WorldWideScience

Sample records for anesthetics blm experiments

  1. The thermodynamics of lipid ion channel formation in the absence and presence of anesthetics. BLM experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wodzinska, Katarzyna; Heimburg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    It is known that lipid membranes become permeable in their melting regime. In microscopic conductance measurements on black lipid membranes one finds that conduction takes place via quantized events closely resembling those reported for protein ion channels. Here, we present data of ion currents through black lipid membranes in the presence and absence of the anesthetics octanol and ethanol, and compare them to a statistical thermodynamics model using parameters that are obtained from experimental calorimetric data. The conductance steps in pure lipid membrane suggest aqueous pores with the size of approximately one lipid cross-section. We model the permeability by assuming empty sites of the size of one lipid. We find that pore formation in the melting transition regime is facilitated by the increase of the lateral compressibility that expresses itself in the area fluctuations. Thus, pore formation is related to critical opalescence in two dimensions. Anesthetics alter the permeability by affecting the therm...

  2. Anesthetic management of conjoined twins undergoing one-stage surgical separation: A single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, He-Jiang; Li, Hong; Du, Zhi-Yong; Huan, He; Yang, Tian-De; Qi, Yue-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To summarize our experience in the anesthetic management of conjoined twins undergoing one-stage surgical separation. Methodology: Medical records of conjoined twins admitted to our hospital for treatment and considered for surgical separation from 1996 to present were retrospectively reviewed. Four cases of conjoined twins underwent one-stage surgical separation under general anesthesia. Preoperative evaluation was performed to determine the extent of anatomical conjunction and as...

  3. Anesthetic management of Shah–Waardenburg syndrome: Experience of two cases and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Uday S Ambi; Adarsh, E. S.; Ramesh Hatti; Vijaymahantesh Samalad

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomally inherited and genetically heterogeneous disorder of neural crest cell development. Literature regarding the anesthetic management of these cases is limited. We present 2 cases of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and discuss them in the context of review of previously published cases.

  4. Anesthetic management of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome: Experience of two cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday S Ambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome (WS is a rare autosomally inherited and genetically heterogeneous disorder of neural crest cell development. Literature regarding the anesthetic management of these cases is limited. We present 2 cases of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and discuss them in the context of review of previously published cases.

  5. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  6. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  7. Anesthetic experience in a clinically euthyroid patient with hyperthyroxinemia and suspected impairment of T4 to T3 conversion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kang, Jin Gu; Hahm, Moon Chol; Park, Jeong Heon; Kim, Kyung-mi; Lim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Young Ri

    2014-01-01

    We report an anesthetic experience in a clinically euthyroid patient with hyperthyroxinemia (elevated free thyroxine, fT4 and normal 3, 5, 3'-L-triiodothyronine, T3) and suspected impairment of conversion from T4 to T3. Despite marked hyperthyroxinemia, this patient's perioperative hemodynamic profile was suspected to be the result of hypothyroidism, in reference to the presence of T4 to T3 conversion disorder. We suspected that pretreatment with antithyroid medication before surgery, surgica...

  8. BLM Scale Fixing in Event Shape Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, Thomas; Monni, Pier Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We study the application of the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale setting prescription to event shape distributions in electron-positron collisions. The renormalization scale is set dynamically according to the BLM method. We study NLO predictions and we discuss extensions of the prescription to NNLO.

  9. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic......The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...

  10. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  11. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  12. Effects of anesthetics on ponto-geniculo-occipital waves from the oculomotor nucleus of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, H; Ashizawa, N; Wakushima, Y; Yamamura, H

    1975-05-01

    Effects of anesthetics and doxapram on pontogeniculo-occipital (PGO) waves from the oculomotor nucleus were studied in acute experiments in cats paralyzed by gallamine triethiodide. The anesthetic agents studied in the present experiment (thiopental, ketamine, Innovar, nitrous oxide, and halothane) decreased, while doxapram increased, the total number of PGO waves. As the doses of anesthetics increased, PGO waves were abolished, but they returned to control levels or below control levels when the concentrations of anesthetics were decreased. The results indicate that the anesthetics studied inhibit the activity of the central mechanism associated with the oculomotor system. PGO waves may prove a useful index of the level of anesthesia. PMID:1130723

  13. Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Qian Liu; Jing Li; Sulpicio G. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionMillions of newborn and infants receive anesthetic,sedative and analgesic drugs for surgery and painful procedures on a daily basis.Recent laboratory reports clearly demonstrate that anesthetic and sedative drugs induced both neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits in laboratory models.This issue is of paramount interest to pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists because it questions the safety of anesthetics used for fetal and neonatal anesthesia[1-2].In an attempt to summarize the rapidly expanding laboratorybased literature on anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN),this review will examine published reports on the characterization,mechanisms and alleviation of this phenomenon.

  14. Mechanism of Anesthetic Action: Oxygen Pathway Perturbation Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Huping; Wu, Maoxin

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of anesthesia is relevant to the neural and biological aspects of cognitive sciences. Although more than 150 years have past since the discovery of general anesthetics, how they precisely work remains a mystery. We propose a novel unitary mechanism of general anesthesia verifiable by experiments. In the proposed mechanism, general anesthetics perturb oxygen pathways in both membranes and oxygen-utilizing proteins such that the availabilities of oxygen to its sites of utilization...

  15. The Anesthetic Management of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarracino, Fabio; Baldassarri, Rubia

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of patients with a high risk for surgery because of advanced age and associated comorbidities that significantly increase the perioperative risk successfully undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). TAVI is commonly performed under general or local anesthesia or local anesthesia plus mild sedation to achieve a conscious sedation. The anesthetic regimen generally depends on the patient's clinical profile and the procedural technical characteristics, but the center's experience and internal organization likely play an important role in anesthetic decision making. The large variation in anesthetic management among various centers and countries likely depends on the different composition of the operating team and institutional organization. Therefore, a tight interaction among the various members of the TAVI team, including the cardiac anesthetist, provides the proper anesthetic management using the chosen procedural technique. PMID:26403787

  16. Top-down mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Mashour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of how structurally and pharmacologically diverse general anesthetics disrupt consciousness has persisted since the 19th century. There has traditionally been a significant focus on “bottom-up” mechanisms of anesthetic action, in terms of sensory processing, arousal systems and structural scales. However, recent evidence suggests that the neural mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness may involve a “top-down” process, which parallels current perspectives on the neurobiology of conscious experience itself. This article considers various arguments for top-down mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, with a focus on sensory processing and sleep-wake networks. Furthermore, recent theoretical work is discussed to highlight the possibility that top-down explanations may be causally sufficient, even assuming critical bottom-up events.

  17. Day-surgery patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with sevoflurane.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, Terry

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been recent studies suggesting that patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain compared with patients anesthetized with volatile anesthetics. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, 80 patients undergoing day-case diagnostic laparoscopic gynecological surgery were either anesthetized with IV propofol or sevoflurane. The primary outcome measured was pain on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Patients anesthetized with propofol had less pain compared with patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (P = 0.01). There was no difference in any of the other measured clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The patients anesthetized with propofol appeared to have less pain than patients anesthetized with sevoflurane.

  18. Mechanism of Anesthetic Action Oxygen Pathway Perturbation Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, H; Hu, Huping; Wu, Maoxin

    2001-01-01

    Although more than 150 years have past since the discovery of general anesthetics, how they precisely work remains a mystery. We propose a novel unitary mechanism of general anesthesia verifiable by experiments. In the proposed mechanism, general anesthetics perturb oxygen pathways in both membranes and oxygen-utilizing proteins such that the availabilities of oxygen to its sites of utilization are reduced which in turn triggers cascading cellular responses through oxygen-sensing mechanisms resulting in general anesthesia. Despite the general assumption that cell membranes are readily permeable to oxygen, exiting publications indicate that these membranes are plausible oxygen transport barriers. The present hypothesis provides a unified framework for explaining phenomena associated with general anesthesia and experimental results on the actions of general anesthetics. If verified by experiments, the proposed mechanism also has other significant medical and biological implications.

  19. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of the BLM Helicase Modulates Chromosome Stability in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Rosenthal, Andrew S; Chu, Wai Kit; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Mosedale, Georgina; Bachrati, Csanád Z; Schultz, Lena; Sakurai, Masaaki; Savitsky, Pavel; Abu, Mika; McHugh, Peter J; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Harris, Curtis C; Jadhav, Ajit; Gileadi, Opher; Maloney, David J; Simeonov, Anton; Hickson, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The Bloom's syndrome protein, BLM, is a member of the conserved RecQ helicase family. Although cell lines lacking BLM exist, these exhibit progressive genomic instability that makes distinguishing primary from secondary effects of BLM loss problematic. In order to be able to acutely disable BLM...

  20. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporale, Francesco [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 15 and U. Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  1. Commissioning and optimization of the LHC BLM System

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, E B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Hajdu, C F; Jackson, S; Kurfurst, C; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M; Zamantzas, C; Grishin, V

    2011-01-01

    Due to rapid progress with the LHC commissioning in 2010, set-up beam intensities were soon surpassed and damage potential was reached. One of the key systems for machine protection is the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system. Around 4000 monitors are installed at likely or critical loss locations. Each monitor has 384 associated beam abort thresholds (12 integrated loss durations from 40 μs to 84 s for 32 energy intervals). A single integrated loss over threshold on a single monitor aborts the beam. Simulations of deposited energy, critical energy deposition for damage or quench and BLM signal response backedup by control measurements determined the initial threshold settings. The commissioning and optimization of the BLM system is presented. Test procedures were used to verify the machine protection functionalities. Accidental magnet quenches were used to fine-tune threshold settings. The most significant changes to the BLM system during the 2010 run concern the injection, the collimation and the beam dump re...

  2. Number of New Leases Issued During Fiscal Year by BLM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of new leases, by state, issued by the BLM during each fiscal year. Leases issued over the course of a fiscal year may or may...

  3. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered...

  4. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF ANATROPHIC NEPHROLITHOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Anatrophic nephrolithotomy is a urological procedure t hat is rarely performed in this minimally invasive endo urological era. Howeve r, it still remains an option in the management of complex staghorn calculus. A near compl ete removal of the large calculus in a single sitting will be more cost effective than mul tiple sittings required for minimally invasive procedures. We report anesthetic management of anatro phic nephrolithotomy which in many ways similar to the principles of renal transplantati on

  5. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF ANATROPHIC NEPHROLITHOTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Geetha; Tejesh; Prathima

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Anatrophic nephrolithotomy is a urological procedure t hat is rarely performed in this minimally invasive endo urological era. Howeve r, it still remains an option in the management of complex staghorn calculus. A near compl ete removal of the large calculus in a single sitting will be more cost effective than mul tiple sittings required for minimally invasive procedures. We report anesthetic management of anatro phic nephrolithotomy which in many wa...

  6. Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of proteasome core particles

    OpenAIRE

    Weberruss, Marion H; Savulescu, Anca F; Jando, Julia; Bissinger, Thomas; Harel, Amnon; Glickman, Michael H.; Enenkel, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    Short-lived proteins are degraded by proteasome complexes, which contain a proteolytic core particle (CP) but differ in the number of regulatory particles (RPs) and activators. A recently described member of conserved proteasome activators is Blm10. Blm10 contains 32 HEAT-like modules and is structurally related to the nuclear import receptor importin/karyopherin β. In proliferating yeast, RP-CP assemblies are primarily nuclear and promote cell division. During quiescence, RP-CP assemblies di...

  7. The action of local anesthetics on myelin structure and nerve conduction in toad sciatic nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu, L; Morán, O; Padrón, R; Borgo, M; Vonasek, E; Márquez, G; Luzzati, V.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray scattering and electrophysiological experiments were performed on toad sciatic nerves in the presence of local anesthetics. In vitro experiments were performed on dissected nerves superfused with Ringer's solutions containing procaine, lidocaine, tetracaine, or dibucaine. In vivo experiments were performed on nerves dissected from animals anesthesized by targeted injections of tetracaine-containing solutions. In all cases the anesthetics were found to have the same effects on the x-ray ...

  8. Cesarean section under epidural anesthesia patient shivering in the surgical anesthetic experience to explore%硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中患者寒战的麻醉体会探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜珍华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery in patients with shivering and anesthetic experience. Methods 140 cases were treated in our hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section shivering surgery patients as research subjects. Results Psychological stress too much heat,heat production increased drug toxicity and other main reason for the occurrence of shivering, through the adoption of appropriate measures to deal effectively control the chills. Conclusion The analysis of patients with chills,targeted to take the appropriate measures to control shivering effective measures to help prevent cesarean section under epidural anesthesia shivering.%  目的探讨硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中患者发生寒战的原因及麻醉体会。方法选择该院2010年3月—2012年3月收治的140例硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中出现寒战的患者作为研究对象。结果心理紧张、散热过多、产热增加、药物毒性反应等为发生寒战的主要原因,通过采取相应的处理措施,有效的控制了寒战。结论分析患者发生寒战的原因,有针对性的采取相应措施是控制寒战的有效措施,有助于预防硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中寒战的发生。

  9. Decline in the Development of New Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassakov, Kamen V; Kissin, Igor

    2016-05-01

    The number of new anesthetics approved by the USA FDA over the past 30 years (1985-2014) is much smaller than during the preceding 30 years (1955-1984): four versus ten. Investigational anesthetics clinically tested since 1990 have been almost exclusively intravenous anesthetics (nine compounds), with only one now approved by the FDA. All nine agents represent modifications of anesthetics introduced approximately 40-50 years ago; none demonstrates a truly novel mechanism of action. The apparent drought of novel anesthetics is difficult to explain. While there may be multiple reasons, we believe that one is especially noteworthy: the dramatic improvement in anesthesia safety owing to the context in which anesthetics are administered, effectively decreasing the pressure to develop new drugs with better safety margins. PMID:26922254

  10. Hair transplant and local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-10-01

    Hair restoration is an art and a science that requires an experienced and dedicated surgeon and team to achieve consistently superior outcomes. In addition to discussion of local anesthetic in use for hair restoration, this article emphasizes the pearls and pitfalls that are involved at every phase of the procedure including judgment, hairline design, donor harvesting, recipient-site creation, graft preparation, and graft placement. Two recent advances in the field are highlighted: the use of regenerative medicine (platelet-rich plasma and ACell), and developments in follicular-unit extraction as an alternative to traditional linear donor harvesting. PMID:24093656

  11. Dexmedetomidine as the primary anesthetic agent during cardiac surgery in an infant with a family history of malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Naguib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is an acute hypermetabolic crisis triggered in susceptible patients by the administration of succinylcholine or a volatile anesthetic agent. When providing anesthetic care for MH-susceptible agents, a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA technique is frequently chosen. When choosing the components for TIVA, several options exist including the combination of propofol or dexmedetomidine with an opioid. We present our experience with the use of dexmedetomidine as a key component of the anesthetic regimen in a 5-month-old infant with a family history of MH. Previous reports of the use of dexmedetomidine in MH-susceptible patients are reviewed and its benefits in such patients discussed.

  12. Anesthetic management of transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI is an emergent technique for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. TAVI poses significant challenges about its management because of the procedure itself and the population who undergo the implantation. Two devices are currently available and marketed in Europe and several other technologies are being developed. The retrograde transfemoral approach is the most popular procedure; nevertheless, it may not be feasible in patients with significant aortic or ileo-femoral arterial disease. Alternatives include a transaxillary approach, transapical approach, open surgical access to the retroperitoneal iliac artery and the ascending aorta. A complementary approach using both devices and alternative routes tailored to the anatomy and the comorbidities of the single patient is a main component for the successful implementation of a TAVI program. Anesthetic strategies vary in different centers. Local anesthesia or general anesthesia are both valid alternatives and can be applied according to the patient′s characteristics and procedural instances. General anesthesia offers many advantages, mainly regarding the possibility of an early diagnosis and treatment of possible complications through the use of transesophageal echocardiography. However, after the initial experiences, many groups began to employ, routinely, sedation plus local anesthesia for TAVI, and their procedural and periprocedural success demonstrates that it is feasible. TAVI is burdened with potential important complications: vascular injuries, arrhythmias, renal impairment, neurological complications, cardiac tamponade, prosthesis malpositioning and embolization and left main coronary artery occlusion. The aim of this work is to review the anesthetic management of TAVI based on the available literature.

  13. Sodium channels as targets for volatile anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KarlF.Herold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of modern inhaled anesthetics although widely used in clinical settings are still poorly understood. Considerable evidence supports effects on membrane proteins such as ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels of excitable cells. Na+ channels are crucial to action potential initiation and propagation, and represent potential targets for volatile anesthetics. Inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels leads to reduced neurotransmitter release at the synapse and could therefore contribute to the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics produce their characteristic effects: amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility. Early studies on crayfish and squid giant axon showed inhibition of Na+ currents by volatile anesthetics. Subsequent studies using native neuronal preparations and heterologous expression systems with various mammalian Na+ channel isoforms implicated inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic actions. Volatile anesthetics reduce peak Na+ current and shift the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation towards more negative potentials, thus stabilizing the fast-inactivated state. Furthermore recovery from fast-inactivation is slowed together with an enhanced use-dependent block during pulse train protocols. These effects can reduce neurotransmitter release by depressing presynaptic excitability, depolarization and Ca entry, and ultimately transmitter release. This reduction in transmitter release is more portent for glutamatergic vs. GABAergic terminals. Involvement of Na+ channel inhibition in mediating the immobility caused by volatile anesthetics has been demonstrated in animal studies, in which intrathecal infusion of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin increases volatile anesthetic potency, whereas infusion of the Na+ channels agonist veratridine reduces anesthetic potency. These studies indicate that inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels by volatile anesthetics is involved in mediating some of

  14. Cortical control of hering-breuer reflexes in anesthetized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrov VG; Mercuriev VA; Ivanova TG; Tarasievich AA; Aleksandrova NP

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It had been hypothesized that the regions of prefrontal cortex which are involved in respiratory control can modulate Hering-Breuer reflexes evoked by vagal input from pulmonary stretch receptors. In the present study, experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized spontaneously breathing Wistar rats. The expiratory-promoting reflex was evaluated from changes in expiratory time immediately after airway occlusion at the end of inspiration. The inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was es...

  15. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilderhus, Philip A.; Lemm, Carol A.; Woods, L. Curry, III

    1991-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested as an anesthetic on juvenile and mature adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis ). Concentrations of 55 mg/L at 22 degree C to 80 mg/L at 11 degree C effectively anesthetized fish in about 3 min. Recovery was more rapid as temperature increased. Fish survived concentrations of twice the effective concentration and exposure times up to 60 min at the effective concentration. Striped bass required higher concentrations for anesthetization than had been previously demonstrated for salmonid fishes, but safety margins for both concentration and exposure time were wider than for the salmonids.

  16. Handling of BLM abort thresholds in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Holzer, EB; Zamantzas, C; Kruk, G; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Nemcic, M; Orecka, A; Jackson, S; Roderick, C; Skaugen, A

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system (BLM) for the LHC consists of about 3600 Ionization Chambers (IC) located around the ring. Its main purpose is to request a beam abort when the measured losses exceed a certain threshold. The BLM detectors integrate the measured signals in 12 different time intervals (running from 40us to 83.8s) enabling for a different set of abort thresholds depending on the duration of the beam loss. Furthermore, 32 energy levels running from 450GeV to 7TeV account for the fact that the energy density of a particle shower increases with the energy of the primary particle, i.e. the beam energy. Thus, a set of ! 3600 × 12 × 32 = 1.3 · 106 thresholds must be handled. These thresholds are highly critical for the safety of the machine and depend to a large part on human judgment, which cannot be replaced by automatic test procedures. The BLM team has defined well established procedures to compute, set and check new BLM thresholds, in order to avoid and/or find non-conformities due to manipulat...

  17. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdi, Madhuri S.; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H.

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit differ...

  18. Anesthetic effects in Alzheimer transgenic mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Junxia X.; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.

    2012-01-01

    Research has improved the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, and at earlier stages, but effective therapy continues to be elusive. Current effort is focused on delay. Environmental factors are thought to interact with genetics to modulate the progression of the disease, and one such environmental factor is exposure to general anesthetics. The possibility that some anesthetic effects have long-term consequences is of general interest and concern. The difficulty of studying a chronic, age-relate...

  19. Inhaled Anesthetic Potency in Aged Alzheimer Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Shannon L.; Caltagarone, Breanna M.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Kelz, Max B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of elderly patients with frank or incipient Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requiring surgery is growing as the population ages. General anesthesia may exacerbate symptoms of and the pathology underlying AD, so minimizing anesthetic exposure may be important. This requires knowledge of whether the continuing AD pathogenesis alters anesthetic potency. METHODS We determined the induction potency and emergence time for isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane using the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration for loss of righting reflex as an end point in 12- to 14-mo-old triple transgenic Alzheimer (3xTgAD) mice and wild type C57BL6 controls. 3xTgAD mice model AD by harboring three distinct mutations: the APPSwe, Tau, and PS1 human transgenes, each of which has been associated with familial forms of human AD. RESULTS The 3xTgAD mice exhibited mild resistance (from 8% to 30%) to volatile anesthetics but displayed indistinguishable emergence patterns from all three inhaled anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS These results show that the genetic vulnerabilities and neuropathology associated with AD produce a small but significant decrease in sensitivity to the hypnotic actions of three inhaled anesthetics. Emergence times were not altered. PMID:19820240

  20. [The influence of local anesthetics on corneal epithelium. A scanning electron microscopic study (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewitt, H; Honegger, H

    1978-09-01

    The effect of different local anesthetics (Cocain 4%, Lidocaine 2%, Proparacain) on the corneal epithelium in rabbits was examined under scanning electron microscope. The experiment was divided into three groups. Group 1 received one application of two drops of the given local anesthetic for a reaction time of 5 minutes. Group 2 received two drops of the given anesthetic after 0, 5 and 10 minutes. The cornea was excised after 15 minutes. Group 3 were measured after a single application of Proparacain using a Schiötz or hand applanation tonometer according to Draeger. After a single dose of a local anesthetic principally the same changes in the surface of the cornea were observed with all the preparations used: a distinct decrease in the number of microvilli and microplicae, disruption of the intercellular spaces and the prominence of the cell nuclei which under normal conditions are not visible. After several applications the greater toxicity of Cocain compared with the other preparations was clearly seen through the disruption of the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. The damage effected several layers of cells. Tonometry when correctly performed causes no additional damage to the cell surface.- The effect of local anesthetics on the cell membrane can only take place after the disruption of the tear film. The results emphasize that local anesthetics should only be applied when absolutely essential. PMID:750708

  1. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yuichiro; Iwano, Hidetomo; Sakamoto, Takako; Hirabayashi, Manabu; Kaneko, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents -medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  2. On the BLM optimal renormalization scale setting for semihard processes

    CERN Document Server

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The BFKL approach for the investigation of semihard processes is plagued by large next-to-leading corrections, both in the kernel of the universal BFKL Green's function and in the process-dependent impact factors, as well as by large uncertainties in the renormalization scale setting. All that calls for some optimization procedure of the perturbative series. In this respect, one of the most common methods is the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) one, that eliminates the renormalization scale ambiguity by absorbing the non-conformal $\\beta_0$-terms into the running coupling. In this paper, we apply BLM scale setting procedure directly to the amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. We show that, due to the presence of $\\beta_0$-terms in the next-to-leading expressions for the impact factors, the optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the type of process in question.

  3. Is the BLM system ready to go to higher intensities?

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Guerrero, A; Grishin, S; Holzer, E; Jackson, S; Kurfuerst, C; Lechner, A; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The higher beam intensities will enhance the effects of the beam losses observed during 2010 run. In particular beam losses due to so called UFO events are discussed, but also other beam loss phenomena like luminosity losses, injection losses and the leakage from the collimation system are considered. The current understanding of the quench limits reflected in the BLM thresholds on the cold magnets is presented. The thresholds for possible increased beam energy are reviewed.

  4. Anesthetic and postoperative management of the obstructive sleep apnea patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Samuel A

    2009-11-01

    Sleep apnea patients pose a challenge for surgeons, anesthesiologists, and surgical facilities as there is increased risk for anesthetic and postoperative complications. Precautions before and after surgery minimize these risks. Screening for sleep apnea should be done for all surgical patients. Safe perioperative management requires judicious use of narcotics and sedating medications, reducing upper airway edema, prevention of aspiration and deep vein thrombosis, blood pressure control, use of positive airway pressure, and proper postoperative monitoring. Although the literature lacks specific recommendations, the guidelines presented in this article are based on more than 20 years of experience and supported by peer-reviewed medical literature. PMID:19944343

  5. Transcriptomic and Protein Expression Analysis Reveals Clinicopathological Significance of Bloom Syndrome Helicase (BLM) in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Agarwal, Devika; Doherty, Rachel; Moseley, Paul M; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Alshareeda, Alaa T; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Y T; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) has key roles in homologous recombination repair, telomere maintenance, and DNA replication. Germ-line mutations in the BLM gene causes Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by premature aging and predisposition to multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The clinicopathologic significance of BLM in sporadic breast cancers is unknown. We investigated BLM mRNA expression in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1,950) and validated in an external dataset of 2,413 tumors. BLM protein level was evaluated in the Nottingham Tenovus series comprising 1,650 breast tumors. BLM mRNA overexpression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)), progesterone receptor-negative (PR(-)), and triple-negative phenotypes (ps < 0.0001). BLM mRNA overexpression was also linked to aggressive molecular phenotypes, including PAM50.Her2 (P < 0.0001), PAM50.Basal (P < 0.0001), and PAM50.LumB (P < 0.0001) and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/high proliferation; P < 0.0001). PAM50.LumA tumors and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/low proliferation) were more likely to express low levels of BLM mRNA (ps < 0.0001). Integrative molecular clusters (intClust) intClust.1 (P < 0.0001), intClust.5 (P < 0.0001), intClust.9 (P < 0.0001), and intClust.10 (P < 0.0001) were also more likely in tumors with high BLM mRNA expression. BLM mRNA overexpression was associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS; ps < 0.000001). At the protein level, altered subcellular localization with high cytoplasmic BLM and low nuclear BLM was linked to aggressive phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, BLM mRNA and BLM protein levels independently influenced BCSS. This is the first and the largest study to provide evidence that BLM is a promising biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:25673821

  6. Neonate with hypoglycemia for pancreatectomy: Anesthetic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Alka; Kohli, Jasvinder Kaur; Senapati, Nihar Nalini; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is rare and an important cause of hypoglycemia in neonates. It can lead to brain damage or death secondary to severe hypoglycemia. We present the anesthetic management in a diagnosed case of PHHI in an 8-day-old male neonate for total pancreatectomy.

  7. Intrinsic organization of the anesthetized brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhifeng; King, Jean; Zhang, Nanyin

    2012-07-25

    The neural mechanism of unconsciousness has been a major unsolved question in neuroscience despite its vital role in brain states like coma and anesthesia. The existing literature suggests that neural connections, information integration, and conscious states are closely related. Indeed, alterations in several important neural circuitries and networks during unconscious conditions have been reported. However, how the whole-brain network is topologically reorganized to support different patterns of information transfer during unconscious states remains unknown. Here we directly compared whole-brain neural networks in awake and anesthetized states in rodents. Consistent with our previous report, the awake rat brain was organized in a nontrivial manner and conserved fundamental topological properties in a way similar to the human brain. Strikingly, these topological features were well maintained in the anesthetized brain. Local neural networks in the anesthetized brain were reorganized with altered local network properties. The connectional strength between brain regions was also considerably different between the awake and anesthetized conditions. Interestingly, we found that long-distance connections were not preferentially reduced in the anesthetized condition, arguing against the hypothesis that loss of long-distance connections is characteristic to unconsciousness. These findings collectively show that the integrity of the whole-brain network can be conserved between widely dissimilar physiologic states while local neural networks can flexibly adapt to new conditions. They also illustrate that the governing principles of intrinsic brain organization might represent fundamental characteristics of the healthy brain. With the unique spatial and temporal scales of resting-state fMRI, this study has opened a new avenue for understanding the neural mechanism of (un)consciousness. PMID:22836253

  8. Completing the Calculation of BLM corrections to B -> Xs gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Misiak, Mikolaj; Poradzinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative O(alpha_s^2) corrections to BR(B -> Xs gamma) in the BLM approximation receive contributions from two-, three- and four-body final states. While all the two-body results are well established by now, the other ones have remained incomplete for several years. Here, we calculate the last contribution that has been missing to date, namely the one originating from interference of the current-current and gluonic dipole operators (K_18^{(2)beta_0} and K_{28}^{(2)beta_0}). Moreover, we c...

  9. Collaborating functions of BLM and DNA topoisomerase I in regulating human rDNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grierson, Patrick M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Acharya, Samir, E-mail: samir.acharya@osumc.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Groden, Joanna [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an inherited disorder caused by loss of function of the recQ-like BLM helicase. It is characterized clinically by severe growth retardation and cancer predisposition. BLM localizes to PML nuclear bodies and to the nucleolus; its deficiency results in increased intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination, including hyper-recombination of rDNA repeats. Our previous work has shown that BLM facilitates RNA polymerase I-mediated rRNA transcription in the nucleolus (Grierson et al., 2012 [18]). This study uses protein co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) to identify a direct interaction of DNA topoisomerase I with the C-terminus of BLM in the nucleolus. In vitro helicase assays demonstrate that DNA topoisomerase I stimulates BLM helicase activity on a nucleolar-relevant RNA:DNA hybrid, but has an insignificant effect on BLM helicase activity on a control DNA:DNA duplex substrate. Reciprocally, BLM enhances the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I on supercoiled DNA substrates. Our study suggests that BLM and DNA topoisomerase I function coordinately to modulate RNA:DNA hybrid formation as well as relaxation of DNA supercoils in the context of nucleolar transcription.

  10. Collaborating functions of BLM and DNA topoisomerase I in regulating human rDNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an inherited disorder caused by loss of function of the recQ-like BLM helicase. It is characterized clinically by severe growth retardation and cancer predisposition. BLM localizes to PML nuclear bodies and to the nucleolus; its deficiency results in increased intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination, including hyper-recombination of rDNA repeats. Our previous work has shown that BLM facilitates RNA polymerase I-mediated rRNA transcription in the nucleolus (Grierson et al., 2012 [18]). This study uses protein co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) to identify a direct interaction of DNA topoisomerase I with the C-terminus of BLM in the nucleolus. In vitro helicase assays demonstrate that DNA topoisomerase I stimulates BLM helicase activity on a nucleolar-relevant RNA:DNA hybrid, but has an insignificant effect on BLM helicase activity on a control DNA:DNA duplex substrate. Reciprocally, BLM enhances the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I on supercoiled DNA substrates. Our study suggests that BLM and DNA topoisomerase I function coordinately to modulate RNA:DNA hybrid formation as well as relaxation of DNA supercoils in the context of nucleolar transcription

  11. BLM has early and late functions in homologous recombination repair in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, W K; Hanada, K; Kanaar, R;

    2010-01-01

    ' roles, such as dissolution of double Holliday junctions. However, most of the evidence for these putative roles comes from in vitro biochemical data. In this study, we report the characterization of mouse embryonic stem cells with disruption of Blm and/or Rad54 genes. We show that Blm has roles both...

  12. Unraveling Interactions Between Anesthetics and the Endothelium: Update and Novel Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, José A; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Clanachan, Alexander S; Plane, Frances; Zaugg, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The vascular endothelium is one of the largest organs in the body and consists of a single layer of highly specialized cells with site-specific morphology and functions. Endothelial cells play a vital role in the regulation of vascular tone in arterial, venous, microvascular, and lymphatic vascular beds. The endothelium also coordinates angiogenesis and controls cell adhesion, fluid homeostasis, and both innate and adaptive immunity. Fundamental research has shown that general and local anesthetics markedly modulate the biological activities of endothelial cells under aerobic and ischemia-reperfusion conditions, making the endothelium an important target of anesthetics in the cardiovascular system. Halogenated volatile anesthetics provide significant anti-inflammatory actions and protect the endothelium against ischemia-reperfusion injury, despite their inhibiting effects on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. They provide not only acute but also potential long-term, beneficial effects. Although many effects of IV anesthetics on endothelial function are controversial, or completely unexplored, propofol and opioids appear to have the most favorable profile with respect to the preservation of endothelial function. Some opioids and ketamine have stereoselective effects on the endothelium. Finally, there is experimental evidence to suggest important effects of anesthetics on the regulation of vascular permeability, proliferation of stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, and promotion or inhibition of tumor growth, potentially related to alterations in angiogenesis. However, most of these findings are from in vitro experiments and await confirmation in an in vivo setting. Thus, the clinical implications of these interactions remain uncertain. PMID:26797549

  13. Laparoscopic colectomy in an adult with single ventricle physiology: Anesthetic implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of adult patients with complex congenital heart conditions are presenting for noncardiac surgery later in life. These disorders can present challenges for surgical and anesthesia providers. Specifically, single ventricle lesions offer anatomic and physiologic concerns during the perioperative period. Single ventricle physiology represents a delicate balance between systemic and pulmonary blood flow. Any alterations in blood flow through these systems can produce undesirable hemodynamic changes, especially during the perioperative period. We present a case of an adult patient with a single left ventricle who presented for laparoscopic total colectomy due to inflammatory bowel disease. His abnormal anatomy coupled with the hemodynamic disruptions caused by laparoscopy presented significant anesthetic challenges. We highlight the anesthetic concerns of single ventricle physiology, specifically pertaining to laparoscopic surgery. We provide recommendations for safely managing these patients perioperatively. With detailed preoperative evaluation and close hemodynamic monitoring during the perioperative period, these patients can experience successful surgical and anesthetic outcomes.

  14. On Beyond Lidocaine: Reconsidering Local Anesthetics in Tumescent Liposuction-A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Henry C

    2016-02-01

    The use of tumescent solution in liposuction is now considered standard of care; however, much debate still exists regarding its ideal components, especially surrounding the inclusion of local anesthetics. This article reviews the discussion regarding the use of local anesthetics in tumescent liposuction and how it may evolve in the future. The need for local anesthetic additives in tumescent liposuction has been questioned, and the use of longer-acting agents discouraged; however, increasing number of reports in recent years have described the increasingly widespread use of tumescent anesthesia where a wetting solution is infiltrated to achieve anesthesia in an operative field for procedures other than liposuction. More high-level evidence, such as randomized controlled clinical trials, will be required; however, it should be possible to develop a useful standardized algorithm that can guide surgeons to optimize patient safety as well as patient experience. PMID:26808738

  15. Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Acharya

    Full Text Available Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM.

  16. A Blm-Recql5 partnership in replication stress response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xincheng Lu; Hua Lou; Guangbin Luo

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA damage response and repair not only can result in genome instability and cancer predisposition, but also can render the cancer cells intrinsically more vulnerable to certain types of DNA damage insults. Particularly, replication stress is both a hallmark of human cancers and a common instigator for genome instability and cell death. Here, we review our work based on the genetic knockout studies on Blm and Recql5, two members of the mammalian RecQ helicase family. These studies have uncovered a unique partnership between these two helicases in the implementation of proper mitigation strategies under different circumstances to promote DNA replication and cell survival and suppress genome instability and cancer. In particular, current studies have revealed the presence of a novel Recql5/RECQL5-dependent mechanism for suppressing replication fork collapse in response to global replication fork stalling following exposure to camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and a potent inhibitor of DNA replication. The unique partnership between Blm and Recql5 in coping with the challenge imposed by replication stress is discussed. In addition, given that irinotecan and topotecan, two CPT derivatives, are currently used in clinic for treating human cancer patients with very promising results, the potential implication of the new findings from these studies in anticancer treatments is also discussed.

  17. Anesthetic consideration in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narejo, AS; Khan, MU; Alotaibi, WM; Khan, MM

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of inherited rare skin disease, characterized by bullae formation in the skin or mucous membranes. The fundamental abnormality is collagen degeneration leads to splitting of various epidermal layers. Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is one of the major forms of epidermolysis bullosa. These patients often admitted to the hospital for corrective surgeries, change of dressing, contracture release, and skin grafting. Anesthetic management of these cases is always a challenge. We are reporting a case of 5-year-old boy diagnosed as a case of DEB scheduled for upper lip contracture release, skin grafting and debridement of nonhealing scars under anesthesia. In this case, we have focused mainly on the anesthetic management, preparation of the monitoring, transportation, difficulties in establishing the venous accesses, and airway management. PMID:26955322

  18. Anesthetic gases and occupationally exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Schifano, Maria Pia; Capozzella, Assunta; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate whether the occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could cause alterations of blood parameters in health care workers. 119 exposed subjects and 184 not exposed controls were included in the study. Each worker underwent the complete blood count test (CBC), proteinaemia, leukocyte count, serum lipids, liver and kidney blood markers. The liver blood markers show statistically significant differences in health care workers compared with controls (pGGT, total bilirubin, lymphocytes and neutrophils was statistically significant in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The results suggest that occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could influence some haematochemical hepatic and hematopoietic parameters in exposed health care workers. PMID:24374387

  19. Child with aplastic anemia: Anesthetic management

    OpenAIRE

    Manpreet Kaur; Babita Gupta; Aanchal Sharma; Sanjeev Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare heterogeneous disorder of hematopoietic stem cells causing pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia with the depletion of all types of blood cells. This results in anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, which pose a challenge to both surgical and anesthetic management of such cases. We report a child with aplastic anemia who sustained traumatic ulcer on the arm and underwent split-thickness skin grafting under general anesthesia. There are only two case reports on anest...

  20. Anesthetic consideration in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    A S Narejo; Khan, M.U.; W M Alotaibi; Khan, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of inherited rare skin disease, characterized by bullae formation in the skin or mucous membranes. The fundamental abnormality is collagen degeneration leads to splitting of various epidermal layers. Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is one of the major forms of epidermolysis bullosa. These patients often admitted to the hospital for corrective surgeries, change of dressing, contracture release, and skin grafting. Anesthetic management of these cases is a...

  1. Formulations, Release and Skin Penetration of Topical Anesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Welin-Berger, Katayoun

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes certain critical aspects of the development of semisolid topical anesthetic formulations requiring a fast onset of action. Furthermore, local anesthetics were investigated regarding their phase interaction with membrane lipids. A new long acting and topically effective local anesthetic/analgesic agent, isopropyl-methyl-[2-(3-propoxyphenoxy)-ethyl]-amine (amino diether, AD), was used as the model compound. The nonionized form of AD is liquid oil at room temperature with l...

  2. Ubiquitin Metabolism Affects Cellular Response to Volatile Anesthetics in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Darren; Reiner, Thomas; Keeley, Jessica L.; Pizzini, Mark; Keil, Ralph L.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of volatile anesthetics, we are studying mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have altered sensitivity to isoflurane, a widely used clinical anesthetic. Several lines of evidence from these studies implicate a role for ubiquitin metabolism in cellular response to volatile anesthetics: (i) mutations in the ZZZ1 gene render cells resistant to isoflurane, and the ZZZ1 gene is identical to BUL1 (binds ubiquitin ligase), which appears to be invo...

  3. Eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Joaquim Bernardes Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook, and to determine the minimum effective concentration for use in handling procedures. In the first trial, juvenile common snook were subjected to immersion baths at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg L-1 eugenol concentrations, after which induction and recovery times were evaluated. In the second experiment, the lethal exposure time (LT50 at 75 mg L-1 was estimated. Minimum effective eugenol concentration was 50 mg L-1, andthe stage of deep anesthesia and recovery were, respectively, reached at 126.3 and 208.8 s. At 75 mg L-1, LT50 was 1,314 s, and induction time and recovery were also satisfactory; however, fish cannot tolerate over 229 s exposure.

  4. A Unitary Anesthetic-Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L.; Brannigan, G; Economou, N; Xi, J; Hall, M; Liu, R; Rossi, M; Dailey, W; Grasty, K; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  5. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.; (Drexel-MED); (UPENN)

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  6. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  7. Maxillectomy for malignant nasopharyngeal neurofibroma: Anesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Bhatia Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1 or von Recklinghausen′s disease is the most common disease inherited by a single gene and is multisystemic in nature. Anesthesia is required for excision of neurofibromas, which may cause cosmetic disfigurement, pressure effects (obstructive uropathy, hydronephrosis, kyphoscoliosis, hydrocephalus, proptosis, and superior vena cava syndrome and may undergo malignant change. We report here the anesthetic management of an NF-1 patient with a malignant change in a nasopharyngeal neurofibroma requiring left maxillectomy and split skin grafting.

  8. Number of Drilling Permits Approved by Fiscal Year on Federal Lands by BLM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of Applications for Permit to Drill (APDs) by state approved by the BLM each fiscal year. Oil and gas operators may not begin...

  9. 2012 Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  10. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  11. Meiotic and Mitotic Phenotypes Conferred by the blm1-1 Mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MSH4 Suppression of the Bleomycin Hypersusceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Wood Moore

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Oxidative damage can lead to a number of diseases, and can be fatal. The blm1-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers hypersusceptibility to lethal effects of the oxidative, anticancer and antifungal agent, bleomycin. For the current report, additional defects conferred by the mutation in meiosis and mitosis were investigated. The viability of spores produced during meiosis by homozygous normal BLM1/BLM1, heterozygous BLM1/blm1-1, and homozygous mutant blm1-1/blm1-1 diploid strains was studied and compared. Approximately 88% of the tetrads derived from homozygous blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant diploid cells only produced one or two viable spores. In contrast, just one tetrad among all BLM1/BLM1 and BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads only produced one or two viable spores. Rather, 94% of BLM1/BLM1 tetrads and 100% of BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads produced asci with four or three viable spores. Thus, at least one copy of the BLM1 gene is essential for the production of four viable spores after meiosis. During mitotic growth, mutant blm1-1 strains grew at reduced rates and produced cells with high frequencies of unusual morphologies compared to wild-type strains. These results indicated BLM1 is also essential for normal mitotic growth. We also investigated the suppression by the MSH4 gene, a meiosis-specific MutS homolog, of the bleomycin hypersusceptibility of blm1-1 mutant cells, and the relationship of MSH4 to BLM1. We screened a genomic library, and isolated the MSH4 gene on the basis of its ability to suppress lethal effects of bleomycin in blm1-1 cells. However, genetic mapping studies indicated that BLM1 and MSH4 are not the same gene. The possibility that chromosomal nondisjunction could be the basis for the inability of blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant cells to produce four viable spores after meiosis is discussed.

  12. The radiation hardness of silica optical fiber used in the LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LED-fiber system has been used to monitor BLM and BESIII EMC. A radiation hard silica optical fiber is essential for its stability and reliability. Three types of silica optical fibers, silicone-clad silica optical fiber with high OH- content (SeCS), silica-clad silica optical fiber with low OH- content (SCSL) and silica-clad silica opical fiber with high OH- content (SCSH) were studied. In the experiment, 12 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by 60Co and 3 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by BEPCII background radiation. Radiation hardness: the radiation hardness of SCSH is best and meets the radiation hardness requirement for LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC. The transmission of SeCS and SCSH decreased to around 80% under the 60Co-irradiation of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively. The radiation hardness of SeCS is worst because of its silicone cladding. Recovery characteristics: 60Co-irradiated by the same doses, there were both more annealable and more permanent color centers formed in SeCS than SCSL, and for the same kind of fibers, as long as the irradiated doses are under a certain amount (for example, less than 5 Gy for SeCS), the higher the doses, both the more annealable and the more permanent color centers are formed.

  13. Anesthetic exposure and health of dental personnel, 1 June 1978-30 November 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey was conducted to determine possible health hazards in the dental profession, with particular attention being given to the results of exposure to anesthetic gases. The survey contacted 30,650 dentists and 30,547 chairside assistants who were subsequently grouped according to exposure to inhalation anesthetics in the dental operatory during the course of their employment experience. An increase in liver disease 1.7 above that expected was noted in male dentists heavily exposed to anesthetics, combined with a 1.2 fold increase for kidney disease and 1.9-fold increase for neurological disease. The spontaneous abortion rate in wives of male dentists was 1.5-fold higher than expected. Occupational exposure to anesthetics, either direct or indirect, was associated with significant increases in spontaneous abortion over control levels during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy showed increased risk of spontaneous abortion, with a 27% increase occurring in dental assistants and a 21% increase in wives of dentists. A 34% increased risk of babies having congenital abnormalities was noted among smoking dental assistants.

  14. Effect of Local and General Anesthetics on Interfacial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Water undergoes structural change as it interfaces with hydrophilic surfaces, including the many hydrophilic surfaces within the cell. This interfacial water has become known as “Exclusion Zone (EZ) water” or “fourth-phase water” [1]. Methods We tested the hypothesis that anesthetics diminish the amount of EZ water, and that this change may correlate with functional changes in anesthesia. By using the local anesthetics Lidocaine and Bupivacaine as well as a general inhalational anesthetic, Isoflurane, we tracked the EZ size as these anesthetics were introduced. Results All three anesthetics diminished EZ size in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.18 mM and greater for Bupivacaine, 0.85 mM and greater for Lidocaine, and 0.2% for Isoflurane. At extremely low (micromolar) concentrations, however, all three anesthetics increased EZ size. Conclusions The sharp increase of EZ size associated with micromolar anesthetic concentrations follows a similar pattern to induction of general anesthesia, from the excitation stage (Stage II) to the depression and overdose stages of surgical anesthesia (Stages III and IV). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that anesthetics may act on water, a fundamental organizational component common to all cells. PMID:27054588

  15. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local ane......-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations for blockanesthesia in the trigeminal area in cases in which there are viable alternatives....

  16. Anesthetic Management and Postoperative Care of a Patient with CADASIL (Cerebral Arteriopathy, Autosomal Dominant, with Subcortical Infarcts and leukoencephalopathy for Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Rasooli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CADASIL (cerebral arteriopathy, autosomal dominant, with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy is an infrequent inherited small artery disease that could have anesthetic implications. However these have rarely been reported. We present an anesthetic experience of a female patient previously diagnosed with CADASIL, who had suffered an ischemic vascular cerebral accident with a MRI compatible with leukoencephalopathy, and who was dependent for daily activities, mood alterations, apathy, and urine incontinence. We discuss anesthetic management of CADASIL patient, considering protection from further cerebral ischemia.

  17. Topical Anesthetic Abuse Keratopathy and its Clinical Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Dayanır

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To report a case series with topical anesthetic abuse and to define the clinical progression of the disease. Six eyes of three topical anesthetic abuser patients with various corneal abnormalities are reviewed. Signs of the disease are presented in order to document the natural progression of the disease. A report was filed to the General Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey describing the outcome of uncontrolled use of topical anesthetic. Topical anesthetic abuse can result in serious corneal complications such as corneal epithelium defect, ring keratitis, stromal infiltrate, hypopyon, superficial and deep corneal vascularization, corneal lysis, and at last spontaneous perforation. The General Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy issued that topical anesthetics can only be prescribed by an ophthalmologist up to four boxes a month, the prescription must be kept for one, year and criminal action will be taken against pharmacies disregarding these provisions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 289-93

  18. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local...... anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent...... three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. Clinical Implications. Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high...

  19. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABAA receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABAA receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish

  20. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldwein, C.G.; Silva, L.L. [Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Reckziegel, P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Barros, F.M.C. [Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bürger, M.E.; Baldisserotto, B. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mallmann, C.A. [Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Schmidt, D.; Caron, B.O. [Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus de Frederico Westphalen, Frederico Westphalen, RS (Brazil); Heinzmann, B.M. [Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABA{sub A} receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABA{sub A} receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish.

