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Sample records for anesthetics blm experiments

  1. The thermodynamics of lipid ion channel formation in the absence and presence of anesthetics. BLM experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wodzinska, Katarzyna; Heimburg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    It is known that lipid membranes become permeable in their melting regime. In microscopic conductance measurements on black lipid membranes one finds that conduction takes place via quantized events closely resembling those reported for protein ion channels. Here, we present data of ion currents through black lipid membranes in the presence and absence of the anesthetics octanol and ethanol, and compare them to a statistical thermodynamics model using parameters that are obtained from experimental calorimetric data. The conductance steps in pure lipid membrane suggest aqueous pores with the size of approximately one lipid cross-section. We model the permeability by assuming empty sites of the size of one lipid. We find that pore formation in the melting transition regime is facilitated by the increase of the lateral compressibility that expresses itself in the area fluctuations. Thus, pore formation is related to critical opalescence in two dimensions. Anesthetics alter the permeability by affecting the therm...

  2. Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome: Anesthetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Sasikumaran Ushakumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounier Kuhn syndrome, or congenital tracheobronchomegaly, is an under diagnosed clinical entity with peculiar anatomical and physiological features making anesthetic care challenging. A 58-year-old chronic smoker with history of recurrent pneumonia and bronchiectasis presented for septoplasty. Thoracic imaging revealed a dilated trachea and main bronchi, tracheal and bronchial diverticuli, and chronic bronchiectasis with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. An 8.5 cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT proved too big for his glottic aperture. An 8.0 cuffed ETT with wet gauze packing yielding an adequate seal. Postoperative continuous positive airway pressure to prevent airway collapse followed awake extubation. Anesthetic concerns include grossly enlarged and weakened airways, inefficient cough mechanisms, presence of tracheal diverticuli, and post operative tracheal collapse. Anesthetic planning includes management of endotracheal cuff size. Small size yields air leak and ineffective ventilation. Large size may lead to mucosal damage. Tube dislodgement, copious secretions, chance of expiratory collapse due to the abnormally dilated and thin airways, and post operative monitoring all must be considered.

  3. Anesthetic management of Shah–Waardenburg syndrome: Experience of two cases and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Uday S Ambi; Adarsh, E. S.; Ramesh Hatti; Vijaymahantesh Samalad

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomally inherited and genetically heterogeneous disorder of neural crest cell development. Literature regarding the anesthetic management of these cases is limited. We present 2 cases of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and discuss them in the context of review of previously published cases.

  4. Anesthetic management of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome: Experience of two cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday S Ambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome (WS is a rare autosomally inherited and genetically heterogeneous disorder of neural crest cell development. Literature regarding the anesthetic management of these cases is limited. We present 2 cases of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and discuss them in the context of review of previously published cases.

  5. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  6. [New anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    2000-01-01

    Since the introduction of cocaine local analgesia in 1886, and the subsequent development of procaine (1904) and other closely related ester-type compounds, dentistry has prided itself on being as close to 'painless' as possible. In the late 1940s the newest group of the local anesthetic compounds, the amides, was introduced. The initial amide local analgesic, lignocaine (Xylocaine), revolutionised pain control in dentistry worldwide. In succeeding years other amide-type local anesthetics, mepivacaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine and etidocaine, were introduced. They gave the dental practitioner a local anesthetic armamentarium which provided pulpal analgesia for periods of from 20 minutes (mepivacaine) to as long as three hours (bupivacaine and etidocaine with adrenaline). In addition these popular drugs proved to be more rapid-acting than the older ester-type drug and, at least from the perspective of allergenicity, more safe. In 1976, in Germany, the newest amide local analgesic, carticaine HCl was introduced into dentistry. Articaine (the generic name was changed) possesses properties similar to lignocaine but has additional properties which made the drug quite attractive to the general dental practitioner. In 1986 articaine was introduced in North America (Canada) where it has become the most used local anesthetic, supplanting lignocaine. Articaine has been approved for use in the United Kingdom. In this introductory discussion we review the development of articaine and discuss its place in the dental local analgesic armamentarium.

