, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH-1) was evaluated as a possible indicator of metastatic potential. For all receptors, the lowest gene expression was found in malignant tumors compared to normal tissues of affected dogs. Steroid levels were not influenced by their corresponding receptor expression in mammary neoplasms, but increased PRL levels were negatively associated with low PRLR gene expression in malignant tumors. The expression of CDH-1 was influenced by tumor malignancy and cycle stage, i.e., the highest gene expression was found in benign mammary tumors in diestrous dogs compared to normal and malignant mammary

  12. Effect of some management and nutritional factors on the fertility of milking cows under traditional husbandry system in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hassaballa Shams Eldin

    1998-04-01

    Six farms (A, B, C, D, E and F) of the intensive system type were selected. They were located 50 km south of Khartoum. Nutritional parameters with respect to metabolizable energy intake (MEI)and crude protein (CP) concentration of the diet were investigated . Other managerial practices were also closely examined. Cows that recently calved were monitored throughout the study period (300 days) for days to first progesterone (P 4 ) rise and days to conception using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique and rectal palpation. The above fertility parameters were correlated with either body condition score (BCS) or body weight (Bwt) at calving, 30, 60 and 90 days from calving. Similar correlations were done after pooling all farms together excluding farm E which consisted of the pure exotic breed. Likewise same correlations were done for the cows grouped according to calving during wet and dry summer. Milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days from calving were also correlated with days to first P 4 rise and days to conception. Regression analysis were carried out for correlations which showed high or moderate relationships. The interval from caving to ovulation or conception varied within and between farms. Farm E showed the shortest (17) days to first P 4 rise while farm C showed the longest days. Likewise farm E showed the shortest (56) days to conception while farm F showed the longest (161) days. However farm F, showed the lowest conception rate and highest percentage of anestrus cows. Best conception rates within 90 days postpartum were observed in farm C followed by farm E, B, A, D and F. Days to conception was negatively correlated (P 4 rise was negatively correlated (P<0.004, r=0.99) with body score at calving (BCS.Calv), but positively correlated with Bwt.Calv. (P<0.08, r=0.91), body weight change at 30 days from calving (P<0.13, r=0.86), and body weight change at 60 days from calving (P<0.08, r=0.91). No significant difference (P=0.29) between wet and dry summer for days to

  13. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančić, Ivan B; Bošnjak, Darko V; Radović, Ivan B; Stančić, Blagoje L; Harvey, Roger B; Anderson, Robin C

    2012-08-22

    Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty) is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal) or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic) gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic) gilts were injected with a single injection of 400  IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or with 1000  IU eCG (cyclic gilts), at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days) were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60) was treated with a single 1000  IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan's test in the software package Statistics 10th. Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature) and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature) gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature) gilts and in 95% (19/20) of the cyclic (sexually mature) gilts, treated with eCG on day 17 after spontaneous estrus detection. The

  14. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  15. The applications of timed artificial insemination and timed embryo transfer in reproductive management of dairy cattle Aplicação da inseminação artificial e transferência de embrião em tempo fixo no manejo reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Justus Ambrose

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fertility of dairy cattle is generally decreasing. Overall estrus detection efficiency in lactating dairy cattle is low, as expression of estrus is often compromised. Consequently, undetected estrus, low AI-submission rates, and long inter-breeding intervals are the main contributors to poor reproductive efficiency. Although failure to become pregnant is the most common reason for culling dairy cattle, pregnancy rates could be improved by increasing the AI-submission rate through increased estrus detection efficiency, timed insemination (Timed-AI, or timed embryo transfer (Timed-ET. In these protocols, ovarian follicular development and luteolysis are controlled, culminating in synchronous ovulation in most cows. There are several modifications to improve pregnancy rates in Timed-AI protocols, e.g. presynchronization with 2 doses of PGF2a 14 d apart, and starting the Ovsynch protocol 12 d after the 2nd PGF2a. Timed-AI programs ensure a timely first breeding; this should be followed with early pregnancy diagnosis to identify nonpregnant cows, and prompt re-insemination. However, in a recent field study involving 23 dairy herds, the mean interval between 1st and 2nd breeding was 42 d; only 28% of the cows were rebred within 24 d after 1st breeding. Fortunately, there are several resynchronization protocols to reduce inter-breeding intervals. Anestrus cows, or those with cystic ovarian follicles, have a good chance of conceiving when subjected to synchronization of ovulation and Timed-AI. Furthermore, Timed-ET is a practical and viable option for synchronizing and selecting recipient cattle for embryo transfers. In summary, systematic and judicious use of Timed-AI and Timed-ET protocols can greatly enhance reproductive performance, and improve herd productivity.A fertilidade em vacas de leite está em decréscimo e, de modo geral, a detecção eficiente do estro em vacas lactantes é baixa, já que a expressão do estro é frequentemente