  1. Anesthetic management of an infant for aortopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheomalacia is a rare condition characterized by weakness of tracheobronchial cartilaginous bridges. Severe weakness results in tracheal collapse during inspiration, obstructing normal airflow. Tracheomalacia may also be associated with esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, and gastroesophageal reflux. Aortopexy is an established surgical procedure for treatment of severe tracheomalacia. A 2-month-old boy was scheduled for aortopexy. He had already undergone repair of tracheoesophageal fistula and had failed multiple attempts at extubation. Intraoperative flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed to guide the amount and direction of aortopexy for assuring the most effective tracheal decompression. Since tracheomalacia is best assessed in a spontaneously breathing patient, it was an anesthetic challenge to maintain an adequate depth of anesthesia while allowing the patient to breathe spontaneously. Throughout the intraoperative period, SpO 2 remained ≥96%. Following the procedure, the trachea was extubated and patient was able to breathe normally.

  2. Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppky, Jack A.; Ray Risling

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ventilation (IV ) response to inspired CO2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims: These experiments were performed to determine whether I V  would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods: We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO2-balance O2.and to 0 and 10% O2-balance N2....

  3. Anesthetic Management and Postoperative Care of a Patient with CADASIL (Cerebral Arteriopathy, Autosomal Dominant, with Subcortical Infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) for Cesarean Section

    OpenAIRE

    Sousan Rasooli; Farnaz Moslemi; Simin Tagavi

    2014-01-01

    CADASIL (cerebral arteriopathy, autosomal dominant, with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is an infrequent inherited small artery disease that could have anesthetic implications. However these have rarely been reported. We present an anesthetic experience of a female patient previously diagnosed with CADASIL, who had suffered an ischemic vascular cerebral accident with a MRI compatible with leukoencephalopathy, and who was dependent for daily activities, mood alterations, apathy,...

  4. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKitano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The RecQ family DNA helicases WRN (Werner syndrome protein and BLM (Bloom syndrome protein play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson-Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates.

  5. Anesthetic management of dental procedures in patients with special needs: A retrospective analysis of 519 patients in North of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Mehmet Ziya; Çağlar TORUN, Aysun; BAŞ, Burcu; Hatice DURAN; KÖSE, İlyas; FURUNCUOĞLU, Halit

    2015-01-01

    Special need patients have increased risk for oral diseases throughout their life. Sedation and general anesthesia is generally the preferred treatment for special needs patients though it provides optimal conditions for dental treatment. This study was aimed to describe our anesthetic experience in dental treatments of 519 special needs patients at a dental faculty in the north side of Turkey during a three-year period. The data referring to patient’s demographic information, anesthetic tech...

  6. Comparison of anesthetic agents in the sea otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.D.; Kocher, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Five anesthetic agents (CI744, etorphine, fentanyl, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane) were tested to establish the dosage of a safe, effective, short-acting anesthetic for use in the sea otter. Etorphine, at a dosage of 0.75 mg per adult otter and used in conjunction with diazepam, at a dosage of 1.25 mg per adult otter, met most of the requirements for use under field conditions. Halothane, administered through an anesthetic machine, proved to be effective for use in a veterinary hospital.

  7. DNA double strand break repair in mammalian cells: role of MRE11 and BLM proteins at the initiation of Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions, which can lead to genetic rearrangements. Two pathways are responsible for repairing these lesions: homologous recombination (HR) and non homologous end joining (NHEJ). In our laboratory, an intrachromosomal substrate has been established in order to measure the efficiency and the fidelity of NHEJ in living cells (Guirouilh-Barbat 2004). This approach led us to identify a KU-independent alternative pathway, which uses micro homologies in the proximity of the junction to accomplish repair - the alternative NHEJ (Guirouilh-Barbat 2004, Guirouilh-Barbat et Rass 2007). The goal of my thesis consisted in identifying and characterising major actors of this pathway. In the absence of KU, alternative NHEJ would be initiated by ssDNA resection of damaged ends. We showed that the nuclease activity of MRE11 is necessary for this mechanism. MRE11 overexpression leads to a two fold stimulation of NHEJ efficiency, while the extinction of MRE11 by siRNA results in a two fold decrease. Our results demonstrate that the proteins RAD50 and CtIP act in the same pathway as MRE11. Moreover, in cells deficient for XRCC4, MIRIN - an inhibitor of the MRN complex - leads to a decrease in repair efficiency, implicating MRE11 in alternative NHEJ. We also showed that MRE11 can act in an ATM-dependent and independent manner (Rass et Grabarz Nat Struct Mol Biol 2009). The initiation of break resection needs to be pursued by a more extensive degradation of DNA, which is accomplished in yeast by the proteins Exo1 and Sgs1/Dna2. In human cells, in vitro studies have recently proposed a similar model of a two-step break resection. We chose to elucidate the role of one of the human homologs of Sgs1 - the RecQ helicase BLM - in the resection process. Our experiments show, that he absence of BLM decreases the efficiency of end joining by NHEJ, accompanied by an increase in error-prone events, especially long-range deletions (≥200 nt). This

  8. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Ahn, Jung-Hwan; Min, Young-Gi

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of the TASER X26 discharge duration in an anesthetized swine model. Fourteen swines were anesthetized and then exposed to TASER X26 discharge for 5 sec (n = 5) or for 10 sec (n = 6). The sham control group (n = 3) was anesthetized and studied using the same protocol except TASER X26 discharges during the experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after TASER discharge and returned to baseline value at 15 min after 5 sec of TASER discharge but did not return to baseline values during the 30-min observation period after 10 sec of TASER discharge. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. PMID:23066880

  9. Antifungal Activity of Local Anesthetics Against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, three drugs with local anesthetic activity, against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and to clarify their mechanism of activity.

  10. Adsorbent comparisons for anesthetic gas capture in hospital air emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrata, Mina; Moralejo, Carol; Anderson, William A

    2016-08-23

    For the development of emission control strategies, activated carbon, zeolite, molecular sieves, and a silica gel were tested for adsorption of the newer anesthetic gases isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from air. The activated carbon Norit GCA 48 was selected for the best performance, and adsorption isotherms at room temperature were developed for the three anesthetics. Equilibrium capacities for this carbon were in the range of 500 to 1,000 mg g(-1) for these anesthetics at partial pressures ranging from 5 to 45 Torr, with the most volatile compound (desflurane) showing the least favorable adsorption. Activated carbons are therefore suggested for use as effective adsorbents in emission control of these anesthetic gases from hospitals. PMID:27222158

  11. Anesthetic management of schwannoma mimicking carotid body tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasankar C

    2012-01-01

    Chitra SivasankarDepartment of Anesthesiology, Guthrie Clinic, Sayre, PA, USAAbstract: Schwannomas are rare and slow-growing neurogenic tumors for which surgery is the standard of care. However, the anesthetic management of these tumors can be challenging. This case report describes the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent carotid endarterectomy and excision of a presumed carotid body tumor. Histopathologic examination showed that the excised tissue was a schwannoma, which in this...

  12. Anesthetic management of a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vadhanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar degeneration or olivopontocerebellar degeneration denotes a group of disorders of various etiologies manifesting as degenerative changes of various part of the central nervous system. We describe the anesthetic management of a patient with severe olivopontocerebellar degeneration posted for vaginal hysterectomy. A combined spinal epidural technique was performed at the level of L2-L3. The anesthetic implications of the various aspects of spinocerebellar degeneration are discussed.

  13. High throughput modular chambers for rapid evaluation of anesthetic sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Eckmann David M; Baumgardner James E; Pruckmayr Gregory; Chen Jingqiu; Sun Yi; Eckenhoff Roderic G; Kelz Max B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Anesthetic sensitivity is determined by the interaction of multiple genes. Hence, a dissection of genetic contributors would be aided by precise and high throughput behavioral screens. Traditionally, anesthetic phenotyping has addressed only induction of anesthesia, evaluated with dose-response curves, while ignoring potentially important data on emergence from anesthesia. Methods We designed and built a controlled environment apparatus to permit rapid phenotyping of twent...

  14. Effect of Local and General Anesthetics on Interfacial Water

    OpenAIRE

    Kundacina, Nenad; Shi, Minghui; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Water undergoes structural change as it interfaces with hydrophilic surfaces, including the many hydrophilic surfaces within the cell. This interfacial water has become known as “Exclusion Zone (EZ) water” or “fourth-phase water” [1]. Methods We tested the hypothesis that anesthetics diminish the amount of EZ water, and that this change may correlate with functional changes in anesthesia. By using the local anesthetics Lidocaine and Bupivacaine as well as a general inhalational ane...

  15. The Timing of Acupuncture Stimulation Does Not Influence Anesthetic Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyak, Grigory; Sengupta, Papiya; Lenhardt, Rainer; Liem, Edwin; Anthony G Doufas; Sessler, Daniel I.; Akça, Ozan

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective when induced before induction of general anesthesia than afterwards. We tested the hypothesis that electro-acupuncture initiated 30 minutes before induction reduces anesthetic requirement more than acupuncture initiated after induction. Seven volunteers were each anesthetized with desflurane on 3 study days. Needles were inserted percutaneously at 4 acupuncture points thought to produce analgesia in the upper abdominal area and provide genera...

  16. Anesthetic Approach to a Child with Noonan's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Hatipoglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome is characterized by fascial and physical features along with congenital heart disease. In these patients, fascial features include short webbed neck, micrognathia, limited mouth opening and high arched palate. Pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are highly prevalent in Noonan's syndrome. The anesthetic management is important because of difficult airway and severe cardiac abnormalities. We reported that anesthetic management of a child with Noonan's syndrome. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 47-50

  17. Pain management via local anesthetics and responsive hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Bagshaw, Kyle R; Hanenbaum, Curt L; Carbone, Erica J.; Lo, Kevin WH; Laurencin, Cato T.; Walker, Joseph; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic pain control is a significant clinical challenge that has been largely unmet. Local anesthetics are widely used for the control of post-operative pain and in the therapy of acute and chronic pain. While a variety of approaches are currently used to prolong the duration of action of local anesthetics, an optimal strategy to achieve neural blockage for several hours to days with minimal toxicity has yet to be identified. Several drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micropa...

  18. BLM realization for ${\\mathcal U}_{\\mathbb Z}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, Beilinson-Lusztig-MacPherson (BLM) discovered a realization \\cite[5.7]{BLM} for quantum $\\frak{gl}_n$ via a geometric setting of quantum Schur algebras. We will generailze their result to the classical affine case. More precisely, we first use Ringel-Hall algebras to construct an integral form ${\\mathcal U}_{\\mathbb Z}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$ of ${\\mathcal U}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$, where ${\\mathcal U}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$ is the universal enveloping algebra of the loop algebra $\\hat{\\frak{g...

  19. Self Testing Functionality of the LHC BLM System

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Emery, J; Nordt, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Re­li­a­bil­i­ty con­cerns have driv­en the de­sign of the LHC BLM sys­tem through­out its development, from the early con­cep­tu­al stage right through the com­mis­sion­ing phase and up to the lat­est de­vel­op­ment of di­ag­nos­tic tools. To pro­tect the sys­tem against non-conformities, new ways of au­to­mat­ic check­ing have been de­vel­oped and im­ple­ment­ed. These checks are reg­u­lar­ly and sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly ex­e­cut­ed by the LHC op­er­a­tion team to in­sure that the sys­tem sta­tus after each test is "as good as new". This checks the elec­tri­cal part of the de­tec­tors (ion­i­sa­tion cham­ber or sec­ondary emis­sion mon­i­tor), their cable con­nec­tions to the front-end elec­tron­ics, the con­nec­tions to the back-end electronics and their ability to re­quest a beam abort. Dur­ing the instal­la­tion and in the early com­mis­sion­ing phase, these checks proved in­valu­able in find­ing non-con­for­mi­ties caused by un...

  20. Cortical control of hering-breuer reflexes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrov VG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It had been hypothesized that the regions of prefrontal cortex which are involved in respiratory control can modulate Hering-Breuer reflexes evoked by vagal input from pulmonary stretch receptors. In the present study, experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized spontaneously breathing Wistar rats. The expiratory-promoting reflex was evaluated from changes in expiratory time immediately after airway occlusion at the end of inspiration. The inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was estimated from changes in inspiratory time provoked by airway occlusion at the end of expiration. The results indicate that electrical microstimulation of the responsive sites within the insular cortex significantly weakened both expiratory-promoting and inspiratory-inhibitory reflex. Activation of the infralimbic cortex depressed expiratory-promoting reflex, but inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was enhanced. These results suggest that stimulation of the prefrontal cortex influences vagally mediated control of the respiratory phases timing and several regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate distinct sets of neurons in the network controlling inspiratory and expiratory phases of a breath cycle.

  1. Benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morato-Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis is a native species from Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and Argentina where it is of great economic importance for artisanal fishing. One difficulty in laboratory research with pejerrey is related to its sensitivity, as it presents higher basal cortisol levels than other freshwater species. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings. Two experiments were done where fingerlings (57±7.8mm and 1.1±0.44g were exposed to benzocaine with concentrations between 40mgL-1 and 120mgL-1 and to clove oil with concentrations between 12mgL-1 and 75mgL-1. Survival, anesthesia induction time and recovery time for each pharmaceutics were evaluated. Both benzocaine and clove oil pharmaceutics showed efficiency as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings, with negative correlation between the dose of anesthetics and the anesthesia induction time. For benzocaine, the concentrations between 80mgL-1 and 100mgL-1 showed better results, as for clove oil the optimal concentrations were between 25mgL-1 and 50mgL-1. On the other hand, the anesthesia recovery time did not present significant variation on the different concentrations of the tested products. The tested products are highly metabolizable by pejerrey.

  2. Anesthetics rapidly promote synaptogenesis during a critical period of brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    Full Text Available Experience-driven activity plays an essential role in the development of brain circuitry during critical periods of early postnatal life, a process that depends upon a dynamic balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Since general anesthetics are powerful pharmacological modulators of neuronal activity, an important question is whether and how these drugs can affect the development of synaptic networks. To address this issue, we examined here the impact of anesthetics on synapse growth and dynamics. We show that exposure of young rodents to anesthetics that either enhance GABAergic inhibition or block NMDA receptors rapidly induce a significant increase in dendritic spine density in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus. This effect is developmentally regulated; it is transient but lasts for several days and is also reproduced by selective antagonists of excitatory receptors. Analyses of spine dynamics in hippocampal slice cultures reveals that this effect is mediated through an increased rate of protrusions formation, a better stabilization of newly formed spines, and leads to the formation of functional synapses. Altogether, these findings point to anesthesia as an important modulator of spine dynamics in the developing brain and suggest the existence of a homeostatic process regulating spine formation as a function of neural activity. Importantly, they also raise concern about the potential impact of these drugs on human practice, when applied during critical periods of development in infants.

  3. Anesthetic effects changeable in habitual drinkers: Mechanistic drug interactions with neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hironori

    2016-07-01

    Clinicians often experience the reduced efficacy of general and local anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs in habitual drinkers and chronic alcoholics. However, the mechanistic background underlying such anesthetic tolerance remains unclear. Biogenic indoleamines condense with alcohol-derived aldehydes during fermentation processes and under physiological conditions to produce neuro-active tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines, many of which are contained not only in various alcoholic beverages but also in human tissues and body fluids. These indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products are increased in the human body because of their exogenous and endogenous supply enhanced by alcoholic beverage consumption. Since tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines target receptors, ion channels and neuronal membranes which are common to anesthetic agents, we propose a hypothesis that they may pharmacodynamically interact at GABAA receptors, NMDA receptors, voltage-gated Na(+) channels and membrane lipid bilayers to attenuate anesthetics-induced positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulation, NMDA receptor antagonism, ion channel blockade and neuronal membrane modification, thereby affecting anesthetic efficacy. The condensation products may also cooperatively interact with ethanol that induces adaptive changes and cross-tolerance to anesthetics and with dopamine-aldehyde adducts that act on GABAA receptors and membrane lipids. Because tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines are metabolized to lose or decrease their neuro-activities, induction of the relevant enzymes by habitual drinking could produce an inter-individual difference of drinkers in susceptibility to anesthetic agents. The present hypothesis would also provide a unified framework for different modes of anesthetic action, which are inhibited by neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption. PMID:27241259

  4. Evaluation of anesthetic effect of ropivacaine in surgery of chronic periapical lessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ropivacaine is used in orthopedcs, gyneacology, surgery, ophtamology, whereas experience about its usage in dentistry is still limited. The aim of this research was to compare the anesthetic effect between local anesthetics ropivacaine and bupivacaine, in surgical disposals of chronical periapical lessions in maxilla. Material and methods. The study included the patients that had indications for surgical removal of chronical periapical lessions at one of the frontal teeth of upper jaw. The total total number of examinees was 60, and they were devided in two groups. Ropivacaine chloride (0.75% was used as a local anesthetic in one group (Naropin® 0,75%; Astra Zeneca, and in the other one bupivacaine chloride (0.5% (Vexelit® 0,5%; Zdravlje. The autors applied 1,8 ml of block anesthesia for the n. infraorbitalis (intraoral approach as well as 0,2 ml of the local anesthetic from the palatine side for the final branches of n. nasopalatinus in order to observe the folloving anesthetic parameters. I. Beginning of anesthesia was followed by the appearence of upper lip numbness. II. Pain rating scale according to Sisk was used for the objective measurement of the anesthesia quality. III. The pain intensity during the intervention was measured by visual analogous scale, on which the patient denoted the intensity of pain he had felt during the intervention. IV. Duration of anesthetic effect - it is followed by soft tissues numbness. Results and discussion. After the ropivacaine application anesthesia effect started in 1.57 min. and after the usage of bupivacaine in 1.67 min. The mean duration of soft tissue numbness after the application of ropivacaine was 321 minutes. Bupivacaine had a shorter anesthetic effect - 296.5 minutes. The quality of anesthesia after the usage of ropivacaine was assessed by the surgeons with average mark - 1.76. Interventions in which this anesthetic was used were performed with minimal pain and without additional

  5. Effects of Anesthetic Agent Propofol on Postoperative Sex Hormone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, H. C.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have found anesthetic agents including propofol in ovarian follicular fluid. However, little is known about the effect of anesthetic agents on ovarian function. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the postoperative levels of sex hormones when propofol was used as the anesthetic agent. Methods: A retrospective review was done of 80 patients who underwent ovarian surgery, with 72 infertile women serving as controls. Patients were included in the study if their serum estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured during their first postoperative menstrual cycle. Results: Patients were grouped according to the use or non-use of propofol as follows: propofol group (n = 39) and non-propofol group (n = 41). The control group did not undergo surgery. Postoperative E2 levels did not differ between the three groups, but FSH levels were significantly higher in the patients who had undergone surgery compared to controls (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis of E2 and FSH levels in the propofol and non-propofol groups did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The use of propofol did not result in any differences compared to other anesthetic agents in terms of postoperative sex hormone levels after gynecologic surgery. The type of anesthetic agent does not seem to affect the postoperative levels of female sex hormones.

  6. Liquid general anesthetics lower critical temperatures in plasma membrane vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Ellyn; Machta, Benjamin B; Veatch, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    A large and diverse array of small hydrophobic molecules induce general anesthesia. Their efficacy as anesthetics has been shown to correlate both with their affinity for a hydrophobic environment and with their potency in inhibiting certain ligand gated ion channels. Here we explore the effects that n-alcohols and other liquid anesthetics have on the two-dimensional miscibility critical point observed in cell derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). We show that anesthetics depress the critical temperature (Tc) of these GPMVs without strongly altering the ratio of the two liquid phases found below Tc. The magnitude of this affect is consistent across n-alcohols when their concentration is rescaled by the median anesthetic concentration (AC50) for tadpole anesthesia, but not when plotted against the overall concentration in solution. At AC50 we see a 4{\\deg}C downward shift in Tc, much larger than is typically seen in the main chain transition at these anesthetic concentrations. GPMV miscibility critic...

  7. [Experimental studies on the recovery of anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, T; Gross-Alltag, F; Ermisch, J; Hähnel, J; Weber, L; Friesdorf, W

    1992-02-01

    The volatile anesthetic agents halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and contribute to ozone depletion. Although the contribution is small, its importance is rising, as technical CFCs will be phased out according to the Montreal protocol (1987) and the London conference (1990) by the year 2000. Alternative procedures and CFC-free volatile agents such as des- and sevoflurane do not contribute to depletion of the ozone layer, but will not replace standard methods using volatile anesthetic agents in the near future. METHODS. In an experimental setup, we filtered anesthetic waste gases from scavenging systems of rebreathing circles by activated carbon filters. The filtered substances were desorbed by a heat chamber and condensed in a cold trap. RESULTS. By this method, it was possible to retrieve 50%-60% of the applied gases. Gas chromatographic analysis showed halothane containing traces of pollutants and isoflurane and enflurane as pure substances. DISCUSSION. The retrieval of anesthetic waste gases is easy; no sophisticated technical equipment is necessary. Purity of substances could make recycling possible and offer a method to avoid environmental pollution by volatile anesthetics. PMID:1562100

  8. Blood gases and energy metabolites in mouse blood before and after cerebral ischemia: the effects of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Tina M; Horn, Tobias; Lang, Dorothee; Klein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The levels of blood gases and energy metabolites strongly influence the outcome of animal experiments, for example in experimental stroke research. While mice have become prominent animal models for cerebral ischemia, little information is available on the effects of anesthetic drugs on blood parameters such as blood gases, glucose and lactate in this species. In this work, we collected arterial and venous blood samples from female CD-1 mice before and after cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and we tested the influence of different anesthetic drugs. We found that all of the injectable anesthetics tested (ketamine/xylazine, chloral hydrate, propofol and pentobarbital) caused a decrease in blood pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and an increase of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), indicating respiratory depression. This was not observed with inhalable anesthetics such as isoflurane, sevoflurane and halothane. Significant and up to two-fold increases of blood glucose concentration were observed under isoflurane, halothane, ketamine/xylazine, chloral hydrate, and propofol anesthesia. Lactate concentration rose significantly by 2-3-fold during inhalation of isoflurane and halothane treatment, but decreased by more than 50% after administration of pentobarbital. Permanent cerebral ischemia induced respiratory acidosis (low pH and pO2, high pCO2) which was most prominent after 24 h. Postsurgical treatment with Ringer-lactate solution (1 mL, intraperitoneal) caused a recovery of blood gases to basal levels after 24 h. Use of isoflurane for surgery caused a minor increase of blood glucose concentrations after one hour, but a strong increase of blood lactate. In contrast, anesthesia with pentobarbital did not affect glucose concentration but strongly reduced blood lactate concentrations one hour after surgery. All values recovered at three hours after MCAO. In conclusion, anesthetic drugs have a strong influence on murine

  9. Experiences with 57Co-labelled bleomycin in tumour diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Co-BLM is a tumour-affine substance which has been tested in clinical experiments in more than 100 patients. The main indication for 57Co-BLM tumour scintiscanning is in the diagnosis of liver metastases where the detection limit can be considerably improved, in particular by the subtraction method proposed by Haubold. So far, no other tumour-affine substance has yielded satisfactory results. In contrast to gallium, 57Co is excreted mostly renally; The BLM content of the liver 24 h p.i. is less than 1% of the dose applied. The low background activity thus provides a good chance of locating small liver metastases with the aid of radioactively labelled BLM. (orig./AJ)

  10. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs. PMID:26352957

  11. Inhalation anesthetic-induced neuronal damage in the developing rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoju; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Xuan; Patterson, Tucker A; Callicott, Ralph; Liu, Shuliang; Hanig, Joseph P; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The combination of nitrous oxide gas (N(2)O) and isoflurane (ISO) vapor is commonly used in pediatric surgical procedures for human infants and children to produce unconsciousness and analgesia. Because of obvious limitations it is difficult to thoroughly explore the effects of pediatric anesthetic agents on neurons in human infants or children. Due to the complexity of the primate brain, the monkey is often the animal model of choice for developmental neurotoxicology experiments, and it is in the rhesus monkey that the phenomenon of interest (anesthetic-induced neuronal cell death in the brain) has been previously reported. Recent reports indicate that exposure of the developing brain to general anesthetics that block N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors or potentiate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors can trigger widespread apoptotic cell death in rodents. The present study was performed to determine whether prolonged exposure of developing nonhuman primates to a clinically relevant combination of nitrous oxide and isoflurane produces neuronal damage. Postnatal day (PND) 5-6 rhesus monkeys were exposed to N(2)O (70%) or ISO (1.0%) alone, or N(2)O plus ISO for 8 h. Inhalation of the combination of 70% N(2)O+1% ISO produces a surgical plane of anesthesia. Six hours after completion of anesthetic administration the monkeys were examined for neurotoxic effects. No significant neurotoxic effects were observed for the monkeys exposed to N(2)O or ISO alone. However, neuronal damage was apparent when N(2)O was combined with ISO as indicated by increased numbers of caspase-3-, Silver staining- and Fluoro-Jade C-positive cells in the frontal cortex, temporal gyrus and hippocampus. Electron micrographs indicated typical swelling of the cytoplasm and nuclear condensation in the frontal cortex. These data suggest that prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics (a combination of N(2)O and ISO) in the developing rhesus monkey results in neuronal damage, and

  12. Anesthetic Considerations for the Parturient After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaveni, Daria M; Cohn, Jennifer H; Hoctor, Katherine G; Longman, Ryan E; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 40 years, the success of organ transplantation has increased such that female solid organ transplant recipients are able to conceive and carry pregnancies successfully to term. Anesthesiologists are faced with the challenge of providing anesthesia care to these high-risk obstetric patients in the peripartum period. Anesthetic considerations include the effects of the physiologic changes of pregnancy on the transplanted organ, graft function in the peripartum period, and the maternal side effects and drug interactions of immunosuppressive agents. These women are at an increased risk of comorbidities and obstetric complications. Anesthetic management should consider the important task of protecting graft function. Optimal care of a woman with a transplanted solid organ involves management by a multidisciplinary team. In this focused review article, we review the anesthetic management of pregnant patients with solid organ transplants of the kidney, liver, heart, or lung. PMID:27285002

  13. Alveolar subphase pH in the lungs of anesthetized rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, D W; Goerke, J; Clements, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    We measured the pH of the alveolar subphase fluid by puncturing the most superficial alveoli of the exposed lungs of anesthetized rabbits with H+-selective and nonselective KCl microelectrodes. In these experiments, we bathed the lung surface with paraffin oil or buffered Ringer's solutions that had a CO2 tension of 40 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) and found an alveolar pH of 6.92 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- sEM). When the pH of the surface buffer was below 6.7 or above 7.5, alveolar pH varied with surface...

  14. 2012 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, BLM Horse Valley, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'BLM Horse Valley'. The extent of these...

  16. Synergism and antagonism in extracting local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, P. T.; Chibisova, T. V.; Korenman, Ya. I.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvent is examined and its synergistic and antagonistic effects are determined. Synergism parameters, separation factors, constants for the formation of anesthetic complexes, and solvate numbers are calculated.

  17. Intralipid Therapy for Inadvertent Peripheral Nervous System Blockade Resulting from Local Anesthetic Overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Ihab Kamel; Gaurav Trehan; Rodger Barnette

    2015-01-01

    Although local anesthetics have an acceptable safety profile, significant morbidity and mortality have been associated with their use. Inadvertent intravascular injection of local anesthetics and/or the use of excessive doses have been the most frequent causes of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Furthermore, excessive doses of local anesthetics injected locally into the tissues may lead to inadvertent peripheral nerve infiltration and blockade. Successful treatment of LAST with intr...

  18. Cimetidine as pre-anesthetic agent for cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Storm, K; Holmskov, A

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study of 39 consecutive cesarean sections, 20 patients received cimetidine 400 mg intramuscularly as a pre-anesthetic, an 19 control patients were given NaCl. No perinatal effects on the infants were observed by cardiotocography before delivery, and K, Na, pH, PCO2, HCO...

  19. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  20. Anesthetic management of cardiac patient for cataract surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are reporting the successful anesthetic management of a 6 years old child, who had cyanotic congenital heart disease and underwent an operation for cataract extraction. Ketamine was used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Ventilation was assisted manually by using laryngeal masks. (author)

  1. The roles of WRN and BLM RecQ helicases in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Bermudez, Aaron; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto; Cotton, Victoria E.; Gravani, Athanasia; Jeyapalan, Jennie N.; Royle, Nicola J.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of all cancers, but a higher proportion of sarcomas, use the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. Two RecQ helicase genes, BLM and WRN, play important roles in homologous recombination repair and they have been implicated in telomeric recombination activity, but their precise roles in ALT are unclear. Using analysis of sequence variation present in human telomeres, we found that a WRN– ALT+ cell line lacks the class of complex...

  2. The human RecQ helicases BLM and RECQL4 cooperate to preserve genome stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, D.K.; Popuri, V.; Kulikowicz, T.; Shevelev, Igor; Ghosh, A.K.; Ramamoorthy, M.; Rossi, M.L.; Janščák, Pavel; Croteau, D.L.; Bohr, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 14 (2012), s. 6632-6648. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Grant ostatní: NIH(US) Z01-AG000726-17 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : RecQ helicase * genome stability * BLM * RECQL4 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.278, year: 2012

  3. Crystallization of Local Anesthetics When Mixed With Corticosteroid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeoncheol; Park, Jihong; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Woo Hyung; Leigh, Ja-Ho; Lee, Jin Joo; Chung, Sun G.; Lim, Chaiyoung; Park, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate at which pH level various local anesthetics precipitate, and to confirm which combination of corticosteroid and local anesthetic crystallizes. Methods Each of ropivacaine-HCl, bupivacaine-HCl, and lidocaine-HCl was mixed with 4 different concentrations of NaOH solutions. Also, each of the three local anesthetics was mixed with the same volume of 3 corticosteroid solutions (triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and betamethasone sodium phosphate). Precipitation of the local anesthetics (or not) was observed, by the naked eye and by microscope. The pH of each solution and the size of the precipitated crystal were measured. Results Alkalinized with NaOH to a certain value of pH, local anesthetics precipitated (ropivacaine pH 6.9, bupivacaine pH 7.7, and lidocaine pH 12.9). Precipitation was observed as a cloudy appearance by the naked eye and as the aggregation of small particles (300 µm, pH 7.5). Ropivacaine with dexamethasone sodium phosphate also precipitated, but it was only observable by microscope (a few crystals of 10–100 µm, pH 7.0). Bupivacaine with betamethasone sodium phosphate formed precipitates of non-aggregated smaller particles (<10 µm, pH 7.7). Lidocaine mixed with corticosteroids did not precipitate. Conclusion Ropivacaine and bupivacaine can precipitate by alkalinization at a physiological pH, and therefore also produce crystals at a physiological pH when they are mixed with betamethasone sodium phosphate. Thus, the potential risk should be noted for their use in interventions, such as epidural steroid injections. PMID:26949665

  4. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  5. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale-dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2014-01-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients $\\beta_i$ of the QCD $\\beta$-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all $\\beta_i$-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules $C^{\\rm Bjp}_{\\rm NS}(a_s)$ the $\\beta_i$-dependent...

  6. Alteration of canine left ventricular diastolic function by intravenous anesthetics in vivo. Ketamine and propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, P S; Schmeling, W T; Kampine, J P; Warltier, D C

    1992-03-01

    Diastolic function has been shown to influence overall cardiac performance significantly, but the effect of intravenous anesthetics on diastolic function has not been previously characterized in vivo. The effects of ketamine and propofol on two indices of left ventricular diastolic function were examined in chronically instrumented dogs. Because autonomic nervous system function may significantly influence the systemic hemodynamic actions produced by intravenous anesthetics in vivo, experiments were performed in the presence of pharmacologic blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Two groups comprising a total of 14 experiments were performed using 7 dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular pressure, the maximum rate of increase of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt), subendocardial segment length, and cardiac output. Systemic hemodynamics and diastolic function were recorded and evaluated in the conscious state and after a 20-min equilibration at 25-, 50-, and 100-mg.kg-1.h-1 infusion doses of ketamine or propofol. Ventricular relaxation was described using the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation (tau) assuming a nonzero asymptote of ventricular pressure decay. Regional chamber stiffness, an index of passive ventricular filling, was described using an exponential equation relating segment length to ventricular pressure between minimum ventricular pressure and the onset of atrial systole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539854

  7. Embryonic stem cells deficient for Brca2 or Blm exhibit divergent genotoxic profiles that support opposing activities during homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer susceptibility protein, Brca2 and the RecQ helicase, Blm (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through homologous recombination (HR). Brca2 facilitates HR by interacting with Rad51 in multiple regions, the BRC motifs encoded by exon 11 and a single domain encoded by exon 27; however, the exact importance of these regions is not fully understood. Blm also interacts with Rad51 and appears to suppress HR in most circumstances; however, its yeast homologue Sgs1 facilitates HR in response to some genotoxins. To better understand the biological importance of these two proteins, we performed a genotoxic screen on mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells impaired for either Brca2 or Blm to establish their genotoxic profiles (a cellular dose-response to a wide range of agents). This is the first side-by-side comparison of these two proteins in an identical genetic background. We compared cells deleted for Brca2 exon 27 to cells reduced for Blm expression and find that the Brca2- and Blm-impaired cells exhibit genotoxic profiles that reflect opposing activities during HR. Cells deleted for Brca2 exon 27 are hypersensitive to γ-radiation, streptonigrin, mitomycin C and camptothecin and mildly resistant to ICRF-193 which is similar to HR defective cells null for Rad54. By contrast, Blm-impaired cells are hypersensitive to ICRF-193, mildly resistant to camptothecin and mitomycin C and more strongly resistant to hydroxyurea. These divergent profiles support the notion that Brca2 and Blm perform opposing functions during HR in mouse ES cells

  8. High throughput modular chambers for rapid evaluation of anesthetic sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckmann David M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthetic sensitivity is determined by the interaction of multiple genes. Hence, a dissection of genetic contributors would be aided by precise and high throughput behavioral screens. Traditionally, anesthetic phenotyping has addressed only induction of anesthesia, evaluated with dose-response curves, while ignoring potentially important data on emergence from anesthesia. Methods We designed and built a controlled environment apparatus to permit rapid phenotyping of twenty-four mice simultaneously. We used the loss of righting reflex to indicate anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. After fitting the data to a sigmoidal dose-response curve with variable slope, we calculated the MACLORR (EC50, the Hill coefficient, and the 95% confidence intervals bracketing these values. Upon termination of the anesthetic, Emergence timeRR was determined and expressed as the mean ± standard error for each inhaled anesthetic. Results In agreement with several previously published reports we find that the MACLORR of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in 8–12 week old C57BL/6J mice is 0.79% (95% confidence interval = 0.78 – 0.79%, 0.91% (95% confidence interval = 0.90 – 0.93%, and 1.96% (95% confidence interval = 1.94 – 1.97%, respectively. Hill coefficients for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane are 24.7 (95% confidence interval = 19.8 – 29.7%, 19.2 (95% confidence interval = 14.0 – 24.3%, and 33.1 (95% confidence interval = 27.3 – 38.8%, respectively. After roughly 2.5 MACLORR • hr exposures, mice take 16.00 ± 1.07, 6.19 ± 0.32, and 2.15 ± 0.12 minutes to emerge from halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, respectively. Conclusion This system enabled assessment of inhaled anesthetic responsiveness with a higher precision than that previously reported. It is broadly adaptable for delivering an inhaled therapeutic (or toxin to a population while monitoring its vital signs, motor reflexes, and providing precise control

  9. High throughput modular chambers for rapid evaluation of anesthetic sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Chen, Jingqiu; Pruckmayr, Gregory; Baumgardner, James E; Eckmann, David M; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Kelz, Max B

    2006-01-01

    Background Anesthetic sensitivity is determined by the interaction of multiple genes. Hence, a dissection of genetic contributors would be aided by precise and high throughput behavioral screens. Traditionally, anesthetic phenotyping has addressed only induction of anesthesia, evaluated with dose-response curves, while ignoring potentially important data on emergence from anesthesia. Methods We designed and built a controlled environment apparatus to permit rapid phenotyping of twenty-four mice simultaneously. We used the loss of righting reflex to indicate anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. After fitting the data to a sigmoidal dose-response curve with variable slope, we calculated the MACLORR (EC50), the Hill coefficient, and the 95% confidence intervals bracketing these values. Upon termination of the anesthetic, Emergence timeRR was determined and expressed as the mean ± standard error for each inhaled anesthetic. Results In agreement with several previously published reports we find that the MACLORR of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in 8–12 week old C57BL/6J mice is 0.79% (95% confidence interval = 0.78 – 0.79%), 0.91% (95% confidence interval = 0.90 – 0.93%), and 1.96% (95% confidence interval = 1.94 – 1.97%), respectively. Hill coefficients for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane are 24.7 (95% confidence interval = 19.8 – 29.7%), 19.2 (95% confidence interval = 14.0 – 24.3%), and 33.1 (95% confidence interval = 27.3 – 38.8%), respectively. After roughly 2.5 MACLORR • hr exposures, mice take 16.00 ± 1.07, 6.19 ± 0.32, and 2.15 ± 0.12 minutes to emerge from halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, respectively. Conclusion This system enabled assessment of inhaled anesthetic responsiveness with a higher precision than that previously reported. It is broadly adaptable for delivering an inhaled therapeutic (or toxin) to a population while monitoring its vital signs, motor reflexes, and providing precise control over environmental

  10. Effects of anesthetic agents on systemic critical O2 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, P; Gilbart, E; Engelman, E; Schmartz, D; Vincent, J L

    1991-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that anesthetic agents can alter tissue O2 extraction capabilities in a dog model of progressive hemorrhage. After administration of pentobarbital sodium (25 mg/kg iv) and endotracheal intubation, the dogs were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide, ventilated with room air, and splenectomized. A total of 60 dogs were randomized in 10 groups of 6 dogs each. The first group served as control (C). A second group (P) received a continuous infusion of pentobarbital (4 mg.kg-2.h-2), which was started immediately after the bolus dose. Three groups received enflurane (E), halothane (HL), or isoflurane (I) at the end-tidal concentration of 0.7 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). The sixth group received halothane at the end-tidal concentration of 1 MAC (HH). Two groups received intravenous alfentanil at relatively low dose (AL) or high dose (AH). The last two groups received intravenous ketamine at either relatively low dose (KL) or high dose (KH). In each group, O2 delivery (Do2) was progressively reduced by hemorrhage. At each step, systemic Do2 and O2 consumption (VO2) were measured separately and the critical point was determined from a plot of Vo2 vs. Do2. The critical O2 extraction ratio (OER) in the control group was 65.0 +/- 7.8%. OER was lower in all anesthetized groups (P, 44.3 +/- 11.8%; E, 47.0 +/- 7.7%; HL, 45.7 +/- 11.2%; I, 44.3 +/- 7.1%; HH, 33.7 +/- 6.0%; AL, 56.5 +/- 9.6%; AH, 43.5 +/- 5.9%; KH, 57.7 +/- 7.1%), except in the KL group (78.3 +/- 10.0%). The effects of halothane and alfentanil on critical OER were dose dependent (P less than 0.05), whereas critical OER was significantly lower in the KH than in the KL group. Moreover, the effects of anesthetic agents on critical Do2 appeared related to their effects on systemic vascular resistance. Anesthetic agents therefore alter O2 extraction by their peripheral vascular effects. However, ketamine, with its unique sympathetic stimulant properties, had a lesser effect

  11. Vibrational Infrared Lifetime of the Anesthetic nitrous oxide gas in solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chieffo, Logan; Shattuck, Jeffrey; Hong, Mi K; Ziegler, Lawrence; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2006-01-01

    The lifetime of the asymmetric fundamental stretching 2218 cm$^{-1}$ vibration of the anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (N$_2$O) dissolved in octanol and olive oil is reported. These solvents are model systems commonly used to assess anesthetic potency. Picosecond time-scale molecular dynamics simulations have suggested that protein dynamics or membrane dynamics play a role in the molecular mechanism of anesthetic action. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy with 100 fs time resolution is an ideal tool to probe dynamics of anesthetic molecules on such timescales. Pump-probe studies at the peak of the vibrational band yield a lifetime of $55 \\pm 1$ ps in olive oil and $52 \\pm 1 ps$ in octanol. The similarity of lifetimes suggests that energy relaxation of the anesthetic is determined primarily by the hydrophobic nature of the environment, consistent with models of anesthetic action. The results show that nitrous oxide is a good model system for probing anesthetic-solvent interactions using nonlinear infrared spectroscop...

  12. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  13. Antidepressants and local anesthetics: drug interactions of interest to dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Rosa Chioca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since there is a vast variety of pharmacological treatments for mental conditions, it has been increasingly more common that patients seeking dentistry treatment are continually using psychoactive drugs as antidepressants. The number of people taking antidepressants is increasing; consequently, dentists should update their knowledge on the interaction between this drug class and those used in dental daily practice, such as local anesthetics and vasoconstrictors. Objective: To conduct a literature review on this subject. Literature review and conclusion: Literature data suggest that sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine associated with local anesthetics may potentiate the side effects of antidepressants, particularly tricyclics and MAO inhibitors, on the cardiovascular system. There are few clinical trials and preclinical studies on this subject, and most of them were carried out between the 60s and 80s. Current studies are needed, since many new antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action are currently marketed and being used.

  14. Assessment of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhn EG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Endale Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn, Vidhya Nagaratnam Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The evaluation of patient satisfaction is a core aspect of the continuous quality improvement in anesthesia service that can be affected by the preoperative anesthetist visit. This visit enables the anesthetist to know about the patient's general health status and the nature of surgery, to choose the type of anesthesia, and to discuss perioperative complications and their management with the patient. Patients have sometimes complained about the information given during the preoperative anesthetic evaluation in the University of Gondar teaching and referral hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the level of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2013. All consecutive elective patients who were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period were interviewed 24 hours after operation. A pretested questionnaire and checklists, which were developed based on the hospital's anesthetic evaluation sheet, were used for data collection. Results: A total of 116 elective patients were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period. Of these, 102 patients were included in our study, with a response rate of 87.9%. Anesthetists introduced themselves to ~24% patients; provided information about anesthesia to ~32%, postoperative complications to ~21%, postoperative analgesia to ~18, and postoperative nausea and vomiting to ~21%; and spent adequate time with ~74%. Patients' questions were answered by the anesthetist in ~65% of cases, and ~65% of patients had reduced anxiety after the anesthetist visit. The patients' overall satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit was ~65%. Conclusion and recommendation: Patient satisfaction with the

  15. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M.J.; Pitts, T. E.; Mortensen, A.; CORRIE, L.W.; Davenport, P. W.; Bolser, D C

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphr...

  16. The impact of anesthetics and hyperoxia on cortical spreading depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Chiho; Nozari, Ala; MOSKOWITZ, MICHAEL A.; Ayata, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a transient neuronal and glial depolarization that propagates slowly across the cerebral cortex, is the putative electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura. It negatively impacts tissue injury during stroke, cerebral contusion and intracranial hemorrhage. Susceptibility to CSD has been assessed in several experimental animal models in vivo, such as after topical KCl application or cathodal stimulation. Various combinations of anesthetics and ambie...

  17. Anesthetic Management in a Gravida with Type IV Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, Elizabeth; Davila, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder of the connective tissues caused by abnormalities in collagen formation. OI may present many challenges to the anesthesiologist. A literature review reveals a wide range of implications, from basic positioning to management of the difficult airway. We present the anesthetic management of a 25-year-old gravid woman with OI, fetal demise, and possible uterine rupture, admitted for an exploratory laparotomy.

  18. Epidermolysis Bullosa, Dental and Anesthetic Management: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Katayoun Esfahanizadeh; Ali Reza Mahdavi; Ghassem Ansari; Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari; Abdolreza Esfahanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of rare inherited skin and mucous membrane disorders in which blister formation may arise spontaneously or following a minor friction. Various patterns of inheritance are explicated for the disease. The disease has a profound effect on oral mucosa and may result in high prevalence of dental caries. General anesthesia is sometimes the only choice for dental treatments in patients with EB. The following case report describes the dental and anesthetic manage...

  19. Intravenous lipid emulsion for treatment of local anesthetic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    M Caroline Kosh; Miller, April D; Michels, Jill E

    2010-01-01

    M Caroline Kosh, April D Miller, Jill E Michels, , Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina Campus, Columbia, South Carolina, USADate of Preparation: 14th July 2010 Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity?Results: Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies...

  20. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATION S IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMON ARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a spectrum of diseases that includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway disease. It i s characterized by progressive increased resistance to breathing. Patients with marked obstructive pulmonary disease are at increased risk for both intraoperative and Postoperative pulmonary complications. These patients require thorough preoperative prepa ration, meticulous intraoperative management & postoperative care. This article describes anesthetic considerations in a patient with COPD.

  1. Anesthetic considerations in Demons-Meigs’ syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fjouji, Salaheddine; Bensghir, Mustapha; Haimeur, Charki; Azendour, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Demons-Meigs’ syndrome is characterized by the presence of a benign ovarian tumor associated with ascites and a right-sided hydrothorax. Its pathophysiology remains unclear. Anesthesia of this syndrome is a real challenge. Respiratory, hemodynamic, metabolic problems and abdominal hypertension are the main anesthetic risks. Case presentation A 52-year-old African woman with Demons-Meigs’ syndrome was admitted for elective surgery under general anesthesia. An abdominal computed to...

  2. Lung Physiology and Obesity: Anesthetic Implications for Thoracic Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Alessia Pedoto

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem affecting 34% of the American population. As a result, more patients requiring anesthesia for thoracic surgery will be overweight or obese. Changes in static and dynamic respiratory mechanics, upper airway anatomy, as well as multiple preoperative comorbidities and altered drug metabolism, characterize obese patients and affect the anesthetic plan at multiple levels. During the preoperative evaluation, patients should be assessed to identify who is at ris...

  3. A preliminary trial comparison of several anesthetic techniques in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. L.; Luna, S P; de Castro, G B; Massone, F; Rosa, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of several drug combinations (atropine, xylazine, romifidine, methotrimeprazine, midazolam, or fentanyl) with ketamine for short term anesthesia in cats. Twelve cats were anesthetized 6 times by using a cross-over Latin square protocol: methotrimeprazine was combined with midazolam, ketamine, and fentanyl; midazolam and ketamine; romifidine and ketamine; and xylazine and ketamine. Atropine was combined with romifidine and ketamine, and xylaz...

  4. Anesthetic management of a neonate receiving prenatal repair of gastroschisis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Dong; Wu, Lan; Wu, Hai; Huang, Wei; Huang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Gastroschisis requires surgical repair, which is generally performed after birth. We report a case in which a fetus with gastroschisis underwent the abdominal wall defect repair before birth. To ensure reliable operating conditions for the repair (to prevent fetal movement and crying), the fetus received deep anesthesia via placental transfer of maternally administered anesthetics. Meanwhile, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure was performed to ensure fetal oxygen supply, which was l...

  5. Antagonism of morphine-induced central respiratory depression by donepezil in the anesthetized rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKI TSUJITA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is often used in cancer pain and postoperative analgesic management but induces respiratory depression. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for drug candidates that can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression but have no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in central respiratory control and physostigmine antagonizes morphine-induced respiratory depression. However, physostigmine has not been applied in clinical practice because it has a short action time, among other characteristics. We therefore asked whether donepezil (a long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression. Using the anesthetized rabbit as our model, we measured phrenic nerve discharge as an index of respiratory rate and amplitude. We compared control indices with discharges after the injection of morphine and after the injection of donepezil. Morphine-induced depression of respiratory rate and respiratory amplitude was partly antagonized by donepezil without any effect on blood pressure and end-tidal C0(2. In the other experiment, apneic threshold PaC0(2 was also compared. Morphine increased the phrenic nerve apnea threshold but this was antagonized by donepezil. These findings indicate that systemically administered donepezil partially restores morphine-induced respiratory depression and morphine-deteriorated phrenic nerve apnea threshold in the anesthetized rabbit

  6. Mirror syndrome and anesthetic management%镜像综合征与麻醉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振东; 刘志强

    2016-01-01

    Background Mirror syndrome is a rare entity associated with pregnancy.It is related to an increase in fetal mortality and maternal morbility.Clinicians are still short of experience of treating mirror syndrome.There are great risks during anesthesia for patients with mirror syndrome.Objective To review the risks and challenges of mirror syndrome occurred in obstetric surgery.Content This paper describes the pathophysiology and complications of mirror syndrome,and analyze the anesthetic management of mirror syndrome.Trend Awareness of the syndrome is important and we should be care for this type anesthetic management.%背景 镜像综合征是产科中一类罕见的并发症,危及母婴安全,目前临床对其认识不足.镜像综合征的病理生理较为特殊,麻醉管理有较大的风险. 目的 了解镜像综合征对麻醉管理的可能威胁或挑战. 内容 综述镜像综合征的病理生理、并发症及其与临床麻醉的关系. 趋向 产科麻醉中应警惕该类产科并发症,做好相应的麻醉管理.