  7. Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeman, Larissa; McIlhatton, Michael A.; Grierson, Patrick; Groden, Joanna; Acharya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. PMID:27657136

  8. Tolerance of local anesthetic for transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: our experience and a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, M.R.E.; Bryant, N.J.; Brown, J.A.; Tiwari, P.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Wong, A.D. [St Paul' s Hospital, Ultrasound Dept., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: twong@providcencehealth.bc.ca

    2006-06-15

    To determine whether local anesthetic injection or gel reduced pain during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies and whether there was significant difference between quadrant and apex-only anesthesia. Between September 2001 and May 2002, 240 male patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen and (or) abnormal digital rectal examination were randomized into 1 of 4 groups: 1) transrectal lidocaine gel, 2) quadrant lidocaine injections, 3) apex-only lidocaine injections, or 4) no local anesthetic. Patients scored their pain on a numerical rating scale where 0 indicated no pain and 10 indicated worst pain. We analyzed mean and standard deviations of scores, using a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc multiple comparisons with Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) studentized range test to determine whether there were significant differences across the groups. There was no significant difference between local anesthetic gel (mean 3.1, SD 1.9) and no anesthetic (mean 3.5, SD 1.9) or between quadrant (mean 1.7, SD 1.7) and apex-only (mean 2.0, SD 1.8) local anesthetic injections. There was significant difference between quadrant injections (mean 1.7, SD 1.7) and no local anesthetic (mean 3.5, SD 1.9) and between apex-only injections (mean 2.0, SD 1.8) and no local anesthetic (mean 3.5, SD 1.9). There was significant pain reduction with local anesthetic injections but not with gel, and since there was no significant difference in efficacy between quadrant and apex-only injections, we recommend apex-only local anesthetic injections for transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies because it simplifies the injection procedure. (author)

  9. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  10. BLM Scale Fixing in Event Shape Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, Thomas; Monni, Pier Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We study the application of the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale setting prescription to event shape distributions in electron-positron collisions. The renormalization scale is set dynamically according to the BLM method. We study NLO predictions and we discuss extensions of the prescription to NNLO.

  11. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...

  12. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  13. Data acquisition system for BLM at NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guanghua; Li, Yuxiong; Cui, Yonggang; Li, Juexin; Li, Weiming; Shao, Beibei

    2003-06-01

    A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System has been built up for the 800 MeV storage ring in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. It has helped to resolve some problems about beam lifetime. This paper introduces the data acquisition system of BLM. It has a counter whose counting rate is higher than 10 MHz. Furthermore, this counter is a free running one that will never lose any pulse when it is being read or written. This DAQ system is composed of 14 front-ends and a console connected via CAN bus. The intensity, distribution and time information of the beam loss can be offered by this system. This BLM system is helpful for machine study and operation.

  14. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  15. Effects of anesthetics on ponto-geniculo-occipital waves from the oculomotor nucleus of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, H; Ashizawa, N; Wakushima, Y; Yamamura, H

    1975-05-01

    Effects of anesthetics and doxapram on pontogeniculo-occipital (PGO) waves from the oculomotor nucleus were studied in acute experiments in cats paralyzed by gallamine triethiodide. The anesthetic agents studied in the present experiment (thiopental, ketamine, Innovar, nitrous oxide, and halothane) decreased, while doxapram increased, the total number of PGO waves. As the doses of anesthetics increased, PGO waves were abolished, but they returned to control levels or below control levels when the concentrations of anesthetics were decreased. The results indicate that the anesthetics studied inhibit the activity of the central mechanism associated with the oculomotor system. PGO waves may prove a useful index of the level of anesthesia. PMID:1130723

  16. Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Qian Liu; Jing Li; Sulpicio G. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionMillions of newborn and infants receive anesthetic,sedative and analgesic drugs for surgery and painful procedures on a daily basis.Recent laboratory reports clearly demonstrate that anesthetic and sedative drugs induced both neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits in laboratory models.This issue is of paramount interest to pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists because it questions the safety of anesthetics used for fetal and neonatal anesthesia[1-2].In an attempt to summarize the rapidly expanding laboratorybased literature on anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN),this review will examine published reports on the characterization,mechanisms and alleviation of this phenomenon.