  7. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with 131I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with 125I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular 131I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass

  8. Interactions of anesthetics with the membrane-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Cieplak, P.; Wilson, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the potency of conventional anesthetics correlates with lipophilicity, an affinity to water also is essential. It was recently found that compounds with very low affinities to water do not produce anesthesia regardless of their lipophilicity. This finding implies that clinical anesthesia might arise because of interactions at molecular sites near the interface of neuronal membranes with the aqueous environment and, therefore, might require increased concentrations of anesthetic molecules at membrane interfaces. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we calculated in molecular dynamics simulations the free energy profiles for the transfer of anesthetic 1,1,2-trifluoroethane and nonanesthetic perfluoroethane across water-membrane and water-hexane interfaces. Consistent with the hypothesis, it was found that trifluoroethane, but not perfluoroethane, exhibits a free energy minimum and, therefore, increased concentrations at both interfaces. The transfer of trifluoroethane from water to the nonpolar hexane or interior of the membrane is accompanied by a considerable, solvent-induced shift in the conformational equilibrium around the C-C bond.

  9. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of local anesthetic versus a combination of local anesthetic with self-hypnosis in the management of pediatric procedure-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liossi, Christina; White, Paul; Hatira, Popi

    2006-05-01

    A prospective controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an analgesic cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, or EMLA) with a combination of EMLA with hypnosis in the relief of lumbar puncture-induced pain and anxiety in 45 pediatric cancer patients (age 6-16 years). The study also explored whether young patients can be taught and can use hypnosis independently as well as whether the therapeutic benefit depends on hypnotizability. Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: local anesthetic, local anesthetic plus hypnosis, and local anesthetic plus attention. Results confirmed that patients in the local anesthetic plus hypnosis group reported less anticipatory anxiety and less procedure-related pain and anxiety and that they were rated as demonstrating less behavioral distress during the procedure. The level of hypnotizability was significantly associated with the magnitude of treatment benefit, and this benefit was maintained when patients used hypnosis independently. PMID:16719602

  11. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale- dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients βi of the QCD β-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all βi-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules CBjpNS (as) the βi-dependent structure of the NNLO approximation for CBjpNS (as) is predicted in QCD with ngl-multiplet of gluino degrees of freedom, which appear in SUSY extension of QCD. The importance of performing the analytical calculation of the N3LO additional contributions of ngl gluino multiplet to CBjpNS (as) for checking the presented in the report NNLO prediction and for the studies of the possibility to determine the discussed β-expansion pattern of this sum rule at the O(a4s)-level is emphasised.

  12. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District... mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake...

  13. Drill baby drill: An analysis of how energy development displaced ranching's dominance over the BLM's subgovernment policymaking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis, Robert Earl, Jr.

    Academic literature analyzing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land-use subgovernment stops at the Taylor Grazing Act and concludes that the historical development of administering grazing on public lands led to the capture of the BLM by ranching interests. Using a two-pronged methodological approach of process tracing and elite interviews this dissertation seeks to advance our collective knowledge of subgovernment theory by (a) clarifying the impact executive decision-making has on subgovernments and (b) identifying the conditions under which strategically competitive behavior between two competing subgovernment actors occurs. The dissertation seeks to update the literature by explaining what has caused the BLM to shift from a rancher-dominated agency to an energy dominated agency by identifying conditions under which subgovernment actors strategically respond to a political conflict. The research poses two questions: (1) how have executive actions disrupted an existing balance of power in a so-called "strong corner" of an entrenched subgovernment system and (2) what happens when conflict and competition break out between allied members of the system? Analysis indicates that as the BLM responded to Executive actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional allies: ranching and energy. Triggered by the unintended consequence of awakening long-dormant legislation, split-estate energy development---where property rights are severed between private surface and federal mineral estates---expanded across the West. In turn, this expansion helped establish the conditions for conflict and in doing so disrupted the balance of power between large public resource use interests in the relatively stable land-use subgovernment of the BLM. Indicative of energy's emerging dominance of the BLM's subgovernment, split-estate energy development led ranching interests to seek the protection of their Western state legislatures. This shift in

  14. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary cost projections were computed for several alternative strategies that could be used by BLM to manage three wild horse populations. The alternatives included existing gather and selective removal methods, combined with potential contraceptive applications of varying duration and other potentially useful management techniques. Costs were projected for a 20-year economic life using the Jenkins wild horse population model and cost estimates from BLM that reflect state-by-state per horse removal, adoption, long-term holding, and contraceptive application expenses. Important findings include: Application of currently available 2-year contraceptives appears capable of reducing variable operating costs for wild horse populations by about 21% on average.

  15. Different distribution of fluorinated anesthetics and nonanesthetics in model membrane: a 19F NMR study.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tang; Yan, B.; Xu, Y

    1997-01-01

    Despite their structural resemblance, a pair of cyclic halogenated compounds, 1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane (F3) and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6), exhibit completely different anesthetic properties. Whereas the former is a potent general anesthetic, the latter produces no anesthesia. Two linear compounds, isoflurane and 2,3-dichlorooctofluorobutane (F8), although not a structural pair, also show the same anesthetic discrepancy. Using 19F nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, we inves...

  16. Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques during routine anesthetic care - observations in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Megeus, Veronika; Nilsson, Kerstin; Karlsson, Jon; Eriksson, Bengt I.; Andersson, Annette Erichsen

    2015-01-01

    Background More knowledge is needed about task intensity in relation to hand hygiene in the operating room during anesthetic care in order to choose effective improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the indications and occurrence of hand hygiene opportunities and the adherence to hand hygiene guidelines during routine anesthetic care in the operating room. Methods Structured observational data on hand hygiene during anesthetic care during 94 surgical procedures was collec...

  17. Analysis of fast losses in the LHC with the BLM system

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot, E; Holzer, E; Dehning, B; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Emery, J; Zamantzas, C; Effinger, E; Marsili, A; Wenninger, J; Baer, T; Schmidt, R; Yang, Z; Zimmerman, F; Fuster, N

    2011-01-01

    About 3600 Ionization Chambers are located around the LHC ring to detect beam losses that could damage the equipment or quench superconducting magnets. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs) integrate the losses in 12 different time intervals (from 40 us to 83.8 s) allowing for different abort thresholds depending on the duration of the loss and the beam energy. The signals are also recorded in a database at 1 Hz for offline analysis. During the 2010 run, a limiting factor in the machine availability were sudden losses appearing around the ring on the ms time scale and detected exclusively by the BLM system. It is believed that such losses originate from dust particles falling into the beam, or being attracted by its strong electromagnetic field. This document describes some of the properties of these ”Unidentified Falling Objects” (UFOs) putting special emphasis on their dependence on beam parameters (energy, intensity, etc). The subsequent modification of the BLM beam abort thresholds for the 2011 run that were ...

  18. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  19. Very High Radiation Detector for the LHC BLM System Based on Secondary Electron Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, EB; Kramer, D

    2007-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system plays a vital role in the active protection of the LHC accelerators elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production...

  20. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Crescentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.

  1. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  2. Alveolar Subphase pH in the Lungs of Anesthetized Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, D. W.; Goerke, J.; Clements, J. A.

    1981-11-01

    We measured the pH of the alveolar subphase fluid by puncturing the most superficial alveoli of the exposed lungs of anesthetized rabbits with H+-selective and nonselective KCl microelectrodes. In these experiments, we bathed the lung surface with paraffin oil or buffered Ringer's solutions that had a CO2 tension of 40 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) and found an alveolar pH of 6.92± 0.01 (mean ± SEM). When the pH of the surface buffer was below 6.7 or above 7.5, alveolar pH varied with surface buffer pH. With the nonselective electrode, we did not find a significant electrical potential difference between the alveolar fluid and the pleural surface. These results are consistent with active transport of H+ (or HCO3-) across alveolar epithelium.

  3. Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Links Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics with Mitochondrial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Pavel I; Woods, Christian B; Quintana, Albert; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Morgan, Philip G; Sedensky, Margaret M

    2016-08-22

    An enigma of modern medicine has persisted for over 150 years. The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. Many attractive putative molecular targets have failed to produce a significant effect when genetically tested in whole-animal models [1-3]. However, mitochondrial defects increase VA sensitivity in diverse organisms from nematodes to humans [4-6]. Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine [7]. The change in VA sensitivity is the largest reported for a mammal. Limiting NDUFS4 loss to a subset of glutamatergic neurons recapitulates the VA hypersensitivity of Ndufs4(KO) mice, while loss in GABAergic or cholinergic neurons does not. Baseline electrophysiologic function of CA1 pyramidal neurons does not differ between Ndufs4(KO) and control mice. Isoflurane concentrations that anesthetize only Ndufs4(KO) mice (0.6%) decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) only in Ndufs4(KO) CA1 neurons, while concentrations effective in control mice (1.2%) decreased sEPSC frequencies in both control and Ndufs4(KO) CA1 pyramidal cells. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were not differentially affected between genotypes. The effects of isoflurane were similar on evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) in KO and control hippocampal slices. We propose that CA1 presynaptic excitatory neurotransmission is hypersensitive to isoflurane in Ndufs4(KO) mice due to the inhibition of pre-existing reduced complex I function, reaching a critical reduction that can no longer meet metabolic demands. PMID:27498564

  4. COMPARISON OF COMMON CLINICALLY USED LOCAL ANESTHETICS ON ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthireddy Srinivas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The animal models used in this study were Plexus anesthesia in frogs, Infiltration anesthesia in guinea pigs, Surface anesthesia in rabbits. The drugs were diluted with normal saline. Lignocaine2%: xylocaine hydrochloride injection IP, Bupivacaine 0.5%: Bupivacaine hydrochloride injections IP were prepared. Plexus anesthesia: Frog was pithed and spinal cord was destroyed up to the 3 vertebra. The abdominal pouch was filled with local anesthetic solution. Reflex activity was tested by immersing both feet of the frog every two minutes for not longer than 10 seconds into N/10 Hydrochloric acid. The time was noted. Surface anesthesia: Albino rabbits of either sex weighing 2.5 – 3.0kg ware selected. The conjunctival sac of one eye was held open, thus formed a pouch. 0.5ml of solution of the anesthetic was applied into the conjunctival sac for 30 sec. Infiltration anesthesia: Preparation of guinea pig: Guinea pigs (either sex weighing 250-300grams were used. Lignocaine produced rapid onset of plexus anesthesia in Frogs in comparison to the bupivacaine at concentration of 0.1% & 0.2% which is statistically significant. Bupivacaine is more potent than the lignocaine as a surface anesthetic agent in the Rabbit, where as lignocaine could produce surface anesthesia at concentration of 0.5% or 0.1% or both. Both bupivacaine and lignocaine produced infiltration anesthesia on intradermal injection in guinea pigs but the duration of infiltration anesthesia produced by bupivacaine is more prolonged which is statistically significant in comparison to the lignocaine at all the three concentrations tested i.e. 0.05%, 0.1% & 0.2%.

  5. Articaine - the best choice of local anesthetic in contemporary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizharadze, N; Mamaladze, M; Chipashvili, N; Vadachkoria, D

    2011-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the foundation of pain control techniques in clinical dentistry. Within the rich local anesthetic drugs available in dentistry for the prevention and management of pain 4% articaine solutions achieve highest level of anesthetic potency and lowest systemic toxicity in all clinical situations, prior to its superlative physicochemical characteristics and the pharmacological profile. These are - low lipid solubility, high plasma protein binding rate, fast metabolization, fast elimination half time; low blood level. Articaine inactivates in both ways: in the liver and the blood serum. It has good spreading through tissues. Thus, articaine seems to be the local anesthetic of first choice in tissues with suppurative inflammation, for adults, children (over 4), elderly, pregnant women, breastfeeding women, patients suffering from hepatic disorders and renal function impairment. In Articaine solutions (1: 200,000) epinephrine is in low concentration, thus in patients at high risk adverse responses are maximally decreased. In these patients articaine should be used with careful consideration of risk/benefit ratio. Articaine solutions must not be used in persons who are allergic or hypersensitive to sulphite, due to content of Sodium metabisulfite as vasoconstrictor's antioxidant in it. Incidence of serious adverse effects related to dental anesthesia with articaine is very low. Toxic reactions are usually due to an inadvertent intravascular injection or use of excessive dose. To avoid overdoses maximum recommendation dose (MRD) must not be exceeded and aspiration test always performed prior all LA injections. In these article we introduce new graphs providing a quick and effect way to determine maximum LA dose. If the overdose reactions develop, adherence to the basic step of emergency management with end to a successful outcome in virtually all cases. PMID:21346262

  6. Goalpha regulates volatile anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    van Swinderen, B.; Metz, L B; Shebester, L D; Mendel, J E; Sternberg, P. W.; Crowder, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes controlling volatile anesthetic (VA) action, we have screened through existing Caenorhabditis elegans mutants and found that strains with a reduction in Go signaling are VA resistant. Loss-of-function mutants of the gene goa-1, which codes for the alpha-subunit of Go, have EC(50)s for the VA isoflurane of 1.7- to 2.4-fold that of wild type. Strains overexpressing egl-10, which codes for an RGS protein negatively regulating goa-1, are also isoflurane resistant. However, sensi...

  7. Anesthetic management of schwannoma of the base of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma B Batra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma arising from the base of the tongue are very rare and only a few cases have been reported so far. Definitive diagnosis is always made after a histological examination. Apart from an anticipated difficult airway with a risk of airway obstruction upon induction of general anesthesia, anesthetic concerns also include possibility of trauma to the growth and bleeding with attendant risks. We discuss the awake fiberoptic technique used for endotracheal intubation in such a case. This case report highlights the importance of detailed history taking and clinical examination, with emphasis on airway assessment and preoperative planning.

  8. Anesthetic considerations for adults undergoing fontan conversion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Emad B; Motta, Pablo; Vener, David F

    2013-06-01

    There are currently in North America more adults with congenital heart disease than children. This article discusses the anesthetic considerations in adults with single-ventricle physiology and prior repairs who present for Fontan conversion surgery as a demonstration of the challenges of caring for adults undergoing interventions for the repair of congenital heart defects. The care of these patients requires an understanding of the impact of passive pulmonary blood flow and single systemic ventricular physiology. The perioperative morbidity in this patient population remains high. PMID:23711650

  9. Assessing the impact on global climate from general anesthetic gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John; Wallington, Timothy J.;

    2012-01-01

    anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, as measured relative to the start of the industrial era (approximately 1750). The family of anesthetic gases includes several halogenated organic compounds that are strong greenhouse gases. In this short report, we provide an overview of the state of knowledge......Although present in the atmosphere with a combined concentration approximately 100,000 times lower than carbon dioxide (i.e., the principal anthropogenic driver of climate change), halogenated organic compounds are responsible for a warming effect of approximately 10% to 15% of the total...

  10. Anesthetic considerations in Leigh disease: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh disease is an extremely rare disorder, characterized by a progressive neurodegenerative course, with subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. It usually presents in infancy with developmental delay, seizures, dysarthria, and ataxia. These patients may also develop episodes of lactic acidosis that usually lead to respiratory failure and death. Due to the rarity of the condition, the most appropriate anesthetic plan remains unclear. We present a patient with Leigh disease, who required general anesthesia. The pathogenesis of the disease is discussed and previous reports of perioperative care from the literature are reviewed.

  11. A literature review on anesthetic practice for carotid endarterectomy surgery based on cost, hemodynamic stability, and neurologic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzner, Mark C; Skurnowicz, Julie A; Mitchell, Anne

    2007-06-01

    An extensive literature review was undertaken to evaluate the best anesthetic practice for carotid endarterectomy surgery. Two anesthetic techniques were evaluated: general anesthetic with an endotracheal tube and regional anesthetic block. Three variables were reviewed with respect to significant clinical outcomes based on anesthetic technique. Relevant literature was obtained through multiple sources that included professional journals, a professional website, and textbooks. According to the literature, there is an advantage to performing regional anesthesia with respect to cost and neurologic status. Information analyzed was inconclusive with respect to hemodynamic stability and anesthetic technique. We conclude that regional anesthesia may have some slight advantages; however, more investigation is warranted. PMID:17591300

  12. Regulation of gene expression by the BLM helicase correlates with the presence of G-quadruplex DNA motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Tang, Weiliang; Robles, Ana I;

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genetic instability and cancer predisposition, and caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Bloom syndrome, RecQ helicase-like (BLM) protein. To determine whether altered gene expression might be responsible for pathologic...

  13. The impact of four different classes of anesthetics on the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, M; Behuliak, M; Zicha, J

    2013-01-01

    Most anesthetics induce characteristic hemodynamic changes leading to blood pressure (BP) reduction but the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in this BP reduction is unknown. We therefore studied the influence of four widely used anesthetics - pentobarbital (P), isoflurane (ISO), ketamine-xylazine (KX) and chloralose-urethane (CU) - on the participation of these vasoactive systems in BP maintenance. BP effects elicited by the acute sequential blockade of RAS (captopril), SNS (pentolinium) and NO synthase (L-NAME) were compared in conscious and anesthetized Wistar or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Except for pentobarbital all studied anesthetics evidenced by diminished BP responses to pentolinium. The absolute pentolinium-induced BP changes were always greater in SHR than Wistar rats. KX anesthesia eliminated BP response to pentolinium and considerably enhanced BP response to NO synthase inhibition in SHR. In both rat strains the anesthesia with ISO or CU augmented BP response to captopril, decreased BP response to pentolinium and attenuated BP response to NO synthase inhibition. In conclusion, pentobarbital anesthesia had a modest influence on BP level and its maintenance by the above vasoactive systems. Isoflurane and chloralose-urethane anesthesia may be used in cardiovascular experiments if substantial BP decrease due to altered contribution of RAS, SNS and NO to BP regulation does not interfere with the respective research aim. Major BP reduction (namely in SHR) due to a complete SNS absence is a major drawback of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. PMID:24020816

  14. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Chu, A.M.

    1979-09-01

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken to minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam.

  15. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken to minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam

  16. Clinical application of thoracic paravertebral anesthetic block in breast surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Socorro Faria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimum treatment for postoperative pain has been of fundamental importance in surgical patient care. Among the analgesic techniques aimed at this group of patients, thoracic paravertebral block combined with general anesthesia stands out for the good results and favorable risk-benefit ratio. Many local anesthetics and other adjuvant drugs are being investigated for use in this technique, in order to improve the quality of analgesia and reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of paravertebral block compared to other analgesic and anesthetic regimens in women undergoing breast cancer surgeries. METHODS: Integrative literature review from 1966 to 2012, using specific terms in computerized databases of articles investigating the clinical characteristics, adverse effects, and beneficial effects of thoracic paravertebral block. RESULTS: On the selected date, 16 randomized studies that met the selection criteria established for this literature review were identified. Thoracic paravertebral block showed a significant reduction of postoperative pain, as well as decreased pain during arm movement after surgery. CONCLUSION: Thoracic paravertebral block reduced postoperative analgesic requirement compared to placebo group, markedly within the first 24 h. The use of this technique could ensure postoperative analgesia of clinical relevance. Further studies with larger populations are necessary, as paravertebral block seems to be promising for preemptive analgesia in breast cancer surgery.

  17. Clinical Comparison: Fast-Acting and Traditional Topical Dental Anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Arthur C; Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, nonblinded clinical trial compared the effectiveness of an application method of a fast-acting refrigerant topical agent to a 20% benzocaine gel topical. In a split-mouth design, right and left anterior middle superior alveolar injections (N = 30) were administered with a 27-gauge needle at least 24 hours apart with preinjection topicals. Using a cotton-tipped applicator, a refrigerant topical was applied for 5 seconds and 20% benzocaine gel for 2 minutes on opposite sides at 2 separate appointments. Subjects self-reported pain perception after each injection using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS ratings demonstrated no significant difference between the 5-second application of the refrigerant (M = 16.2, SD = 17.7) and the 2-minute application of 20% benzocaine topical gel anesthetic (M = 17.9, SD = 18.2). Fifty-seven percent of the subjects reported greater pain reduction with the refrigerant, 33% reported greater pain reduction with 20% benzocaine, and 10% reported no difference. Results suggest the described method of application of a refrigerant as an oral topical anesthetic has a faster onset and provides similar benefit in pain reduction compared with 20% benzocaine gel. The refrigerant was easy to accomplish and well received by subjects, indicating potential for routine use in dentistry. PMID:27269661

  18. Nursing care in the anesthetic procedure: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cassiane de Santana; Peniche, Aparecida de Cassia Giani

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To search for the scientific evidence available on nursing professional actions during the anesthetic procedure. METHOD An integrative review of articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, National Cochrane, SciELO databases and the VHL portal. RESULTS Seven studies were analyzed, showing nurse anesthetists' work in countries such as the United States and parts of Europe, with the formulation of a plan for anesthesia and patient care regarding the verification of materials and intraoperative controls. The barriers to their performance involved working in conjunction with or supervised by anesthesiologists, the lack of government guidelines and policies for the legal exercise of the profession, and the conflict between nursing and the health system for maintenance of the performance in places with legislation and defined protocols for the specialty. Conclusion Despite the methodological weaknesses found, the studies indicated a wide diversity of nursing work. Furthermore, in countries absent of the specialty, like Brazil, the need to develop guidelines for care during the anesthetic procedure was observed. PMID:27007433

  19. Scientometrics of anesthetic drugs and their techniques of administration, 1984–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassakov KV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kamen V Vlassakov, Igor Kissin Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess progress in the field of anesthetic drugs over the past 30 years using scientometric indices: popularity indices (general and specific, representing the proportion of articles on a drug relative to all articles in the field of anesthetics (general index or the subfield of a specific class of anesthetics (specific index; index of change, representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic from one period to the next; index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000 biomedical journals covered by PubMed; and index of ultimate success, representing a publication outcome when a new drug takes the place of a common drug previously used for the same purpose. Publications on 58 topics were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. Our analysis showed that during 2009–2013, out of seven anesthetics with a high general popularity index (≥2.0, only two were introduced after 1980, ie, the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane and the local anesthetic ropivacaine; however, only sevoflurane had a high index of expectations (12.1. Among anesthetic adjuncts, in 2009–2013, only one agent, sugammadex, had both an extremely high index of change (>100 and a high index of expectations (25.0, reflecting the novelty of its mechanism of action. The index of ultimate success was positive with three anesthetics, ie, lidocaine, isoflurane, and propofol, all of which were introduced much longer than 30 years ago. For the past 30 years, there were no new anesthetics that have produced changes in scientometric indices indicating real progress. Keywords: anesthetics, anesthetic adjuvants, mortality, safety margins, therapeutic indices

  20. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine;

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  1. Bilateral Fetal Hydrothorax Requiring Intrauterine Fetal Thoracoamniotic Shunts: Anesthetic Considerations and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hache, John J.; Emery, Stephen P.; Vallejo, Manuel C.

    2009-01-01

    After prenatal diagnosis of bilateral fetal hydrothorax, ascites, and polyhydramnios, bilateral thoracoamniotic shunts were placed at 29 weeks gestation using an ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive technique. Anesthetic care was managed using intravenous sedation and local anesthesia infiltration. The anesthetic considerations for such procedures are discussed.

  2. Bilateral Fetal Hydrothorax Requiring Intrauterine Fetal Thoracoamniotic Shunts: Anesthetic Considerations and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Hache

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After prenatal diagnosis of bilateral fetal hydrothorax, ascites, and polyhydramnios, bilateral thoracoamniotic shunts were placed at 29 weeks gestation using an ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive technique. Anesthetic care was managed using intravenous sedation and local anesthesia infiltration. The anesthetic considerations for such procedures are discussed.

  3. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  4. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local...... anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent...... three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high...

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep debt accrues in mice exposed to volatile anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Jeremy; Chen, Yihan; Moore, Jason T.; Sun, Yi; Wyner, Abraham J.; Friedman, Eliot B.; Kelz, Max B.

    2011-01-01

    Background General anesthesia has been likened to a state in which anesthetized subjects are locked out of access to both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness. Were this true for all anesthetics, one might expect a significant REM rebound following anesthetic exposure. However, for the intravenous anesthetic propofol, studies demonstrate that no sleep debt accrues. Moreover, pre-existing sleep debts dissipate during propofol anesthesia. To determine whether these effects are specific to propofol or are typical of volatile anesthetics we tested the hypothesis that REM sleep debt would accrue in rodents anesthetized with volatile anesthetics. Methods Electroencephalographic and electromyographic electrodes were implanted in 10 mice. After 9–11 days of recovery and habituation to a 12h:12h light:dark cycle, baseline states of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep, and REM sleep were recorded in mice exposed to 6 hours of an oxygen control and on separate days to 6 hours of isoflurane, sevoflurane, or halothane in oxygen. All exposures were conducted at the onset of light. Results Mice in all three anesthetized groups exhibited a significant doubling of REM sleep during the first six-hours of the dark phase of the circadian schedule while only mice exposed to halothane displayed a significant increase in non-rapid eye movement sleep that peaked at 152% of baseline. Conclusion REM sleep rebound following exposure to volatile anesthetics suggests that these volatile anesthetics do not fully substitute for natural sleep. This result contrasts with the published actions of propofol for which no REM sleep rebound occurred. PMID:21934405

  6. Anesthetic management of a child undergoing bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediha Turktan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine secreting neuroendocrine tumor in children. It is usually localized unilaterally in adults but often bilaterally in children. The symptoms are variable related to the level of secreted catecholamine. The most common symptoms are hypertension, tachycardia and headache. Beta blockers, alcohol consumption, injection of contrast substance and surgical procedures may lead to attacks. The most effective treatment is surgical resection. In recent years, laparoscopic surgery has been more preferred. Anesthetic management is very important in this cases. Especially, sudden hemodynamic changes may be observed during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In our case, the control of hemodynamic changes with esmolol and norepinephrine infusion were discussed during bilaterally laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a 14-year old child with pheochromocytoma. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 171-174

  7. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  8. Epidermolysis Bullosa, Dental and Anesthetic Management: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Esfahanizadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of rare inherited skin and mucous membrane disorders in which blister formation may arise spontaneously or following a minor friction. Various patterns of inheritance are explicated for the disease. The disease has a profound effect on oral mucosa and may result in high prevalence of dental caries. General anesthesia is sometimes the only choice for dental treatments in patients with EB. The following case report describes the dental and anesthetic management of an 12.5 -year-old girl with dystrophic type of EB. The patient was followed up every 6 months. New carious lesions were detected one year after the treatment, on the last visit. Presenting a perfect dental care to children with this disorder can be challenging for the in charge specialist, both pediatric dentist and anesthesiologist.

  9. The effects of anesthetic agents on oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakan, Selvinaz; Düzgüner, Vesile

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the instability between antioxidant defense of the body and the production of free radical that causes peroxydation on the lipid layer. Free radicals are reactive oxygen species that are produced in the course of normal metabolisms of aerobe organisms and they may cause disorders in cell structure and organelles by interacting macromolecules, like lipid, protein, nucleic acids. Therefore, they may cause cardiovascular, immune system, liver, kidney illnesses and many other illnesses like cancer, aging, cataract, diabetes. It is known that many drugs used for the purpose of anesthetizing may cause lipid peroxidation in organism. For these reasons, determining the Oxidative stress index of anaesthetic stress chosen in the ones that are exposed to long term anaesthetic agents and anaesthesia appliccations, is so substantial.

  10. Anesthetic management for thoracic surgery in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, E; Narváez, D; Fernandez-Lopez, A; Garcia-Aparicio, L

    2016-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a chromosomopathy associated to molecular mutations or microdeletions of chromosome 16. It has an incidence of 1:125,000-700,000 live births. RTS patients present craniofacial and thoracic anomalies that lead to a probable difficult-to-manage airway and ventilation. They also present mental retardation and comorbidity, such as congenital cardiac defects, pulmonary structural anomalies and recurrent respiratory infections, which increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported after the use of certain drugs such as succinylcholine and atropine, in a higher incidence than in general population. There is an increased risk of postoperative apnea-hypopnea in these patients. We report the anesthetic management in a RTS patient undergoing emergent thoracic surgery due to oesophageal perforation and mediastinitis. Lung isolation was achieved with a bronchial blocker guided with a fiberoptic bronchoscope and one-lung ventilation was performed successfully. PMID:27062171

  11. Anesthetic management of a patient with congenital diaphragmatic eventration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Kapil; Anand, Raktima; Girdhar, Kiran K; Manchanda, Gunjan; Panda, Asish K; Bhalotra, Anju R

    2011-08-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic eventration is uncommon in adults and is caused by paralysis, aplasia or atrophy of the muscular fibers of the diaphragm. It may cause severe dyspnea, orthopnea and hypoxia in adult patients. Most symptomatic patients may be managed efficiently without the need for surgical correction, although any event that leads to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure puts them at the risk of spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. This case report presents the successful anesthetic management of an adult female with congenital diaphragmatic eventration undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy using a total intravenous anesthesia technique. Essential steps to prevent any rise in intrathoracic and intra-abdominal pressures along with care to minimize intragastric volume were taken. PMID:21626261

  12. Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics: A modern view of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ovezov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All general anesthetics routinely used in clinical practice are noted to have a neurotoxic effect on the brain in different animal species including primates. The negative effects observed both in young and sexually mature animals include apoptotic neuronal cell death, suppression of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, neuroinflammation, as well as learning and memory impairments. A number of epidemiologic surveys have established an association between anesthesia in patients younger than 3 to 4 years and subsequent learning disabilities and language disorders whereas others have not found this link. In middle-aged and elderly patients, anesthesia is frequently associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The key component of its pathogenesis (general anesthesia itself or other factors, such as operative injury, an inflammatory response, pain syndrome, intraoperative complications, underlying disease in a patient remains unelucidated. It is concluded that there is a need for additional experimental and clinical studies of the pathogenesis of these undesirable phenomena to be prevented and corrected.

  13. Anesthetic management of laparoscopic pheochromocytoma surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Akelma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. It has a variable clinic indicating symptoms such as hypertension, headache, sweating, palpitations, and anxiety. Determination of vanillylmandelic acid in urine and metanephrines are accepted as the most sensitive tests for diagnosis. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging cad be used for tumor localization. Anesthetic induction and surgical manipulations usually lead to the catastrophic release of catecholamines. Thus, accurate preoperative pharmacological preparation is vital in these patients. Treatment is a complete surgical resection of the primary tumor and, if possible, metastases after banning dangerous fluctuations in hemodynamic through α-blockers. Today, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has begun to replace open surgery as a standard treatment method in many adrenal diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  14. Anesthetic Activity of Alfaxalone Compared with Ketamine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Ayers, Jessica D; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the use of alfaxalone compared with ketamine, both alone and in combination with xylazine, for anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice. We assessed time to onset of anesthesia, duration of action, reflex responses, respiratory rate, and clinical signs. Alfaxalone (80 mg/kg IP) induced a light surgical plane of anesthesia in all mice, with a time to onset of 2.2 ± 0.2 min and duration of 57.1 ± 3.8 min, whereas ketamine (80 mg/kg IP) provided only sedative effects (time to onset, 5.4 ± 0.4 min; duration, 6.9 ± 0.8 min). Clinically, alfaxalone caused a spectrum of activities, including popcorn-like jumping movements after injection, intense scratching of the face, hyperresponsiveness to noise or touch, and marked limb jerking during recovery. Adding xylazine to the single-agent protocols achieved deep surgical anesthesia (duration: alfaxalone + xylazine, 80.3 ± 17.8 min; ketamine + xylazine, 37.4 ± 8.2 min) and ameliorated the adverse clinical signs. Our preliminary analysis suggests that, because of its side effects, alfaxalone alone is not a viable anesthetic option for mice. Although alfaxalone combined with xylazine appeared to be a more viable option, some mice still experienced mild adverse reactions, and the long duration of action might be problematic regarding the maintenance of body temperature and monitoring of recovery. Further studies evaluating different routes of administration and drug combinations are warranted. PMID:27423149

  15. Under Utilization of Local Anesthetics in Infant Lumbar Punctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorchynski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar Puncture (LP is an invasive procedure frequently used to diagnose meningitis among the pediatric population. Neonates and infants have not routinely received local anesthesia prior to LP. Study Objective: To determine whether emergency medicine physicians and pediatricians use local analgesics on neonates and infants prior to performing an LP and to identify which local anesthetics, if any, were used. Methods: Prospective, cohort study of all infants, six months of age or less, that received an LP in the emergency department (ED or inpatient pediatric units for suspected meningitis during a period of year at a university tertiary care hospital. Results: A total sample population of 111 infants that received an LP within the study period. A control population of 42 adults received an LP. Only 40.4% (45/111 of the infants received local analgesia prior to LP: either 1% lidocaine, EMLA or a combination of the two. Infants were less likely to receive lidocaine or EMLA prior to LP compared to adult subjects (OR= 0.27; 95% CI0.12 to 0.62. No neonates that were less than one month of age received local procedural anesthesia by emergency medicine or pediatric physicians. ED physicians’ use of local anesthesia prior to LP increased with increasing age of the infant. The pediatricians in this study used local anesthesia prior to LP when the infant was at least five months of age. Discussion: The data objectively support recent literature regarding the under use or lack of use of analgesia prior to LP among neonates and infants. Local anesthetics should be used routinely without exception prior to performing an LP in the pediatric population.

  16. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia; Pennarun, Gaëlle; Genet, Diane; Rass, Emilie; Germann, Susanne Manuela; Bertrand, Pascale; Hickson, Ian David; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2013-01-01

    represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role for...

  17. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and pattern recognition analysis of liver extracts from rats under different anesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although general anesthesia is widely used in the surgical arena, the mechanisms by which general anesthetics act remain unclear. We previously described alterations in gene expression ratios in hepatic tissue taken from rats treated with anesthetics. Consequently, it is considered that anesthetics influence liver metabolism. Thus, the goal of this study was to use pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to visualize changes in liver metabolic phenotypes in response to widely used intravenous anesthetics (propofol and dexmedetomidine) and inhalational anesthetics (sevoflurane and isoflurane). Rats were randomized into 13 groups (n = 6 in each group), and each group received one of following agents: propofol, dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane, isoflurane, or no anesthetic (control group). The liver was directly removed from rats immediately after or 24 h or 48 h after a 6-h period of anesthesia. Hydrophilic compounds were extracted from the liver and were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All spectral data were processed and analyzed by principal component analysis for comparison of metabolite profiles. Data were visualized by plotting principal component (PC) scores. In the plots, each point represents an individual sample. Each group was clustered separately on the plots, and the PC scores of the propofol group were clearly distinct from those of the control group and other anesthetic groups. The difference in PC scores was more pronounced immediately after completion of anesthesia when compared with 24 or 48 h after completion of anesthesia. Although the effect of intravenous anesthetics on the liver dissipated over time, the effect of inhalational anesthetics persisted. Propofol, dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane and isoflurane exert different effects on liver metabolism. In particular, liver metabolism was markedly altered after exposure to propofol. The effect of anesthesia on the liver under propofol or

  18. Blm-s, a BH3-Only Protein Enriched in Postmitotic Immature Neurons, Is Transcriptionally Upregulated by p53 during DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death is a pivotal process that regulates neuronal number during development. Key regulators of this process are members of the BCL-2 family. Using mRNA differential display, we identified a Bcl-2 family gene, Blm-s (Bcl-2-like molecule, short form, enriched in postmitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex. BLM-s functions as a BH3-only apoptosis sensitizer/derepressor and causes BAX-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by selectively binding to prosurvival BCL-2 or MCL-1. When challenged with γ-irradiation that produces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, Blm-s is transcriptionally upregulated in postmitotic immature neurons with concurrently increased apoptosis. RNAi-mediated depletion of Blm-s protects immature neurons from irradiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Blm-s is a direct target gene of p53 and AP1 via the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathways activated by DSBs. Thus, BLM-s is likely an apoptosis sensor activated by DSBs accumulating in postmitotic immature neurons.

  19. An in vitro biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver binding to cultured gill epithelia of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Reconstructed' gill epithelia on filter supports were grown in primary culture from dispersed gill cells of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This preparation contains both pavement cells and chloride cells, and after 7-9 days in culture, permits exposure of the apical surface to true freshwater while maintaining blood-like culture media on the basolateral surface, and exhibits a stable transepithelial resistance (TER) and transepithelial potential (TEP) under these conditions. These epithelia were used to develop a possible in vitro version of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver; the in vivo BLM uses short-term gill binding of the metal to predict acute silver toxicity as a function of freshwater chemistry. Radio-labeled silver (110mAg as AgNO3) was placed on the apical side (freshwater), and the appearance of 110mAg in the epithelia (binding) and in the basolateral media (flux) over 3 h were monitored. Silver binding (greater than the approximate range 0-100 μg l-1) and silver flux were concentration-dependent with a 50% saturation point (apparent Kd) value of about 10 μg l-1 or 10-7 M, very close to the 96-h LC50 in vivo in the same water chemistry. There were no adverse effects of silver on TER, TEP, or Na+, K+-ATPase activity, though the latter declined over longer exposures, as in vivo. Silver flux over 3 h was small (+ and dissolved organic carbon (humic acid) concentrations, increased by elevations in freshwater Cl- and reductions in pH, and insensitive to elevations in Ca2+. With the exception of the pH response, these effects were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to in vivo BLM responses. The results suggest that an in vitro BLM approach may provide a simple and cost-effective way for evaluating the protective effects of site-specific waters

  20. Genetic variation in the NBS1, MRE11, RAD50 and BLM genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoyne Randy D; Connors Joseph M; Gallagher Richard P; Lai Agnes S; Leach Stephen; MacArthur Amy C; Schuetz Johanna M; Spinelli John J; Brooks-Wilson Angela R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Translocations are hallmarks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) genomes. Because lymphoid cell development processes require the creation and repair of double stranded breaks, it is not surprising that disruption of this type of DNA repair can cause cancer. The members of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex and BLM have central roles in maintenance of DNA integrity. Severe mutations in any of these genes cause genetic disorders, some of which are characterized by increased risk ...

  1. Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Study of Bloom’s Syndrome Protein (BLM for Finding Potential Lead Drug Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Verma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of locus-specific mutations within the BLM result in development of Bloom Syndrome and patients are found to be immune deficient. HRDC domain amino acid Lys1270 is presumably to play role in mediating interactions with DNA. Single point mutation of Lys1270 (K1270V reduces the potency of Double Holliday junction (DHJ DNA unwinding so BLM lead to its functional loss. Quadruplex formation have role in immunoglobulin heavy chain switching and inhibiting RecQ helicases activity in-vitro in BLM. Variety of G-Quadruplex ligands are employed by molecular docking for arriving at lead compound identification. The scoring function of docking results describes protein-ligand interaction and it conjointly instructed that docking of ligand at mutational binding site shows some repressing function to make potential lead drug molecule. So as to know the elaborated purposeful functional mechanism of protein and to relate impact of mutation with function and activity; dock screening, hit identification and lead optimization facilitate in design of lead drug compound.

  2. R2E-related MD: slow controlled losses for RadMon/BLM cross-checks

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Spiezia, G; Sapinski, M; Priebe, A; Nordt, A; Pojer, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dedicated R2E MD has been to evaluate the R factor (i.e. the ratio between the thermal neutron fluence and the high energy hadron fluence (>20MeV) for various tunnel locations, to measure the HEH radiation level gradient along the MBC dipole and on the MQ, to check the ratio the BLM measured dose and RadMon SEU counts and to study the dose gradient between the standard BLM beam axis location and at the level of the equipment location. Within the R2E Mitigation Project, these accurate measurement and cross-check of the mentioned parameters are of great importance for the evaluation and interpretation of the R2E-related radiation levels, as well as for the evaluation of the failure cross-section of specific equipment (i.e. QPS ISO150). In addition, a short part of the MD has been devoted to the comparison of BLM signals generated by loss directed inwards and outwards with respect to the LHC ring.

  3. Amperometric cell for subcutaneous detection of hydrogen sulfide in anesthetized experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas. It has been recognized that H2S evolving in biochemical reactions in living organisms has an important role in different physiologic processes. Nowadays, H2S is known as an endogenous messenger molecule. Natural sulfurous spring water has been proved beneficial in the therapy of diseases of the skin and other organs (Boros et al 2013). In vivo real-time detection of local H2S concentration is an important but challenging task. We developed a two-electrode amperometric cell for selective subcutaneous detection of H2S in anesthetized mice. The cell is a small size implantable gas sensor containing a platinum disc anode and a silver cathode. The selectivity is provided by a membrane permeable only by gases. There is a buffered reversible electrochemical mediator solution in an oxidized form inside the cell. As gaseous H2S penetrates into the cell the mediator is reduced, and +0.4 V versus the reference is employed on the platinum working electrode. The reduced mediator is oxidized on the anode surface. The current provides an analytical signal representing the concentration of H2S. Appropriate shape, size and membrane material were selected, and optimal working parameters—such as mediator concentration, pH and cell voltage—were determined in vitro. The lower limit of detection in the stirred sample solution at pH = 5.5 was as small as 9.4  ×  10−7 M and a dynamic concentration range of 0–6  ×  10–4 M could be achieved. The detecting surfaces of the cell were covered with freshly dissected mouse skin to test dermal H2S permeability. In other experiments, the cell was implanted subcutaneously in an anesthetized mouse and the animal was submerged in a buffer solution containing different concentrations of H2S so that the skin surface over the sensor was covered by the solution. Measurements of subcutaneous H2S concentration were taken. The experiments clearly proved that H2S diffuses through the skin

  4. Determination of Anesthetic Effects of Some Medicinal Plants on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil METİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anesthetics effects of spearmint (Menta piperita oil and lavandula (Lavandula angustifolia oil as alternative to clove (Eugenia caryophylatta oil were evaluated on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oils (30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg l-1 for induction of anesthesia. Results showed that induction time decreased with increasing of the concentration of the clove oil and spearmint oil. However, recovery time increased with increasing of the concentration of this anesthetics. 40 and 50 mg l-1 doses of clove oil and 200 mg l-1 of mint oil were showed similar anesthetic effect. Lavandula oil was showed sedative effects on rainbow trout. These findings suggested that spearmint oil is useful anesthetics for rainbow trout.

  5. [An experimental study of the computer-controlled equipment for delivering volatile anesthetic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B; Li, W Z; Yue, Y; Jiang, C W; Xiao, L Y

    2001-11-01

    Our newly-designed computer-controlled equipment for delivering volatile anesthetic agent uses the subminiature singlechip processor as the central controlling unit. The variables, such as anesthesia method, anesthetic agent, the volume of respiratory loop, age of patient, sex, height, weight, environment temperature and the grade of ASA are all input from the keyboard. The anesthetic dosage, calculated by the singlechip processor, is converted into the signals controlling the pump to accurately deliver anesthetic agent into respiratory loop. We have designed an electrocircuit for the equipment to detect the status of the pump's operation, so we can assure of the safety and the stability of the equipment. The output precision of the equipment, with a good anti-jamming capability, is 1-2% for high flow anesthesia and 1-5% for closed-circuit anesthesia and its self-detecting working is reliable. PMID:12583263

  6. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry...

  7. Comparison of propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with respect to seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects. METHODS: Randomized, blinded study of 62 depressed patients treated with bilateral ECT. Algorithm...

  8. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  9. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M J; Pitts, T E; Mortensen, A; Corrie, L W; Davenport, P W; Bolser, D C

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (-)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (-)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (-)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (-)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (-)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  10. Anesthetic Management of a Pediatric Patient with Arginase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Atım

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle in which a defect in conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine leads to hyperammonemia. Patients with urea cycle disorders may show increased protein catabolism due to inadequate intake of energy, protein and essential amino acids; infections, fever and surgery. A 12-year-old girl with arginase deficiency, ASA II who weighed 40 kg was scheduled for bilateral adductor, quadriceps and gastrocnemius tenotomies. She had mental retardation, spasticity and flexion posture of thelower limbs. Metabolic homeostasis was restored with appropriate diet. Successful anesthetic management allowed the patient to be discharged 48 hours after surgery. Increased levels of arginine and ammonia during or after surgery may lead to serious complications such as hypotension, cerebral edema, convulsions, hypothermia and spasticity. Thus special attention must be given to metabolic homeostasis and nutrition of the patients with arginase deficiency in the perioperative period. Primary goals should be to minimize stress levels by effective anxiolysis, provide an adequate amount of protein-free energy with proper fluid management and to obtain an effective preemptive and postoperative analgesia. In addition to a high level of knowledge, successful anesthesia requires professional communication among nursing staff, dietitians, pediatric metabolism specialist, surgeon and anesthesiologist.

  11. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26436857

  12. Hydrogen sulfide facilitates carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin XIAO; Yu-ming WU; Hao ZHANG; Yi-xian LIU; Rui-rong HE

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To study effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB).Methods:The functional curve of the carotid sinus baroreflex was measured by recording changes in arterial pressure in anesthetized male rats with perfused carotid sinus.Results:H2S(derived from sodium hydrosulfide)at concentrations of 25,50,and 100 μmol/L facilitated the CSB,shifting the functional curve of the baroreflex downward and to the left.There was a marked increase in peak slope(PS)and reflex decrease in blood pressure(RD).Effects were concentration-dependent.Pretreatment with glibenclamide(20 μmol/L),a KATP channel blocker,abolished the above effects of H2S on CSB.Pretreatment with Bay K8644 (an agonist of calcium channels;500 nmol/L)eliminated the effect of H2S on CSB.An inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase(CSE),DL-propargylglycine(PPG;200 μmol/L),inhibited CSB in male rats and shifted the functional curve of the baroreflex upward and to the right.Conclusion:These data suggest that exogenous H2S exerts a facilitatory role on isolated CSB through opening KATP channels and further closing the calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.Endogenous H2S may activate the activity of the CSB in vivo.

  13. [Anesthetic management of a patient with Mulvihill-Smith syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Junya; Yamada, Tatsuya; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Junzo

    2007-07-01

    Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is a rare disease that belongs to progeroid syndromes. This syndrome is characterized by a senile face with an underdeveloped lower half, short stature, microcephaly, multiple pigmented nevi, immunodeficiency, hearing loss, and high-pitched voice. We report anesthetic management of a 27-year-old woman, 138 cm and 27 kg, with this syndrome, who underwent removal of mandibular cyst, partial resection of tongue and keratoplasty. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium. There was difficulty in maintaining adequate ventilation with a face mask for children, and we used a mask for infants. Her Cormack grade was rated 3 but her trachea could be intubated assisted by BURP procedure. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen supplemented with fentanyl. The changes of blood pressure during anesthesia were extraordinary, suggesting the presence of advanced arteriosclerosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, with stable hemodynamics, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on 9th postoperative day. Anesthesia for Mulvihill-Smith syndrome should be performed with caution for the potential risk of difficult airway and unstable hemodynamics. PMID:17633848

  14. Anterior and posterior tibial anesthetic block in diabetic foot surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio Ojeda González

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of high and increasing prevalence and its complications follow a parallel course. Its morbidity is derived from its own complications which are produced at a long or short term and peripheral vascular disease hihglights among them.Objective: to check the usefulness of the anterior and posterior blockade of the tibia for the surgery of the diabetic foot. Method: Prospective study carried out from January to December 2003 at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ to patients who are carriers of a diabetic foot and who were initially assisted at the service of Angiology and later at the service of Anesthesiology when the surgical procedures were decided. All the patients were applied an anterior and posterior blockade of the tibial nerve . The variables measured were: age, weight, height, surgical time, type of surgery, cardiac frequency medium arterial pressure, and classification of patients according to the American Association of Anesthesiology All the patients were applied a scale for assessing pain in three different moments.Result: There was a predominance of females . The blockade of the posterior tibial nerve with lidocaine 1 % in different points permitted the performance of the surgical techniques proposed. The anesthetic procedure was favorable, and economic since the patients did not requiere of the use of analgesic in the post operatory stage.

  15. Extended duration local anesthetic agent in a rat paw model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowicz, D E; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Weiniger, C F

    2014-07-01

    Encapsulated local anesthetics extend postoperative analgesic effect following site-directed nerve injection; potentially reducing postoperative complications. Our study aim was to investigate efficacy of our improved extended duration formulation - 15% bupivacaine in poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 synthesized by ring opening polymerization. In vitro, around 70% of bupivacaine was released from the p(DLLA-CO) 3:7 after 10 days. A single injection of the optimal formulation of 15% bupivacaine-polymer or plain (0.5%) bupivacaine (control), was injected via a 22G needle beside the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia; followed (in some animals) by a 1cm longitudinal incision through the skin and fascia of the paw area. Behavioral tests for sensory and motor block assessment were done using Hargreave's hot plate score, von Frey filaments and rearing count. The 15% bupivacaine formulation significantly prolonged sensory block duration up to at least 48 h. Following surgery, motor block was observed for 48 h following administration of bupivacaine-polymer formulation and rearing was reduced (returning to baseline after 48 h). No significant differences in mechanical nociceptive response were observed. The optimized bupivacaine-polymer formulation prolonged duration of local anesthesia effect in our animal model up to at least 48 h. PMID:24726301

  16. Respiratory-related hypoglossal nerve activity: influence of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J C; St John, W M; Bartlett, D

    1983-09-01

    In decerebrate, vagotomized, paralyzed, and ventilated cats, phrenic and respiratory-related hypoglossal discharges were evident at normocapnic normoxia or hyperoxia. Both increased progressively in hypercapnia or hypoxia. With increasing drive, onset of inspiratory hypoglossal activity began earlier relative to phrenic onset; an early expiratory hypoglossal burst was also observed. Following subanesthetic doses of chloralose, halothane, ketamine, or pentobarbital, hypoglossal activity was depressed much more than phrenic discharge. In moderate hypercapnia or hypoxia, phrenic activity increased more than hypoglossal, whereas, at high drive, the latter rose more sharply in some cats. Electromyograms of the diaphragm and genioglossus were recorded in intact awake cats to determine if their responses and those of decerebrates are comparable. Respiratory-related genioglossal discharge was evident in normocapnia. We conclude that anesthesia suppresses hypoglossal motor activities much more than those of the bulbospinal-phrenic system. Data for decerebrate cats and unanesthetized cats or humans provide no evidence of a differential distribution of chemoreceptor afferents on hypoglossal and bulbospinal-phrenic neurons, as suggested by results in anesthetized animals. PMID:6629915

  17. Strategies for the prevention of asthmatic, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during the administration of anesthetics and/or contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, G; Lobefalo, G; Di Florio, E; Di Iorio, C; Occhiochiuso, L; Romano, L; Savoia, G; Massa, R M; D'Amato, G

    2008-01-01

    General anesthetics and contrast media can cause anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions. These events are of great concern to radiologists and anesthesiologists because of their relatively high prevalence, possible threat to life, and medical-legal consequences. Points discussed in this review are the critical evaluation of risk factors affecting prevention strategies, the need to be aware of pathogenic mechanisms relevant to prevention strategies, the use of alternative products if a culprit agent is known, the recognition of early signs of a reaction, the need to keep records of reactions on a patient's medical chart, the planning of prophylactic therapy, recommended actions after a reaction to an anesthetic or contrast medium, and the suggested establishment of allergy-anesthesiology centers to improve cooperation, and medical-legal issues. As any drug or contrast medium administered during general anesthesia or a diagnostic procedure can induce a potentially life-threatening or fatal event even in the absence of any evident risk factor in the patient's medical history or clinical status, we usually premedicate susceptible individuals at least to attenuate the severity of an unpredictable reaction, although we cannot rely on the efficacy of premedication to completely prevent a severe event. These recommendations, which are based on the literature and on the experience of our working group, aim to provide useful information for physicians and other specialists who operate in the absence of an allergy consultant. PMID:18361095

  18. Anesthetic management of a child with autistic spectrum disorder and homocysteinemia

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    Deepak Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disability of the central nervous system with rapid worsening. A subset of patients also has mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased sensitivity to various anesthetic agents. Rarely, gene mutation in these patients results in homocysteinemia which causes higher incidences of thromboembolism, hypoglycemia, and seizures. Anesthetic management of ASD with homocysteinemia and refractory seizures has not been previously reported.

  19. Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetic Agents for the Treatment of Refractory Status Epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Reznik; Karen Berger; Jan Claassen

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus that cannot be controlled with first- and second-line agents is called refractory status epilepticus (RSE), a condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most experts agree that treatment of RSE necessitates the use of continuous infusion intravenous anesthetic drugs such as midazolam, propofol, pentobarbital, thiopental, and ketamine, each of which has its own unique characteristics. This review compares the various anesthetic agents while provid...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ANESTHETIC AQUI-S® 20E IN MARINE FINFISH AND ELASMOBRANCHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Constance; Yochem, Pamela

    2016-04-01

    Immersion anesthetics are used in hatchery settings by veterinarians, field biologists, and laboratory researchers to aid in handling finfish for medical procedures, research purposes, and moderating perceived stress responses. The only Food and Drug Administration- (FDA) approved anesthetic for food fish, tricaine methanesulfonate, requires a 21-d withdrawal period prior to harvest. Ten percent eugenol (AQUI-S® 20E) has been gaining momentum for FDA approval because of its 0-d withdrawal time if fish are not of harvestable size within 72 h of exposure. We performed two trials to determine appropriate anesthetic doses for two cultured marine finfish: Atractoscion nobilis (white seabass, WSB) and Seriola lalandi (California yellowtail, YT). Fish were held in a treated water bath for 10 min or until opercular beat rate slowed to a rate of <2 beats/min. Based on these results, we conducted a field trial with wild Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (spotted bay bass), Paralabrax nebulifer (barred sand bass), Paralichthys californicus (California halibut), Triakis semifasciata (leopard shark), and Mustelus californicus (grey smooth-hound) at a single dosing regime, with animals held 5-10 min in anesthetic baths. Anesthetic dosing of 35-55 mg L(-1) provided relatively fast induction and good anesthetic maintenance in cultured and wild finfish. Anesthetic induction times were comparable among S. lalandi and A. nobilis at 35-mg L(-1) to 75-mg L(-1) doses, but recovery times were variable. Mortality rates of 20-90% were observed at higher doses (75 mg L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1), A. nobilis; 55 mg L(-1) and 75 mg L(-1), S. lalandi). The apparent increase in sensitivity of S. lalandi may have been associated with nutritional stress in the fish tested. There were no differences in time to anesthesia or recovery among wild finfish species tested at a single dose. Anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery were less predictable in the elasmobranch species tested and additional

  1. Sensitivity to thermal stimulation in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) after bilateral anesthetization of the facial pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiszar, D.; Dickman, D.; Colton, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six yearling prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) were exposed to thermal stimuli prior to and after bilateral anesthetization of their facial pits with 2% xylocaine solution. This treatment eliminates trigeminally mediated electrophysiological responses of the pits to thermal stimulation. Nevertheless, the rattlesnakes continued to exhibit behavioral responses to thermal cues after anesthetization of the pits. An auxiliary infrared-sensitive system, nociceptors, or the common temperature sense could be responsible for these findings.

  2. Recovery from desflurane anesthesia in horses with and without post-anesthetic xylazine

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnes, Turi K.; Bednarski, Richard M.; Bertone, Alicia L.; Hubbell, John A.E.; Lerche, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare recovery from desflurane anesthesia in horses with or without post-anesthetic xylazine. Six adult horses were anesthetized on 2 occasions, 14 d apart using a prospective, randomized crossover design. Horses were sedated with xylazine, induced to lateral recumbency with ketamine and diazepam, and anesthesia was maintained with desflurane. One of 2 treatments was administered intravenously at the end of anesthesia: xylazine [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)]...

  3. α2-Adrenergic Stimulation of the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus Destabilizes the Anesthetic State

    OpenAIRE

    McCarren, Hilary S.; Chalifoux, Michael R.; Han, Bo; Moore, Jason T.; Meng, Qing Cheng; Baron-Hionis, Nina; Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Contreras, Diego; Beck, Sheryl G.; Kelz, Max B.

    2014-01-01

    The sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) shares reciprocal inhibitory inputs with wake–active neuronal nuclei, including the locus ceruleus. Electrophysiologically, sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO are directly depolarized by the general anesthetic isoflurane and hyperpolarized by norepinephrine, a wake-promoting neurotransmitter. However, the integration of these competing influences on the VLPO, a sleep- and anesthetic-active structure, has yet to be evaluated in either ...

  4. Anesthetic Management for Whole Lung Lavage in Patients with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zihui; Tan, Keng Tiong Jerry; Poopalalingam, Ruban

    2016-04-15

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of lipoproteinaceous materials in the bronchoalveolar tree. Whole lung lavage was introduced in the 1960s and remains a treatment of choice for PAP. The main anesthetic challenge of whole lung lavage is maintaining adequate oxygenation during the procedure. We describe 2 interesting patients with PAP, the anesthetic challenges faced during the lung lavage, and discuss the management strategies adopted in each case. PMID:26795910

  5. Analysis on the factors associated with treatment failure of using anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ying-ying; Guo-ping REN; Wei-bi CHEN; Zhang, Yan; YE Hong; Dai-quan GAO

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related factors associated with immediate treatment failure of using anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus (RSE).  Methods Thirty patients derived from Neurocritical Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups (acute treatment failure group and acute treatment success group) based on the treatment outcome 6 h after intravenous injection of anesthetics. Univariate and multivariate forward Logistic regression ...

  6. Wound infiltration with local anesthetics for post-operative pain relief in lumbar spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, M; Møiniche, S; Olsen, K S

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery.......In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery....

  7. Major morbidity or mortality from office anesthetic procedures: a closed-claim analysis of 13 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Jastak, J. T.; Peskin, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    A closed-claim analysis of anesthetic-related deaths and permanent injuries in the dental office setting was conducted in cooperation with a leading insurer of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and dental anesthesiologists. A total of 13 cases occurring between 1974 and 1989 was included. In each case, all available records, reports, depositions, and proceedings were reviewed. The following were determined for each case: preoperative physical status of the patient, anesthetic technique used (cl...

  8. The anesthetics influence (ethilic-eter and urethane) on renal radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study was done using anesthetics like ether ethilic and urethane, in rats (Wistar). A significative variation was observed in the results obtained when renal radiopharmaceuticals were investigated. Using urethane, the renal uptake increase progressivelly due to the inhibition of the renal filtration and it starts to recuperate when the anesthetic effect was eliminated. Using ether ethilic the radiopharmaceuticals are quickly eliminated from the kidneys (tubular or glomerular filtration), showing that the renal function was protected. (author)

  9. Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Greenhouse gases make the earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere and include: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Hazardous chemicals enter the air we breathe as a result of dozens of activities carried out during a typical day at a healthcare facility like processing lab samples, burning fossil fuels etc. We sometimes forget that anesthetic agents are also greenhouse gases (GHGs). Anesthetic agents used today are volatile halogenated ethers and the common carrier gas nitrous oxide known to be aggressive GHGs. With less than 5% of the total delivered halogenated anesthetic being metabolized by the patient, the vast majority of the anesthetic is routinely vented to the atmosphere through the operating room scavenging system. The global warming potential (GWP) of a halogenated anesthetic is up to 2,000 times greater than CO2. Global warming potentials are used to compare the strength of different GHGs to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to that of CO2. Here we discuss about the GWP of anesthetic gases, preventive measures to decrease the global warming effects of anesthetic gases and Xenon, a newer anesthetic gas for the future of anesthesia. PMID:25885293

  10. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of inclusion complexes between local anesthetics and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S(-) Bupivacaine (S(-)BVC) and Lidocaine (LDC) are widely used local anesthetics (LA). Hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) is used as a drug-carrier system. The aim of this work was to characterize inclusion complexes between LA and HP-β-CD. The affinity constants determined at different pHs show favourable complexation. The release kinetics experiments showed that S(-)BVC and LDC changed the released profiles in the presence of HP-β-CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments gave information about the interaction between LA and the cyclodextrin cavity. This study focused on the physicochemical characterization of drug-delivery formulations that come out as potentially new therapeutic options for pain treatment. (author)

  11. Anesthetic induction and recovery of Hippocampus reidi exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba

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    Mauro Alves da Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the times of anesthetic induction and recovery in slender seahorses (Hippocampus reidi that were exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba (EO, as well as the efficacy of EO as a stress-reducing agent in the transport of this species. Slender seahorses were placed in 1-L aquaria containing different concentrations of EO (0, 10, 20, 50, 150, 300 and 450 µL L-1, and after induction, fish were transferred to aquaria that were free of anesthetic to evaluate their recovery time. In an additional experiment, slender seahorses were transported in plastic bags with 15 µL L-1 of EO for 4 or 24 h. The increased concentration of EO proportionally decreased the time required for the induction of anesthesia. EO treatment (15 µL L-1 inhibited the increase in blood glucose levels that was provoked by transportation for 4 or 24 h. Transportation for 24 h also decreased the number of lymphocytes and increased the neutrophil count, and these effects were avoided with the addition of EO to the water. These results demonstrate that EO was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 10-20 µL L-1 for slight sedation and transport and at 150 µL L-1 for deep anesthesia in the slender seahorse.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os tempos da indução e recuperação anestésica em cavalos marinhos (Hippocampus reidi expostos ao óleo essencial de Lippia alba (OE, assim como a eficácia do OE como um agente redutor de estresse no transporte desta espécie. Os cavalos marinhos foram colocados em aquários contendo 1 litro de água e diferentes concentrações de OE (0, 10, 20, 50, 150, 300 e 450 µL L-1, após a indução, os peixes foram transferidos à aquários livre de anestésico para avaliar o tempo de recuperação. Em um outro experimento os cavalos marinhos foram transportados em sacos plásticos contendo 15 µL L-1 do OE por 4 ou 24h. A concentração crescente do OE diminuiu proporcionalmente o tempo exigido

  12. [Anesthetic Management with Dexmedetomidine in Patients with Serious Mental and Physical Disabilities Undergoing Dental Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotori, Hisashi; Kawano, Mari

    2016-04-01

    Midazolam and propofol are widely used for the sedation of patients with serious mental and physical disabilities. However, we often experience difficulty in the management of airway and respiratory depression when using these sedatives. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is being increasingly used as a sedative because of the lack of associated respiratory depression. Here we report anesthetic management with DEX in two patients with disability undergoing dental treatment To avoid movement during treatment, DEX was infused at the rate recommended in the package insert, with an initial administration at 6 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) for 10 min followed by maintenance infusion at 0.7 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1). Although the infusion rate seemed to be sufficient for the patients, DEX was not effective and administration of additional sedatives was required. Further, respiratory depression, such as airway obstruction and increase in the concentration of end-tidal carbon dioxide, was observed even when DEX was used as the sole agent for inducing sedation. No remarkable change in hemodynamics was observed. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain the sedative state using DEX alone in patients with serious mental and physical disabilities in comparison with patients with no disability. PMID:27188121

  13. Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs

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    Jack A Loeppky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The ventilation ( response to inspired CO 2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims : These experiments were performed to determine whether would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods : We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO 2 -balance O 2 .and to 0 and 10% O 2 -balance N 2 . Results : The time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01, but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double at 100% CO 2 , with the response to 0% O 2 being ~3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR, increased tidal volume (VT and increased the time delay by ~3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and , and reduced the response to CO 2 and increased the time delay by ~12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO 2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions : Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H + and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO 2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies.

  14. Anesthetic management in a patient with Kindler′s syndrome

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    Sohan Lal Solanki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male with pan-anterior urethral stricture was scheduled to undergo perineal urethrostomy. He was a known case of Kindler′s syndrome since infancy. He was having a history of blister formation, extensive poikiloderma and progressive cutaneous atrophy since childhood. He had a tendency of trauma-induced blisters with clear or hemorrhagic contents that healed with scarring. The fingers were sclerodermiform with dystrophic nails and inability to completely clench the fist. Airway examination revealed thyromental distance of 7 cm with limited neck extension, limited mouth opening and mallampatti class III with a fixed large tongue. He was reported as grade IV Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic on previous anesthesia exposure. We described the anesthetic management of such case on guidelines for epidermolysis bullosa. In the operating room, an 18-G cannula was secured in the right upper limb using Coban TM Wrap. The T-piece of the cannula was than inserted into the slit and the tape was wrapped around the extremity. The ECG electrodes were placed on the limbs and fixed with Coban TM . Noninvasive blood pressure cuff was applied over the wrap after wrapping the arm with Webril® cotton. Oral fiberoptic tracheal intubation was done after lubricating the laryngoscope generously with a water-based lubricant with 7-mm endotracheal tube. Surgery proceeded without any complication. After reversing the residual neuromuscular block, trachea was extubated once the patient became awake. He was kept in the postanesthesia care unit for 2 hours and then shifted to urology ward.

  15. Activation of TRPA1 by membrane permeable local anesthetics

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    Kronewald Sergej

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of local anesthetics (LAs suppress cellular excitability by inhibiting voltage-gated Na+ channels. In contrast, LAs at high concentrations can be excitatory and neurotoxic. We recently demonstrated that LA-evoked activation of sensory neurons is mediated by the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, and, to a lesser extent by the irritant receptor TRPA1. LA-induced activation and sensitization of TRPV1 involves a domain that is similar, but not identical to the vanilloid-binding domain. Additionally, activation of TRPV1 by LAs involves PLC and PI(4,5P2-signalling. In the present study we aimed to characterize essential structural determinants for LA-evoked activation of TRPA1. Results Recombinant rodent and human TRPA1 were expressed in HEK293t cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. The LA lidocaine activates TRPA1 in a concentration-dependent manner. The membrane impermeable lidocaine-derivative QX-314 is inactive when applied extracellularly. Lidocaine-activated TRPA1-currents are blocked by the TRPA1-antagonist HC-030031. Lidocaine is also an inhibitor of TRPA1, an effect that is more obvious in rodent than in human TRPA1. This species-specific difference is linked to the pore region (transmembrane domain 5 and 6 as described for activation of TRPA1 by menthol. Unlike menthol-sensitivity however, lidocaine-sensitivity is not similarly determined by serine- and threonine-residues within TM5. Instead, intracellular cysteine residues known to be covalently bound by reactive TRPA1-agonists seem to mediate activation of TRPA1 by LAs. Conclusions The structural determinants involved in activation of TRPA1 by LAs are disparate from those involved in activation by menthol or those involved in activation of TRPV1 by LAs.

  16. Pain and efficacy of local anesthetics for central venous access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Culp Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available William C Culp Jr1, Mohammed Yousaf2, Benjamin Lowry1, Timothy C McCowan3, William C Culp21Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Scott and White Hospital, The Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, TX, USA; 2Division of Interventional Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAPurpose: To compare pain during injection and efficacy of analgesia of local anesthetics during central venous line placement.Methods: Sixty-two patients were studied in a randomized, double-blinded prospective fashion. Patients received 1% lidocaine (L, buffered 1% lidocaine (LB, or 2% chloroprocaine (CP injected around the internal jugular vein for procedural analgesia for central venous access. Patients reported pain via a standard linear visual analog scale, with 0 representing no pain and 10 being the worst pain imaginable.Results: Overall patient perception of pain was better with CP and L than LB with mean scores of CP 2.4, L 2.6, LB 4.2. Pain with injection mean scores were CP 2.1, L 2.5, LB 3.2. Pain with catheter placement scores were CP 2.5, L 1.7, LB 3.4. Operator assessment of overall pain values were CP 1.9, L 2.2, LB 3.4. LB consistently scored the worst, though compared with CP, this only reached statistical significance in overall patient pain and pain at catheter insertion compared with L.Conclusion: Though chloroprocaine scored better than lidocaine in 3 of 4 parameters, this trend did not achieve statistical significance. Adding sodium bicarbonate to lidocaine isn’t justified in routine practice, nor is routine replacement of lidocaine with chloroprocaine.Keywords: local anesthesia, analgesia, central venous access, lidocaine, chloroprocaine

  17. Hypnotic Hypersensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics and Dexmedetomidine in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Frances Y.; Hanna, George M.; Han, Wei; Mardini, Feras; Thomas, Steven A.; Wyner, Abraham J.; Kelz, Max B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the adrenergic system can modulate sensitivity to anesthetic-induced immobility and anesthetic-induced hypnosis as well. However, several considerations prevent the conclusion that the endogenous adrenergic ligands norepinephrine and epinephrine alter anesthetic sensitivity. METHODS Using dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh−/−) mice genetically engineered to lack the adrenergic ligands and their siblings with normal adrenergic levels, we test the contribution of the adrenergic ligands upon volatile anesthetic induction and emergence. Moreover, we investigate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in adrenergic-deficient mice and their siblings using both righting reflex and processed electroencephalographic measures of anesthetic hypnosis. RESULTS We demonstrate that the loss of norepinephrine and epinephrine and not other neuromodulators copackaged in adrenergic neurons is sufficient to cause hypersensitivity to induction of volatile anesthesia. However, the most profound effect of adrenergic deficiency is retarding emergence from anesthesia, which takes two to three times as long in Dbh−/− mice for sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane. Having shown that Dbh−/− mice are hypersensitive to volatile anesthetics, we further demonstrate that their hypnotic hypersensitivity persists at multiple doses of dexmedetomidine. Dbh−/− mice exhibit up to 67% shorter latencies to loss of righting reflex and up to 545% longer durations of dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia. Central rescue of adrenergic signaling restores control-like dexmedetomidine sensitivity. A novel continuous electroencephalographic analysis illustrates that the longer duration of dexmedetomidine-induced hypnosis is not due to a motor confound, but occurs because of impaired anesthetic emergence. CONCLUSIONS Adrenergic signaling is essential for normal emergence from general anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia does

  18. Distinctive Recruitment of Endogenous Sleep-Promoting Neurons by Volatile Anesthetics and a Non-immobilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; McCarren, Hilary S.; O'Neill, Dan; Kelz, Max B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerous studies demonstrate that anesthetic-induced unconsciousness is accompanied by activation of hypothalamic sleep-promoting neurons, which occurs through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. However, the correlation between drug exposure, neuronal activation, and onset of hypnosis remains incompletely understood. Moreover, the degree to which anesthetics activate both endogenous populations of GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) and median preoptic (MnPO) nuclei remains unknown. METHODS Mice were exposed to oxygen, hypnotic doses of isoflurane or halothane, or 1,2-dicholorhexafluorocyclobutane (F6), a nonimmobilizer. Hypothalamic brain slices prepared from anesthetic-naïve mice were also exposed to oxygen, volatile anesthetics, or F6 ex vivo, both in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin. Double-label immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive nuclei in the GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the VLPO and the MnPO to test the hypothesis that volatile anesthetics, but not non-immobilizers, activate sleep-promoting neurons in both nuclei. RESULTS In vivo exposure to isoflurane and halothane doubled the fraction of active, c-Fos-expressing GABAergic neurons in the VLPO, while F6 failed to affect VLPO c-Fos expression. Both in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, isoflurane dose-dependently increased c-Fos expression in GABAergic neurons ex vivo, while F6 failed to alter expression. In GABAergic neurons of the MnPO, c-Fos expression increased with isoflurane and F6, but not with halothane exposure. CONCLUSIONS Anesthetic unconsciousness is not accompanied by global activation of all putative sleep-promoting neurons. However, within the VLPO hypnotic doses of volatile anesthetics, but not non-immobilizers, activate putative sleep-promoting neurons, correlating with the appearance of the hypnotic state. PMID:25057841

  19. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  20. A Conserved Behavioral State Barrier Impedes Transitions between Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness and Wakefulness: Evidence for Neural Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Eliot B.; Sun, Yi; Moore, Jason T.; Hung, Hsiao-Tung; Meng, Qing Cheng; Perera, Priyan; Joiner, William J.; Thomas, Steven A.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Sehgal, Amita; Kelz, Max B.

    2010-01-01

    One major unanswered question in neuroscience is how the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states. General anesthetics offer a controllable means to study these transitions. Induction of anesthesia is commonly attributed to drug-induced global modulation of neuronal function, while emergence from anesthesia has been thought to occur passively, paralleling elimination of the anesthetic from its sites in the central nervous system (CNS). If this were true, then CNS anesthetic ...

  1. In-vivo imaging of stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals correlated with retinal activation in anesthetized frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Yang-Guo

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOS) promises a noninvasive method for high resolution examination of retinal function. Using freshly isolated animal retinas, we have conducted a series of experiments to test fast IOSs which have time courses comparable to electrophysiological kinetics. In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo imaging of fast IOSs correlated with retinal activation in anesthetized frog (Rana Pipiens). A rapid (68,000 lines/s) line-scan confocal ophthalmoscope was constructed to achieve high-speed (200 frames/s) near infared (NIR) recording of fast IOSs. By rejecting out-of-focus background light, the line-scan confocal imager provided enough resolution to differentiate individual photoreceptors in vivo. With visible light stimulation, NIR confocal images disclosed transient IOSs with time courses comparable to retinal ERG kinetics. High-resolution IOS images revealed both positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) light responses, with sub-cellular complexity, in the activated retina.

  2. A conserved behavioral state barrier impedes transitions between anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and wakefulness: evidence for neural inertia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot B Friedman

    Full Text Available One major unanswered question in neuroscience is how the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states. General anesthetics offer a controllable means to study these transitions. Induction of anesthesia is commonly attributed to drug-induced global modulation of neuronal function, while emergence from anesthesia has been thought to occur passively, paralleling elimination of the anesthetic from its sites in the central nervous system (CNS. If this were true, then CNS anesthetic concentrations on induction and emergence would be indistinguishable. By generating anesthetic dose-response data in both insects and mammals, we demonstrate that the forward and reverse paths through which anesthetic-induced unconsciousness arises and dissipates are not identical. Instead they exhibit hysteresis that is not fully explained by pharmacokinetics as previously thought. Single gene mutations that affect sleep-wake states are shown to collapse or widen anesthetic hysteresis without obvious confounding effects on volatile anesthetic uptake, distribution, or metabolism. We propose a fundamental and biologically conserved concept of neural inertia, a tendency of the CNS to resist behavioral state transitions between conscious and unconscious states. We demonstrate that such a barrier separates wakeful and anesthetized states for multiple anesthetics in both flies and mice, and argue that it contributes to the hysteresis observed when the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states.

  3. A Conserved Behavioral State Barrier Impedes Transitions between Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness and Wakefulness: Evidence for Neural Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eliot B.; Sun, Yi; Moore, Jason T.; Hung, Hsiao-Tung; Meng, Qing Cheng; Perera, Priyan; Joiner, William J.; Thomas, Steven A.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Sehgal, Amita; Kelz, Max B.

    2010-01-01

    One major unanswered question in neuroscience is how the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states. General anesthetics offer a controllable means to study these transitions. Induction of anesthesia is commonly attributed to drug-induced global modulation of neuronal function, while emergence from anesthesia has been thought to occur passively, paralleling elimination of the anesthetic from its sites in the central nervous system (CNS). If this were true, then CNS anesthetic concentrations on induction and emergence would be indistinguishable. By generating anesthetic dose-response data in both insects and mammals, we demonstrate that the forward and reverse paths through which anesthetic-induced unconsciousness arises and dissipates are not identical. Instead they exhibit hysteresis that is not fully explained by pharmacokinetics as previously thought. Single gene mutations that affect sleep-wake states are shown to collapse or widen anesthetic hysteresis without obvious confounding effects on volatile anesthetic uptake, distribution, or metabolism. We propose a fundamental and biologically conserved concept of neural inertia, a tendency of the CNS to resist behavioral state transitions between conscious and unconscious states. We demonstrate that such a barrier separates wakeful and anesthetized states for multiple anesthetics in both flies and mice, and argue that it contributes to the hysteresis observed when the brain transitions between conscious and unconscious states. PMID:20689589

  4. Comparative effects of different anesthetic regimens on the oculocardiac reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oculocardiac reflex (OCR, which is most oftenencountered during strabismus surgery in children, may cause bradycardia,arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest following a variety of stimuli arising in ornear the eyeball. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects ofvarious anesthetic regimens on modulation of the cardiovascular response of theOCR during strabismus surgery.Patients and Methods: Three hundred American Society of Anesthesia (ASAphysical status I-II patients, scheduled for elective strabismus surgery undergeneral anesthesia, randomly allocated in a double blind fashion to one of threeanesthetic regimens of group P ( propofol 2 mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, andatracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction , group K (ketamine racemate 2mg/kg,alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction and group T(thiopental 5mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg atinduction. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded justbefore and at 1, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after induction. OCR was defined as a 20beats/min change in HR induced by traction compared with basal value.Results: Mean heart rate (± SD during the course of surgery in group Pwas significantly slower than in the K group (111.90 ± 1.10 vs. 116.7 ± 0.70respectively, P<0.05 .Mean HR changes (± SD in group K was significantlyhigher than in P group (11.2 ± 1.44 vs. 8.7 ± 1.50 respectively, P<0.05. Meanarterial pressure changes (± SD were significantly lower in group P than ingroup K or T patients (12.5 ± 1.13 vs. 19.3±0.80 or 18.9±0.91 respectively,P<0.05. Frequency of OCR was significantly lower in group K than group T or Ppatients (9% vs. 16% or 13% respectively, P<0.05.Conclusion: Induction of anesthesia with ketamine is associated withleast cardiovascular changes induced by OCR during strabismus surgery.

  5. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  6. Recognition of anesthetic barbiturates by a protein binding site: a high resolution structural analysis.

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    Simon Oakley

    Full Text Available Barbiturates potentiate GABA actions at the GABA(A receptor and act as central nervous system depressants that can induce effects ranging from sedation to general anesthesia. No structural information has been available about how barbiturates are recognized by their protein targets. For this reason, we tested whether these drugs were able to bind specifically to horse spleen apoferritin, a model protein that has previously been shown to bind many anesthetic agents with affinities that are closely correlated with anesthetic potency. Thiopental, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital were all found to bind to apoferritin with affinities ranging from 10-500 µM, approximately matching the concentrations required to produce anesthetic and GABAergic responses. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the complexes of apoferritin with thiopental and pentobarbital at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the barbiturates bind to a cavity in the apoferritin shell that also binds haloalkanes, halogenated ethers, and propofol. Unlike these other general anesthetics, however, which rely entirely upon van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic effect for recognition, the barbiturates are recognized in the apoferritin site using a mixture of both polar and nonpolar interactions. These results suggest that any protein binding site that is able to recognize and respond to the chemically and structurally diverse set of compounds used as general anesthetics is likely to include a versatile mixture of both polar and hydrophobic elements.

  7. Efficacy of Intra-articular Local Anesthetics in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Liu, Zhenfeng; Alijiang, Asila; Jia, Heng; Deng, Yingjie; Song, Yucheng; Meng, Qingcai

    2015-07-01

    Pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains among the most important challenges for patients with TKA. Intra-articular local anesthetic has been shown to reduce postoperative pain following TKA. However, studies report conflicting results. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-dose intra-articular local anesthetics for pain control after TKA. Databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Databases) were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials comparing local anesthetic with placebo in patients undergoing TKA. Data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using a standardized form. Risk of bias was assessed with the use of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias by 2 observers. Relative risk, standardized mean difference, and corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated. Seventeen trials met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1338 participants. The results showed that, compared with the placebo group, the single local anesthetic group had a significant lower pain score with rest at 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours; less opioid consumption at 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively; and greater range of motion at 24, 48, and 72 hours. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in length of hospital stay, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, or deep venous thrombosis. The study findings showed that pain relief after TKA was significantly better with intra-articular local anesthetic than with placebo. PMID:26186318

  8. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  9. Establishment of an in vitro cell line experimental system for the study of inhalational anesthetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamoto, Seiji; Iijima, Norio; Ishii, Hirotaka; Takumi, Ken; Higo, Shimpei; Aikawa, Satoko; Anzai, Megumi; Matsuo, Izumi; Nakagawa, Shinji; Takashima, Naoyuki; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    General anesthesia affects the expression of clock genes in various organs. Expression of Per2, a core component of the circadian clock, is markedly and reversibly suppressed by sevoflurane in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and is considered to be a biochemical marker of anesthetic effect in the brain. The SCN contains various types of neurons, and this complexity makes it difficult to investigate the molecular mechanisms of anesthesia. Here, we established an in vitro experimental system using a cell line to investigate the mechanisms underlying anesthetic action. Development of the system comprised two steps: first, we developed a system for application of inhalational anesthetics and incubation; next, we established cultures of anesthetic-responsive cells expressing mPer2 promoter-dLuc. GT1-7 cells, derived from the mouse hypothalamus, responded to sevoflurane by reversibly decreasing mPer2-promoter-driven bioluminescence. Interestingly, the suppression of bioluminescence was found only in the serum-starved GT1-7 cells, which showed neuron-like morphology, but not in growing cells, suggesting that neuron-like characteristics are required for anesthetic effects in GT1-7 cells. PMID:27057734

  10. Investigation of the transdermal transport of charged local anesthetics in the presence of triterpene saponin glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Christopher J; Scherer, Michael A; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-04-01

    Percutaneous absorption and transdermal delivery of water-soluble drugs have proven to be challenging due to their low permeability through skin. Avicins which are triterpene saponin glycosides (TSGs) derived from the desert plant Acacia victoriae have not been investigated to date as chemical penetration enhancers due to their higher molecular weight (MW 2,000 Da). It was recently shown that avicins exhibit remarkable mobility across skin lipids in spite of their large size due to their unique chemical structure. In this study, the permeation of local anesthetics, lidocaine-HCl, prilocaine-HCl, and bupivacaine-HCL from aqueous vehicle, across full-thickness porcine skin was investigated in the presence of F094-a mixture of avicins. F094 was capable of enhancing the permeability of all three anesthetics from aqueous formulations at extremely low concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 % w/v. The enhancement, which ranged from 2- to 5-fold, was surprisingly independent of molecular weight of the anesthetics and showed clear correlation with aqueous phase solubility of the anesthetics. Since F094 was found to have no impact on the octanol/water partition coefficients of the anesthetics, this suggests that TSGs like avicins most likely impact the aqueous pathways (pericellular/pores within lipids) and as such represent an alternative means of enhancing the transdermal transport of charged drugs from water-based formulations. PMID:25786727

  11. α2-Adrenergic stimulation of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus destabilizes the anesthetic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Hilary S; Chalifoux, Michael R; Han, Bo; Moore, Jason T; Meng, Qing Cheng; Baron-Hionis, Nina; Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Contreras, Diego; Beck, Sheryl G; Kelz, Max B

    2014-12-01

    The sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) shares reciprocal inhibitory inputs with wake-active neuronal nuclei, including the locus ceruleus. Electrophysiologically, sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO are directly depolarized by the general anesthetic isoflurane and hyperpolarized by norepinephrine, a wake-promoting neurotransmitter. However, the integration of these competing influences on the VLPO, a sleep- and anesthetic-active structure, has yet to be evaluated in either brain slices in vitro or the intact organism. Single-cell multiplex RT-PCR conducted on both isoflurane-activated, putative sleep-promoting VLPO neurons and neighboring, state-indifferent VLPO neurons in mouse brain slices revealed widespread expression of α2A-, α2B- and α2C-adrenergic receptors in both populations. Indeed, both norepinephrine and the highly selective α2 agonist dexmedetomidine each reversed the VLPO depolarization induced by isoflurane in slices in vitro. When microinjected directly into the VLPO of a mouse lightly anesthetized with isoflurane, dexmedetomidine increased behavioral arousal and reduced the depressant effects of isoflurane on barrel cortex somatosensory-evoked potentials but failed to elicit spectral changes in spontaneous EEG. Based on these observations, we conclude that local modulation of α-adrenergic activity in the VLPO destabilizes, but does not fully antagonize, the anesthetic state, thus priming the brain for anesthetic emergence. PMID:25471576

  12. Advanced Pre-clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eWang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.

  13. History of T-cain: a local anesthetic developed and manufactured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Masaru; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    In many anesthesia textbooks written in English, lidocaine, tetracaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and chloroprocaine are listed as useful local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia. In contrast, T-cain is not included in these lists, even though it has been reported to be suitable for spinal anesthesia in Japan. T-cain was developed as a local anesthetic in the early 1940s by Teikoku Kagaku Sangyo Inc. in Itami, Japan, by replacing a methyl group on tetracaine (Pantocaine(®)) with an ethyl group. T-cain was clinically approved for topical use in Japan in November 1949, and a mixture of dibucaine and T-cain (Neo-Percamin S(®)) was approved for spinal use in May 1950. Simply because of a lack of foreign marketing strategy, T-cain has never attracted global attention as a local anesthetic. However, in Japan, T-cain has been used topically or intrathecally (as Neo-Percamin S(®)) for more than 60 years. Other than the side effects generally known for all local anesthetics, serious side effects have not been reported for T-cain. In fact, several articles have reported that T-cain decreases the neurotoxicity of dibucaine. In this historical review, the characteristics of T-cain and its rise to become a major spinal anesthetic in Japan are discussed. PMID:26302690

  14. Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshita, Naohiro; Oka, Saeko; Tsuji, Kaname; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Morita, Shosuke; Momota, Yoshihiro; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and motor-sensory disorders in all 4 limbs. Most reports have indicated that major challenges with general anesthetic administration in CMTD patients are the appropriate use of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and preparation for malignant hyperthermia in neuromuscular disease. Moderate sedation may be associated with the same complications as those of general anesthesia, as well as dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, reduced perioperative respiratory function, difficulty in positioning, and sensitivity to intravenous anesthetic agents. We decided to use intravenous sedation in a CMTD patient and administered midazolam initially and propofol continuously, with total doses of 1.5 mg and 300 mg, respectively. Anesthesia was completed in 3 hours and 30 minutes without adverse events. We suggest that dental anesthetic treatment with propofol and midazolam may be effective for patients with CMTD. PMID:27269665

  15. Common Internal Allosteric Network Links Anesthetic Binding Sites in a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Thomas T; Mincer, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics bind reversibly to ion channels, modifying their global conformational distributions, but the underlying atomic mechanisms are not completely known. We examine this issue by way of the model protein Gloeobacter violaceous ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) using computational molecular dynamics, with a coarse-grained model to enhance sampling. We find that in flooding simulations, both propofol and a generic particle localize to the crystallographic transmembrane anesthetic binding region, and that propofol also localizes to an extracellular region shared with the crystallographic ketamine binding site. Subsequent simulations to probe these binding modes in greater detail demonstrate that ligand binding induces structural asymmetry in GLIC. Consequently, we employ residue interaction correlation analysis to describe the internal allosteric network underlying the coupling of ligand and distant effector sites necessary for conformational change. Overall, the results suggest that the same allosteric network may underlie the actions of various anesthetics, regardless of binding site. PMID:27403526

  16. Effects of a standardized anesthetic protocol on hematologic variables in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Epp, Tasha Y; Taylor, Susan M; Carr, Anthony P; Dickinson, Ryan M; Leis, Marina L

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an anesthetic protocol using intravenous ketamine and midazolam, and intramuscular buprenorphine on hematologic variables in cats. Twelve healthy adult cats had blood collected for a complete blood count before and after the induction of anesthesia. There were significant decreases in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits after the induction of anesthesia. On average, red blood cell counts and hematocrits decreased by 25%, and hemoglobin concentrations decreased by 24%. Based on hematocrit, 3/12 samples (25%) taken while the cats were anesthetized would have been interpreted as belonging to anemic patients while none of the cats would have been considered anemic before anesthesia. This study suggests that a complete blood count performed on blood taken under anesthesia with this anesthetic protocol should be interpreted cautiously in order to not make a false diagnosis of anemia. PMID:22577050

  17. Combined use of intravenous anesthetics and hypothermia in treating refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-ping REN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary choice of treating refractory status epilepticus (RSE is intravenous anesthetics, but the seizures of some patients can not get a good control. Thus, other therapies must be combined. Hypothermia not only can terminate seizures, but also play a part in brain protection. Though combined use of intravenous anesthetics and hypothermia is not a regular clinical scheme, the favorable effect has been proved by a lot of clinical research. This paper mainly focuses on the dose of intravenous anesthetics, the time, temperature and procedure of hypothermia, the indications and contraindications of combined therapy, and so on. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.006

  18. New procedure to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their interaction with local anesthetics

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    Mocanu A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Mocanu,1 Roxana Diana Pasca,1 Gheorghe Tomoaia,2 Corina Garbo,1 Petre T Frangopol,1 Ossi Horovitz,1 Maria Tomoaia-Cotisel11Chemical Engineering Department, Babes-Bolyai University, 2Orthopedic Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were prepared in aqueous colloid dispersions by the reduction of Ag+ with glucose in alkaline medium. Tetraethyl orthosilicate and l-asparagine were added as stabilizers of NPs. The AgNPs were characterized, and their interaction with three local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, or tetracaine was investigated. Optical spectra show the characteristic absorption band of AgNPs, due to surface plasmon resonance. Modifications in the position and shape of this band reflect the self-assembly of metal NPs mediated by anesthetic molecules and the progress in time of the aggregation process. Zeta-potential measuring was applied in order to characterize the electrostatic stability of the NPs. The size and shape of the AgNPs, as well as the features of the assemblies formed by their association in the presence of anesthetics, were evidenced by transmission electron microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy images showed the characteristics of the films of AgNPs deposited on glass support. The effect of the anesthetics could be described in terms of electrostatic forces between the negatively charged AgNPs and the anesthetic molecules, existing also in their cationic form at the working pH. But also hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the coated nanoparticles and anesthetics molecular species should be considered.Keywords: self-assembled nanostructures, UV-vis spectra, TEM, AFM, zeta potential

  19. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  20. Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetic Agents for the Treatment of Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Michael E.; Berger, Karen; Claassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus that cannot be controlled with first- and second-line agents is called refractory status epilepticus (RSE), a condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most experts agree that treatment of RSE necessitates the use of continuous infusion intravenous anesthetic drugs such as midazolam, propofol, pentobarbital, thiopental, and ketamine, each of which has its own unique characteristics. This review compares the various anesthetic agents while providing an approach to their use in adult patients, along with possible associated complications. PMID:27213459

  1. Use of anesthetic arthrography in the identification of the source of chronic posttraumatic hindfoot disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective anesthetic arthrography was performed in 18 patients to define precisely the source of chronic posttraumatic hindfoot pain. A solution composed of local anesthetic and iodinated contrast material was injected into the hindfoot articulations, and the clinical response was determined. Although there was close correlation between pain relief and abnormalities depicted with both routine radiography and CT, both imaging methods tended to underestimate the severity of articular involvement, and plain film findings in five patients were misleading as to the site of pain origin. Long-term follow-up evaluation in nine patients who underwent arthrodesis on the basis of arthrographic findings indicated satisfactory results in eight

  2. Anesthetic management of a patient with Kimura′s disease for superficial parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalim Kumar Baidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kimura′s disease is a rare form of chronic eosinophilic inflammatory disease with vascular proliferation involving salivary gland, skin, lymph node, and kidney. Important anesthetic concerns include increased surgical bleeding due to its vascular nature, airway involvement by the mass leading to a possible difficult airway, allergic symptoms associated with high eosinophil count and elevated IgE level and nephrotic syndrome due to involvement of kidney by the inflammatory process. There is paucity of information in the literature on the anesthetic management of Kimura′s disease. We describe the anesthesia technique and review the literature of such a case posted for superficial parotidectomy.

  3. Anesthetic issues and perioperative blood pressure management in patients who have cerebrovascular diseases undergoing surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W Scott

    2006-11-01

    Patients who have cerebrovascular disease and vascular insufficiency routinely have neurosurgical and nonneurosurgical procedures. Anesthetic priorities must provide a still bloodless operative field while maintaining cardiovascular stability and renal function. Patients who have symptoms or a history of cerebrovascular disease are at increased risk for stroke, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cerebral anoxia. Type of surgery and cardiovascular status are key concerns when considering neuroprotective strategies. Optimization of current condition is important for a good outcome; risks must be weighed against perceived benefits in protecting neurons. Anesthetic use and physiologic manipulations can reduce neurologic injury and assure safe and effective surgical care when cerebral hypoperfusion is a real and significant risk. PMID:16935193

  4. Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetic Agents for the Treatment of Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Reznik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus that cannot be controlled with first- and second-line agents is called refractory status epilepticus (RSE, a condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most experts agree that treatment of RSE necessitates the use of continuous infusion intravenous anesthetic drugs such as midazolam, propofol, pentobarbital, thiopental, and ketamine, each of which has its own unique characteristics. This review compares the various anesthetic agents while providing an approach to their use in adult patients, along with possible associated complications.

  5. Local anesthetics and nuclear medical bone images of the equine fore limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of two local anesthetic agents on the diagnostic quality of nuclear medical bone images (NMBIs) of distal parts of the equine fore limb were investigated. Local effects on bone uptake of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) 4 and 24 hours after perineural and intraarticular injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride and bupivacaine hydrochloride were evaluated in the carpal and metacarpophalangeal regions of 12 horses and ponies. Neither mepivacaine hydrochloride nor bupivacaine hydrochloride significantly altered the diagnostic quality of the NMBIs. The injection and subsequent action of local anesthetics do not appear to influence local bone uptake of 99mTc-MDP significantly

  6. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Nitrogen Mustards and Local Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Michael Lee

    The density matrix description of pulsed nitrogen -14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echoes is presented. The parallel between this problem, when formulated in terms of the fictitious spin- 1/2 operators, and that of spin - 1/2 NMR spin-echoes in liquids is discussed along with the complications which arise in multiple-pulse NQR experiments in powders due to the random orientation of the electric field gradient tensors. The equipment and procedures involved in searching for, detecting and identifying NQR resonances using pulsed techniques are described. The ('14)N NQR spectra of several nitrogen mustard compounds in the solid state are reported and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. For the aniline derivatives, a correlation exists between l -(sigma), l being the nitrogen lone-pair electron density and (sigma) the average N-C sigma bond electron density, and the enhanced Hammett sigma constant (sigma)('-). An improved correlation is obtained between l-(sigma) and (sigma)(,R)('-), which emphasizes the importance of resonance effects in determining l-(sigma). The increase of hydrolysis and alkylation rates with increasing values of l-(sigma) is in agreement with the identification of the cyclic immonium ion as the intermediate in the hydrolysis and alkylation processes of the aromatic nitrogen mustards. A possible correlation is noted between the ('35)Cl NQR spectra for some of the mustards and measures of toxic and antitumor activity. ('14)N NQR spectra for several local anesthetics in the solid state are also reported and analyzed using the Townes and Dailey approach. The changes in the electron distributions at various nitrogen sites, produced by protonating the tertiary amino nitrogen, are discussed and shown to be in general agreement with expectations bases on the increased electrophilic character of the protonated amino group.

  7. Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack A. Loeppky

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ventilation (IV response to inspired CO2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims: These experiments were performed to determine whether I V  would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods: We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO2-balance O2.and to 0 and 10% O2-balance N2. Results: The I V  time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01, but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double I V  at 100% CO2, with the response to 0% O2 being 3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR, increased tidal volume (VT and increased the time delay by 3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and I V  , and reduced the response to CO2 and increased the time delay by 12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the I V  response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions: Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H+ and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies.

  8. Effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails

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    Wang Tianshan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly-used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.