  17. Luminosity monitoring and calibration of BLM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛镇; 蔡啸; 俞伯祥; 方建; 孙希磊; 石峰; 王志刚; 交正华; 孙丽君; 刘宏邦; 章爱武; 许咨宗; 王晓东; 汪晓莲; 胡涛; 王至勇; 傅成栋; 鄢文标; 吕军光; 周莉

    2011-01-01

    The BEPC II Luminosity Monitor (BLM) monitors relative luminosity per bunch. The counting rates of gamma photons, which are proportional to the luminosities from the BLM at the center of mass system energy of the φ(3770) resonance, are obtained with a sta

  18. Classification of the LHC BLM Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system must prevent the super conducting magnets from quenching and protect the machine components from damage. The main monitor type is an ionization chamber. About 4000 of them will be installed around the ring. The lost beam particles initiate hadronic showers through the magnets and other machine components. These shower particles are measured by the monitors installed on the outside of the accelerator equipment. For the calibration of the BLM system the signal response of the ionization chamber is simulated in GEANT4 for all relevant particle types and energies (keV to TeV range). For validation, the simulations are compared to measurements using protons, neutrons, photons and mixed radiation fields at various energies and intensities. This paper will focus on the signal response of the ionization chamber to various particle types and energies including space charge effects at high ionization densities.

  19. 21 CFR 872.6100 - Anesthetic warmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthetic warmer. 872.6100 Section 872.6100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6100 Anesthetic warmer. (a) Identification. An anesthetic warmer is an AC-powered device into which tubes containing anesthetic solution are intended to...

  20. Effects of anesthetic compounds on responses of earthworms to electrostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak-Machowska, Agnieszka; Kostecka, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Santocki, Michal; Bigaj, Janusz; Plytycz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an important role in biomedical research, and some surgical procedures require anesthesia. Anesthetic treatments used so far usually induce convulsive body movements connected with extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid that may affect experimental results. Extensive movements connected with the expulsion of coelomic fluid are exploited by immunologists as a method of harvesting immunocompetent coelomocytes from worms subjected to mild electrostimulation (4.5V). The aim of the investigations was to find anesthetic drugs without unintentional coelomocyte depletion. Experiments were performed on adult specimens of Dendrobaena veneta, the coelomocytes of which consist of amoebocytes and riboflavin-storing eleocytes. Earthworm mobility was filmed and extrusion of coelomocytes was quantified by detection of eleocyte-derived riboflavin in immersion fluid. Treatments included earthworms (1) immersed either in physiological saline (controls) or in a solution of one of the tested anesthetic drugs; (2) electrostimulated immediately after anesthesia, and (3) electrostimulated a second time after a 1-hour recovery period. The well-established fish and amphibian anesthetic agent MS-222 induced coelomocyte expulsion. In contrast, solutions of the mammalian local anesthetic drug, prilocaine hydrochloride (0.25-0.5%, 5-10 min) caused temporal earthworm immobilization followed by recovery, thus showing utility as an efficient earthworm anesthetic.

  1. Day-surgery patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with sevoflurane.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, Terry

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been recent studies suggesting that patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain compared with patients anesthetized with volatile anesthetics. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, 80 patients undergoing day-case diagnostic laparoscopic gynecological surgery were either anesthetized with IV propofol or sevoflurane. The primary outcome measured was pain on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Patients anesthetized with propofol had less pain compared with patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (P = 0.01). There was no difference in any of the other measured clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The patients anesthetized with propofol appeared to have less pain than patients anesthetized with sevoflurane.

  2. Commissioning and optimization of the LHC BLM System

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, E B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Hajdu, C F; Jackson, S; Kurfurst, C; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M; Zamantzas, C; Grishin, V

    2011-01-01

    Due to rapid progress with the LHC commissioning in 2010, set-up beam intensities were soon surpassed and damage potential was reached. One of the key systems for machine protection is the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system. Around 4000 monitors are installed at likely or critical loss locations. Each monitor has 384 associated beam abort thresholds (12 integrated loss durations from 40 μs to 84 s for 32 energy intervals). A single integrated loss over threshold on a single monitor aborts the beam. Simulations of deposited energy, critical energy deposition for damage or quench and BLM signal response backedup by control measurements determined the initial threshold settings. The commissioning and optimization of the BLM system is presented. Test procedures were used to verify the machine protection functionalities. Accidental magnet quenches were used to fine-tune threshold settings. The most significant changes to the BLM system during the 2010 run concern the injection, the collimation and the beam dump re...