  9. Evaluation of the community structure of a rockpool fish assemblage from Peniche (Portugal using clove oil as an anesthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mattioli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to provide the first scientific data of the intertidal ichthyofauna community of Peniche. In order to have an accurate assessment, anesthetics were used, since this method is more effective than visual census. Therefore, the ideal concentration of clove oil to be used as anesthetics for local rock pool fish was tested. Through laboratory experiments with some of the most common species in the area, the concentration 30 mg.L-1was considered ideal. A total of 4 rockpools were sampled between May and July 2012, in two different locations (2 in Praia da Gamboa and 2 in Portinho da Areia Norte, in Peniche (West of Portugal. A total of 508 fishes belonging to 17 different species were registered. Fish abundance, occurrence frequencies and sizes were registered and compared for the two beaches and for the respective tide pools. The most abundant species was Gobius n.sp. while the most frequent was Gobius paganellus. These two species represent 59.1% of all captured species. Praia da Gamboa was the location with the highest abundance of individuals while Portinho da Areia Norte was the location where larger individuals were collected. It was observed that the size of rockpools affects abundance and density of individuals. Substrate, number and type of shelters also affect density, abundance and the mean size of individuals. Considering the studies focusing on intertidal ichthyofauna worldwide are relatively scarce, and being this ecosystem absolutely crucial both for biological but also socio-economic reasons worldwide, a better understanding of this unique ecosystem is mandatory, so it is possible to understand it, in order to preserve it.

  10. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Soliz; Jeffrey Lim; Gang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  11. Isoflurane anesthetic hypersensitivity and progressive respiratory depression in a mouse model with isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.; Manjeri, G.R.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Driessen, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with mitochondrial disorders are frequently anesthetized for a wide range of operations. These disorders may interfere with the response to surgery and anesthesia. We examined anesthetic sensitivity to and respiratory effects of isoflurane in the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse model

  12. A randomized trial of anesthetic induction agents in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Raveen

    2010-01-01

    venous pressure and stroke volume variation (SVV during induction and intubation, while the effects on the systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI were variable. The midazolam group was the most effective in preventing intubation stress (tachycardia,hypertension. The change from baseline values in heart rate (+ 4%, P = 0.12 and mean arterial pressure (-1%, P = 0.77 after intubation were not statistically significant in the midazolam group. The etomidate group was the least effective of all the four groups in minimizing stress response, with statistically significant increase from baseline in both heart rate (P = 0.001 and mean arterial pressure (P = 0.001 at 1 minute after intubation. All the four anesthetic agents were acceptable for induction in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction despite a 30 - 40% decrease in the cardiac index. Clinician experience along with knowledge of the potential interactions (e.g., premedication, concurrent opioid use is needed to determine hemodynamic stability during anesthetic induction in these patients with ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Combined mucopolysaccharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a child: Anesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child posted for magnetic resonance imaging of brain under general anesthesia with the rare combination of mucopolysachharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The presence of both these disorders has important anesthetic implications. The pathophysiology of this rare combination of disease is reviewed with emphasis on the anesthesia management.

  14. Taking the Headaches out of Anesthetizing "Drosophila": A Cheap & Easy Method of Constructing Carbon Dioxide Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiss, Thomas; Hughes, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is an excellent alternative to conventional methods of anesthetizing fruit flies as it is non-flammable and odorless. We have devised a method of constructing carbon dioxide stages used to keep "Drosophila" immobilized cheaply and easily using empty micropipette tip containers. (Contains 6 figures.)

  15. Comparing different fentanyl concentrations added to local anesthetic mixture in peribulbar block for cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Adding Fentanyl at concentrations ⩾ 2–3 μg/ml to the local anesthetic mixture (Lidocaine and Hyaluronidase for regional peribulbar block provides safe and effective method in improving postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  16. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)

    2012-12-10

    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  17. State-Dependent Inhibition of Sodium Channels by Local Anesthetics: A 40-Year Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-K; Strichartz, G R

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge about the mechanism of impulse blockade by local anesthetics has evolved over the past four decades, from the realization that Na(+) channels were inhibited to affect the impulse blockade to an identification of the amino acid residues within the Na(+) channel that bind the local anesthetic molecule. Within this period appreciation has grown of the state-dependent nature of channel inhibition, with rapid binding and unbinding at relatively high affinity to the open state, and weaker binding to the closed resting state. Slow binding of high affinity for the inactivated state accounts for the salutary therapeutic as well as the toxic actions of diverse class I anti-arrhythmic agents, but may have little importance for impulse blockade, which requires concentrations high enough to block the resting state. At the molecular level, residues on the S6 transmembrane segments in three of the homologous domains of the channel appear to contribute to the binding of local anesthetics, with some contribution also from parts of the selectivity filter. Binding to the inactivated state, and perhaps the open state, involves some residues that are not identical to those that bind these drugs in the resting state, suggesting spatial flexibility in the "binding site". Questions remaining include the mechanism that links local anesthetic binding with the inhibition of gating charge movements, and the molecular nature of the theoretical "hydrophobic pathway" that may be critical for determining the recovery rates from blockade of closed channels, and thus account for both therapeutic and cardiotoxic actions. PMID:23710324

  18. [On the surface-anesthetic activity of some ether alcohols (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemschneider, R; Rufer, C; Chik, W H

    1978-01-01

    An account of the preparation and surface anesthetic potency of 12 ether alcohols of the type X-O-Y-OH is given in this paper. The anaesthetic intensity and effective duration of a chloronaphthalene derivative of this type lie within the range of action of cocain. PMID:582907

  19. The Effect and Safety of Steroid Injection in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: With or Without Local Anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung Hyuk; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Ho Jun; Nam, Ki Yeun; Kim, Hyojun; Kim, Seung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the long-term effect and safety of an epidural steroid injection in spinal stenosis patients, with or without local anesthetics. Methods Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with spinal stenosis were included and randomly divided into two groups. Translaminar epidural and selective nerve root spinal injection procedures were performed using steroids mixed with local anesthetics or normal saline. The effects of spinal injection procedures were measured with visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional rate index (FRI). These measurements were performed before injection, at 1 month after injection and at 3 months after injection. The occurrence of side effects was investigated each time. Results The VAS and FRI scores were significantly reduced in both the local anesthetics group and normal saline group at 1 and 3 months after the injection. However, there was no significant difference in VAS and FRI score reduction between the two groups each time. Side effects are not noted in both groups. Conclusion The spinal injection procedures using steroids mixed either with local anesthetics or normal saline have an effect in reducing pain and improving functional activities. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in relation to side effects and the long-term effects of pain and function. PMID:26949664

  20. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  1. An improved method for lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs within an animal facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Flescher, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    mechanical lifts. Different equipment was used to accommodate pigs of different sizes as well as the building designs of three animal facilities. Using the lifts, anesthetized pigs are carried on sheets to maintain their comfort while being transported. The approach refines previous methods for handling...

  2. Experimental induction of isolated lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in anesthetized opossums.

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, W.G.; Rattan, S; Goyal, R K

    1986-01-01

    Isolated lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, defined as a transient sphincteric relaxation unaccompanied by esophageal peristalsis, has been shown to precede most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux in humans. We studied the genesis of isolated LES relaxation in anesthetized opossums by observing the response of four components of the deglutition reflex (mylohyoid electrical activity, pharyngeal contraction, esophageal peristalsis, and LES relaxation) to pharyngeal tactile stimulatio...

  3. Comparative analysis of assessment methods for operational and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potakhin S.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to conduct a comparative analysis of methods of evaluation of surgical and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis ofthe extent of the surgical and anesthetic risks and results of treatment of 71 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding has been conducted in the study. To evaluate the surgical and anesthetic risks classification trees are used, scale ТА. Rockall and prognosis System of rebleeding (SPRK, proposed by N. V. Lebedev et al. in 2009, enabling to evaluate the probability of a fatal outcome. To compare the efficacy ofthe methods the following indicators are used: sensitivity, specificity and prediction of positive result. Results. The study compared the results ofthe risk assessment emergency operation by using these methods with the outcome ofthe operation. The comparison ofthe prognosis results in sensitivity leads to the conclusion that the scales ТА. Rockall and SPRK are worse than the developed method of classification trees in recognizing patients with poor outcome of surgery. Conclusion. The method of classification trees can be considered as the most accurate method of evaluation of surgical and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding.

  4. Comparison of 3 different anesthetic techniques on 24-hour recovery after otologic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W S; Leonetti, J P; Fahey, K; Fury, P

    1999-03-01

    Intravenous propofol anesthesia is better than inhalational anesthesia for otologic surgery, but cost and intraoperative movement make this technique prohibitive. This study compares a propofol sandwich anesthetic with a total propofol or inhalational anesthetic for otologic surgery to determine which produces the best perioperative conditions and least expense. One hundred twenty patients undergoing ear surgery were randomly chosen to receive an anesthetic with either isoflurane (INHAL), total propofol (TPROP), or propofol used in conjunction with isoflurane (PSAND). Postoperative wakeup and the incidence and severity of nausea, vomiting, and pain were compared among groups. Antiemetic administration and discharge times from recovery and the hospital were also compared. The groups were similar, but anesthesia times were longer in the INHAL group. Emergence from anesthesia after PSAND or TPROP was more rapid than after INHAL. Recovery during the next 24 hours was associated with less nausea and vomiting with PSAND than with INHAL. The cost of the PSAND anesthetic was similar to that of INHAL, and both were less than TPROP. PSAND anesthesia may be similar to TPROP and better than INHAL for otologic procedures. PSAND was less expensive than TPROP and produced a similar recovery profile and antiemetic effect in the 24-hour period after surgery. PMID:10064647

  5. Clinical research into anesthetic neurotoxicity: does anesthesia cause neurological abnormalities in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Susan Y; Hache, Manon; Loepke, Andreas W

    2014-10-01

    General anesthetics mitigate distress and exaggerated hemodynamic responses to pain and stressful stimulation, allowing surgery and diagnostic procedures to be performed worldwide in millions of children every year. Emerging studies, mainly carried out in early postnatal laboratory animals, demonstrate widespread neuronal elimination, alteration in neuronal circuitry, and long-term neurological disabilities following exposure to all commonly used sedatives and anesthetics. These findings have raised concerns among parents, anesthesiologists, neuroscientists, and government regulators about the safety of anesthetic drugs in children, especially infants. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between surgery with anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. During the Fourth Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) symposium, a meeting attended by many stakeholders, the most recent findings in the field were presented and discussed. This review summarizes the current state of clinical research into the effects of anesthetic exposure in human brain development, addresses some of the difficulties in examining the phenomenon, and introduces the most recent clinical findings presented at the PANDA symposium. The unanimous consensus among participants was that additional preclinical and clinical research efforts are urgently required to address this important concern for child health. PMID:25144503

  6. Impact of hyaluronidase on anesthetic distribution in retrobulbar region following sub-Tenon anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurbatović Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Sub-Tenon's block is nowadays commonly used in ophthalmic surgery because of its safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the anesthetic solution with different amounts of hyaluronidase in the retrobulbar space, following an injection into the Sub-Tenon's space. Methods. In this experimental study, 40 pig cadaver heads were used (80 eyeballs. The material was divided into four groups (of 20 eyeballs each. Each group was administered 4.5 ml of a mixture of 2% lignocaine, 0.5% bupivacaine, and 0.5 ml of Indian ink, with different amounts of hyaluronidase - 15 IU/ml, 75 IU/ml, 150 IU/ml, except the control one. Samples of retrobulbar tissue were analyzed using the standard histopathological procedure. After that, they were also analyzed using the Adobe Photoshop program® (Windows, USA. The retrobulbar space was divided into eight zones by four perpendicular lines, which crossed in the centre of the optic nerve. The presence of ink in fat and muscle tissues and in the sheath of the optic nerve was observed. Results. The presence of the local anesthetic solution was significantly higher in inferonasal and superonasal quadrants of the fat and muscle tissues (p < 0.01. The distribution in optic nerve sheath is similar in each quadrant. Distribution of local anesthetic in each zone of the muscle tissue (I-VIII was strongly influenced by the amount of hyaluronidase added. In the fat tissue, the distribution of local anesthetic under the influence of hyaluronidase was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in the areas which were distant from the place of injection (I-IV. The distribution in the optic nerve sheath is significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the group with 150 IU/ml of hyaluronidase. Conclusions. Following a sub-Tenon block local anesthetic was present in the retrobulbar space in a high percentage of the cases. The presence of local anesthetic solution in retrobulbar space depends on the amount of

  7. Anesthetic experience of patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Doyeon; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Chung Su; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare primary genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent trabeculation of the left ventricular wall and intertrabecular recesses. Perioperative management of the patient with LVNC might be challenging due to the clinical symptoms of heart failure, systemic thromboembolic events, and fatal left ventricular arrhythmias. We conducted real time intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with LVNC undergoing general anesth...

  8. Anesthetic experience of an adult patient with an unrecognized tracheal bronchus -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yong Seon; Kwak, Young Lan; Choi, Hong Gyu; Oh, Se Young; Lee, Jong Wha

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of problematic tracheal intubation in an adult patient with an unrecognized tracheal bronchus. Immediately after tracheal intubation and position change to prone, bilateral breath sounds were almost absent, and there was a diminished tidal volume. In order to resolve the ventilatory difficulty, the wire-reinforced tube was replaced with a conventional tube, and proper positioning of the tube was completed under fiberoptic guidance. A tracheal bronchus (originating about 1.2 ...

  9. A cyclodextrin formulation to improve use of the anesthetic tribromoethanol (Avertin ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene McDowell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Efficacy and safety concerns have been raised in the literature with the use of tribromoethanol (TBE (Avertin ® for anesthesia in rats and mice when administered by intraperitoneal (IP injection. Despite the controversy, it remains in common usage as an anesthetic agent in laboratory rodents for short-term surgical procedures. Cyclodextrins have been shown to improve drug solubility and were investigated here as an improved anesthetic formulation for mice. Materials and Methods: The phase solubility of TBE with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD was estimated. The efficacy of two anesthetic regimens was compared in this study; the conventional TBE formulation solubilized in tert-amyl alcohol and a HP-β-CD formulation containing TBE. Mice (n = 6 were administered the formulations by IP injection and the pharmacodynamic parameters of time to induction of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia and recovery time were measured using a combined reflex score (CRS. Results and Discussion: Phase solubility studies showed a linear increase in the solubility of TBE with increasing HP-β-CD concentration and suggested >1:1 binding of the drug in the cyclodextrin complex. At a dose of 260 mg/kg the standard TBE formulation appeared to produce deeper anesthesia than the cyclodextrin formulation, with a minimum average CRS of 1.8 compared with 5.2. No post-mortem pathology was observed in mice that received either the conventional or cyclodextrin formulation. Conclusion: The cyclodextrin TBE formulation did not conclusively provide an improved anesthetic response at a dose of 260 mg/kg compared with the conventional formulation. The improved solubility of TBE with HP-β-CD and the reduced variability in anesthetic response warrants the further investigation of this formulation. This study has also identified the value of using the anticholinergic atropine in association with TBE for anesthesia.

  10. Intermittent hypoxia-induced respiratory long-term facilitation is dominated by enhanced burst frequency, not amplitude, in spontaneously breathing urethane-anesthetized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inefta M; Solomon, Irene C

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) triggers a form of respiratory plasticity known as long-term facilitation (LTF), which is manifested as a progressive increase in respiratory motor activity that lasts for minutes to hours after the hypoxic stimulus is removed. Respiratory LTF has been reported in numerous animal models, but it appears to be influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., species, age, and gender). While most studies focusing on respiratory LTF have been conducted in adult (including young adult) rat preparations, little is known about the influence of postnatal maturation on AIH-induced respiratory LTF. To begin to address this issue, we examined diaphragm EMG activity in response to and at 5-min intervals for 60 min following three 5-min episodes of hypoxia (8% O2) in urethane-anesthetized spontaneously breathing P14-P15 neonatal rats (n=15). For these experiments, the hypoxic episodes were separated by hyperoxia (40% O2), and all rats were continuously supplied with ~4% CO2. During the AIH trials, burst frequency was increased by ~20-90% above baseline in each of the rats examined while changes in burst amplitude were highly variable. Following the AIH episodes, respiratory LTF was characterized by predominantly an increase in burst frequency (fLTF) ranging from ~10% to 55%, with most rats exhibiting a 20-40% increase. In seven rats, however, an increase in amplitude (ampLTF) (~10%, n=3; ~20%, n=3; ~30%, n=1) was also noted. These data suggest that in contrast to observations in anesthetized ventilated adult rats, in anesthetized spontaneously breathing P14-P15 neonatal rats, respiratory LTF is dominated by fLTF, not ampLTF. PMID:25194200

  11. Effects of Anesthetic Membrane Solutes on Orientational Order in Lecithin Bilayer Membranes: a Deuterium NMR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonphok, Nason

    The interaction of eight n-alkanols and three volatile anesthetics with bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) has been studied by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (^2H NMR). At comparable temperatures and concentrations of solute in the bilayer, order parameters measured at the 1-methylene segment of the n-alkanols, and average order parameters for the whole alkyl chain, show a maximum for n-dodecanol. This maximum in orientational ordering also occurs for n-dodecanol at the much lower levels of solute concentration which produce anesthesia. For both n-dodecanol and n-tetradecanol, orientational ordering shows a maximum at the C-4 to C-7 methylene segments, with labels at both ends of the n-alkanol exhibiting reduced order. Unlike the longer chain n-alkanols, ordering in n-butanol decreases from the hydroxyl group end to the methyl group end of the molecule. The quadrupole splittings observed in DMPC-water systems containing perdeuterated ether, chloroform and n-hexane show that these volatile anesthetics are also ordered in the bilayer in the L _{alpha} phase. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting ^2H_2O in DMPC bilayers at low hydration indicates that both the n-alkanols and volatile anesthetics do not affect water structure in the L_alpha phase, but they do so below the main phase transition. Orientational ordering at nine inequivalent sites in the headgroup region of DMPC, as well as the acyl chains, has also been measured. Every anesthetic produces a disordering at the beta-methylene of the choline, the 3-methylene segment and the 1-R site (except chloroform) of the glycerol backbone. Molecular and conformational ordering at the interfacial region of DMPC in the L _alpha phase have been examined by analysing ^2H-NMR data from multiple sites in the most rigid region of the DMPC molecule. It was found that these anesthetics change the conformation at the glycerol moiety of DMPC without changing the molecular order parameter rm S

  12. A quest to increase safety of anesthetics by advancements in anesthesia monitoring: scientometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassakov KV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamen V Vlassakov, Igor Kissin Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess progress in the field of anesthesia monitoring over the past 40 years using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indexes were used: popularity indexes (general and specific, representing the proportion of articles on either a topic relative to all articles in the field of anesthetics (general popularity index, GPI or the subfield of anesthesia monitoring (specific popularity index, SPI; index of change (IC, representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic from one period to the next; and index of expectations (IE, representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000 biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on 33 anesthesia-monitoring topics were assessed. Our analysis showed that over the past 40 years, the rate of rise in the number of articles on anesthesia monitoring was exponential, with an increase of more than eleven-fold, from 296 articles over the 5-year period 1974–1978 to 3,394 articles for 2009–2013. This rise profoundly exceeded the rate of rise of the number of articles on general anesthetics. The difference was especially evident with the comparison of the related GPIs: stable growth of the GPI for anesthesia monitoring vs constant decline in the GPI for general anesthetics. By the 2009–2013 period, among specific monitoring topics introduced after 1980, the SPI index had a meaningful magnitude (≥1.5 in 9 of 24 topics: Bispectral Index (7.8, Transesophageal Echocardiography (4.2, Electromyo­graphy (2.8, Pulse Oximetry (2.4, Entropy (2.3, Train-of-four (2.3, Capnography (1.9, Pulse Contour (1.9, and Electrical Nerve Stimulation for neuromuscular monitoring (1.6. Only one of these topics (Pulse

  13. Morphine blocks the Mesobuthus tamulus venom-induced augmentation of phenyldiguanide reflex and pulmonary edema in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Aparna; Tiwari, Anil K.; Rai, Om P.; Deshpande, Shripad B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary edema, a manifestation of scorpion envenomation syndrome, is attributed to cardiogenic or noncardiogenic factors. Morphine is a drug used for cardiogenic pulmonary edema and its effect on Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) venom-induced changes is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that morphine blocks the MBT venom-induced augmentation of phenyldiguanide (PDG) reflex and pulmonary edema. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on anesthetized adult female rats. Trachea and jugular vein were cannulated, and the electrocardiographic potentials were recorded by connecting needle electrodes in limb lead II configuration. PDG (10 ΅g/kg, IV, bolus injection) responses were elicited by bolus injection initially, after saline/morphine (1 mg/kg) and after injecting MBT venom (100 μg/kg). The time-response area of the PDG-induced bradycardiac response after treatment was calculated as % of the initial PDG response area. At the end of experiments, lungs were excised for determination of pulmonary water content. Results: PDG produced bradycardiac response that lasted for >60 s. MBT venom augmented the PDG reflex response by 2.5 times. In morphine pretreated group, augmentation of bradycardiac response induced by MBT venom was absent. MBT venom increased the pulmonary water content, and the increase was absent in morphine pretreated animals. Conclusion: The results reveal that morphine prevents the MBT venom-induced augmentation of PDG reflex response and pulmonary edema. Thus, morphine can be useful in scorpion envenomation syndrome associated with pulmonary edema. PMID:26997727

  14. Anesthetic Implications of Ebola Patient Management: A Review of the Literature and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missair, Andres; Marino, Michael J; Vu, Catherine N; Gutierrez, Juan; Missair, Alfredo; Osman, Brian; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2015-09-01

    As of mid-October 2014, the ongoing Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has affected approximately 10,000 patients, approached a 50% mortality rate, and crossed political and geographic borders without precedent. The disease has spread throughout Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Isolated cases have arrived in urban centers in Europe and North America. The exponential growth, currently unabated, highlights the urgent need for effective and immediate management protocols for the various health care subspecialties that may care for Ebola virus disease patients. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to identify key areas of anesthetic care affected by this disease. The serious potential for "high-risk exposure" and "direct contact" (as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of anesthesiologists caring for Ebola patients prompted this urgent investigation. A search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed, MeSH, Cochrane Review, and Google Scholar. Key words included "anesthesia" and/or "ebola" combined with "surgery," "intubation," "laryngoscopy," "bronchoscopy," "stethoscope," "ventilation," "ventilator," "phlebotomy," "venous cannulation," "operating room," "personal protection," "equipment," "aerosol," "respiratory failure," or "needle stick." No language or date limits were applied. We also included secondary-source data from government organizations and scientific societies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, American Society of Anesthesiologists, and American College of Surgeons. Articles were reviewed for primary-source data related to inpatient management of Ebola cases as well as evidence-based management guidelines and protocols for the care of Ebola patients in the operative room, infection control, and health care worker personal protection. Two hundred thirty-six articles were identified using the aforementioned terminology in the scientific database search engines. Twenty articles

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE STABILITY OF A LOCAL ANESTHETIC BROMOKAIN TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ryzhikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the stability of biocompatible microemulsion composition-based bromokain transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS in order to confi rm the original shelf life and to identify the most appropriate TTS composition for storage.Materials and methods. The stability test using accelerated aging method was performed on the samples of TTS containing 50 and 100 mg of bromokain. Physicochemical properties of TTS were analyzed at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 6th month of storage. The physical confi guration of the dosage form, the content of bromokain in TTS, and drug release were evaluated at each stage of the study. The content of bromokain in the samples was recorded using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. As a control for each method, the newly manufactured TTS forms were used.Results. Unlike the samples containing 50 mg of bromokain, TTS with 100 mg of the anesthetic demonstrated changes in the physical confi guration and deterioration of the functional properties after the 6th month of storage. The quantitative content of the substance in TTS containing 50 and 100 mg of bromokain met the requirements of regulatory documentation (RD at allphases of the experiment and was within 50,0 ± 5,0 mg and 100,0 ± 10,0 mg, respectively. The release profi le of TTS with 50 mg of bromokain has remained unchanged during storage and complies with the RD. TTS with 100 mg of bromokain after the 3rd month of storage had a deviation from the release profi le indicated in the RD.Conclusion. The shelf life of 2 years at t = 25 °C preset by us for samples of TTS containing 50 mg of bromokain has been confi rmed. According to the test results, samples of TTS with the content of bromokain of 100 mg were declared unstable and unfi t for storage under the selected storage conditions.

  16. The modifying effect of anesthetic technique on the metabolic and endocrine responses to anesthesia and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1988-01-01

    variable reduction in the stress response to surgery by different anesthetic techniques remains largely unsettled, since only few controlled studies have been published on the clinical effects of pain relief and general anesthesia. However, a vast amount of data exist from controlled studies comparing......In spite of the fact that our knowledge on the release mechanisms of the surgical stress response is rather incomplete, several techniques are available to modulate the response. However, at present it appears that no technique is capable to effectively suppress all aspects of the injury response...... and the widespread use of the term "stress free anesthesia" in surgery is therefore not valid. However, continuous administration of local anesthetic agents in the epidural space is the most effective technique in so far as reduction of the stress response is concerned. The clinical implication of a...

  17. An overview of anesthetic procedures, tools, and techniques in ambulatory care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messieha Z

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zakaria Messieha Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Ambulatory surgical and anesthesia care (ASAC, also known as Same Day Surgery or Day Care in some countries, is the fastest growing segment of ambulatory surgical and anesthesia care. Over 50 million ambulatory surgical procedures are conducted annually comprising over 60% of all anesthesia care with an impressive track record of safety and efficiency. Advances in ambulatory anesthesia care have been due to newer generation of inhalation and intravenous anesthetics as well as airway management technology and techniques. Successful ambulatory anesthesia care relies on patient selection, adequate facilities, highly trained personnel and quality improvement policies and procedures. Favoring one anesthetic technique over the other should be patient and procedure-specific. Effective management of post-operative pain as well as nausea and vomiting are the final pieces in assuring success in ambulatory anesthesia care. Keywords: ambulatory anesthesia, out-patient anesthesia, Day-Care anesthesia

  18. The temperature dependence of lipid membrane permeability, its quantized nature, and the influence of anesthetics

    CERN Document Server

    Blicher, Andreas; Fidorra, Matthias; Winterhalter, Mathias; Heimburg, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the permeability of lipid membranes for fluorescence dyes and ions. We find that permeability reaches a maximum close to the chain melting transition of the membranes. Close to transitions, fluctuations in area and compressibility are high, leading to an increased likelihood of spontaneous lipid pore formation. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) reveals the permeability for rhodamine dyes across 100 nm vesicles. Using FCS, we find that the permeability of vesicle membranes for fluorescence dyes is within error proportional to the excess heat capacity. To estimate defect size we measure the conductance of solvent-free planar lipid bilayer. Microscopically, we show that permeation events appear as quantized current events. Further, we demonstrate that anesthetics lead to a change in membrane permeability that can be predicted from their effect on heat capacity profiles. Depending on temperature, the permeability can be enhanced or reduced. We demonstrate that anesthetics decrease channel...

  19. [Anesthetic considerations in laparoscopy for removal of a kidney from a live donor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, M; Gómez, G; Vidal, A; Vera, C D; Barberá, M

    2010-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is the main therapeutic alternative for patients with end-stage renal failure. However, the main constraint at present is the lack of available organs. Removal of a kidney from a live donor is a better option than conventional transplantation of a cadaver-donated organ. Among the advantages are a shorter waiting time for the organ recipient and greater assurance of graft quality and survival. The postoperative conditions made possible by laparoscopic surgery have encouraged the donation of tissues by live donors. Anesthetic treatment for patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery must be based on an understanding of the pathophysiologic changes that occur in this type of procedure so that complications can be prevented. This review provides an update of progress in laparoscopic surgery and the repercussions of anesthetic management, particularly with respect to anesthesia for kidney donors. PMID:20527345

  20. Rapid automated classification of anesthetic depth levels using GPU based parallelization of neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Musa; Şen, Baha; Gürüler, Hüseyin

    2015-02-01

    The effect of anesthesia on the patient is referred to as depth of anesthesia. Rapid classification of appropriate depth level of anesthesia is a matter of great importance in surgical operations. Similarly, accelerating classification algorithms is important for the rapid solution of problems in the field of biomedical signal processing. However numerous, time-consuming mathematical operations are required when training and testing stages of the classification algorithms, especially in neural networks. In this study, to accelerate the process, parallel programming and computing platform (Nvidia CUDA) facilitates dramatic increases in computing performance by harnessing the power of the graphics processing unit (GPU) was utilized. The system was employed to detect anesthetic depth level on related electroencephalogram (EEG) data set. This dataset is rather complex and large. Moreover, the achieving more anesthetic levels with rapid response is critical in anesthesia. The proposed parallelization method yielded high accurate classification results in a faster time. PMID:25650073

  1. Topical anesthesia with eutetic mixture of local anesthetics cream in vasectomy: 2 randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Krogh, J; Rye, B;

    1992-01-01

    Two paired randomized trials testing topical anesthesia with a eutetic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA cream*) in vasectomy were performed. In 1 trial EMLA cream was applied on 1 side of the scrotum, while infiltration anesthesia into the skin and subcutaneous tissue with mepivacaine was used on...... the contralateral side. All but 1 of the 13 patients (p less than 0.05) preferred infiltration anesthesia because of pain as the incision reached the subcutaneous tissue. In the other trial 29 patients received EMLA cream on 1 side of the scrotum before bilateral mepivacaine infiltration. There was...... significantly less pain on the sides with the anesthetic cream (p less than 0.001). Many patients would pay the price of the cream. In conclusion, EMLA cream cannot replace but it can supplement infiltration anesthesia during vasectomy....

  2. Anesthetic considerations of an emergency decompressive craniotomy complicated with Ebstein's anomaly and atrial septal defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Xin; TANG Shuai; WANG Ling; ZHAO Jing; LI Gui-lin; GUO Li-lin; HUANG Yu-guang

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable published papers regarding Ebstein's anomaly (EA) patients receiving open-heart tricuspid valve replacement, non-cardiac emergency surgeries were rarely reported. We report a case of emergency decormpressive craniotormy in a patient with EA. Anesthesiologists should pay special attention to the complications and anesthetic management during the non-cardiac surgeries performed in EA patients.hile papers regarding Ebstein's anomaly (EA)patients receiving open-heart tricuspid valve replacement are numerous, the reports of non-cardiac emergency surgeries have not been to the same degree.We report a case of emergency decompressive craniotomy in a patient with EA. This case report describes the symptoms and anesthetic management during the surgery.

  3. The cochlear implantation surgery: A review of anesthetic considerations and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in the technology of the cochlear implants has resulted in increasing trend of cochlear implantation in both the children and elderly population. The anesthesiologist is faced with the task of smoothly conducting the surgery without any interference in the stimulation techniques used. The preoperative evaluation is mainly focused on the presence of any congenital anomalies in these patients which may affect anesthetic technique. The reduction of anxiety of the patient as well as the parents of small children is an important aspect of the preoperative visit. Intraoperatively the anesthetic technique chosen should not interfere with the stimulation of the cochlear implant electrode assembly. The postoperative management is mainly focused at prevention of agitation and good analgesia. A close cooperation between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist is essential for a positive outcome in this surgery. The current review focuses on the important anesthesia aspects related to cochlear implant surgery.

  4. Risk assessment and anesthetic management of patients with Williams syndrome: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Andrew J; Olivieri, Laura; Schwartz, Jamie M; Deutsch, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Since the first description in 1961, several case reports have documented an increased incidence of anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome, commonly known as Williams syndrome (WS). Widespread arteriopathy secondary to an elastin gene defect results in various cardiac defects, including supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) and coronary artery anomalies, which can increase the risk of myocardial ischemia. Even though patients with WS are known to have increased risk of adverse events during anesthesia and sedation, they often undergo several procedures that require anesthesia during their lifetimes, and cases of perianesthetic cardiac arrest continue to be reported. To date, no prospective studies have been reported that quantify anesthetic risk in individual patients with WS. In this article, we review the clinical manifestations of WS, propose a consensus, expert-informed method to estimate anesthetic risk based on the current literature, and provide recommendations for periprocedural management of this patient population. PMID:26456018

  5. Modelling the anesthetized brain with ensembles of neuronal and astrocytic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, T.; Hale, A. C.; Stefanovska, A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a minimalistic model of the anesthetized brain in order to study the generation of rhythms observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded from anesthetized humans. We propose that non-neuronal brain cells-astrocytes-play an important role in brain dynamics and that oscillation-based models may provide a simple way to study such dynamics. The model is capable of replicating the main features (i.e. slow and alpha oscillations) observed in EEGs. In addition, this model suggests that astrocytes are integral to the generation of slow EEG (˜0.7 Hz) rhythms. By including astrocytes in the model we take a first step towards investigating the interaction of the brain and cardiovasular system which are primarily connected via astrocytes. The model also illustrates that rich nonlinear dynamics can arise from basic oscillatory "building blocks" and therefore complex systems may be modelled in an uncomplicated way.

  6. [Intern(euron)al affairs : The role of specific neocortical interneuron classes in the interaction between acetylcholine and GABAergic anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, L; Grasshoff, C; Hentschke, H

    2016-08-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulator which is released throughout the central nervous system and plays an essential role in consciousness and cognitive processes including attention and learning. Due to its 'activating' effect on the neuronal and behavioral level its interaction with anesthetics has long been of interest to anesthesiologists. It is widely held that a reduction of the release of acetylcholine by general anesthetics constitutes part of the anesthetic effect. This notion is backed by numerous human and animal studies, but is also in seeming contradiction to findings that acetylcholine activates specific classes of inhibitory neurons: if acetylcholine excites elements within the neuronal network responsible for the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its withdrawal should diminish, not enhance, the effect of anesthetics.Focusing on cortical circuits, we present an overview of recent advances in cellular neurophysiology, particularly the interactions between inhibitory neuron classes, which provide insights on the interaction between acetylcholine and GABA. PMID:27380048

  7. Anesthetic management of a patient with sickle cell disease for common bile duct exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Subhash Ingle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD may present to the anesthetist in different clinical settings like perioperative care, management of acute painful crisis and intensive therapy for acute respiratory failure. We describe the successful management of a 34-year-old female patient with SCD, posted for cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration under general and epidural anesthesia. The importance of preoperative stabilization and careful anesthetic strategy is emphasized.

  8. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    OpenAIRE

    Parimala Prasanna Simha; Muralidhara Danappa Patel; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC) to the left atrium (LA) is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm...

  9. Evaluation and Management of Hypersensitivity to Local Anesthetics in Pediatric Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shapira, Joseph; Rubinow, Alan

    1987-01-01

    The clinical histories of four children with a history of adverse reactions to local anesthesia and who required dental treatment are reviewed retrospectively. The children described had been referred to the allergy unit for evaluation between 1984 and 1985 and are representative of the dilemma of cases of suspected hypersensitivity to local anesthetics. The first two cases had been previously treated without the use of regional anesthesia because of a family history of atopic reactions as we...

  10. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Anesthetic Management of a Parturient with Severe Aortic Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Tyagaraj; Gutman, David A.; Lynn Belliveau; Adnan Sadiq; Alok Bhutada; Feierman, Dennis E

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize anesthetic management and avoid adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, a clear understanding of the changes in cardiovascular physiology that occur during pregnancy is paramount. The effects of normal gestation on the cardiovascular system are particularly significant in a parturient with cardiac valvular pathology. We present a case of a 27-year-old G2P0 at 37 weeks with a past medical history of diabetes, macrosomia, congenital bicuspid aortic valve with severe stenosis (...

  11. Vagal-dependent nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, R. R.; Jacono, F. J.; Fishman, M; Loparo, K. A.; Rybak, I. A.; Dick, T E

    2011-01-01

    Physiological rhythms, including respiration, exhibit endogenous variability associated with health, and deviations from this are associated with disease. Specific changes in the linear and nonlinear sources of breathing variability have not been investigated. In this study, we used information theory-based techniques, combined with surrogate data testing, to quantify and characterize the vagal-dependent nonlinear pattern variability in urethane-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rat...

  12. The challenge of evaluating pain and a pre-incisional local anesthetic block

    OpenAIRE

    McKune, Carolyn M.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Kass, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a local anesthetic line block administered before surgery in reducing postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVHX). Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial involving 59 healthy female dogs. An algometric pressure-measuring device was used to determine nociceptive threshold, and compared to three subjective pain scales. Group L/B received a line block of lidocaine (4 mg/kg...

  13. Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM was tested for local anesthetic action by (i intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result : The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001. The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001 for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion : The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.

  14. Anesthetic management of a patient with Huntington's chorea -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jong-Man; Chung, Jun-Young; Han, Jin Hee; Kim, Yung-Suk; Lee, Bong Jae; Yi, Jae-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's chorea is a rare hereditary disorder of the nervous system. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and is characterized by progressive chorea, dementia and psychiatric disturbances. The best anesthetic technique is yet to be established for these patients with increased risk of aspiration due to involvement of pharyngeal muscles and an exaggerated response to sodium thiopental and succinylcholine. The primary goal in general anesthesia for these patients is to provide ...

  15. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  16. Anesthetic management for separation of thoracopagus twins with complex congenital heart disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Misook; Chung, In-Sun; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Oh, Ji Mi; Shin, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Although thoracopagus twins joined at the upper chest are the most common type of conjoined twins, the separation surgery in these cases has a higher mortality rate. Here, we describe an anesthetic management approach for the separation of thoracopagus conjoined twins sharing parts of a congenitally defective heart and liver. We emphasize the importance of vigilant intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring for early detection of unexpected events. Specifically, real-time continuous monitoring of ...

  17. Anesthetic drug wastage in the operation room: A cause for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The cost of anesthetic technique has three main components, i.e., disposable supplies, equipments, and anesthetic drugs. Drug budgets are an easily identifiable area for short-term savings. Aim: To assess and estimate the amount of anesthetic drug wastage in the general surgical operation room. Also, to analyze the financial implications to the hospital due to drug wastage and suggest appropriate steps to prevent or minimize this wastage. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study conducted in the general surgical operation room of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Drug wastage was considered as the amount of drug left unutilized in the syringes/vials after completion of a case and any ampoule or vial broken while loading. An estimation of the cost of wasted drug was made. Results: Maximal wastage was associated with adrenaline and lignocaine (100% and 93.63%, respectively. The drugs which accounted for maximum wastage due to not being used after loading into a syringe were adrenaline (95.24%, succinylcholine (92.63%, lignocaine (92.51%, mephentermine (83.80%, and atropine (81.82%. The cost of wasted drugs for the study duration was 46.57% (Rs. 16,044.01 of the total cost of drugs issued/loaded (Rs. 34,449.44. Of this, the cost of wastage of propofol was maximum being 56.27% (Rs. 9028.16 of the total wastage cost, followed by rocuronium 17.80% (Rs. 2856, vecuronium 5.23% (Rs. 840, and neostigmine 4.12% (Rs. 661.50. Conclusions: Drug wastage and the ensuing financial loss can be significant during the anesthetic management of surgical cases. Propofol, rocuronium, vecuronium, and neostigmine are the drugs which contribute maximally to the total wastage cost. Judicious use of these and other drugs and appropriate prudent measures as suggested can effectively decrease this cost.

  18. Anesthetic and Airways Management of a Dog with Severe Tracheal Collapse during Intraluminal Stent Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Argano, M.; Gendron, K.; U. Rytz; Adami, C.

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the anesthetic and airways management of a dog affected by 4th degree tracheal collapse and undergoing endoscope-guided intraluminal stent placement. After premedication with acepromazine and butorphanol, general anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with intravenous propofol and butorphanol in constant rate infusion. During intraluminal stent placement, oxygen was supplemented by means of a simple and inexpensive handmade device, namely, a ureteral ca...

  19. The Effects of Anesthetic Technique on Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Ankle Fracture Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kristian P; Møller, Ann M; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of common anesthetic techniques on postoperative opioid consumption in ankle fracture surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 622 patients with isolated ankle fractures undergoing primary reconstructive surgery. Patients...... anesthesia modalities reduce postoperative opioid consumption in ankle fracture surgery in comparison with GA. A benefit of PNBs is indicated possibly due to an improved pain profile. Our study is retrospective and cannot predict the exact magnitude of this benefit....

  20. In vivo assessment of arterial stiffness in the isoflurane anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rat

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Eric E.; Casabianca, Andrew B; Khouri, Samer J; Kalinoski, Andrea L. Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Background Rodent models are increasingly used to study the development and progression of arterial stiffness. Both the non-invasive Doppler derived Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and the invasively determined arterial elastance index (EaI) have been used to assess arterial stiffness in rats and mice, but the need for anesthetic agents to make these in vivo estimates may limit their utility. Thus, we sought to determine: 1) if known differences in arterial stiffness in spontaneously hypertensive r...

  1. Assessment of occupational exposure of medical personnel to inhalatory anesthetics in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kucharska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Despite common use of inhalatory anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide (N2O, halothane, sevoflurane, and the like, occupational exposure to these substances in operating theatres was not monitored in Poland until 2006. The situation changed when maximum admissible concentration (MAC values for anesthetics used in Poland were established in 2005 for N2O, and in 2007 for sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane. The aim of this work was to assess occupational exposure in operating rooms on the basis of reliable and uniform analytical procedures. Material and Methods: The method for the determination of all anesthetics used in Poland, i.e. nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, and halothane, was developed and validated. The measurements were performed in 2006-2010 in 31 hospitals countrywide. The study covered 117 operating rooms; air samples were collected from the breathing zone of 146 anesthesiologists, and 154 nurses, mostly anaesthetic. The measurements were carried out during various surgical operations, mostly on adult patients but also in hospitals for children. Results: Time weighted average concentrations of the anesthetics varied considerably, and the greatest differences were noted for N2O (0.1-1438.5 mg/m3; 40% of the results exceeded the MAC value. Only 3% of halothane, and 2% of sevoflurane concentrations exceeded the respective MAC values. Conclusions: Working in operating theatres is dangerous to the health of the operating staff. The coefficient of combined exposure to anesthesiologists under study exceeded the admissible value in 130 cases, which makes over 40% of the whole study population. Most of the excessive exposure values were noted for nitrous oxide. Med Pr 2014;65(1:43–54

  2. Effect of prophylactic vitamin D on anesthetic outcome in children with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Shams; Hamed Al Wadani; Ragaa El-Masry; Ossama Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few previous studies proved that complications related to sickle cell disease (SCD) were common with regional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia while others reported no differences. This study was carried out to evaluate the role of prophylactic vitamin D on anesthetic outcome among male children with SCD undergoing circumcision. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was carried out on 58 children undergoing circumcision with the regional block under light gener...

  3. Analysis on the factors associated with treatment failure of using anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus

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    Ying-ying SU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the related factors associated with immediate treatment failure of using anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus (RSE.  Methods Thirty patients derived from Neurocritical Care Unit of Xuanwu Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups (acute treatment failure group and acute treatment success group based on the treatment outcome 6 h after intravenous injection of anesthetics. Univariate and multivariate forward Logistic regression analyses were used to analyze and screen the risk factors associated with immediate treatment failure, and calculate the failure rate of final outcome.  Results According to the results of univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses, among influencing factors such as sex, age, etiology, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health EvaluationⅡ (APACHEⅡ, type of status epilepticus (SE, type of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, total duration of primary treatment, duration of prehospital primary treatment, duration of posthospital primary treatment, type of RSE and primary choice of anesthetics, only total duration of primary treatment was the independent risk factor for immediate treatment failure (OR = 1.007, 95%CI: 1.000-1.014; P = 0.047. The rate of immediate treatment failure of RSE by using anesthetics was 50% (15/30, and the rate of final treatment failure was 43.33% (13/30. The ratio of final treatment failure was much higher in acute treatment failure group than that in acute treatment success group (10/15 vs 3/15, P = 0.025.  Conclusions The acute treatment result of RSE depends on the total duration of primary treatment, and determinates the final result of treatment. On the basis of treating primary disease, the therapy to terminate SE or RSE should be started as early as possible. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.008

  4. Brainstem Regions Involved in the Expiration Reflex. A c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Jakus, Jan; Murin, Peter; Barani, Helena; Stransky, Albert; Bolser, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was employed to localize brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to the expiration reflex (ER). Twelve spontaneously breathing, non-decerebrate, pentobarbital anesthetized cats were used. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive ERs mechanically induced from the glottis (296±9 ERs) was compared to FLI in 6 control non-stimulated cats. Respiratory rate, arterial blood pre...

  5. The Role of Needle Purging in Reducing Transfer of Microorganisms From Local Anesthetic Cartridge Diaphragms

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Barbara A.; Rawson, Raymond D.; Hiatt, Hermi D.

    1985-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to demonstrate the significant amount of contamination on the external surface of the anesthetic cartridge diaphragm. Current methods of cartridge diaphragm decontamination to prevent injection of pathogens are discussed. A series of bacteriologic tests were conducted to determine the probability of transfer of pathogens from the diaphragm surface through the needle lumen of three different sizes to the deposition site. Results of needle purging suggest that a signi...

  6. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  7. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively). PMID:25806995

  8. Sevoflurane Induces DNA Damage Whereas Isoflurane Leads to Higher Antioxidative Status in Anesthetized Rats

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    Thalita L. A. Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6 and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6 or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6 for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05. Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02. In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT than control group (P = 0.019. There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats.

  9. Does chronic occupational exposure to volatile anesthetic agents influence the rate of neutrophil apoptosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goto, Y

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine whether the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in health care workers is influenced by exposure to volatile anesthetic agents. METHODS: Percentage neutrophil apoptosis (Annexin-V FITC assay) was measured in health care workers (n = 20) and unexposed volunteers (n = 10). For the health care workers, time weighted personal exposure monitoring to N2O, sevoflurane and isoflurane was carried out. RESULTS: The sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations to which health care workers were exposed were less than recommended levels in all 20 cases. Percent apoptosis was less at 24 (but not at one and 12) hr culture in health care workers [50.5 (9.7)%; P = 0.008] than in unexposed volunteers [57.3 (5.1)%]. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis at 24 hr culture was demonstrated in health care workers chronically exposed to volatile anesthetic agents. Exposure was well below recommended levels in the both scavenged and unscavenged work areas in which the study was carried out. Further study is required to assess the effect of greater degrees of chronic exposure to volatile anesthetic agents on neutrophil apoptosis.

  10. Assessing changes in volatile general anesthetic sensitivity of mice after local or systemic pharmacological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Hilary S; Moore, Jason T; Kelz, Max B

    2013-01-01

    One desirable endpoint of general anesthesia is the state of unconsciousness, also known as hypnosis. Defining the hypnotic state in animals is less straightforward than it is in human patients. A widely used behavioral surrogate for hypnosis in rodents is the loss of righting reflex (LORR), or the point at which the animal no longer responds to their innate instinct to avoid the vulnerability of dorsal recumbency. We have developed a system to assess LORR in 24 mice simultaneously while carefully controlling for potential confounds, including temperature fluctuations and varying gas flows. These chambers permit reliable assessment of anesthetic sensitivity as measured by latency to return of the righting reflex (RORR) following a fixed anesthetic exposure. Alternatively, using stepwise increases (or decreases) in anesthetic concentration, the chambers also enable determination of a population's sensitivity to induction (or emergence) as measured by EC50 and Hill slope. Finally, the controlled environmental chambers described here can be adapted for a variety of alternative uses, including inhaled delivery of other drugs, toxicology studies, and simultaneous real-time monitoring of vital signs. PMID:24192721

  11. Thrombotic stroke in the anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta): characterization by MRI - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of a relevant stroke model in large nonhuman primates hinders the development of innovative diagnostic/therapeutic approaches concerned with this cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to develop a novel and clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized monkey that incorporates readily available clinical imaging techniques and that would allow the possibility of drug delivery including strategies of reperfusion. Thrombin was injected into the lumen of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 12 anesthetized (sevoflurane) male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sequential MRI studies (including angiography, FLAIR, PWI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced T1W imaging) were performed in a 3 T clinical MRI. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the investigations. Once standardized, the surgical procedure induced transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in all operated animals. All animals studied showed spontaneous reperfusion, which occurred some time between 2 h and 7 days post-ictus. Eighty percent of the studied animals showed diffusion/perfusion mismatch. The ischemic lesions at 24 h spared both superficial and profound territories of the MCA. Some animals presented hemorrhagic transformation at 7 days post-ictus. In this study, we developed a pre-clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized nonhuman primate. (authors)

  12. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.

    1986-02-01

    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques.

  13. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques

  14. Cleft lip and palate: recommendations for dental anesthetic procedure based on anatomic evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cleft lip and palate usually present dental anomalies of number, shape, structure and position in the cleft area and the general dentist is frequently asked to restore or extract those teeth. Considering that several anatomic variations are expected in teeth adjacent to cleft areas and that knowledge of these variations by general dentists is required for optimal treatment, the objectives of this paper are: 1 to describe changes in the innervation pattern of anterior teeth and soft tissue caused by the presence of a cleft, 2 to describe a local anesthetic procedure in unilateral and bilateral clefts, and 3 to provide recommendations to improve anesthetic procedures in patients with cleft lip and palate. The cases of 2 patients are presented: one with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, and the other with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. The patients underwent local anesthesia in the cleft area in order to extract teeth with poor bone support. The modified anesthetic procedure, respecting the altered course of nerves in the cleft maxilla and soft tissue alterations at the cleft site, was accomplished successfully and the tooth extraction was performed with no pain to the patients. General dentists should be aware of the anatomic variations in nerve courses in the cleft area to offer high quality treatment to patients with cleft lip and palate.

  15. General Anesthetic Conditions Induce Network Synchrony and Disrupt Sensory Processing in the Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissek, Thomas; Obenhaus, Horst A; Ditzel, Désirée A W; Nagai, Takeharu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Sprengel, Rolf; Hasan, Mazahir T

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics are commonly used in animal models to study how sensory signals are represented in the brain. Here, we used two-photon (2P) calcium activity imaging with cellular resolution to investigate how neuronal activity in layer 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex is modified under the influence of different concentrations of chemically distinct general anesthetics. Our results show that a high isoflurane dose induces synchrony in local neuronal networks and these cortical activity patterns closely resemble those observed in EEG recordings under deep anesthesia. Moreover, ketamine and urethane also induced similar activity patterns. While investigating the effects of deep isoflurane anesthesia on whisker and auditory evoked responses in the barrel cortex, we found that dedicated spatial regions for sensory signal processing become disrupted. We propose that our isoflurane-2P imaging paradigm can serve as an attractive model system to dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce the anesthetic state, and it might also provide important insight into sleep-like brain states and consciousness. PMID:27147963

  16. Efficacy of epidural local anesthetic and dexamethasone in providing postoperative analgesia: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebaraj, B; Khanna, P; Baidya, DK; Maitra, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dexamethasone is a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiemetic drug. Individual randomized controlled trials found a possible benefit of epidural dexamethasone. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the benefit of epidural dexamethasone on postoperative pain and opioid consumption and to formulate a recommendation for evidence-based practice. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing the analgesic efficacy of epidural local anesthetic and dexamethasone combination, with local anesthetic alone for postoperative pain management after abdominal surgery, were planned to be included in this meta-analysis. PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, and Central Register of Clinical Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL) databases were searched for eligible controlled trials using the following search words: “Epidural”, “dexamethasone”, and “postoperative pain”, until February 20, 2015. Results: Data from five randomized control trials have been included in this meta-analysis. Epidural dexamethasone significantly decreased postoperative morphine consumption (mean difference −7.89 mg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −11.66 to −3.71) and number of patients required postoperative rescue analgesic boluses (risk ratio: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.41-0.63). Conclusion: The present data shows that the addition of dexamethasone to local anesthetic in epidural is beneficial for postoperative pain management. PMID:27375389

  17. The evaluation of the effect of different anesthetic techniques on neonatal bilirubin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskicioğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether different anesthetic techniques applied for vaginal delivery and cesarean section affect neonatal bilirubin levels in the first 24 hours of life .Materials and Methods: A total of 511 neonates delivered by vaginal route or cesarean section were included in the study. The neonates were classified according to method of delivery and anesthetic agents as group A (cesarean section / general anesthesia with sevoflurane, group B (cesarean section / spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine hydrochlorur , group C (vaginal delivery with episiotomy / local anesthesia with prilocaine hydrochloride and group D (vaginal delivery/ no anesthesia . The levels of neonatal serum bilirubin in the groups were compared.Results: There was no difference between group A and group B when compared in terms of neonatal bilirubin levels (p = 0.98. Depending on the use of prilocaine hydrochloride as local anesthetic agent in the vaginal delivery, there was no significant difference between the groups C and D ,who had vaginal delivery, in terms of the neonatal bilirubin levels (p = 0.99. The serum levels of bilirubin in cesarean section groups were significantly higher than those of the vaginal delivery groups (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Prilocaine hydrochloride used for episiotomy is not effective on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, sevoflurane and bupivacaine hydrochloride used in cesarean section seem to be increasing bilirubin levels.

  18. Lipid Emulsions Enhance the Norepinephrine-Mediated Reversal of Local Anesthetic-Induced Vasodilation at Toxic Doses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Hee; Sung, Hui-Jin; Ok, Seong-Ho; Yu, Jongsun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lim, Jin Soo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Intravenous lipid emulsions have been used to treat the systemic toxicity of local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of lipid emulsions on the norepinephrine-mediated reversal of vasodilation induced by high doses of levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta, and to determine whether such effects are associated with the lipid solubility of local anesthetics. Materials and Methods The effects of lipid e...

  19. Does subacromial injection of a local anesthetic influence strength in healthy shoulders?: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad, Mazda; Jundt-Ecker, Michèle; Sutter, Reto; Schubert, Martin; Gerber, Christian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subacromial injection of a local anesthetic is used to eliminate pain as a confounding factor in clinical assessment of abduction strength in shoulders with a suspected rotator cuff tear. If strength remains diminished despite pain relief, a rotator cuff tear is likely. The effect of injecting local anesthetic into the subacromial space on the strength of a normal shoulder is unknown, although it could affect strength by impairing suprascapular or axillary nerve function. We hypot...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF LIGNOCAINE BY SIMULTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL AGONISTS NICORANDIL IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkol Kiran J; Umakant Patil N; Kallappa Shivashankaramurthy G; VinodKumar C.S

    2013-01-01

    There are reports about a possible weak local anaesthetic activity of nicorandil, a potassium channel agonist (PCA). In addition, modification of local anesthetic activity of lignocaine by PCA is not clearly defined. The objective of the present study is to evaluate local anesthetic activity of nicorandil and to evaluate the influence of nicorandil on the efficacy and duration of local anesthesia by lignocaine. A total number of 84 albino rats of either sex were divided into 14 groups of 6 an...

  1. A Comparative Study of Embedded and Anesthetized Zebrafish in vivo on Myocardiac Calcium Oscillation and Heart Muscle Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Muntean, Brian S.; Horvat, Christine M.; Behler, James H.; AbouAlaiwi, Wissam A.; Nauli, Andromeda M.; Williams, Frederick E.; Nauli, Surya M.

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embedded zebr...

  2. A comparative study of embedded and anesthetized zebrafish in vivo on myocardiac calcium oscillation and heart muscle contraction

    OpenAIRE

    AndromedaNauli; FrederickWilliams

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC) and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embed...

  3. Local Anesthetics Induce Apoptosis in Human Thyroid Cancer Cells through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Ching Chang; Yi-Chiung Hsu; Chien-Liang Liu; Shih-Yuan Huang; Meng-Chun Hu; Shih-Ping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 c...

  4. Intraoperative Anesthetic Management of Patients Undergoing Glomus Tumor Resection Using a Low-Dose Isoflurane-Fentanyl Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jellish, W.S.; J Murdoch; Leonetti, J.

    1994-01-01

    Glomus jugulare and vagale tumors present unique problems to both anesthesiologists and surgeons. The anesthetic plant must be tailored to each patient and provide hemodynamic stability, a consistent intraoperative environment, and rapid awakening after prolonged administration. In this report, we describe our anesthetic method used for paraganglioma resection, which utilizes a combination technique of low-dose isoflurane with a narcotic infusion initiated after bolus administration. Results ...

  5. Esmolol reduces anesthetic requirements thereby facilitating early extubation; a prospective controlled study in patients undergoing intracranial surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Asouhidou, Irene; Trikoupi, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate cerebral perfusion pressure with quick and smooth emergence from anesthesia is a major concern of the neuroanesthesiologist. Anesthesia techniques that minimize anesthetic requirements and their effects may be beneficial. Esmolol, a short acting hyperselective β-adrenergic blocker is effective in blunting adrenergic response to several perioperative stimuli and so it might interfere in the effect of the anesthetic drugs on the brain. This study was designed to investigate ...

  6. A comparative study of embedded and anesthetized zebrafish in vivo on myocardiac calcium oscillation and heart muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMuntean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embedded zebrafish. In anesthetized fish, dopamine increases the amplitude of cytosolic calcium oscillation with a subsequent increase in heart contraction, whereas verapamil decreases the frequency of calcium oscillation and heart rate. Interestingly, verapamil also increases myocardial contraction. Our data further indicate that verapamil can increase myocardial calcium sensitivity in anesthetized fish. Taken together, our data reinforce in vivo cardiac responses to dopamine and verapamil. Furthermore, effects of dopamine and verapamil on myocardial calcium and contraction are greater in anesthetized than embedded fish. We suggest that while the zebrafish is an excellent model for a cardiovascular imaging study, the cardio-pharmacological profiles are very different between anesthetized and embedded fish.

  7. In-vitro rescue and recovery studies of human melanoma (BLM) cell growth, adhesion and migration functions after treatment with progesterone

    OpenAIRE

    Leder, Douglas C; Brown, Jason R; Ramaraj, Pandurangan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of human melanoma (BLM) cells for 48 hrs with progesterone resulted in a significant inhibition of cell growth. The mechanism of growth inhibition was due to autophagy and this action of progesterone was not mediated through progesterone receptor. As cells were floating during treatment, adhesion assay was performed, which showed complete loss of adhesion. When cells were allowed to recover after treatment by culturing in growth medium without progesterone, there was recovery in cel...

  8. Analyses of hydrocarbons in BLM sediment intercalibration sample from Santa Barbara basin and spiked with API South Louisiana crude oil. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, J W; Tripp, B W; Sass, J

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report is made of a BLM intercalibration sediment sample from the Santa Barbara basin spiked with South Louisiana crude oil. The two subsamples reported were analyzed by a procedure described in the appendix for which a separate abstract was written. Because of the high oil content of the sediment the usual thin layer chromatography procedure resulted in an overloaded plate. An appendix was indexed separately. (JSR)

  9. Assessment Fargas and BLM Models for Identification of Erosion Degree and Critical Sediment Sources (Case Study: Aghbolagh Drainage Basin, Hashtrood City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Abdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the different areas in drainage basin (as a natural planning unit for occurring the sedimentation and its severity in different phases of basic studies has been always one of the most important purposes of the natural resources experts. For achieving to this purpose some experimental models has been presented that Some of them have high efficiency and others have weaknesses. Fargas and BLM models are used in this research and they are run in Aghbolagh drainage basin in Hashtrood town, East Azarbayjan province with 7.8 km2 area. Fargas model includes only two factors, the rock type erosivity and drainage density in the every rock unit, whereas BLM model includes seven factors; the surface erosion, the litter cover, the rock cover on the surface, the affection of destruction on the surface, the surface rill erosion, the affection of the sedimentation due to the water flow and the amplification of gully erosion. The objective of this research is the handling of these two models for different phases of basic studies in the study area. The results of two models showed, in Fargas model 3.67% area of the basin has high erosion, 14.26% area of the basin has severe erosion and 81.04% has very severe erosion and in BLM model 42.97% area of the basin has moderate erosion and 24.93% has high erosion, therefore 52.85% of the study area in Fargas and BLM models has concurrence in the erosion severity.

  10. Assessment Fargas and BLM Models for Identification of Erosion Degree and Critical Sediment Sources (Case Study: Aghbolagh Drainage Basin, Hashtrood City)

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Abdi; Aliasghar Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the different areas in drainage basin (as a natural planning unit) for occurring the sedimentation and its severity in different phases of basic studies has been always one of the most important purposes of the natural resources experts. For achieving to this purpose some experimental models has been presented that Some of them have high efficiency and others have weaknesses. Fargas and BLM models are used in this research and they are run in Aghbolagh drainage basin in ...

  11. A quest to increase safety of anesthetics by advancements in anesthesia monitoring: scientometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassakov, Kamen V; Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess progress in the field of anesthesia monitoring over the past 40 years using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indexes were used: popularity indexes (general and specific), representing the proportion of articles on either a topic relative to all articles in the field of anesthetics (general popularity index, GPI) or the subfield of anesthesia monitoring (specific popularity index, SPI); index of change (IC), representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic from one period to the next; and index of expectations (IE), representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on 33 anesthesia-monitoring topics were assessed. Our analysis showed that over the past 40 years, the rate of rise in the number of articles on anesthesia monitoring was exponential, with an increase of more than eleven-fold, from 296 articles over the 5-year period 1974-1978 to 3,394 articles for 2009-2013. This rise profoundly exceeded the rate of rise of the number of articles on general anesthetics. The difference was especially evident with the comparison of the related GPIs: stable growth of the GPI for anesthesia monitoring vs constant decline in the GPI for general anesthetics. By the 2009-2013 period, among specific monitoring topics introduced after 1980, the SPI index had a meaningful magnitude (≥1.5) in 9 of 24 topics: Bispectral Index (7.8), Transesophageal Echocardiography (4.2), Electromyography (2.8), Pulse Oximetry (2.4), Entropy (2.3), Train-of-four (2.3), Capnography (1.9), Pulse Contour (1.9), and Electrical Nerve Stimulation for neuromuscular monitoring (1.6). Only one of these topics (Pulse Contour) demonstrated (in 2009-2013) high values for both IC and IE indexes (76 and 16.9, respectively), indicating significant recent progress. We suggest that rapid growth in the field of

  12. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM) Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Leola N.; Schreiner, Petra; Ng, Betina Y. Y.; Lo, Bernard; Hughes, Michael R.; Scott, R. Wilder; Gusti, Vionarica; Lecour, Samantha; Simonson, Eric; Manisali, Irina; Barta, Ingrid; McNagny, Kelly M.; Crawford, Jason; Webb, Murray; Underhill, T. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis. PMID:26998906

  13. Total Glucosides of Danggui Buxue Tang Attenuate BLM-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulating Oxidative Stress by Inhibiting NOX4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis (PF is a serious chronic lung disease with unknown pathogenesis. Researches have confirmed that oxidative stress which is regulated by NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4, a main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS, is an important molecular mechanism underlying PF. Previous studies showed that total glucosides of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBTG, an extract from a classical traditional Chinese herbal formula, Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, attenuated bleomycin-induced PF in rats. However, the mechanisms of DBTG are still not clear. We hypothesize that DBTG attenuates PF through regulating the level of oxidative stress by inhibiting NOX4. And we found that fibrosis indexes hydroxyproline (HYP and type I collagen (Col-I were lower in DBTG groups compared with the model group. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were also much more decreased than the model group. For oxidative stress indicators, DBTG blunted the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-iso-prostaglandin in lung homogenates. Treatment with DBTG restrained the expression of NOX4 compared to the model group. Present study confirms that DBTG inhibits BLM-induced PF by modulating the level of oxidative stress via suppressing NOX4.

  14. Genetic variation in the NBS1, MRE11, RAD50 and BLM genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascoyne Randy D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translocations are hallmarks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL genomes. Because lymphoid cell development processes require the creation and repair of double stranded breaks, it is not surprising that disruption of this type of DNA repair can cause cancer. The members of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN complex and BLM have central roles in maintenance of DNA integrity. Severe mutations in any of these genes cause genetic disorders, some of which are characterized by increased risk of lymphoma. Methods We surveyed the genetic variation in these genes in constitutional DNA of NHL patients by means of gene re-sequencing, then conducted genetic association tests for susceptibility to NHL in a population-based collection of 797 NHL cases and 793 controls. Results 114 SNPs were discovered in our sequenced samples, 61% of which were novel and not previously reported in dbSNP. Although four variants, two in RAD50 and two in NBS1, showed association results suggestive of an effect on NHL, they were not significant after correction for multiple tests. Conclusion These results suggest an influence of RAD50 and NBS1 on susceptibility to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Larger association and functional studies could confirm such a role.

  15. A neuro-inspired model-based closed-loop neuroprosthesis for the substitution of a cerebellar learning function in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogri, Roni; Bamford, Simeon A.; Taub, Aryeh H.; Magal, Ari; Giudice, Paolo Del; Mintz, Matti

    2015-02-01

    Neuroprostheses could potentially recover functions lost due to neural damage. Typical neuroprostheses connect an intact brain with the external environment, thus replacing damaged sensory or motor pathways. Recently, closed-loop neuroprostheses, bidirectionally interfaced with the brain, have begun to emerge, offering an opportunity to substitute malfunctioning brain structures. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate a neuro-inspired model-based approach to neuroprostheses. A VLSI chip was designed to implement essential cerebellar synaptic plasticity rules, and was interfaced with cerebellar input and output nuclei in real time, thus reproducing cerebellum-dependent learning in anesthetized rats. Such a model-based approach does not require prior system identification, allowing for de novo experience-based learning in the brain-chip hybrid, with potential clinical advantages and limitations when compared to existing parametric ``black box'' models.

  16. Enhanced tonic inhibition influences the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics etomidate and propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmannova, Karla; Hines, Rochelle M; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Terunuma, Miho; Tretter, Verena; Jurd, Rachel; Kelz, Max B; Moss, Stephen J; Davies, Paul A

    2013-04-24

    Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition is mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of α1-3βγ2 subunits, whereas tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from α4-6βδ subunits. To explore the contribution that these distinct forms of inhibition play in mediating intravenous anesthesia, we have used mice in which tyrosine residues 365/7 within the γ2 subunit are mutated to phenyalanines (Y365/7F). Here we demonstrate that this mutation leads to increased accumulation of the α4 subunit containing GABAARs in the thalamus and dentate gyrus of female Y365/7F but not male Y365/7F mice. Y365/7F mice exhibited a gender-specific enhancement of tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus that was more sensitive to modulation by the anesthetic etomidate, together with a deficit in long-term potentiation. Consistent with this, female Y365/7F, but not male Y365/7F, mice exhibited a dramatic increase in the duration of etomidate- and propofol-mediated hypnosis. Moreover, the amnestic actions of etomidate were selectively potentiated in female Y365/7F mice. Collectively, these observations suggest that potentiation of tonic inhibition mediated by α4 subunit containing GABAARs contributes to the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics, etomidate and propofol. PMID:23616535

  17. Influence of anesthetic regimens on the perioperative catecholamine response associated with onychectomy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H C; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Olson, W A; Bevill, R F

    1993-10-01

    Plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to onychectomy were examined in 27 cats receiving different anesthetic regimens. Each cat was anesthetized with a dissociative-tranquilizer combination, and onychectomy was performed on 1 forefoot. One week later, each cat was anesthetized with the same dissociative-tranquilizer combination plus either butorphanol or oxymorphone, and onychectomy was performed on the other forefoot. Four treatment groups were studied: tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-1 cats, ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-2 cats, tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-3 cats, and ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-4 cats. All drug combinations were administered IM. Central venous blood samples were drawn for catecholamine analysis after injection of drug(s), after onychectomy, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection. Tiletamine-zolazepam alone or tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol prevented epinephrine release for 2 hours after injection of drug(s). Norepinephrine concentration increased significantly (P onychectomy for tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and at 4 hours for tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol. After onychectomy, there was no difference in epinephrine values between tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone. Ketamine-acepromazine prevented increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations for up to 2 hours after surgery. Addition of butorphanol to ketamine-acepromazine decreased norepinephrine values immediately after onychectomy. Addition of oxymorphone to ketamine-acepromazine resulted in lower epinephrine values 4 hours after surgery. PMID:8250399

  18. Can children undergoing ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia be safely anesthetized without using an IV line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigoda M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael M Vigoda, Azeema Latiff, Timothy G Murray, Jacqueline L Tutiven, Audina M Berrocal, Steven GayerBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To document that with proper patient and procedure selection, children undergoing general inhalational anesthesia for ophthalmologic exams (with or without photos, ultrasound, laser treatment, peri-ocular injection of chemotherapy, suture removal, and/or replacement of ocular prosthesis can be safely anesthetized without the use of an intravenous (IV line. Children are rarely anesthetized without IV access placement. We performed a retrospective study to determine our incidence of IV access placement during examinations under anesthesia (EUA and the incidence of adverse events that required intraoperative IV access placement.Methods: Data collected from our operating room (OR information system includes but is not limited to diagnosis, anesthesiologist, surgeon, and location of IV catheter (if applicable, patient’s date of birth, actual procedure, and anesthesia/procedure times. We reviewed the OR and anesthetic records of children (>1 month and <10 years who underwent EUAs between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2009. We determined the percentage of children who were anesthetized without IV access placement, as well as the incidence of any adverse events that required IV access placement, intraoperatively.Results: We analyzed data from 3196 procedures performed during a 77-month period. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 month to 9 years. Overall, 92% of procedures were performed without IV access placement. Procedure duration ranged from 1–39 minutes. Reasons for IV access placement included parental preference for antinausea medication and/or attending preference for IV access placement. No child who underwent anesthesia without an IV line had an intraoperative adverse event requiring insertion of an IV line.Conclusion: Our data suggest that for

  19. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  20. Mechanisms of pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression and antinociception in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoko; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Haji, Akira

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to clarify mechanisms underlying pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression and antinociception. Spontaneous ventilation and hind leg withdrawal response against nociceptive thermal stimulation were simultaneously recorded in anesthetized rats. Pentazocine decreased minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow, and prolonged the latency of withdrawal response. Pre-treatment of β-funaltorexamine, but not nor-binaltorphimine, significantly attenuated pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression, while either antagonist weakened its analgesic potency. Comparing with effects of fentanyl and U50488, the present results suggest that ventilatory depression induced by pentazocine is mediated by mainly μ receptors and analgesia by both μ and κ receptors. PMID:27021234

  1. Enhanced tonic inhibition influences the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics etomidate and propofol

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmannova, Karla; Hines, Rochelle M; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Terunuma, Miho; Tretter, Verena; Jurd, Rachel; Kelz, Max B.; Moss, Stephen J.; Davies, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition are mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of α1-3βγ2 subunits, while tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from α4-6βδ subunits. To explore the contribution that these distinct forms of inhibition play in mediating intravenous a...

  2. Anesthetic potency and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in goats: comparison with isoflurane and halothane.

    OpenAIRE

    Hikasa, Y.; Okuyama, K; Kakuta, T; Takase, K.; Ogasawara, S

    1998-01-01

    The anesthetic potency and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane were compared with those of isoflurane and halothane in goats. The (mean +/- SD) minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) was 0.96 +/- 0.12% for halothane, 1.29 +/- 0.11% for isoflurane, and 2.33 +/- 0.15% for sevoflurane. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane were examined at end-tidal concentrations equivalent to 1, 1.5 and 2 MAC during either spontaneous or controlled ventilation (SV or CV). During SV,...

  3. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

    OpenAIRE

    L.E.A. Troncon; A.A. Santos; V.L. Garbacio; M. Secaf; A.V. Verceze; Cunha-Melo, J R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a fraction (T1) of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg) or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g) labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq) was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals wer...

  4. Differential Effects of Anesthetics on Cocaine’s Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects in Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Congwu; Tully, Melissa; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffer, Wynne K; Yu, Mei; Luo, Zhongchi; Koretsky, Alan P.; Benveniste, Helene

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of cocaine’s effects on brain activity in laboratory animals are preformed under anesthesia, which could potentially affect the physiological responses to cocaine. Here we assessed the effects of two commonly used anesthetics (α-chloralose and isofluorane) on the effects of acute cocaine (1 mg/kg iv) on cerebral-blood-flow (CBF), cerebral-blood-volume (CBV), and tissue-hemoglobin-oxygenation (StO2) using optical techniques and cocaine’s pharmacokinetics and binding in the rat bra...

  5. Anesthetic management for separation of thoracopagus twins with complex congenital heart disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Misook; Chung, In-Sun; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Oh, Ji Mi; Shin, Won-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Although thoracopagus twins joined at the upper chest are the most common type of conjoined twins, the separation surgery in these cases has a higher mortality rate. Here, we describe an anesthetic management approach for the separation of thoracopagus conjoined twins sharing parts of a congenitally defective heart and liver. We emphasize the importance of vigilant intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring for early detection of unexpected events. Specifically, real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy allowed us to promptly detect cardiac arrest and hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:26045935

  6. Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, R W

    1976-04-14

    Cats with one normal eye and one eye with experimental glaucoma were trained to tolerate tonometry while conscious. They were then given the general anesthetic agents pentobarbital, ketamine, and CI-744 in the lowest and twice the lowest dosages which permitted tonometry in untrained cats. Pentobarbital lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 20-50%. Ketamine raised IOP by about 10%. CI-744 had essentially no effect on IOP. The two conpoments of CI-744, tiletamine (CI-634) and zolazepam (CI-716) were given individually in the doses in which they had been given as part of CI-744. Tiletamine had no effect on IOP, while zolazepam lowered IOP by about 10%. PMID:1083696

  7. Utility of CT scanning in anesthetic management for the patients with stenosis of the trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anesthetic management of six cases with tracheal stenosis due to goiter or mediastinal tumor was discussed in this paper. After evaluating not only the size and the transient shape of the trachea but also the quality and quantity of the tumor around the trachea by CT scanning, we could choose the optimal way of introduction and the size of endotracheal tube. If extreme stenosis of the trachea was revealed by CT scanning, awake intubation is preferred to prevent complications, which tended to occur during and after the induction of anesthesia with thiopental and succinylcholine chloride. (author)

  8. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula

    2016-01-01

    Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the

  9. Evaluation of the anesthetic effects of MS222 in the adult Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zullian,1 Aurore Dodelet-Devillers,1 Stéphane Roy,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2Département de Stomatologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is a unique research model in several fields of medicine, where surgical and invasive procedures may be required. As yet, little is known about the efficacy of MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, which is the most commonly used anesthetic agent in amphibians. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anesthetic effects and physiological changes in adult axolotls following a 20-minute immersion bath, containing progressive MS222 concentrations starting at 0.1%. Depth of anesthesia and physiological changes were evaluated every 15 minutes post-MS222 exposure with the following parameters: righting behavior, withdrawal reflex, acetic acid test response, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as cloacal and body surface temperatures. A 20-minute exposure in a 0.1% MS222 immersion bath (n=6 animals had no anesthetic effects on adult axolotls after 20 minutes of exposure. With a 0.2% MS222 solution, all axolotls (n=9 were deeply anesthetized at 15 minutes, and 80% were still unresponsive at 30 minutes postexposure. Blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were slightly, but significantly, increased when compared with the baseline value and remained stable up to recovery. There was no significant increase in surface and cloaca temperatures, compared with baseline. With the 0.4% MS222 solution, the duration of anesthesia lasted for 90 minutes to at least 120 minutes (n=3 animals and this concentration was deemed too high. In conclusion, a 20-minute immersion bath with 0.2% MS222 may be used for short procedures (15–30 minutes requiring anesthesia of adult axolotls. Keywords: Ambystoma mexicanum

  10. Anesthetic management in a pediatric patient with Noonan syndrome, hypopituitarism and hypothyroidism: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Yektaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome is a genetically transmitted autosomaldominant disorder characterized by various anatomicanomalies and pathophysiologic derangements. Associatedanomalies include hyperthelorism, ptosis, micrognathia,downward sloping palpebral fissures, low-set ears,abnormal helix of ear, deeply grooved philtrum, short and/or webbed neck, low hairline and cervical vertebral anomalies.Patients with Noonan syndrome are known to presentwith challenging airways. Tracheal intubation can bedifficult because of airway and cervical vertebral anomaliesand bag mask ventilation may be difficult because ofasymmetrical face. We present a case of anesthetic managementfor Noonan syndrome. J Clin Exp Invest 2013;4 (2: 238-241Key words: Anesthesia, general, noonan syndrome, airwaymanagement

  11. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC. PMID:25148635

  12. Effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grome, J.J.; McCulloch, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine effected significant increases in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS, and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS. In rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate, the effects of apomorphine upon local glucose utilization were less widespread and less marked than in conscious animals. The profound effects of chloral hydrate anesthesia upon local cerebral glucose use, and the modification by this anesthetic regime of the local metabolic responses to apomorphine, emphasize the difficulties which exists in the extrapolation of data from anesthetized animals to the conditions which prevail in the conscious animal.

  13. Intraoperative anesthetic management of patients undergoing glomus tumor resection using a low-dose isoflurane-fentanyl technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W S; Murdoch, J; Leonetti, J

    1994-01-01

    Glomus jugulare and vagale tumors present unique problems to both anesthesiologists and surgeons. The anesthetic plant must be tailored to each patient and provide hemodynamic stability, a consistent intraoperative environment, and rapid awakening after prolonged administration. In this report, we describe our anesthetic method used for paraganglioma resection, which utilizes a combination technique of low-dose isoflurane with a narcotic infusion initiated after bolus administration. Results from the last three patients anesthetized by this "balanced" technique were compared to a similar patient who received isoflurane anesthesia exclusively for a major portion of the surgical procedure. The patients receiving the balanced anesthesia required no hemodynamic support during the procedure and were awakened within 15 to 25 minutes of surgical completion. The patient receiving high-dose isoflurane, however, had a prolonged anesthetic wake-up time and did not follow verbal commands for approximately 12 hours after surgical completion. This patient also required hemodynamic support with a phenylephrine infusion during tumor resection. The balanced technique seems to be superior to a straight inhalational technique. Neurological assessment and intubation times after prolonged surgery were reduced with superb hemodynamic stability throughout. This anesthetic method produces a stable intraoperative environment and provides deep surgical anesthesia during periods when muscle relaxants cannot be utilized. PMID:17170932

  14. Local anesthetics after total knee arthroplasty: intraarticular or extraarticular administration? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Kristensen, B.B.; Husted, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-volume local infiltration analgesia with additional intraarticular and wound administration of local anesthetic has been shown to be effective after knee replacement, but the optimum site of administration of the local anesthetic (i.e. intraarticular or extraarticular) has not been......, during flexion, or straight leg lift was not statistically significantly different between the two groups, but there was a tendency of improved analgesia with administration of additional local anesthetic in the extraarticular wound space. INTERPRETATION: The optimal site of administration of local...... evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 32 patients undergoing total knee replacement with high-volume (170 mL) 0.2% ropivacaine infiltration analgesia were randomized to receive injection of 20 mL ropivacaine (0.2%) intraarticularly plus 30 mL saline in the extraarticular wound space 24 hours postoperatively or...

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Pain Scores during Periodontal Probing with or without Anesthetic Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, Mandapathi; Pradeep, Koppolu; Reddy Pathakota, Krishnajaneya

    2016-01-01

    Context. The initial periodontal examination which includes full-mouth periodontal probing is one of the discomforting procedures for a patient. Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of two local anesthetic gels in the reduction of pain during periodontal probing using Florida probe in CGP patients in comparison with manual probing. Materials and Methods. Ninety systemically healthy patients with moderate to severe CGP patients were recruited. In each patient, the quadrants were randomly assigned to manual probing with UNC-15 probe, probing with Florida probe, and Florida probing with lidocaine 10% gel and with benzocaine 20% gel. In the quadrants undergoing probing with anesthetic gels, the sites were isolated and the gel was injected using syringe and a blunt-end cannula. Pain was measured using 10 mm horizontal VAS. Statistical Analysis. The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. The comparison of mean VAS scores was done using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. Mean VAS for manual probing was significantly more than Florida probing. Further, the mean VAS score for Florida probing was higher than the two gels. Conclusion. It is suggested that the gels might be useful in reducing pain experienced during full-mouth periodontal probing in patients with CGP. PMID:27034662

  16. A Quantile Regression Approach to Estimating the Distribution of Anesthetic Procedure Time during Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Lun Wu

    Full Text Available Although procedure time analyses are important for operating room management, it is not easy to extract useful information from clinical procedure time data. A novel approach was proposed to analyze procedure time during anesthetic induction. A two-step regression analysis was performed to explore influential factors of anesthetic induction time (AIT. Linear regression with stepwise model selection was used to select significant correlates of AIT and then quantile regression was employed to illustrate the dynamic relationships between AIT and selected variables at distinct quantiles. A total of 1,060 patients were analyzed. The first and second-year residents (R1-R2 required longer AIT than the third and fourth-year residents and attending anesthesiologists (p = 0.006. Factors prolonging AIT included American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status ≧ III, arterial, central venous and epidural catheterization, and use of bronchoscopy. Presence of surgeon before induction would decrease AIT (p < 0.001. Types of surgery also had significant influence on AIT. Quantile regression satisfactorily estimated extra time needed to complete induction for each influential factor at distinct quantiles. Our analysis on AIT demonstrated the benefit of quantile regression analysis to provide more comprehensive view of the relationships between procedure time and related factors. This novel two-step regression approach has potential applications to procedure time analysis in operating room management.

  17. Topical amethocaine (Ametop) is superior to EMLA for intravenous cannulation. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) is commonly used to provide topical anesthesia for intravenous (i.v.) cannulation. One of its side effects is vasoconstriction, which may render cannulation more difficult. A gel formulation of amethocaine (Ametop) is now commercially available. The aim of this study was to compare EMLA and Ametop with regard to the degree of topical anesthesia afforded, the incidence of vasoconstriction and the ease of i.v. cannulation. METHODS: Thirty two ASA I adult volunteers had a #16 gauge i.v. cannula inserted on two separate occasions using EMLA and Ametop applied in a double blind fashion for topical anesthesia. Parameters that were recorded after each cannulation included visual analogue pain scores (VAPS), the presence of vasoconstriction and the ease of cannulation, graded as: 1 = easy, 2 = moderately difficult, 3 = difficult and 4 = failed. RESULTS: The mean VAPS +\\/- SD after cannulation with Ametop M was 12+\\/-9.9 and with EMLA was 25.3+\\/-16.6 (P = 0.002). Vasoconstriction occurred after EMLA application on 17 occasions and twice after Ametop (P = 0.001). The grade of difficulty of cannulation was 1.44+\\/-0.88 following EMLA and 1.06+\\/-0.25 with Ametop (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous cannulation was less painful following application of Ametop than EMLA. In addition, Ametop caused less vasoconstriction and facilitated easier cannulation. Its use as a topical anesthetic agent is recommended, especially when i.v. access may be problematic.

  18. Mutant bacterial sodium channels as models for local anesthetic block of eukaryotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie E; Corry, Ben

    2016-05-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels are the target of a range of local anesthetic, anti-epileptic and anti-arrhythmic compounds. But, gaining a molecular level understanding of their mode of action is difficult as we only have atomic resolution structures of bacterial sodium channels not their eukaryotic counterparts. In this study we used molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that the binding sites of both the local anesthetic benzocaine and the anti-epileptic phenytoin to the bacterial sodium channel NavAb can be altered significantly by the introduction of point mutations. Free energy techniques were applied to show that increased aromaticity in the pore of the channel, used to emulate the aromatic residues observed in eukaryotic Nav1.2, led to changes in the location of binding and dissociation constants of each drug relative to wild type NavAb. Further, binding locations and dissociation constants obtained for both benzocaine (660 μM) and phenytoin (1 μ M) in the mutant channels were within the range expected from experimental values obtained from drug binding to eukaryotic sodium channels, indicating that these mutant NavAb may be a better model for drug binding to eukaryotic channels than the wild type. PMID:26852716

  19. Recovery from desflurane anesthesia in horses with and without post-anesthetic xylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Turi K; Bednarski, Richard M; Bertone, Alicia L; Hubbell, John A E; Lerche, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare recovery from desflurane anesthesia in horses with or without post-anesthetic xylazine. Six adult horses were anesthetized on 2 occasions, 14 d apart using a prospective, randomized crossover design. Horses were sedated with xylazine, induced to lateral recumbency with ketamine and diazepam, and anesthesia was maintained with desflurane. One of 2 treatments was administered intravenously at the end of anesthesia: xylazine [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or an equivalent volume of saline. Recovery parameters were recorded and assessed by 2 blinded observers. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze recovery data. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gas data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. Values of P stand, and standing. Number of attempts to stand and quality of recovery scores were not different between groups. Administering xylazine after desflurane anesthesia resulted in longer recovery times. Recovery scores were not significantly different between groups. PMID:24688171

  20. New Updates Pertaining to Drug Delivery of Local Anesthetics in Particular Bupivacaine Using Lipid Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Eatemadi, Ali; Karimi, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (liposomes) were first described in 1965, and several work have led to development of important technical advances like triggered release liposomes and drug-loaded liposomes. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas such as the delivery of anti-cancer, antifungal, and antibiotic drugs; the delivery of gene medicines; and most importantly the delivery of anesthesia drugs. Quite a number of liposomes are on the market, and many more are still in developmental stage. Lipid nanoparticles are the first nano-medicine delivery system to be advanced from laboratory concept to clinical application with high considerable clinical acceptance. Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics (LAs) have caught the interest of many researchers because there are many biomedical advantages connected to their application. There have been several formulation techniques to systemically deliver LA that include encapsulation in liposomes and complexation in cyclodextrins, nanoparticles, and to a little extent gold nanoparticles. The proposed formulations help to decrease the LA concentration utilized, increase its permeability, and most importantly increase the localization of the LA for a long period of time thereby leading to increase in the duration of the LA effect and finally to reduce any local and systemic toxicity. In this review, we will highlight on new updates pertaining to drug delivery of local anesthetics in particular bupivacaine using lipid nanoparticles.

  1. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40% had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%, except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  2. Myocardial perfusion of infarcted and normal myocardium in propofol-anesthetized minipigs using (82)Rubidium PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Follin, Bjarke; Kastrup, Jens; Christensen, Thomas Emil; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) positron-emission-tomography (PET) is a good method for quantification of myocardial blood flow in man. Quantification of myocardial blood flow in animals to evaluate new treatment strategies or to understand underlying disease is also of great interest but raises some challenges. Animals, which have been anesthetized during PET acquisition, might react differently to used stress medications, and therefore difficulties might exist while evaluating the resulting PET images using standard software packages from commercial vendors optimized for human hearts. Furthermore propofol, used for anesthesia, can influence myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve due to its vasorelaxant effect, and interactions might exist between propofol and used stress agents, potentially affecting the result of the examination. We present cardiac (82)Rb-PET studies performed in propofol-anesthetized minipigs with normal and infarcted myocardium stressed with both adenosine and dipyridamole. Despite the mentioned challenges, we were able to trace the small minipig heart with software designed for human cardiac PET and to achieve blood flow measurements comparable with results in humans with both adenosine and dipyridamole. We found dipyridamole to be a superior stress agent for this experimental setup. Finally, we were able to clearly identify the myocardial perfusion defect after an induced myocardial infarction. PMID:26931633

  3. Clinical features and anesthetic management of multiple endocrine neoplasia as sociated with pheochromocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗爱伦; 郭向阳; 任洪智; 黄宇光; 叶铁虎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical features and anesthetic management of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) associated with pheochromocytoma.Methods Medical records of patients who were diagnosed as multiple endocrine neoplasia a ssociated with pheochromocytoma in our hospital from April 1977 to April 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic data, clinical presentations, fami ly history, biochemical examinations, type of MEN, sequence of different surgica l procedures, anesthetic methods and hemodynamics during surgery were analyzed. Results Thirteen cases of MEN associated with pheochromocytoma were investigated, accounting for 6% (13/213) of the pheochromocytoma patients admitted into our hospital. Nine of the 13 patients presented as type Ⅱa MEN (Sipple syndrome), on e as type Ⅱb MEN, and three as mixed MEN. Four patients with typeⅡa MEN had a family history of similar disease. Five patients with other coexisting endocri ne disorders first underwent excision of the pheochromocytomas, although only tw o had hypertensive symptoms at the time of admittance. Seven patients without h istories of hypertension received surgical treatment for pheochromocytoma second ly. The excision of pheochromocytoma was performed under general anesthesia in 8 patients and epidural block in 4 patients. Marked hemodynamic fluctuation was recorded in 8 patients. No perioperative death was recorded. Conclusion Pheochromocytoma may be linked to other endocrine disorders during MEN, either as the main clinical presentation or most frequently as an occult tumor. Recognition of this feature of pheochromocytoma is of importance to the improvement of diagnosis and treatment both for pheochromocytoma and MEN.

  4. Calcium and protons affect the interaction of neurotransmitters and anesthetics with anionic lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2016-09-01

    We study how zwitterionic and anionic biomembrane models interact with neurotransmitters (NTs) and anesthetics (ATs) in the presence of Ca(2+) and different pH conditions. As NTs we used acetylcholine (ACh), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and l-glutamic acid (LGlu). As ATs, tetracaine (TC), and pentobarbital (PB) were employed. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we analyzed the changes such molecules produce in the thermal properties of the membranes. We found that calcium and pH play important roles in the interactions of NTs and ATs with the anionic lipid membranes. Changes in pH promote deprotonation of the phosphate groups in anionic phospholipids inducing electrostatic interactions between them and NTs; but if Ca(2+) ions are in the system, these act as bridges. Such interactions impact the physical properties of the membranes in a similar manner that anesthetics do. Beyond the usual biochemical approach, we claim that these effects should be taken into account to understand the excitatory-inhibitory orchestrated balance in the nervous system. PMID:27362370

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Pain Scores during Periodontal Probing with or without Anesthetic Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashank Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. The initial periodontal examination which includes full-mouth periodontal probing is one of the discomforting procedures for a patient. Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of two local anesthetic gels in the reduction of pain during periodontal probing using Florida probe in CGP patients in comparison with manual probing. Materials and Methods. Ninety systemically healthy patients with moderate to severe CGP patients were recruited. In each patient, the quadrants were randomly assigned to manual probing with UNC-15 probe, probing with Florida probe, and Florida probing with lidocaine 10% gel and with benzocaine 20% gel. In the quadrants undergoing probing with anesthetic gels, the sites were isolated and the gel was injected using syringe and a blunt-end cannula. Pain was measured using 10 mm horizontal VAS. Statistical Analysis. The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. The comparison of mean VAS scores was done using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. Mean VAS for manual probing was significantly more than Florida probing. Further, the mean VAS score for Florida probing was higher than the two gels. Conclusion. It is suggested that the gels might be useful in reducing pain experienced during full-mouth periodontal probing in patients with CGP.

  6. Effect of Lidocaine-Ketamine Infusions Combined with Morphine or Fentanyl in Sevoflurane-Anesthetized Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Michela; Canfrán, Susana; Largo, Carlota; Gómez de Segura, Ignacioa A

    2016-01-01

    Providing lidocaine, ketamine, and an opioid greatly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetics in dogs. However, the efficacy of this combination shows marked interspecies variation, and opioids are likely to be less effective in pigs than in other species. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of constant-rate infusion of lidocaine and ketamine combined with either morphine or fentanyl on the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs. In a prospective, randomized, crossover design, 8 healthy crossbred pigs were premedicated with ketamine and midazolam, and anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Pigs then received ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/h) and lidocaine (3 mg/kg/h) combined with either morphine (0.24 mg/kg/h; MLK) or fentanyl (0.0045 mg/kg/h; FLK) after a loading dose; the control group received Ringers lactate solution. The anesthetic-sparing action of the 2 infusion protocols was calculated according to the MAC, by using dewclaw clamping as the standard noxious stimulus. The sevoflurane MAC (mean ± 1 SD) was 2.0% ± 0.2%, 1.9% ± 0.4%, and 1.8% ± 0.2% in the control, MLK, and FLK groups, respectively. No differences among groups or treatments were found. In conclusion, the administration of MLK or FLK at the studied doses did not reduce the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs. PMID:27177566

  7. Do the Concentration and Volume of Local Anesthetics Affect the Onset and Success of Infraclavicular Anesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaffa, Faramarz; Gharaei, Babak; Qoreishi, Mohammad; Razavi, Sajjad; Safari, Farhad; Fathi, Mohammad; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Elyasi, Hedayatollah; Hosseini, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although local anesthesia is a suitable method for upper limb surgeries, there is debate regarding the effects of appropriate dosing. Objectives: In the current study, we investigated the effects of the concentration and volume of a local anesthetic on the beginning and quality of anesthesia during upper limb orthopedic surgeries. Patients and Methods: This double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients aged between 18 and 85 years candidated for upper limb orthopedic operations. The patients were equally and randomly distributed into two groups (n = 30). Under ultrasound imaging guidance, the first group received 7 mL of 2% lidocaine and the second group 10 mL of 1.3% lidocaine into the brachial plexus cords. The onset of block and the level of sensory and motor block were documented for each nerve territory. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly shorter in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group (P ≤ 0.05). The success rate of sensory and motor block was not different. The quality (completeness) of sensory block for the musculocutaneous nerve and that of motor block for the radial nerve were significantly better in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group. Conclusions: The volume of the injected anesthetic accelerated the onset of sensory and motor block without affecting the rate of success in our patients. PMID:26473102

  8. New Updates Pertaining to Drug Delivery of Local Anesthetics in Particular Bupivacaine Using Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Eatemadi, Ali; Karimi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (liposomes) were first described in 1965, and several work have led to development of important technical advances like triggered release liposomes and drug-loaded liposomes. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas such as the delivery of anti-cancer, antifungal, and antibiotic drugs; the delivery of gene medicines; and most importantly the delivery of anesthesia drugs. Quite a number of liposomes are on the market, and many more are still in developmental stage. Lipid nanoparticles are the first nano-medicine delivery system to be advanced from laboratory concept to clinical application with high considerable clinical acceptance. Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics (LAs) have caught the interest of many researchers because there are many biomedical advantages connected to their application. There have been several formulation techniques to systemically deliver LA that include encapsulation in liposomes and complexation in cyclodextrins, nanoparticles, and to a little extent gold nanoparticles. The proposed formulations help to decrease the LA concentration utilized, increase its permeability, and most importantly increase the localization of the LA for a long period of time thereby leading to increase in the duration of the LA effect and finally to reduce any local and systemic toxicity. In this review, we will highlight on new updates pertaining to drug delivery of local anesthetics in particular bupivacaine using lipid nanoparticles. PMID:27342601

  9. Coupling of albumin flux to volume flow in skin and muscles of anesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with 131I or 125I was injected intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats, and tracer clearances into leg skin and muscles were measured over 30, 60, and 120 min. BSA labeled with the alternate tracer was used as vascular volume reference. Two minutes before injection of the tracer, a ligature was tied around one femoral vein to occlude outflow partially and raise capillary pressure in that leg. The unoccluded leg served as control. Skin and muscles of the occluded leg had variably and substantially higher water contents (delta W) than paired control tissues and slightly but consistently increased albumin clearances (CA). The delta CA/delta W, equivalent to the albumin concentration of capillary filtrate relative to plasma determined by linear regression, were as follows: leg skin 0.004 (95% confidence limits -0.001 to +0.009), muscle biceps femoris 0.005 (0.001-0.010), muscle gastrocnemius 0.011 (0.004-0.019), muscle tibialis anterior 0.016 (0.012-0.021). All these values are significantly less than 0.10, which corresponds to a reflection coefficient for serum albumin (sigma A) of 0.90. Convective coupling of albumin flux to volume flux in skin and muscles of intact, anesthetized rats is low, with sigma AS in the range 0.98 to greater than 0.99

  10. HEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED CAPTIVE TASMANIAN DEVILS (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Katharine L; Peck, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population has decreased by estimates of 80% in the past 20 yr due to the effects of devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). In the process of creating a DFTD-free insurance population, the captive population and the number of institutions housing devils worldwide has increased tremendously. In order to provide the best husbandry and veterinary care for these captive animals, it is essential to know normal hematology and biochemistry values for the species. Baseline reference intervals (RIs) were determined for hematology and biochemistry variables for 170 healthy anesthetized captive Tasmanian devils and significant sex and age differences were determined. Higher relative neutrophil counts, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and cholesterol were seen in males compared to females, whereas higher white cell counts (WBC) and lymphocyte counts (absolute and relative) were seen in females. Subadults have higher red blood cell counts, WBC, lymphocytes (absolute and relative), calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose, and albumin than adults; whereas, adults have higher relative neutrophils, relative eosinophils, mean corpuscular volume, MCH, platelets, total solids, total plasma proteins, globulins, and chloride than subadults. This study provides a comprehensive report of hematology and serum biochemistry RIs for healthy captive anesthetized Tasmanian devils and offers invaluable diagnostic information to care for the growing captive population of this endangered marsupial. PMID:27468030

  11. Anesthetic Management of a Parturient Undergoing Cesarean Section with a Tracheal Tumor and Hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuet-Tong Ng

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of a parturient with respiratory failure associated with hemoptysis,dyspnea, and orthopnea is difficult. An anesthesiologist should realize that the patient'smajor problem is not solved during the surgery. This circumstance is similar to a patientwith associated cardiac disease scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. General anesthesia withendotracheal intubation can provide safe oxygenation for both the parturient and the fetus,but with possible unexpected massive hemoptysis and tumor seeding. Prolonged intubationmay delay the patient's pulmonary treatment course. Laryngeal mask anesthesia can providean airway, but must not be secured due to the risk of aspiration. The need of high doses ofinhalation drugs may hinder uterine contractions. The addition of a muscle relaxant willchange the patient's respiratory patterns and physiology. Regional anesthesia alone mightnot be tolerated. A decrease in cough strength, as well as dyspnea, orthopnea, and hyperventilationmay be harmful to both the parturient and the fetus. However, we successfullymanaged this case using epidural anesthesia combined with assisted mask ventilation insteadof spontaneous breathing usually provided by a simple mask in almost all American Societyof Anesthesiology (ASA class I-II parturients during cesarean section. The anesthetic levelwas maintained at T8 with 18 ml of 2% Xylocaine mixed with 2 ml of 7% sodium bicarbonatewith 1:200,000 epinephrine epidurally and with the patient in a supine position with thehead up at 30o to prevent cephalic spreading and to ensure better pulmonary ventilation.

  12. A survey to access knowledge and practice among dentists regarding local anesthetic dosage in three cities of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in routine dentistry. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Many dentists use these drugs routinely but are unaware of the dose calculations required and the maximum safe and effective dose of the drug. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge that general dental practitioners and dental specialists, in three different cities in India, have regarding dose calculations and the maximum-dose required of the most commonly used local anesthetics. A one page survey questionnaire was used in this study and data were analyzed using standard SPSS statistical program version 11, software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The respondents comprised 71.4% general dental practitioners and 28.5% dental specialists, with ages ranging from 26 to 50 years; Nearly 75% of the total respondent was males and 25% females. Nearly 69% of the respondents were unaware of the maximum recommended dose for use on adult, healthy patients and 81% were still confused about the maximum numbers of syringes containing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline that can be given to a patient. A total of 49% of general dental practitioners and specialists do not perform aspiration when injecting local anesthetics, whereas only 38% performed the aspiration in inferior nerve block technique, while only 12% performed aspiration in all types of injection techniques. A high percentage of the dentists (84% who responded are unaware of how to calculate the local anesthetic dose and 31% of them encountered complications during, or after, local anesthetic administration. Conclusion: General practitioners and dental specialists appear to have an inadequate knowledge about local anesthetics maximum-dose and dose calculations; further educational courses are recommended to update them regarding such

  13. Use of continuous local anesthetic infusion in the management of postoperative split-thickness skin graft donor site pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jorge L Reguero; Savetamal, Alisa; Crombie, Roselle E; Cholewczynski, Walter; Atweh, Nabil; Possenti, Paul; Schulz, John T

    2013-01-01

    Donor sites from split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) impose significant pain on patients in the early postoperative period. We report the use of continuous local anesthetic infusion as a method for the management of postoperative STSG donor site pain. Patients undergoing single or dual, adjacent STSG harvest from the thigh (eight patients) or back (one patient) were included in this study. Immediately after STSG harvest, subcutaneous catheters were placed for continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Daily donor site-specific pain severity scores were prospectively recorded in nine patients receiving local anesthetic infusion. Patient characteristics, technical aspects, and postoperative complications were identified in the study. The thigh was the anatomic location chosen for most donor sites. A single catheter was placed for donor sites limited to 4 inches in width or less. A dual catheter system was used for those wider than 4 inches. An elastomeric pump delivered continuously a total of 4 ml/hr of a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine. The average anesthetic infusion duration was 3.1 days. A substantial decrease in worst, least, and average donor site pain scores was found from the first 24 hours to the second postoperative day in our patients, a treatment trend that continued through postoperative day 3. One patient developed minor anesthetic leakage from the catheter insertion site; and in three cases, accidental dislodgement of the catheters occurred. There were no cases of donor site secondary infection. All donor sites were completely epithelialized at 1-month follow-up. Continuous local anesthetic infusion is technically feasible and may represent an option for postoperative donor site pain control after STSG harvesting. Relative cost-benefit of the technique remains to be determined. PMID:23271060

  14. Local anesthesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a study comparing eutetic mixture of local anesthetics cream and lidocaine infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Miskowiak, J; Mogensen, P;

    1992-01-01

    A study of the anesthetic efficacy of a eutetic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA cream) versus lidocaine infiltration in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was done. A total of 46 patients had 30 gm. of EMLA cream applied to the skin over the kidney and 45 had subcutaneous infiltration...... analgesics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to post-ESWL skin changes. Therefore, EMLA cream can be recommended for ESWL provided it is applied correctly....

  15. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  16. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, F Aura; Wells, Grace I; Langdale, Christopher L; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  17. Anesthetic complications including two cases of postoperative respiratory depression in living liver donor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beebe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living liver donation is becoming a more common means to treat patients with liver failure because of a shortage of cadaveric organs and tissues. There is a potential for morbidity and mortality, however, in patients who donate a portion of their liver. The purpose of this study is to identify anesthetic complications and morbidity resulting from living liver donor surgery. Patients and Methods: The anesthetic records of all patients who donated a segment of their liver between January 1997 and January 2006 at University of Minnesota Medical Center-Fairview were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical and anesthesia time, blood loss, hospitalization length, complications, morbidity, and mortality were recorded. Data were reported as absolute values, mean ± SD, or percentage. Significance (P < 0.05 was determined using Student′s paired t tests. Results: Seventy-four patients (34 male, 40 female, mean age = 35.5 ± 9.8 years donated a portion of their liver and were reviewed in the study. Fifty-seven patients (77% donated the right hepatic lobe, while 17 (23% donated a left hepatic segment. The average surgical time for all patients was 7.8 ± 1.5 hours, the anesthesia time was 9.0 ± 1.3 hours, and the blood loss was 423 ± 253 ml. Forty-six patients (62.2% received autologous blood either from a cell saver or at the end of surgery following acute, normovolemic hemodilution, but none required an allogenic transfusion. Two patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory depression. Both patients donated their right hepatic lobe. One required reintubation in the recovery room and remained intubated overnight. The other was extubated but required observation in the intensive care unit for a low respiratory rate. Twelve patients (16.2% had complaints of nausea, and two reported nausea with vomiting during their hospital stay. There were four patients who developed complications related to positioning during the

  18. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ketamine in dogs anesthetized with enflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, I M; Szlam, F; Hug, C C

    1991-04-01

    The plasma concentration vs. anesthetic effect relationships for ketamine are not well known. It is desirable to establish stable and predictable drug concentrations in plasma (and brain) in order to define such relationships. As a prelude to pharmacodynamic studies, we investigated ketamine pharmacokinetics in eight dogs anesthetized with enflurane and correlated ketamine concentration in plasma (KET) with its ability to reduce the enflurane concentration required for anesthesia (enflurane EC50: MAC--the end-tidal concentration at which half the dogs moved in response to clamping of the tail and half did not move). Four dogs (Group 1) received ketamine 10 mg/kg iv over 30 sec. Blood for determination of KET was collected repeatedly over the 5-h period following injection. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters determined for Group 1, four dogs in Group 2 received ketamine as a continuous infusion of 300 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 5 hr accompanied by an initial loading dose (26 mg/kg administered over 20 min) designed to produce a stable KET of 20 micrograms/ml of plasma. Enflurane MAC and KET were determined regularly during the infusion and for 5 hr after discontinuation of the infusion. There were no significant differences in the following pharmacokinetic parameters determined for Group 1 vs. Group 2: t1/2 beta = 122 +/- 9 vs. 141 +/- 40 min (mean +/- SD) and CL = 18.1 +/- 5.9 vs. 13.9 +/- 2.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. When administered as a continuous infusion (Group 2), KET remained relatively stable at 22.1 +/- 4.6 micrograms/ml for 5 hr. The degree of MAC reduction remained relatively stable at 73% during the continuous infusion. Finally, the enflurane MAC reduction vs. KET was established over a wide range of plasma concentrations in 4 additional dogs (Group 3). This study determined that the pharmacokinetics of ketamine were consistent under two different experimental conditions and demonstrated the relationship between plasma concentration and

  19. Anesthetic protocol for videolaparoscopic surgery in rabbits Protocolo anestésico para cirurgia videolaparoscópica em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Pereira Balbinotto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the anesthetic protocol and the intubation technique without visualizing the trachea in rabbits, in order to enable the videolaparoscopic surgical procedure. METHODS: The experiment was performed on 33 female rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, aged from 5 to 7 months. It consisted of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation by manual palpation of the trachea of the rabbits, without using the laryngoscope, orally, for later videolaparoscopic surgical access to the abdominal cavity. RESULTS: The mean values and standard deviation of vital parameters of the animals were 223.8±15.61 beats per minute for heart rate; 35±9 movements per minute for respiratory rate; 96.94±0.99% of oxymetry and 42.82±4.02 mmHg for capnometry; 16.7±4.3 minutes for pneumoperitoneum (duration of surgery and 1 hour and 14±8.52 minutes for time of observation (from induction to recovery from anesthesia. All animals were intubated in at most three attempts. No animals were lost after the introduction of this anesthetic technique. CONCLUSION: This protocol proved adequate, safe and easy to perform, on rabbits submitted to videolaparoscopic surgery.OBJETIVO: Descrever o protocolo anestésico e a técnica de intubação sem visualização da traqueia em coelhos, para viabilização de procedimento cirúrgico videolaparoscópico. MÉTODOS: O experimento foi realizado em 33 coelhas (Oryctolagus cuniculus, com idade entre 5 e 7 meses. Consistiu de anestesia geral e intubação endotraqueal por meio de palpação manual da traquéia das coelhas, sem o uso de laringoscópio, pela via oral, para posterior acesso cirúrgico videolaparoscópico da cavidade abdominal. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios e desvio padrão dos parâmetros vitais dos animais foram de 223,8±15,61 batimentos por minuto para freqüência cardíaca; 35±9 movimentos por minuto para frequência respiratória; 96,94±0,99% de oximetria e 42,82±4,02 mmHg para capnometria; 16,7±4,3 minutos

  20. Analgesic and Sensory Effects of the Pecs Local Anesthetic Block in Patients with Persistent Pain after Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Geving Andersen, Kenneth; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) develops in 15% to 25% of patients, sometimes years after surgery. Approximately 50% of PPBCS patients have neuropathic pain in the breast, which may be due to dysfunction of the pectoral nerves. The Pecs local anesthetic block propo...... a role in the maintenance of pain in the breast area in PPBCS and begs for further research....

  1. Addition of local anesthetics to contrast media. Pt. 1. Effects on patient discomfort and hemodynamics in aortofemoral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, P.; Almen, T.; Golman, K.; Jonsson, K.; Nyman, U.

    Effects of equiosmolar solutions (osmolality 1.35 mol/kg) of the ratio 1.5 contrast medium metrizoate (250 mg I/ml) containing either the local anesthetic mepivacaine or saline were evaluated on subjective discomfort, aortic blood pressure and heart rate in 17 patients referred for aortofemoral angiography due to intermittent claudication. Each patient was injected with 30 ml (15 ml/s) of each solution in random double-blind order. Each patient was then injected with 45 ml (12 ml/s) of the raio 3 medium ioxaglate (320 mg I/ml, osmolality 0.58 ml/kg). Ioxaglate caused significantly less total discomfort, pain, heat, vocal reaction, involuntary movements and hemodynamic effects than mitrizoate-mepivacaine and metrizoate-saline. The effects of the two metrizoate solutions did not differ significantly. Previous contradictory reports on the effects of anesthetics in contrast media were reviewed with regard to experimental design, different osmolality of the test and control solutions, premedication, and pH dependence of local anesthetics. Ratio 3 media are recommended because they produce a more reliable relief of patient discomfort and fewer hemodynamic changes than the addition of local anesthetics to ratio 1.5 media.

  2. Effect of intraoperative lidocaine on anesthetic consumption, and bowel function, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Joo; Kim, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Perioperative lidocaine infusion improves postoperative outcomes, mostly after abdominal and urologic surgeries. Knowledge of the effect of lidocaine on peripheral surgeries is limited. Presently, we investigated whether intraoperative lidocaine infusion reduced anesthetic consumption, duration of ileus, pain intensity, analgesic consumption and hospital stay after breast plastic surgeries. Methods Sixty female patients, aged 20-60 years, enrolled in this prospective study were ran...

  3. Synthesis of Two Local Anesthetics from Toluene: An Organic Multistep Synthesis in a Project-Oriented Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demare, Patricia; Regla, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one of the projects in the advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course concerning the synthesis of two local anesthetic drugs, prilocaine and benzocaine, with a common three-step sequence starting from toluene. Students undertake, in a several-week independent project, the multistep synthesis of a…

  4. Step 7: Educates Staff in Nondrug Methods of Pain Relief and Does Not Promote Use of Analgesic, Anesthetic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mayri Sagady; Romano, Amy; Woolley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Step 7 of the Ten Steps of Mother-Friendly Care insures that staff are knowledgeable about nondrug methods of pain relief and that analgesic or anesthetic drugs are not promoted unless required to correct a complication. The rationales for compliance and systematic reviews are presented on massage, hypnosis, hydrotherapy, and the use of opioids, regional analgesia, and anesthesia. PMID:18523667

  5. A placebo-controlled trial to evaluate an anesthetic gel when probing in patients with advanced periodontitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Winning, Lewis

    2012-12-01

    The baseline periodontal examination is reported to be a painful dental procedure, but currently there are limited practical techniques to reduce this pain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an intrapocket anesthetic gel in the reduction of pain on periodontal probing in a group of untreated patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP).

  6. Anesthetic considerations in the patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Bali, Kusum; Chatrath, Veena; Bansal, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the various anesthetic options which can be considered for laparoscopic surgeries in the patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The literature search was performed in the Google, PubMed, and Medscape using key words "analgesia, anesthesia, general, laparoscopy, lung diseases, obstructive." More than thirty-five free full articles and books published from the year 1994 to 2014 were retrieved and studied. Retrospective data observed from various studies and case reports showed regional anesthesia (RA) to be valid and safer option in the patients who are not good candidates of general anesthesia like patients having obstructive pulmonary diseases. It showed better postoperative patient outcome with respect to safety, efficacy, postoperative pulmonary complications, and analgesia. So depending upon disease severity RA in various forms such as spinal anesthesia, paravertebral block, continuous epidural anesthesia, combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA), and CSEA with bi-level positive airway pressure should be considered. PMID:26957682

  7. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. PMID:24924217

  8. [Anesthetic management of a patient with carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency with a history of rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sayaka; Sugita, Michiko; Nakahara, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2013-03-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) makes the fatty acids available through beta-oxidation. Deficiency of CPT causes difficulties of muscle cells to metabolize fatty acid. In affected patients, exercise, fast for a prolonged period, and stress, lead to exhaustion of the store of glucose in the body, and rhabdomyolysis may occur, since muscle can not utilize fatty acid as an alternative energy source. Therefore, anesthetic management of CPT deficiency needs infusion of glucose continuously, avoiding the use of the drugs that cause rhabdomyolysis and suppressing the surgical stress. A 67-year-old man, who had previous history of rhabdmyolysis during the postoperative period, and diagnosed CPT deficiency was scheduled for total gastrectomy. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, thiamylal and rocuronium after epidural catheter insertion. During surgery, general anesthesia was maintained with remifentanil, sevoflurane, and blood glucose was monitored frequently, with continuous glucose infusion. No complications occurred during anesthesia and perioperative course was uneventful. PMID:23544345

  9. Postoperative catecholamine response to onychectomy in isoflurane-anesthetized cats. Effects of analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, G J; Wheaton, L G; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Olson, W A; Davis, C A

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy adult cats were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. Six cats (group 1) served as controls; onychectomy of the forefeet was performed in the other three groups. Saline was administered intravenously to group 1, and morphine, xylazine, and salicylate were administered to groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Mixed venous blood samples were drawn for catecholamine analysis before induction of anesthesia, after recovery from anesthesia, and 30 minutes and 60 minutes after administration of the analgesic agent. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Isoflurane anesthesia alone induced a transient increase in epinephrine concentration. Norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations increased significantly after onychectomy. Morphine and xylazine significantly decreased postoperative norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations; salicylate did not. PMID:1853554

  10. Direct Determination of the Blood Concentration of Halogenated Anesthetic Agents by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada,Teruo

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct determination by gas chromatography of blood levels of anesthetic agents has been difficult because of the water content of blood. In the present study, the method of Yokota et al. (1967 was modified by improving the packing materials of the column, the blood sample vaporizer and the flow-path during analysis. As a result, accurate and reproducible determination of halothane, enflurane and isoflurane dissolved in blood was achieved. With this system, blood in which halothane, enflurane and isoflurane had been dissolved could be analyzed without changing the column between samples. Moreover, each sample was prepared in less than 10 min, and more than 100 consecutive determinations could be made with excellent reproducibility. The coefficient of variation was less than 3.8%.

  11. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF AN ANEMIC PARTURIENT WITH SEVERE KYPHOSCOLIOSIS AND BILATERAL POLIOMYELITIS FOR EMERGENCY CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesia for emergency caesarean section for a pregnant patient with severe dorsolumbar kyphoscoliosis and severe anemia is associated with potential risks for both mother and the fetus due to alterations in maternal physiology and the pathological changes associated with kyphoscoliosis. In an emergency situation, the anesthesiologist has to quickly choose the anesthetic technique depending on the cardiopulmonary status of the patient and feasibility. We present a case of a 20 year old parturient in labour with severe kyphoscoliosis and severe anemia who was posted for emergency caesarean section. In view of severe anemia, anticipated technical difficulties with central neuraxial blocks and emergency situation, she was administered general anesthesia (GA with uneventful recovery.

  12. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO2 (PaO2) and PCO2 (PaCO2), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO2 consistently decreased, and PaCO2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p0.2)

  13. The influence of anesthetics, neurotransmitters and antibiotics on the relaxation processes in lipid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, H M; Heimburg, T; Gudmundsson, Marie L.; Heimburg, Thomas; Seeger, Heiko M.

    2007-01-01

    In the proximity of melting transitions of artificial and biological membranes fluctuations in enthalpy, area, volume and concentration are enhanced. This results in domain formation, changes of the elastic constants, changes in permeability and slowing down of relaxation processes. In this study we used pressure perturbation calorimetry to investigate the relaxation time scale after a jump into the melting transition regime of artificial lipid membranes. This time corresponds to the characteristic rate of domain growth. The studies were performed on single-component large unilamellar and multilamellar vesicle systems with and without the addition of small molecules such as general anesthetics, neurotransmitters and antibiotics. These drugs interact with membranes and affect melting points and profiles. In all systems we found that heat capacity and relaxation times are related to each other in a simple manner. The maximum relaxation time depends on the cooperativity of the heat capacity profile and decreases...

  14. Anesthetic management of urgent cesarean delivery in a parturient with acute malaria infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanfini, Bruno Antonio; Dell'Anna, Antonio Maria; Catarci, Stefano; Frassanito, Luciano; Vagnoni, Salvatore; Draisci, Gaetano

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Nonetheless, several cases of malaria have been reported in Western countries involving travelers from endemic areas, though very few involve pregnant women. In this article, we report a case of a young woman born in Sierra Leone who had been living in Italy for two years. She was admitted to our hospital with malaise; worsening of her condition led to Plasmodium falciparum infection diagnosis early during her hospital stay, as well as an urgent cesarean delivery. We briefly discuss the features of malaria in pregnancy, the difficulties associated with early diagnosis, and the possible fetal and maternal implications, and also consider how the disease may affect anesthetic management. PMID:27066212

  15. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage

  16. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    1985-05-01

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  17. Characterization of the hypotensive effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Takashi; Kaneko, Maki; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-08-29

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and α-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The maximum change of MAP (maximum ΔMAP) was reduced by vagotomy or prazosin, but not propranolol. The effects of the central but not peripheral administration of GLP-2 were reduced by atropine. These results suggest that GLP-2 modulates vagal afferent inputs and inhibits the sympathetic nervous system in the brain to induce hypotension. PMID:23867714

  18. Anesthetic management of staged thoracoscopic repair of bilateral eventration of diaphragm in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Subramanian Hari; Natarajan, Saravanan; Pallavi, Vyapaka

    2016-01-01

    Congenital eventration of the diaphragm is a rare disorder, the perioperative management of which is challenging. The introduction of thoracoscopic repair of these defects has considerably reduced the perioperative morbidity and mortality in these patients. In spite of the advantages of thoracoscopy which include smaller chest incisions, reduced postoperative pain, and more rapid postoperative recovery compared with thoracotomy, it is still inherent with complications unique to it. A clear understanding of the pathophysiologic changes, potential complications and institution of appropriate monitoring and good planning is essential for the safe conduct of thoracoscopic procedures in neonates. We describe the anesthetic management of staged thoracoscopic repair of bilateral congenital eventration of the diaphragm in a neonate. PMID:26957704

  19. Anesthetic management of primary hyperparathyroidism: A role rarely noticed and appreciated so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine surgeries have been on the rise for the last few years. During surgery, endocrine disorders present unique challenges to the endocrinologist and to the attending anesthesiologist. The endocrine, electrolyte and metabolic disturbances resulting from such disorders can have a profound effect on the normal human physiological milieu. Surgery of parathyroid glands is no exception and is associated with a multiple challenges during pre-, intra-, and post-operative period. Pre-op examination and optimization is essential so as to prevent any intra-op or post-op complications. The most striking electrolyte disturbance during parathyroid surgery is the imbalance of calcium levels in the body and the main emphasis during the entire peri-operative period revolves around the maintenance of normal serum calcium levels. The present article review in depth the various anesthetic considerations and implications during parathyroid surgery with an emphasis on pre-op preparation for elective and emergency surgery.

  20. Long-term optical imaging of intrinsic signals in anesthetized and awake monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Anna W.

    2007-04-01

    Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

  1. Local anesthetic effects of cocaine and several extracts of the coca leaf (E. coca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J A; Turner, C E; Elsohly, H N

    1984-05-01

    Cocaine and a number of different fractions of a crude ethanol extract of the coca leaf (E. coca) were subjected to a local anesthetic screen using rat tail withdrawal from electric shock. Following an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml of a 2.0% (w.v) solution of cocaine HCl, an immediate response was observed. Two of the coca fractions also produced some local anesthesia. An alkaloidal fraction, containing an equivalent amount of cocaine, produced a maximum effect that was approximately 20% less than that observed with cocaine. The only other fraction producing any effect, a water soluble cocaine-free fraction, showed a maximum response that was approximately 30% of that observed with cocaine. PMID:6739520

  2. [Anesthetic Management of a Pregnant Woman Undergoing Cesarean Section and Intestinal Tract Perforation Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Nozawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Arai, Takero; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    We describe anesthetic management of a pregnant woman (weight 42 kg, height 147 cm) with ileus, requiring emergency cesarean section and ileus operation. Cesarean section was performed under spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia, and ileus operation was performed under total intravenous general anesthesia. During ileus operation, the blood pressure decreased to 60/30 mmHg and the heart rate increased to 140 beats x min, indicating the intestinal traction syndrome. Repeated injections of phenylephrine 0.1 mg and albumin preparation 5% 1,500 ml were required to restore blood pressure. After the operation, the patient's trachea was extubated. The last level of the spinal anesthesia was T6. PMID:27188113

  3. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.

  4. Comparison of O2 saturation, heart and respiratory rate following injection of vasoconstrictor containing anesthetic (lidocaine 2% and without vasoconstrictor anesthetic (Mepivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Along with higher usage of dental local anesthesia with risks to people health together with their positive role, the important goal of dentistry, patients’ health, has been stressed repeatedly nowadays. This study was conducted to compare O2 saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate of patients following injection of anesthetic containing vasoconstrictor (lidocaine 2% and without vasoconstrictor (Mepivacaine. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 32 healthy humans (16 females and 16 males with 25-50 years age range and no history of drug usage. Cases were classified into two matched groups. O2 saturation, heart and respiratory rate were recorded before extraction of a mandibular posterior tooth. In the first group, 3.6 ml lidocaine 2% with 1:80,000 epinephrine and in the second group Mepivacaine 3% was injected, using inferior alveolar dental nerve block with aspiration. Variables were measured and recorded. Tooth extraction was performed and the mentioned variables were recorded again. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t and Paired t-test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: After injection of lidocaine, the heart rate was increased (12.25±1.75 bpm, and the time to reach the maximum rate was 64.75±11.26 seconds. After extraction of tooth, heart rate in both groups was increased not considering the type of injection. Conclusion: The study showed that the injection of lidocaine (containing epinephrine in patients without contraindication has no risk. Also, possible increase in heart rate is not risky and is not associated with O2 saturation decrease and respiratory interruption.

  5. Application of a three-microneedle device for the delivery of local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayoko Ishikawa,1 Hidekazu Fukamizu,1 Tetsuya Takiguchi,1 Yusuke Ohta,1 Yoshiki Tokura2 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: We investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed device for the delivery of local anesthetics in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis and hyperhidrosis. We developed a device with three fine, stainless steel needles fabricated with a bevel angle facing outside (“three-microneedle device” [TMD] to release a drug broadly and homogeneously into tissue in the horizontal plane. Use of this device could reduce the risk of complications when transcutaneous injections are undertaken.Patients and methods: Sixteen Japanese patients were enrolled. The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area needed to elicit anesthesia when using a TMD was compared with that the volume required when using a conventional 27-gauge needle. The visual analog scale (VAS score of needlestick pain and injection-associated pain was also compared.Results: The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area to elicit anesthesia using the TMD was significantly lower than that the volume required when using the conventional 27-gauge needle. The VAS score of needlestick pain for the TMD was significantly lower than that the VAS score for the 27-gauge needle.Conclusion: These data suggest that the TMD could be useful for the delivery of local anesthetics in terms of clinical efficacy and avoidance of adverse effects. Keywords: three-microneedle device, transcutaneous drug delivery, local anesthesia, lidocaine, pain

  6. Reversal of morphine-induced respiratory depression by doxapram in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Akira; Kimura, Satoko; Ohi, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether doxapram, a blocker of tandem pore K(+) (TASK-1/-3) channels, is a useful tool for recovery from morphine-induced ventilatory disturbances. Spontaneous ventilation and the hind leg withdrawal response against noxious thermal stimulation were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized rats. Morphine (1.0mg/kg, i.v.) decreased the minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow. Concomitantly, it prolonged the latency of withdrawal response against the thermal stimulation. Subsequent intravenous injection of doxapram recovered the morphine-induced ventilatory depression. This effect of doxapram declined rapidly after a single injection (1.0-3.0mg/kg, i.v.) but persisted with a continuous infusion (0.33mg/kg/min). Neither single injection nor continuous infusion of doxapram had any detectable effect on the analgesic potency of morphine. The central respiratory activity was recorded from the phrenic nerve in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats. Morphine (3.0mg/kg, i.v.) induced respiratory depression, characterized by a prolonged plateau-like inspiratory discharge (apneustic discharge) in the phrenic nerve. Doxapram (10mg/kg, i.v.) restored the morphine-induced apneustic discharge to an augmenting inspiratory discharge. This study demonstrated that doxapram counteracted morphine-induced respiratory depression by stimulating the central respiratory network without compromising morphine antinociception. These results support the clinical use of doxapram for amelioration of ventilatory disturbances in patients treated with opioids. PMID:27038521

  7. Micturition in rats: a chronic model for study of bladder function and effect of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, T L; Durant, P A; Brent, C R

    1986-12-01

    The volume-evoked micturition reflex (VEMR) and the effects of anesthetics on the VEMR were studied in a chronic unanesthetized rat model. The bladder catheter was implanted chronically through a laparotomy and externalized percutaneously. An intrathecal (IT) catheter was implanted chronically in animals scheduled for an IT injection. By 2 days after implantation, infusion of saline (200 microliter/min) in the bladder reliably resulted in a low base-line pressure (BP) followed by a transient increase in bladder pressure, an opening of the sphincter (bladder opening pressure, BOP) corresponding to expression of urine (volume of urination, V), then a further rise in pressure (peak pressure, PP) and a subsequent return to base line. Seven days after implantation, values (means +/- SE) for BP, BOP, PP, and V were 10 +/- 0.3, 30 +/- 2, 67 +/- 6 cmH2O, and 1.0 +/- 0.1 ml, respectively. Residual volumes were reliably less than 2-4% of the expressed volume. The VEMR was reliably evoked up to 28 days after implantation. V values in unimplanted and implanted animals were not different. In implanted animals, VEMR parameters were not different during infusion or during spontaneous urination after oral fluid load. Administration of pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg ip), alpha-chloralose (130 mg/kg ip), ketamine (100 mg/kg im), halothane (in air 2%), and local anesthetics (2-chloroprocaine 3% or bupivacaine 0.75%, 10 microliter IT) produced a complete blockade of the VEMR and overflow incontinence at pressures significantly higher than BOP values. To compare overflow pressures and passive compliance of the bladder, unanesthetized animals were decapitated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3789199

  8. Anesthetic management of patients undergoing extra-anatomic renal bypass surgery for renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bhupesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal artery disease is the most common cause for surgically curable form of hypertension. In a small subset of patients with severe aortic disease where the aorta is not suitable for endovascular technique and to provide an arterial inflow, an extra-anatomic renal bypass surgery (EARBS is an option. Anesthetic management of such procedures has not been described so far in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed the anesthetic techniques used in all patients who underwent EARBS between February 1998 and June 2008 at this institute. We also further analyzed data concerning blood pressure (BP control and renal function response following surgery as outcome variable measures. A total of 11 patients underwent EARBS during this period. Five received oral clonidine with premedication. During laryngoscopy, esmolol was used in 4 patients, while lignocaine was used in remaining 7 patients. Of 11 patients, 7 showed significant hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation; among these, one had oral clonidine with premedicant, and 6 received lignocaine just before laryngoscopy. Intravenous vasodilators were used to maintain target BP within 20% of baseline during perioperative period. All patients received renal protective measures. During follow-up, 10% were considered cured, 70% had improved BP response, while 20% failed to show improvement in BP response. Renal functions improved in 54.5%, remain unchanged in 36.5%, and worsened in 9% of patients. Use of clonidine during premedication and esmolol before laryngoscopy were beneficial in attenuating hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, while use of vasodilators to maintain target BP within 20% of baseline, and routine use of renal protective measures appear to be promising in patients undergoing EARBS.

  9. Cardiorespiratory effects of a 5HT2 antagonist (R51703) in awake and anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T J; McDonell, W N; Dyson, D H; Black, W D

    1996-01-01

    To investigate cardiorespiratory effects of an experimental 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (R51703) with sedative properties, intramuscular doses of the drug were studied in 6 awake dogs of mixed breed, and in 6 anesthetized beagles. Two doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) of R51703 and a saline control were studied in the awake dogs using a randomized crossover trial. Subsequently, the higher dose of R51703 was included as a component of halothane anesthesia to determine whether the halothane sparing effect of R51703 produced a beneficial alteration of hemodynamic function. Data were obtained at equipotent halothane/R51703 (H/R) and halothane/saline (H/S) doses equivalent to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MAC. In awake dogs, heart rates tended to be lower in dogs sedated with R51703, significantly so at 30 min for both doses, and at 90 and 120 min for the 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg doses, respectively (P conscious dogs and there was no evidence of respiratory depression. In the anesthetized dogs, at equipotent MAC, CI tended to be lower with H/R than with H/S, though the difference was not significant. Heart rate and stroke volume index also tended to be lower in the dogs treated with R51703, while systemic vascular resistance tended to be higher: these changes were not significant. Mean and SBP were higher at each MAC multiple in the H/R group. It was concluded that the halothane sparing effect of R51703 did not substantially improve hemodynamic function compared to the use of halothane alone at equipotent doses. PMID:8809379

  10. Reduction of the ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine by ketamine administration in halothane-anesthetized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, R M; Sams, R A; Majors, L J; Ashcraft, S

    1988-03-01

    The effect of ketamine administration on the ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (VADE) was studied in 4 halothane-anesthetized cats. Each cat was anesthetized 4 times, 1 week apart, with halothane (end-tidal concentration, 1.5%) and with halothane (end-tidal concentration, 1.5%) combined with ketamine infusion (50, 100, and 200 micrograms/kg of body weight/min). Epinephrine was infused in progressively increasing doses. The VADE (micrograms/kg) was calculated as the product of infusion rate of epinephrine and time of infusion necessary to induce 4 or more ventricular premature depolarizations within 15 s. The mean (+/- SD) VADE during halothane anesthesia was 1.1 (+/- 0.30) micrograms/kg. Ketamine infusion significantly (P less than 0.01) lowered the VADE independently of dose. The dose of epinephrine (micrograms/kg) that induced an ECG change in P-wave configuration was calculated similarly. Less epinephrine was necessary to induce a change in P-wave configuration than was necessary to induce 4 or more ventricular premature depolarizations within 15 s. Blood samples were collected after 4 hours of ketamine infusion and again immediately after determination of the VADE for analysis of plasma ketamine and norketamine concentrations by use of gas chromatography. Plasma ketamine and norketamine concentrations after a 4-hour infusion and immediately after determination of the VADE were similar for any given ketamine infusion rate, indicating that steady-state plasma concentrations had been reached for each infusion rate. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured immediately before (base line) and immediately after infusion of the VADE. Ketamine infusion significantly (P less than 005) lowered base-line blood pressure, but not heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358546

  11. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are involved in the defense system against anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mofei; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kuda, Yuhichi; Sun, Lingling; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2014-05-15

    Anaphylactic shock is sometimes life-threatening, but the defense system against this circulatory failure was not fully understood. Ameliorating roles of angiotensin (ANG) II and vasopressin in anaphylactic hypotension were investigated in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. The sensitized rats were randomly allocated to the following pretreatment groups (n=7/group): (1) control (non-pretreatment), (2) ANG II synthesis inhibitor captopril, (3) ANG II receptor antagonist losartan, and (4) V1a vasopressin receptor antagonist. Anaphylactic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of the antigen. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP) and portal venous blood flow (PBF) were measured, and splanchnic vascular resistance (Rspl: (SAP-PVP)/PBF) was determined. In the control group, SAP markedly decreased, followed by a gradual recovery toward baseline. Rspl transiently decreased immediately after antigen, and then increased 1.5-fold at 15 min and thereafter. The pretreatment with either losartan, captopril or V1a receptor antagonist augmented the initial fall of SAP and attenuated the SAP recovery along with augmentation of the late increase in Rspl. The 2-h survival rate was significantly smaller in either pretreatment group than in the control group (100%). Plasma levels of ANG II and vasopressin increased to 3.8- and 9.8-fold, respectively, at 30 min after antigen in the control group, whereas captopril pretreatment inhibited the increase in ANG II. In conclusion, inhibition of ANG II or vasopressin exacerbates anaphylaxis-induced hypotension in anesthetized rats. PMID:24650734

  12. Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine alters hemodynamic actions of intravenous anesthetic agents in chronically instrumented dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, L T; Schmeling, W T; Warltier, D C

    1992-09-01

    Dexmedetomidine (the D-stereoisomer of medetomidine), a highly selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been demonstrated to produce analgesia and sedation and attenuate hemodynamic responses to emergence from inhalational anesthetics, which suggests a potential use for this drug as a premedicant for general anesthesia. The authors examined hemodynamic interactions between dexmedetomidine and three commonly used intravenous anesthetic agents with markedly different hemodynamic effects. Conscious, chronically instrumented dogs received intravenous induction doses of ketamine, propofol, or etomidate, followed by continuous infusions of each drug at four different doses for 15-min intervals on different days. Studies in six separate groups (range, 9-12 dogs/group) with and without pretreatment with oral dexmedetomidine (20 micrograms/kg) were completed. Heart rate, arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure, rate of increase of left ventricular pressure at 50 mmHg (dP/dt50), and cardiac output were continuously recorded. Dexmedetomidine administration caused a significant (P less than 0.05) decrease in heart rate, rate-pressure product, left ventricular dP/dt50, and cardiac output. Dexmedetomidine abolished or attenuated the increase in heart rate, rate-pressure product, cardiac output, and arterial pressure produced during induction of anesthesia with ketamine. After the dexmedetomidine pretreatment, continuous infusion of ketamine caused no increase in heart rate or rate-pressure product. However, ketamine significantly reduced left ventricular dP/dt50 compared to control in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine. Except for a significant reduction in systemic vascular resistance, dexmedetomidine did not significantly affect the hemodynamic response to induction of anesthesia with propofol. Similarly, dexmedetomidine did little to alter the hemodynamic response to induction of anesthesia with etomidate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1355639

  13. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  14. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charton A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antoine Charton,1 François Péronnet,2 Stephane Doutreleau,3 Evelyne Lonsdorfer,3 Alexis Klein,4 Liliana Jimenez,4 Bernard Geny,3 Pierre Diemunsch,1 Ruddy Richard5 1Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, and EA 3072, Hôpital de Hautepierre; University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; 2Department of Kinesiology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, New Civil Hospital, Strasbourg, France and University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, France; 4Danone Research, Palaiseau, France; 5Department of Sport Medicine and Functional Explorations, CHU Clermont-Ferrand and INRA UMR 1019, CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2 supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods: Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach. Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2, skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2 were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results: Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in

  15. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  16. The influence of volatile anesthetics on alveolar epithelial permeability measured by noninvasive radionuclide lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many volatile anesthetics have long been thought to affect pulmonary functions including lung ventilation (LV) and alveolar epithelial permeability (AEP). The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of volatile anesthetics on LV and AEP by noninvasive radionuclide lung imaging of technetium-99m labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid radioaerosol inhalation lung scan (DTPA lung scan). Twenty patients undergoing surgery and receiving volatile anesthesia with 1% halothane were enrolled as the study group 1. The other 20 patients undergoing surgery and receiving volatile anesthesia with 1.5% isoflurane were enrolled as the study group 2. At the same time, 20 patients undergoing surgery with intravenous anesthesia drugs were included as a control group. Before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, and 1 week after surgery, we investigated the 3 groups of patients with DTPA lung scan to evaluate LV and AEP by 99mTc DTPA clearance halftime (T1/2). No significant change or abnormality of LV before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, or 1 week after surgery was found among the 3 groups of patients. In the control group, the 99mTc DTPA clearance T1/2 was 63.5±16.4, 63.1±18.4, and 62.8±17.0 minutes, before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, and 1 week after surgery, respectively. In group 1, it was 65.9±9.3, 62.5±9.1, and 65.8±10.3 minutes, respectively. No significant change in AEP before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, or 1 week after surgery was found. However, in group 2, the99mTc DTPA clearance T1/2 was 65.5±13.2, 44.9±10.5, and 66.1±14.0 minutes, respectively. A significant transient change in AEP was found 1 hour after surgery, but it recovered 1 week after surgery. We conclude that volatile anesthesia is safe for LV and AEP, and only isoflurane can induce transient change of AEP. (author)

  17. Do anesthetics and sampling strategies affect transcription analysis of fish tissues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hevrøy Ernst M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current examination was to evaluate if sedation and anesthetic treatment techniques affect the quality of RNA extracted from liver, gill, head kidney and brain tissues in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Blood parameters were measured and tissue specimens sampled in six groups of fish; one control group (0 minutes, two groups kept in pure seawater in 90 liter tanks for 30 and 120 minutes, two groups treated with the anesthetic isoeugenol for 30 and 120 minutes, and one group kept in pure seawater for 105 minutes and then anaesthetized with metacaine for 15 minutes. RNA quality was assessed with the NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (260/280 and 260/230 nm ratios and with the Agilent Bioanalyzer (28S/18S ratio and RIN data in samples either preserved in liquefied nitrogen (N2 or in RNAlater. In addition, the transcriptional levels of two fast-responding genes were quantified in gill and brain tissues. Results The results show that physiological stress during sampling does not affect the quality of RNA extracted from fish specimens. However, prolonged sedation (2 hours resulted in a metabolic alkalosis that again affected the transcriptional levels of genes involved in ionoregulation and respiration. In gills, Na+-K+-ATPase α1b was significantly downregulated and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1 significantly upregulated after two hours of treatment with isoeugenol, suggesting that this commonly used sedative affects osmo-regulation and respiration in the fish. The results also suggest that for tissue preservation in general it is better to flash-freeze fish specimens in liquefied N2 than to use RNAlater. Conclusion Prolonged sedation may affect the transcription of fast-responding genes in tissues of fish. Two hours of sedation with isoeugenol resulted in downregulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase α1b gene and upregulation of the HIF1 gene in gills of Atlantic salmon. The quality of RNA extracted from tissue specimens

  18. Anesthetic management of adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy assisted by low-temperature plasma technology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-meng LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the anesthetic management strategy in children undergoing adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy using low-temperature plasma technology. Methods Sixty ASA status I children scheduled for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with plasma technology in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA from September to December of 2013 were enrolled in this study. After induction with propofol, sufentanil and cisatracurium, the children were randomly divided into combined inhalation and intravenous anesthesia group (CIIA group, n=30 and total intravenous anesthesia group (TIVA group, n=30. In CIIA group, anesthesia was maintained with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil combined with sevoflurane inhalation during the surgery. In TIVA group, anesthesia was maintained only with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil. The hemodynamic changes and time for extubation and leaving operating room were recorded, and the emergence agitation was assessed using Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scale. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamic changes between the two groups (P>0.05. The total dosages of propofol and remifentanil in TIVA group [10.5±3.4 mg/(kg.h and 16.1±5.3μg/(kg.h, respectively] were significantly higher than those of CIIA group [6.6±2.8 mg/(kg.h, 10.4±4.2 μg/(kg.h, P<0.05]. The times for extubation and leaving operating room were significantly shorter in TIVA group (8.8±3.7min, 6.2±2.9min than in CIIA group (19.8±4.3 min, 13.7±5.2 min, P<0.05, and the rate of emergence agitation during the recovery period in TIVA group (1/30 was significantly less than that in CIIA group (9/30, P<0.05. Conclusion  Total intravenous anesthesia with tracheal intubation could shorten the recovery time and lessen the emergence agitation during the recovery period, and it may be used as a safe, feasible and convenient anesthetic strategy for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with

  19. FaceTime(®) for teaching ultrasound-guided anesthetic procedures in remote place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuya; Iketani, Yasuhiro; Nagamine, Yusuke; Goto, Takahisa

    2014-04-01

    In isolated area in Japan, only one anesthesiologist must often do new anesthetic techniques such as ultrasound-guided procedures without receiving any teaching. One solution to this problem may involve teleanesthesia, by which experienced anesthesiologists teach novices in remote places, by utilizing information communication technologies. FaceTime™ (Apple, USA), which provides 120p of the resolution and 30 frames per second (fps) is an application of free visual communications using iPod Touch™, iPhone™ or iPad™ (Apple, USA). We investigated the delay time, the loss of the frames and the picture quality of iPad (as the device in the teaching site) in combination with iPod Touch, iPhone4 or iPhone5 (as the device in the isolated site) during FaceTime. At the operating rooms in Sado General Hospital (SGH) located in Sado Island (population; approximately 60,000), Japan, an anesthesiologist prepared 3 mobile devices (iPod Touch, iPhone4 or iPhone5). He called the other anesthesiologist at Yokohama City University Hospital (YCUH; approximately 300 km apart) by FaceTime using 1 of 3 mobile devices. The anesthesiologist at YCUH received the FaceTime call using iPad. After the connection was established, the display of the same cervical ultrasound image at SGH was sent to YCUH to evaluate the distinctness visually. Then we measured the delay time of every second (n = 60) and the loss of the frames (total frames = 30 fps × 60 s = 1,800) in each device for a minute. P iPhone5 was distinctly the best visually. The delay time of iPhone5 was significantly longer than the others (iPod Touch; 0.14 ± 0.02 s, iPhone4; 0.13 ± 0.02 s, iPhone5; 0.19 ± 0.03 s), but clinically acceptable. The loss of the frames of iPhone5 (20; 1.1%) was significantly less than the others (iPhone4; 900, 50.0%, iPod Touch; 902, 50.1%). To teach anesthetic techniques in remote place by FaceTime, iPhone5 as the devise in isolate site was optimum compared with iPod Touch and iPhone4. PMID

  20. Embryonic skeleton development and neonatal learning and memory ability of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium: Differences of administration occasion and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling Peng; Yuhua Zhu; Ankang Hu; Xiaorong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    through electric mare method. Determine their study ability according to their correct rate of 90% or above of arrival at the safe area in 20 s. After they finally learned to arrive at the safe area correctly, test them once more in 24 hours and record the correct rate of 15 times.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of malformation in fetus and ability of learning and memory in one-month rats.RESULTS: A total of 80 female rats were anesthetized in this experiment. Totally 490 immature rats were tested with maze testing machine and 196 fetuses were stained with alizarin red S to observe the development of their skeleton. However, one of the 80 female rats was led to death because of overdose. ① Malformation experiment: Learning ability of second anesthesia group was evidently different from the control group while the other two groups were not in the electric mare method. The fetal skeleton malformation rate of three experimental groups was 87.0%, 60.9% and 17.9%, respectively, while it was 5.6% in the control group. ②Electric mare method: Times of rats which arrived at the safe regions were respectively 49.0±31.0, 68.0±35.0,47.0±31.0 and 44.0±21.0 in early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group; and then, there was significant difference between the second anesthesia group and the control group (P < 0.05). Exact rates of memory of rats were respectively (64.36±14.35)%, (62.15±18.33)%, (54.19±12.28)% and (68.24±15.91)% in early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group; and then, there were no significant differences as compared with the control group (P> 0.05).CONCLUSION: The influence of anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium is obvious in fetal skeleton development and learning and memory ability.

  1. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  2. Mass-spectrometric monitoring of the intravenous anesthetic concentration in the breathing circuit of an anesthesia machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Levshankov, A. I.

    2011-04-01

    Interaction between inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane and an absorber of CO2 (soda lime) in the breathing circuit of an anesthesia machine during low-flow anesthesia (0.5 l of a fresh gaseous mixture per minute) is studied with the mass-spectrometric method. Monitoring data for the concentration of sevoflurane and three toxic products of sevoflurane decompositions (substances A, B, and C) during anesthesia in the inspiration-expiration regime are presented. The highest concentration of substance A is found to be 65 ppm. The biochemical blood analysis before and after anesthesia shows that nephropathy is related to the function of liver toxicity. It is found that inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane influences the concentration of intravenous hypnotic propofol in blood.

  3. Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement in healthy anesthetized cats using a device that combines oscillometry with photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the basic characteristics of indirect arterial blood pressure (ABP) measurement using a device that combines oscillometry and photoplethysmography in cats. Dobutamine was infused intravenously in four anesthetized cats. Direct ABP was measured by a catheter. Indirect ABP was measured from the left forelimb. Dobutamine significantly elevated both systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner. The indirect SAP, MAP and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) values were closely correlated with the direct ABP values (r=0.88, 0.89 and 0.83, respectively). The mean bias for SAP, MAP and DAP was 3.4, 0.2 and -2.4 mmHg, respectively. The indirect ABP measured by this device may be used to reliably monitor ABP changes in anesthetized cats. PMID:27003226

  4. Myocardial perfusion of infarcted and normal myocardium in propofol-anesthetized minipigs using 82Rubidium PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Larsen, Bjarke Follin; Kastrup, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    challenges. Animals, which have been anesthetized during PET acquisition, might react differently to used stress medications, and therefore difficulties might exist while evaluating the resulting PET images using standard software packages from commercial vendors optimized for human hearts. Furthermore...... propofol, used for anesthesia, can influence myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve due to its vasorelaxant effect, and interactions might exist between propofol and used stress agents, potentially affecting the result of the examination. We present cardiac 82Rb-PET studies performed in propofol......-anesthetized minipigs with normal and infarcted myocardium stressed with both adenosine and dipyridamole. Despite the mentioned challenges, we were able to trace the small minipig heart with software designed for human cardiac PET and to achieve blood flow measurements comparable with results in humans with both...

  5. pH modulates transport rates of manganese and cadmium in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through non-competitive interactions: Implications for an algal BLM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pH on short-term uptake of manganese and cadmium by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied to better understand the nature of proton interactions with metal membrane transporters. Manganese and cadmium internalization fluxes (Jint) were measured over a wide range of free metal ion concentrations from 1 x 10-10 to 4 x 10-4 M at several pH values (Mn: 5.0, 6.5 and 8.0; Cd: 5.0 and 6.5). For both metals, first-order biological internalization kinetics were observed but the maximum transport flux (Jmax) decreased when pH decreased, in contradiction with the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). This result suggested a non-competitive inhibition of metal uptake by the H+-ion. A Michaelis-Menten type inhibition model considering proton and calcium competition was tested. The metal biotic ligand stability constants and the stability constants for competitive binding of Ca2+ and H+ with the metal transporters were calculated: for manganese, KMn = 104.20 and KCa = 103.71; for cadmium, KCd = 104.19 and KCa = 104.76; for both metal transport systems, KH was not a significant parameter. Furthermore, metal uptake was not significantly influenced by the pH of the antecedent growth medium, suggesting that increases in metal fluxes as the pH is raised are caused by conformational changes of the surface transport proteins rather than by the synthesis of additional transport sites. Our results demonstrate that the BLM in its present state does not properly describe the true influence of pH on manganese and cadmium uptake by algae and that a non-competitive inhibition component must be integrated

  6. Suppression of ischemic and reperfusion ventricular arrhythmias by inhalational anesthetic-induced preconditioning in the rat heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, H.; Neckář, Jan; Papoušek, František; Netuka, I.; Pirk, J.; Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), s. 709-714. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : anesthetic-induced preconditioning * isoflurane * ischemia -reperfusion injury * ventricular arrhythmias * rat heart Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  7. Inhibition of Nav1.7 channels by methyl eugenol as a mechanism underlying its antinociceptive and anesthetic actions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ze-Jun; Tabakoff, Boris; Levinson, Simon R.; Heinbockel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Methyl eugenol is a major active component extracted from the Chinese herb Asari Radix et Rhizoma, which has been used to treat toothache and other pain. Previous in vivo studies have shown that methyl eugenol has anesthetic and antinociceptive effects. The aim of this study was to determine the possible mechanism underlying its effect on nervous system disorders. Methods: The direct interaction of methyl eugenol with Na+ channels was explored and characterized using electrophysiological...

  8. ANESTHETICS EFFECTS OF INTRANASAL OR INTRAMUSCULAR ASSOCIATION OF MIDAZOLAM AND RACEMIC OR S+ KETAMINE IN BUDGERIGARS (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Aléssio Trevisan; Everton Leonardi da Silva; Anderson Luiz de Carvalho; Rafael Messias Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal anesthesia in birds is considered a safe, simple and efficient technique. The aim of this study was compare the anesthetic effects of midazolam (5 mg.kg-1) with racemic (R) or S+ (S) ketamine (15 mg.kg-1), administered intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Eight budgerigars were used in a crossover design with four treatments: INR, INS, IMR and IMS. Onset time, dorsal recumbency time duration, total anesthesia time, total recovery time,...

  9. Case Report: Genetic analysis and anesthetic management of a child with Niemann-Pick disease Type A

    OpenAIRE

    Priti G. Dalal; Melissa Coleman; Meagan Horst; Dorothy Rocourt; Ladda, Roger L.; Piotr K. Janicki

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old child, recently diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A, presented for a laparoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube under general anesthesia. The disease was confirmed and further characterized by genetic testing, which revealed evidence of the presence of two known pathogenic mutations in the SMPD1 gene, and enzyme studies showed a corresponding very low level of enzymatic activity of acidic sphingomyelinase. The anesthetic management involved strategies to manage an anti...

  10. A 1966 Anesthetic Administered by Robert D. Dripps, M.D., Demonstrated His Experimental Style of Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Robert E; Fleisher, Lee A

    2016-06-01

    Robert D. Dripps, M.D. (1911 to 1973), helped found academic anesthesiology. Newly reviewed teaching slides from the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) contain six anesthesia records from 1965 to 1967 that involved Dripps. They illustrate the clinical philosophy he taught-to consider administration of each anesthetic a research study. Intense public criticism in 1967 for improper experimentation on patients during anesthesia changed his clinical and research philosophies and teaching. PMID:27028470

  11. Endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor opposes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and supports blood flow to hypoxic alveoli in anesthetized rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, R. S.; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1992-01-01

    Agents that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis augment hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. In an animal model of unilateral alveolar hypoxia, we investigated the hypothesis that endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide opposes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and supports blood flow to hypoxic alveoli, resulting in a reduction in arterial oxygen tension (PO2). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, unilateral alveolar hypoxia was produced by ventilation of one lung with 100% ...

  12. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  13. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:24586874

  14. Effects of inhaled anesthetic isoflurane on long-term potentiation of CA3 pyramidal cell afferents in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros KA; Sikorski A; Orfila JE; Martinez Jr JL

    2012-01-01

    Kristen A Ballesteros,1 Angela Sikorski,2 James E Orfila,3 Joe L Martinez Jr41Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Texas A&M University Texarkana, Texarkana, TX, USA; 3University of Colorado in Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 4University of Illinois in Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Isoflurane is a preferred anesthetic, due to its properties that allow a precise concentration to be delivered continually during in vivo experimentation. The ...

  15. Anesthetic management for magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient addicted to palm wine: An alcoholic beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Ram, A. Anand; Srikanth, I.; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of drug and alcohol abuse is on rise despite increasing awareness and education about health hazards related to it. Anesthesiologist may come across patients with alcohol abuse in elective as well as emergency situations. We report a rare case of excessive requirement of anesthetics in a pediatric patient of only six years for MRI, addicted to palm wine, an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree. PMID:26957706

  16. Anesthetic Propofol Reduces Endotoxic Inflammation by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Lin, Ming-Chung; Choi, Pui-Ching; Huang, Wei-Ching; Kai, Jui-In; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-hong; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by...

  17. Pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of brain tissue extracts from rats anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is routinely used as a surgical procedure and its safety has been endorsed by clinical outcomes; however, its effects at the molecular level have not been elucidated. General anesthetics influence glucose metabolism in the brain. However, the effects of anesthetics on brain metabolites other than those related to glucose have not been well characterized. We used a pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to visualize the changes in holistic brain metabolic phenotypes in response to the widely used intravenous anesthetic propofol and the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7 each group. Propofol and isoflurane were administered to two groups each, for 2 or 6 h. The control group received no anesthesia. Brains were removed directly after anesthesia. Hydrophilic compounds were extracted from excised whole brains and measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All spectral data were processed and analyzed by principal component analysis for comparison of the metabolite profiles. Data were visualized by plotting principal component (PC scores. In the plots, each point represents an individual sample. The propofol and isoflurane groups were clustered separately on the plots, and this separation was especially pronounced when comparing the 6-h groups. The PC scores of the propofol group were clearly distinct from those of the control group, particularly in the 6-h group, whereas the difference in PC scores was more subtle in the isoflurane group and control groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study showed that propofol and isoflurane exerted differential effects on holistic brain metabolism under anesthesia.

  18. Comparison of two anesthetic induction methods:ketamin and thiopental Na for ECT in major depression disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Barkhori; mMohammad_ali Haghbin; Nabi Banazade; Behnaz Birjandi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Depression is a commomn common psychiatric disordersdisorder.. The Sever severe form of depression, that callled call.ed as . major depression , has many effects on the mental health of patient's patients. It may even lead to health including. suicidal attempt. Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) is still the most effective treatment for major depression. The purpose of this studyis comparison ofof the present study was to compare two anesthetic induction methods: ketamin ...

  19. Interference of anesthetics in blood alcohol analysis by HS-GC-FID: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Proença, P; Tavares, C; Castañera, A; Corte Real, F

    2016-08-01

    One of the techniques most widely used in ethanol analysis in forensic laboratories is undoubtedly the headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) since the determination of this substance is carried out directly, without the need for additional purification procedures, which leads to increased productivity. This is a very important factor due to the high number of alcohol analysis requested to these laboratories. The presence of other volatile substances can cause a problem given the fact that they can be interferents in ethanol analysis by HS-GC-FID, which can have legal consequences related with driving under the influence of alcohol. The authors report a case of a routine analysis by HS-GC-FID for the determination of ethanol of a driver who has suffered an accident in which the use of two chromatographic columns with different polarities was essential to obtain an unequivocally identification of this substance in presence of an interfering volatile anesthetic administered in the hospital. The method was validated according to international recommendations before being introduced into routine laboratory in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and carryover. PMID:26829337

  20. A national survey into perioperative anesthetic management of patients with a fractured neck of femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soinikoski Mirka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We made a survey among Finnish anesthesiologists concerning the current perioperative anesthetic practice of hip fracture patients for further development in patient care. Methods All members of the Finnish Society of Anesthesiologists with a known e-mail address (786 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey. Results The overall response rate was 55% (423 responses; 298 respondents participated in the care of hip fracture patients. Preoperative analgesia was mostly managed with oxycodone and paracetamol; every fifth respondent applied an epidural infusion. Most respondents (98% employed a spinal block with or without an epidural catheter for intraoperative anesthesia. Midazolam, propofol and/or fentanyl were used for additional sedation. General anesthesia was used rarely. Postoperatively, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and occasionally peroral oxycodone, were prescribed in addition to epidural analgesia. Conclusions The survey suggests that the impact of more individualised analgesia regimens, both preoperatively and postoperatively, should be investigated in further studies.

  1. Local anesthetic and antiepileptic drug access and binding to a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteux, Céline; Vorobyov, Igor; French, Robert J; French, Christopher; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Allen, Toby W

    2014-09-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are important targets in the treatment of a range of pathologies. Bacterial channels, for which crystal structures have been solved, exhibit modulation by local anesthetic and anti-epileptic agents, allowing molecular-level investigations into sodium channel-drug interactions. These structures reveal no basis for the "hinged lid"-based fast inactivation, seen in eukaryotic Nav channels. Thus, they enable examination of potential mechanisms of use- or state-dependent drug action based on activation gating, or slower pore-based inactivation processes. Multimicrosecond simulations of NavAb reveal high-affinity binding of benzocaine to F203 that is a surrogate for FS6, conserved in helix S6 of Domain IV of mammalian sodium channels, as well as low-affinity sites suggested to stabilize different states of the channel. Phenytoin exhibits a different binding distribution owing to preferential interactions at the membrane and water-protein interfaces. Two drug-access pathways into the pore are observed: via lateral fenestrations connecting to the membrane lipid phase, as well as via an aqueous pathway through the intracellular activation gate, despite being closed. These observations provide insight into drug modulation that will guide further developments of Nav inhibitors. PMID:25136136

  2. Amylase and chymotrypsinogen synthesis and secretion by the anesthetized rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the origin of nonparallel secretion, pancreatic juice was collected in the anesthetized rat, during infusion of [3H]phenylalanine. In the basal state, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratios of activities and of [3H] incorporations were 3.5 and 2.5 times higher than in the homogenate, respectively. Both ratios decreased to the value in the homogenate upon caerulein stimulation (600 ng/kg). Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (15 ng/kg) did not alter enzyme secretion ratios, and depressed basal protein output only partly, suggesting similar secretory pathways for basal and stimulated secretion. Finally, when [3H]phenylalanine was given before anesthesia, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratio of incorporations was again higher in basal secretion than in homogenate, even when further protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide before urethane injection. Hence, basal secretion comes from a pancreatic compartment which is functional, although minor, in the conscious animal, and shows a higher rate of amylase synthesis, compared to chymotrypsinogen, than the rest of the gland. It could consist of a subpopulation of acinar cells

  3. High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

  4. Genetic and anatomical basis of the barrier separating wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Joiner

    Full Text Available A robust, bistable switch regulates the fluctuations between wakefulness and natural sleep as well as those between wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness. We previously provided experimental evidence for the existence of a behavioral barrier to transitions between these states of arousal, which we call neural inertia. Here we show that neural inertia is controlled by processes that contribute to sleep homeostasis and requires four genes involved in electrical excitability: Sh, sss, na and unc79. Although loss of function mutations in these genes can increase or decrease sensitivity to anesthesia induction, surprisingly, they all collapse neural inertia. These effects are genetically selective: neural inertia is not perturbed by loss-of-function mutations in all genes required for the sleep/wake cycle. These effects are also anatomically selective: sss acts in different neurons to influence arousal-promoting and arousal-suppressing processes underlying neural inertia. Supporting the idea that anesthesia and sleep share some, but not all, genetic and anatomical arousal-regulating pathways, we demonstrate that increasing homeostatic sleep drive widens the neural inertial barrier. We propose that processes selectively contributing to sleep homeostasis and neural inertia may be impaired in pathophysiological conditions such as coma and persistent vegetative states.

  5. Genetic and anatomical basis of the barrier separating wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, William J; Friedman, Eliot B; Hung, Hsiao-Tung; Koh, Kyunghee; Sowcik, Mallory; Sehgal, Amita; Kelz, Max B

    2013-01-01

    A robust, bistable switch regulates the fluctuations between wakefulness and natural sleep as well as those between wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness. We previously provided experimental evidence for the existence of a behavioral barrier to transitions between these states of arousal, which we call neural inertia. Here we show that neural inertia is controlled by processes that contribute to sleep homeostasis and requires four genes involved in electrical excitability: Sh, sss, na and unc79. Although loss of function mutations in these genes can increase or decrease sensitivity to anesthesia induction, surprisingly, they all collapse neural inertia. These effects are genetically selective: neural inertia is not perturbed by loss-of-function mutations in all genes required for the sleep/wake cycle. These effects are also anatomically selective: sss acts in different neurons to influence arousal-promoting and arousal-suppressing processes underlying neural inertia. Supporting the idea that anesthesia and sleep share some, but not all, genetic and anatomical arousal-regulating pathways, we demonstrate that increasing homeostatic sleep drive widens the neural inertial barrier. We propose that processes selectively contributing to sleep homeostasis and neural inertia may be impaired in pathophysiological conditions such as coma and persistent vegetative states. PMID:24039590

  6. [Anesthetic Management of Peritonectomy and Extended Operation for Peritoneal Pseudomyxoma Combined with Massive Ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tomoki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    We report successful anesthetic management of extended operation for peritoneal pseudomyxoma combined with massive ascites (16.5 l). A 66-year-old man (weight 76 kg) who could not keep a supine position due to massive ascites associated with peritoneal pseudomyxoma was scheduled for elective peritonectomy and extended surgery. With the patient in the semisitting position, we administered 3% sevoflurane to induce loss of consciousness while preserving spontaneous ventilation. We then performed crush induction with propofol and rocuronium after topical anesthesia to the tongue base. Tracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope was successful. During the operation, we aspirated about 16.5 l of ascites over 20 l normal saline irrigation. To maintain the body temperature, we performed both active and passive extracorporeal warming. The operation included not only total peritonectomy but also distal gastrectomy, right colon resection, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy. To perform effective postoperative analgesia, we placed two epidural catheters from the upper and lower thoracic epidural spaces. The patient was extubated 3 days after operation, and discharged uneventfully on the 18th postoperative day. PMID:27483656

  7. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  8. Electrocardiographic Parameters in Healthy Dogs Anesthetized with Ketamine-propofol Combination and four Different Premedications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Moezzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating electrocardiographic parameters in healthy dogs anesthetized with ketamine-propofol combination (ketofol and medetomidine, acepromazine and acepromazine-morphine as preanesthetic agents. Six healthy adult mix dogs (3 male, 3 female weighing 17.8±4.8 were include the study. Normal saline, medetomidine 20 µg/kg, acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg or acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg plus morphine 0.5 mg/kg were administered intramuscularly as premedication. Thirty minutes after premedication, rapid bolus intravenous injections of 0.4 mL/kg, 1:1 single syringe ketamine-propofol combination, was administrated for induction. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane for 1 h. Electrocardiographic examinations were made before premedication and others at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min after induction. Heart rate, electrical axis of the heart, duration of P, QRS and T waves, length of PR-QT and ST segments, active potential of P, R and T waves studied for any possibility of changes. Evaluation of heart rate in this study showed a significant increase in saline and a significant decrease in medetomidine groups. There were some significant differences in P wave duration and QRS complexes but irregular figure or deviated cardiac axis were not seen in recorded ECGs. The study results revealed prolonged atrial depolarization in all study groups especially in medetomidine and acepromazine-morphine groups. The other parameters were not shown any discussable significant differences.

  9. Evaluation of propofol as a general anesthetic agent for minor oral surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Nitin; Kalra, Amit; Baghla, Gunpreet Kaur; Medsinge, Sonali V; Purohit, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting following anesthesia is a distressing problem for the patient as it increases the recovery time, intensity of nursing care and delays discharge. The aim of randomized controlled single blind study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subhypnotic doses of propofol for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in day care management of cases in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. Twenty-five patient of ASA-1 with age ranging from 12 to 40 years were scheduled for various maxillofacial surgical cases like fracture, cyst enucleation, surgical removal of 3rd molar, etc. were given propofol at the dose of 2 to 2.5 mg/kg as induction dose and sedation was maintained with the dose 5 to 10 mg/min. There was no significant effect on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation intraoperatively. In conclusion, a subhypnotic dose of propofol is fast acting, safe and easily controllable, short acting general anesthetic agent with rapid recovery. The study found that the PONV was significantly reduced in the patient with propofol, no hemodynamic derangements were noted in the postoperative period. PMID:24309336

  10. A case of bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for cerebello pontine angle tumor excision: Anesthetic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, C; Kurian, G P; Mariappan, R

    2016-01-01

    The main goals of neuroanesthesia are the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, avoidance of hypercarbia, hypoxemia, and to provide better brain relaxation. Providing anesthesia for a patient with bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for craniotomy can be challenging. A 56-year-old male patient, case of right lung bronchiectasis with a right cerebello pontine angle tumor underwent excision in the left lateral position. Since he had severe bronchiectasis of the right lung, we had isolated the right lung using right-sided double lumen tube to avoid spillage. Intraoperative split lung test was performed to assess the right lung contribution on carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination and found that there was a significant contribution from the right lung. Hence, both lungs were ventilated to control CO2. The importance of lung isolation to prevent spillage and avoidance of one lung ventilation to control the arterial CO2 are highlighted in this case report. By providing a balanced anesthetic keeping both, the neurosurgical and thoracic concerns are important for better postoperative outcome. PMID:27375400

  11. Investigation of local anesthetic and antimycobacterial activity of Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, Miriam M; Trebien, Herbert A; Galetti, Fábio C; Miguel, Obdulio G; Miguel, Marilis D; Auer, Celso G; Silva, Célio L; de Souza, Ana Olívia

    2015-01-01

    Ottonia martiana is a plant popularly known in Brazil by the use for toothache. Ethanolic extract (EE), hexane fraction (HF), dichloromethane fraction (DF) and piperovatine obtained from O. martiana were assayed in vitro and in vivo. The acute toxicity of EE was determined, and LD50 values of 164.5 and 65.0 mg/kg by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively, indicated a high toxicity for EE in vivo, explaining its popular use by topical administration only. A local anesthetic-like effect of EE and its fractions was observed in experimental models using pain induction, and such effect involved an analgesic action. The antimycobacterial activity of EE, HF, DF and piperovatine was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27924. EE, HF, DF, and piperovatine showed a potential antimycobacterial effect with MICs of 16.0, 62.0, 62.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Piperovatine was more effective than the EE or the other fractions. The selectivity index (SI=IC50/MIC) values calculated for EE, HF, DF and piperovatine based on the MICs and the cytotoxicity against J774 macrophages (IC50 by MTT assay) revealed values of 6.43, 2.34, 1.5 and 9.66, respectively. PMID:26628019

  12. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  13. The local anesthetic tetracaine destabilizes membrane structure by interaction with polar headgroups of phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimooka, T; Shibata, A; Terada, H

    1992-03-01

    The effect of the local anesthetic tetracaine at less than 10 mM on the water permeability of the phospholipid membrane was examined using liposomes composed of various molar ratios of negatively charged cardiolipin to electrically neutral phosphatidylcholine by monitoring their osmotic shrinkage in hypertonic glucose solution at 30 degrees C. The concentration of tetracaine causing the maximum velocity of shrinkage of liposomes increased with increase in the molar ratio of cardiolipin. Tetracaine increased the zeta-potential of the negatively charged liposomal membrane toward the positive side due to the binding of its cationic form to the negatively charged polar headgroups in the membrane. The maximum velocity of water permeation induced by osmotic shock was observed at essentially the same tetracaine concentration giving a zeta-potential of the liposomal membrane of 0 mV. These concentrations were not affected by change in the sort of acyl-chain of phospholipids in the liposomes when their negative charges were the same. These results suggests that the membrane integrity is governed mainly by the electrical charge of phospholipid polar headgroups when phospholipid bilayers are in the highly fluid state, and that positively charged tetracaine molecules neutralize the negative surface charge, lowering the barrier for water permeation through phospholipid bilayers. PMID:1547263

  14. Diaphragmatic pacing stimulation in spinal cord injury: anesthetic and perioperative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Tedde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The standard therapy for patients with high-level spinal cord injury is long-term mechanical ventilation through a tracheostomy. However, in some cases, this approach results in death or disability. The aim of this study is to highlight the anesthetics and perioperative aspects of patients undergoing insertion of a diaphragmatic pacemaker. METHODS: Five patients with quadriplegia following high cervical traumatic spinal cord injury and ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure were implanted with a laparoscopic diaphragmatic pacemaker after preoperative assessments of their phrenic nerve function and diaphragm contractility through transcutaneous nerve stimulation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01385384. RESULTS: The diaphragmatic pacemaker placement was successful in all of the patients. Two patients presented with capnothorax during the perioperative period, which resolved without consequences. After six months, three patients achieved continuous use of the diaphragm pacing system, and one patient could be removed from mechanical ventilation for more than 4 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: The implantation of a diaphragmatic phrenic system is a new and safe technique with potential to improve the quality of life of patients who are dependent on mechanical ventilation because of spinal cord injuries. Appropriate indication and adequate perioperative care are fundamental to achieving better results.

  15. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, E.; Hasenkam, John Michael; Secher, Niels H.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Grøndahl, C.; Petersen, K.K.; Buhl, Rikke; Aalkjaer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Nygaard, H.; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Stegmann, F.; Sloth, E.; Østergaard, K.H.; Nissen, P.; Runge, M.; Pitsillides, K.; Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in...... the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was...... 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow...

  16. A case of bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for cerebello pontine angle tumor excision: Anesthetic challenges

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    C Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of neuroanesthesia are the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, avoidance of hypercarbia, hypoxemia, and to provide better brain relaxation. Providing anesthesia for a patient with bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for craniotomy can be challenging. A 56-year-old male patient, case of right lung bronchiectasis with a right cerebello pontine angle tumor underwent excision in the left lateral position. Since he had severe bronchiectasis of the right lung, we had isolated the right lung using right-sided double lumen tube to avoid spillage. Intraoperative split lung test was performed to assess the right lung contribution on carbon dioxide (CO 2 elimination and found that there was a significant contribution from the right lung. Hence, both lungs were ventilated to control CO 2 . The importance of lung isolation to prevent spillage and avoidance of one lung ventilation to control the arterial CO 2 are highlighted in this case report. By providing a balanced anesthetic keeping both, the neurosurgical and thoracic concerns are important for better postoperative outcome.

  17. Tolazoline decreases survival time during microwave-induced lethal heat stress in anesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of α-adrenergic antagonists have been studied during environmental heating but not during microwave-induced heating. Tolazoline may exert some of its effects via α-adrenergic blockade. In the present study, ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2450-MHz microwaves at an average power density of 60 mW/cm2 (whole-body specific absorption rate of approximately 14 W/kg) until lethal temperatures were attained. The effects of tolazoline (10 mg/kg body weight) on physiological responses (including changes in body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate) were examined. Survival time was significantly shorter in the tolazoline group than in saline-treated animals. In general, heart rate and blood pressure responses were similar to those that occur during environmental heat stress. Heart rate, however, was significantly elevated in animals that received tolazoline, both before and during terminal microwave exposure. It is possible that changes associated with the elevated heart rate (e.g., less cardiac filling) in tolazoline-treated animals resulted in greater susceptibility to microwave-induced heating and the lower survival time. 47 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. [Anesthetic Induction in a Patient with Giant Ovarian Tumor Who Developed Severe Hemodynamic Instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Ryota; Ishihara, Mariko; Soh, Mirei; Kohno, Michihiko; Soga, Mayumi; Kohata, Hisakazu; Takahashi, Kan

    2015-08-01

    A 45 year-old woman underwent a laparotomy for a giant ovarian tumor under general anesthesia. Preoperative CT scan revealed a 30 cm-diameter tumor compressing IVC. She had slight respiratory discomfort on supine position, but respiratory function test showed no abnormalities. In the operating room, after oxygenation for 3 minutes, general anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 100 μg, propofol 90 mg and rocuronium 40 mg on supine position. Immediately after the induction, her systolic blood pressure and heart rate fell to 45 mmHg and 40 beats per minute, respectively. We considered that her hemodynamic instability was supine hypotensive syndrome due to giant ovarian tumor. Therefore we placed her 30 degree right side up and pushed her tumor to the left so as not to compress the IVC. We rapidly injected acetated Ringer's solution 500 ml, ephedrine 12 mg and phenylephrine 0.1 mg, and her hemodynamic status soon recovered to normal ranges. The anesthetic induction of a patient with a giant ovarian tumor is challenging. Some reports recommend strategies such as induction on lateral position or suctioning tumor contents before induction. Careful induction of general anesthesia is required for these patients. PMID:26442415

  19. The Combined Effect of Anesthetic Sevoflurane and Ionising Radiation on Primary DNA Damage in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, an inhalation anaesthetic sevoflurane (hexafluoroisopropyl fluoromethyl ether) is widely used mostly due to its low solubility and non-irritability. The aim of the study was to examine the degree of sensitivity of different types of tissue (brain, liver and kidneys) and peripheral blood leukocytes after interaction of γ-radiation (60Co) in a clinically relevant dose (1 Gy) with anesthetic sevoflurane (2.4 %, 50:50) in the model of Swiss albino mice. For primary DNA damage assessment, the method of alkaline comet assay was applied immediately after and 2, 6 and 24 h after exposure to radiation and anaesthesia. The strongest genotoxic effect was measured in kidney and brain cells 2 hours, in the blood 6 hours, and in the liver 24 hours after the treatment of the animals as compared to a control group. To test the difference in the amount of repair between blood and various tissues, cellular DNA repair index (CRI) was calculated, which showed different sensitivity of organs. The results showed synergistic effect of combined interaction between anaesthetic and ionising radiation, pointing out the necessity for extreme precaution in choosing and dealing with anaestetics during radiotherapy procedures.(author)

  20. From Drug-Induced Developmental Neuroapoptosis to Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity-Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeley, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    The fetal and neonatal periods are critical and sensitive periods for neurodevelopment, and involve rapid brain growth in addition to natural programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) and synaptic pruning. Apoptosis is an important process for neurodevelopment, preventing redundant, faulty, or unused neurons from cluttering the developing brain. However, animal studies have shown massive neuronal cell death by apoptosis can also be caused by exposure to several classes of drugs, namely gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists that are commonly used in pediatric anesthesia. This form of neurotoxic insult could cause a major disruption in brain development with the potential to permanently shape behavior and cognitive ability. Evidence does suggest that psychoactive drugs alter neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity in the animal brain, which, in the human brain, may translate to permanent neurodevelopmental changes associated with long-term intellectual disability. This paper reviews the seminal animal research on drug-induced developmental apoptosis and the subsequent clinical studies that have been conducted thus far. In humans, there is growing evidence that suggests anesthetics have the potential to harm the developing brain, but the long-term outcome is not definitive and causality has not been determined. The consensus is that there is more work to be done using both animal models and human clinical studies. PMID:27537919

  1. The anesthetic techniques of local anesthesia during the rumenotomi in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashamir Mamuti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprises 12 female cows on one farm in Tirana district. The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the efficiency of three common local anesthetics techniques used during rumenotomi. The purpose was to compare different conditions and types of foreign bodies syndrome which precipitated the need to perform the surgical intervention. The selected cows were divided into four groups with three cows belonging to each one of them. Rumenotomi was performed under the sedation protocol with Xylasine (0.05 mg/kg. After that proksimal paravertebral nerve block was performed in the first group. In the second group the distal paravertebral block was administered. In the third group linear infiltration local block was performed. While in the fourth group distal paravertebral nerve block with linear infiltration was performed. The local anesthesia was administered using lidocaine 2%. To conclude, the quality of anesthesia and analgesia used in the fourth group (distal paravertebral nerve block with linear infiltration was more clinically suitable for performing surgery without complications during rumenotomi when compared with the other three techniques performed in the other three groups.

  2. Deuterium NMR studies of model membranes containing 1-alkanol anesthetics or alpha-tocopherol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewalt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The phase behavior of model membranes containing 1-alkanol anesthetics has been studied using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model membrane systems were aqueous multilamellar dispersions composed of either a saturated phosphatidylcholine perdeuterated on the sn-2 chain containing 1-octanol or 1-decanol or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DPPC) containing (/sup 2/H/sub 17/)1-octanol or selectively deuterated 1-decanol. The phase changes monitored by /sup 2/H NMR are corroborated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Incorporated 1-octanol or 1-decanol causes the lipid's gel to liquid crystalline phase transition to broaden and its onset temperature (T/sub m/) to decrease. Octanol has more effect than decanol. The phase transition can also be observed in changes in the labelled 1-alkanols' /sup 2/H NMR spectra with temperature. Using specifically deuterated decanols it is found that the phase change is sensed at different temperatures depending on the position of the /sup 2/H label. The second area of study concerns the effect of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol on aqueous dispersions of saturated, acyl chain perdeuterated phosphatidylcholine. /sup 2/H NMR and DSC show that ..cap alpha..-tocopherol broadens and reduces T/sub m/ of the phospholipid gel to liquid crystalline phase transition, and that the gel phase lipid is disrupted by the presence of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Above the phase transition ..cap alpha..-tocopherol increases the phospholipid S/sub CD/.

  3. Spontaneous sleep-like brain state alternations and breathing characteristics in urethane anesthetized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pagliardini

    Full Text Available Brain state alternations resembling those of sleep spontaneously occur in rats under urethane anesthesia and they are closely linked with sleep-like respiratory changes. Although rats are a common model for both sleep and respiratory physiology, we sought to determine if similar brain state and respiratory changes occur in mice under urethane. We made local field potential recordings from the hippocampus and measured respiratory activity by means of EMG recordings in intercostal, genioglossus, and abdominal muscles. Similar to results in adult rats, urethane anesthetized mice displayed quasi-periodic spontaneous forebrain state alternations between deactivated patterns resembling slow wave sleep (SWS and activated patterns resembling rapid eye movement (REM sleep. These alternations were associated with an increase in breathing rate, respiratory variability, a depression of inspiratory related activity in genioglossus muscle and an increase in expiratory-related abdominal muscle activity when comparing deactivated (SWS-like to activated (REM-like states. These results demonstrate that urethane anesthesia consistently induces sleep-like brain state alternations and correlated changes in respiratory activity across different rodent species. They open up the powerful possibility of utilizing transgenic mouse technology for the advancement and translation of knowledge regarding sleep cycle alternations and their impact on respiration.

  4. Local anesthetics inhibit kinesin motility and microtentacle protrusions in human epithelial and breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jennifer R; Whipple, Rebecca A; Balzer, Eric M; Cho, Edward H; Matrone, Michael A; Peckham, Michelle; Martin, Stuart S

    2011-10-01

    Detached breast tumor cells produce dynamic microtubule protrusions that promote reattachment of cells and are termed tubulin microtentacles (McTNs) due to their mechanistic distinctions from actin-based filopodia/invadopodia and tubulin-based cilia. McTNs are enriched with vimentin and detyrosinated α-tubulin, (Glu-tubulin). Evidence suggests that vimentin and Glu-tubulin are cross-linked by kinesin motor proteins. Using known kinesin inhibitors, Lidocaine and Tetracaine, the roles of kinesins in McTN formation and function were tested. Live-cell McTN counts, adhesion assays, immunofluorescence, and video microscopy were performed to visualize inhibitor effects on McTNs. Viability and apoptosis assays were used to confirm the non-toxicity of the inhibitors. Treatments of human non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial and breast tumor cells with Lidocaine or Tetracaine caused rapid collapse of vimentin filaments. Live-cell video microscopy demonstrated that Tetracaine reduces motility of intracellular GFP-kinesin and causes centripetal collapse of McTNs. Treatment with Tetracaine inhibited the extension of McTNs and their ability to promote tumor cell aggregation and reattachment. Lidocaine showed similar effects but to a lesser degree. Our current data support a model in which the inhibition of kinesin motor proteins by Tetracaine leads to the reductions in McTNs, and provides a novel mechanism for the ability of this anesthetic to decrease metastatic progression. PMID:21069453

  5. High rate of mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, and BLM genes in Russian ovarian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. I. Bateneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC is an important problem in modern gynecological oncology due to significant detection rates for late-stage tumors. Intensive screening of patients from high-risk groups that include OC predisposition gene mutation carriers is indicated.Subjects and methods. An unselected group of 202 patients with OC and two control groups of blood donors: 591 healthy females; 1197 persons (including 591 females, 606 males were examined. Patients and healthy individuals who identified themselves as ethnic Russians and residents of the Russian Federation participated in the study. Whole peripheral blood samples were collected at the Clinical Subdivisions of the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center and at the Department of Transfusiology of the Acad. B.V. Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery in 2012–2013. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. DNA was extracted using a Prep-GS-Genetics reagent kit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction genotyping assay was carried out by melting-curve analysis employing an BRCA SNP genotyping kit(BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and original oligonucleotides (CHEK2, NBN, and BLM gene mutations. Thirteen population-specific mutations, including 7 (185delAG, 4153delA, 5382insC, 3819delGTAAA, 3875delGTCT, 300T>G, and 2080delA in the BRCA1 gene, 1 (6174delT in the BRCA2 gene, 3 (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, and 470T>C in the CHEK2 gene, 1 (657delACAAA in the NBN gene, and 1 (1642C>T in the BLM gene, were genotyped. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using a DTprime real-time detection thermal cycler.Results and discussion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations were detected in 46 (22.8 % patients with OC; the prevailing mutation in the BRCA1 gene was 5382insC (58.7 %. OC was diagnosed in 32.6 % of the patients aged 51 years or older. The rate of moderate-penetrance mutations (1100delC and IVS2+1G>A in the CHEK2 gene, 657del5 in the NBN gene, and 1642

  6. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF LIGNOCAINE BY SIMULTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL AGONISTS NICORANDIL IN ALBINO RATS

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    Lakkol Kiran J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There are reports about a possible weak local anaesthetic activity of nicorandil, a potassium channel agonist (PCA. In addition, modification of local anesthetic activity of lignocaine by PCA is not clearly defined. The objective of the present study is to evaluate local anesthetic activity of nicorandil and to evaluate the influence of nicorandil on the efficacy and duration of local anesthesia by lignocaine. A total number of 84 albino rats of either sex were divided into 14 groups of 6 animals each. Two methods, sciatic nerve blockade and tail clip method were applied for the study. Control group received 0.2ml normal saline, whereas the study group received 0.2ml of 1% drug solution (lignocaine or nicorandil combined with 0.9% sodium chloride. The results showed weak local anaesthetic activity with the higher dosages of nicorandil (10 mg/kg, 100mg/kg. Combination of nicorandil (1mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg and lignocaine (5mg/kg yielded synergistic results like decreased onset latency and prolonged reaction time. To conclude unquestionably there are multiple mechanisms involved for causation of local anesthetic effect by drugs like lignocaine. PCAs like nicorandil will influence the activity of these drugs as observed in the present study. Mechanism of this may be complex. Nicorandil may increase the plasma membrane permeability to potassium causing hyper polarization and moves the membrane potential away from the threshold required to generate an action potential.

  7. The Role of Lumbar Sympathetic Nerves in Regulation of Blood Flow to Skeletal Muscle during Anaphylactic Hypotension in Anesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    Full Text Available During hypovolemic shock, skeletal muscle blood flow could be redistributed to vital organs via vasoconstriction in part evoked by activation of the innervating sympathetic nerve activity. However, it is not well known whether this mechanism operates during anaphylactic shock. We determined the femoral artery blood flow (FBF and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA mainly regulating the hindquater muscle blood flow during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups (n = 7/group: (1 non-sensitized, (2 anaphylaxis, (3 anaphylaxis-lumbar sympathectomy (LS and (4 anaphylaxis-sinoaortic denervation (SAD groups. Anaphylaxis was induced by an intravenous injection of the ovalbumin antigen to the sensitized rats. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, FBF and LSNA were continuously measured. In the anaphylaxis group, LSNA and HR increased, while SAP and FBF decreased after antigen injection. In the anaphylaxis-SAD group, LSNA did not significantly change during the early phase, but the responses of SAP and FBF were similar to those in the anaphylaxis group. In the anaphylaxis-LS group, both FBF and SAP decreased similarly to the anaphylaxis group during anaphylactic hypotension. These results indicated that LSNA increased via baroreceptor reflex, but this sympathoexcitation or LS did not affect antigen-induced decreases in FBF or SAP. Lumbar sympathetic nerves are not involved in regulation of the blood flow to the hindlimb or systemic blood pressure during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  8. Sutureless Adult Voluntary Male Circumcision with Topical Anesthetic: A Randomized Field Trial of Unicirc, a Single-Use Surgical Instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shenje

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC.Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio.75 adult male volunteers.Outpatient primary care clinic.Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.Intraoperative duration.Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result.The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p < 0.001. Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups.VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.

  9. Prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy clinic (2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaghi F.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: According to controversies in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs and patients who claim hypersensitivity to these drugs, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental amide local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy Clinic in 2005-2007. "nMaterials and Methods: In this Study (Review of existing data, records of 130 patients who were referred to "Tehran allergy Clinic" (2005-2007 were studied. "nResults: The average age of patients was 29.5±18.8 years. 34% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Lidocain concentrations and 10% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Prilocain concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in hypersensitivity to Lidocain 0.01 and 0.001 (p=0.017 and also between Lidocain 0.001 and 0.0001 (p<0.01. There was no statistically significant difference between other tested drug concentrations (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Many patients with history of hypersensitivity, show positive reaction to local dental anesthetic drugs. Prilocain hypersensitivity reactions are less than Lidocain. So application of Prilocain accompanies with less risk but its application should not be considered completely safe.

  10. Optical imaging of the propagation patterns of neural responses in the rat sensory cortex: comparison under two different anesthetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, N; Ito, S-I; Hirota, A

    2015-01-22

    Although many studies have reported the influence of anesthetics on the shape of somatic evoked potential, none has evaluated the influence on the spatio-temporal pattern of neural activity in detail. It is practically impossible to analyze neural activities spatially, using conventional electrophysiological methods. Applying our multiple-site optical recording technique for measuring membrane potential from multiple-sites with a high time resolution, we compared the spatio-temporal pattern of the evoked activity under two different anesthetic conditions induced by urethane or α-chloralose. The somatic cortical response was evoked by electrical stimulation of the hindlimb, and the optical signals were recorded from the rat sensorimotor cortex stained with a voltage-sensitive dye (RH414). The evoked activity emerged in a restricted area and propagated in a concentric manner. The spatio-temporal pattern of the evoked activity was analyzed using isochrone maps. There were significant differences in the latency and propagation velocity of the evoked activity, as well as the full width at half maximum of optical signal between the two anesthetic conditions. Differences in the amplitude and the slope of the rising phase were not significant. PMID:25301752

  11. Anesthetic agents modulate ECoG potentiation after spreading depression, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia does not modify this effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-04-10

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is characterized by reversible reduction of spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. Experimental evidence suggests that CSD may modulate neural excitability and synaptic activity, with possible implications for long-term potentiation. Systemic factors like anesthetics and insulin-induced hypoglycemia can influence CSD propagation. In this study, we examined whether the post-CSD ECoG potentiation can be modulated by anesthetics and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. We found that awake adult rats displayed increased ECoG potentiation after CSD, as compared with rats under urethane+chloralose anesthesia or tribromoethanol anesthesia. In anesthetized rats, insulin-induced hypoglycemia did not modulate ECoG potentiation. Comparison of two cortical recording regions in awake rats revealed a similarly significant (pchloralose and tribromoethanol anesthesia modulate the post-CSD potentiation of spontaneous electrical activity in the adult rat cortex, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia does not modify this effect. Data may help to gain a better understanding of excitability-dependent mechanisms underlying CSD-related neurological diseases. PMID:25681772

  12. A comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol- medetomidine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeff C; Abbo, Lisa A; Weil, Ann B; Johnson, Brenda M; Payton, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Using a randomized crossover design, this study compared the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of three intramuscular anesthetic combinations in seven 2-year-old cats: tiletamine-zolazepam (8 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) (TT); tiletamine-zolazepam (3 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg), and medetomidine (15 microg/kg) (TTD); or the TTD protocol plus atipamezole (75 microg/kg IM) given 20 minutes later to reverse medetomidine. Analgesia was assessed using algometry and needle pricking. All three combinations effectively induced anesthesia suitable for orotracheal intubation within 5 minutes after injection. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation was lower than 90% at least once in all three groups between 5 and 15 minutes after drug administration. Blood pressure and heart and respiratory rates were within normal ranges. Both TT and TTD appeared to be effective injectable anesthetic combinations. TTD provided significantly better analgesia with a longer duration than did TT. Atipamezole administration shortened the duration of analgesia and decreased blood pressure but did not shorten total recovery time. PMID:17926302

  13. Anesthetic Experience for Heart Transplantation%心脏移植手术麻醉处理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维强

    2012-01-01

    目前,心脏移植是终末期心脏病的有效治疗方法.现综述旨在从麻醉诱导和维持、术中维护血流动力学的稳定、免疫抑制治疗这几方面介绍麻醉处理进展.%At present .heart transplantation has become a definitive therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. This article reviews recent research about steady induction and maintaining of anaesthesia, maintaining stable hemodynamies.immunosuppression during perioperative period.

  14. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  15. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Makiko, E-mail: shibu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiraoki, Toshifumi [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University (Japan); Kimura, Kunie; Fukushima, Kazuaki [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Suzuki, Kuniaki [Department of Molecular Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effects of general anesthetics on liposome using ESR spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two spin labels, 5-DSA and 16-DSA, were located in different position in liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics did not change the environment around the spin labels in the liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics remained on the surface of the lipid bilayer of liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteins in the liposome did not change the effects of anesthetics on liposome. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and {tau} values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  16. Acid-base and biochemical stabilization and quality of recovery in male cats with urethral obstruction and anesthetized with propofol or a combination of ketamine and diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Gabrielle C.; Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, Marina G.; Gomes, Kleber; Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, João P.; Togni, Monique; Pippi, Ney L.; Carregaro, Adriano B

    2012-01-01

    This study compared acid-base and biochemical changes and quality of recovery in male cats with experimentally induced urethral obstruction and anesthetized with either propofol or a combination of ketamine and diazepam for urethral catheterization. Ten male cats with urethral obstruction were enrolled for urethral catheterization and anesthetized with either ketamine-diazepam (KD) or propofol (P). Lactated Ringer’s solution was administered by intravenous (IV) beginning 15 min before and con...

  17. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We studied the effects of general anesthetics on liposome using ESR spectra. ► Two spin labels, 5-DSA and 16-DSA, were located in different position in liposome. ► Anesthetics did not change the environment around the spin labels in the liposome. ► Anesthetics remained on the surface of the lipid bilayer of liposome. ► Proteins in the liposome did not change the effects of anesthetics on liposome. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and τ values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  18. Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Dereli; Zehra Baykal Tutal; Munire Babayigit; Aysun Kurtay; Mehmet Sahap; Eyup Horasanli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV) are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. METHODS: Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows;...

  19. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of inclusion complexes between local anesthetics and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao e caracterizacao fisico-quimica de complexos de inclusao entre anestesicos locais e hidroxipropil-{beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Carolina Morales; Abrami, Priscila; Goncalves, Marcos Moises; Andreo Filho, Newton [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br

    2007-07-15

    S(-) Bupivacaine (S(-)BVC) and Lidocaine (LDC) are widely used local anesthetics (LA). Hydroxypropyl {beta}-cyclodextrin (HP-{beta}-CD) is used as a drug-carrier system. The aim of this work was to characterize inclusion complexes between LA and HP-{beta}-CD. The affinity constants determined at different pHs show favourable complexation. The release kinetics experiments showed that S(-)BVC and LDC changed the released profiles in the presence of HP-{beta}-CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments gave information about the interaction between LA and the cyclodextrin cavity. This study focused on the physicochemical characterization of drug-delivery formulations that come out as potentially new therapeutic options for pain treatment. (author)

  20. Effects of inhaled anesthetic isoflurane on long-term potentiation of CA3 pyramidal cell afferents in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros KA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristen A Ballesteros,1 Angela Sikorski,2 James E Orfila,3 Joe L Martinez Jr41Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Texas A&M University Texarkana, Texarkana, TX, USA; 3University of Colorado in Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 4University of Illinois in Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Isoflurane is a preferred anesthetic, due to its properties that allow a precise concentration to be delivered continually during in vivo experimentation. The major mechanism of action of isoflurane is modulation of the γ-amino butyric acid (GABAA receptor-chloride channel, mediating inhibitory synaptic transmission. Animal studies have shown that isoflurane does not cause cell death, but it does inhibit cell growth and causes long-term hippocampal learning deficits. As there are no studies characterizing the effects of isoflurane on electrophysiological aspects of long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampus, it is important to determine whether isoflurane alters the characteristic responses of hippocampal afferents to cornu ammonis region 3 (CA3. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on adult male rats during in vivo induction of LTP, using the mossy fiber pathway, the lateral perforant pathway, the medial perforant pathway, and the commissural CA3 (cCA3 to CA3, with intracranial administration of Ringer’s solution, naloxone, RS-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, or 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propo-2-enyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Then, we compared these responses to published electrophysiological data, using sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic, under similar experimental conditions. Our results showed that LTP was exhibited in animals anesthetized with isoflurane under vehicle conditions. With the exception of AIDA in the lateral perforant pathway, the defining characteristics of the four pathways appeared to remain intact, except for the observation that LTP was markedly reduced in animals