  3. Number of New Leases Issued During Fiscal Year by BLM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of new leases, by state, issued by the BLM during each fiscal year. Leases issued over the course of a fiscal year may or may...

  4. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered...

  5. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  6. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF ANATROPHIC NEPHROLITHOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Anatrophic nephrolithotomy is a urological procedure t hat is rarely performed in this minimally invasive endo urological era. Howeve r, it still remains an option in the management of complex staghorn calculus. A near compl ete removal of the large calculus in a single sitting will be more cost effective than mul tiple sittings required for minimally invasive procedures. We report anesthetic management of anatro phic nephrolithotomy which in many ways similar to the principles of renal transplantati on

  7. Cesarean section under epidural anesthesia patient shivering in the surgical anesthetic experience to explore%硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中患者寒战的麻醉体会探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜珍华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery in patients with shivering and anesthetic experience. Methods 140 cases were treated in our hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section shivering surgery patients as research subjects. Results Psychological stress too much heat,heat production increased drug toxicity and other main reason for the occurrence of shivering, through the adoption of appropriate measures to deal effectively control the chills. Conclusion The analysis of patients with chills,targeted to take the appropriate measures to control shivering effective measures to help prevent cesarean section under epidural anesthesia shivering.%  目的探讨硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中患者发生寒战的原因及麻醉体会。方法选择该院2010年3月—2012年3月收治的140例硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中出现寒战的患者作为研究对象。结果心理紧张、散热过多、产热增加、药物毒性反应等为发生寒战的主要原因,通过采取相应的处理措施,有效的控制了寒战。结论分析患者发生寒战的原因,有针对性的采取相应措施是控制寒战的有效措施,有助于预防硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产手术中寒战的发生。

  8. Prototype of linac BLM at NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Yuxiong; Gong, Guanghua; Li, Juexin; Shao, Beibei; Zhao, Zhengguo

    2007-08-01

    A prototype of the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System for the linac and transportation line has been built up in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Different from the storage ring, the radiation field around linac and transportation line have a duty factor of 10 -6 and a dose rate of hundreds Gy/h. The Monte-Carlo calculation gave the dose, flux, energy and direction distributions of the radiation field. According to the simulation result, the proper type of detector was chosen and the installation positions were selected accordingly. The widely used ionization chamber is not suitable to give accurate and real-time information of beam loss due to its large dimension and slow respond speed. Several PIN silicon diode-based detectors were designed and tested, and a charge-balanced integrating amplifier circuit was applied to read out the charge. A distributed data acquisition system based on embedded Ethernet technology was implemented in the prototype, which can offer a web server from the microcontroller. From preliminary tests, this new prototype was proved to be sensitive to the change of the linac status, and is a useful tool for monitoring and adjusting machine parameters. Further analyses are required to achieve a more accurate measurement of the beam loss.

  9. Renal effects of methoxyverapamil in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Churchill, P

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine the renal effects of methoxyverapamil (D-600). Three groups of rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and given 0, 0.85 or 1.69 nmol/min of methoxyverapamil i.v. Increases in urine flow and Na, K and Ca excretory rates occurred, in an apparently dose-dependent manner. Plasma Na and arterial renin concentration decreased at both doses and, at the higher dose, mean arterial blood pressure and effective renal plasma flow decreased while plasma K increased. Plasma Ca, glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction and total renal plasma flow were not affected. The findings that methoxyverapamil increased urine flow and electrolyte excretion without changing glomerular filtration rate are consistent with the hypothesis that methoxyverapamil acts directly on tubular reabsorptive mechanisms. These effects, and the effect on plasma renin concentration, could contribute to the beneficial effects of this and other Ca entry antagonists in the treatment of hypertension.

  10. Dexmedetomidine as the primary anesthetic agent during cardiac surgery in an infant with a family history of malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Naguib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is an acute hypermetabolic crisis triggered in susceptible patients by the administration of succinylcholine or a volatile anesthetic agent. When providing anesthetic care for MH-susceptible agents, a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA technique is frequently chosen. When choosing the components for TIVA, several options exist including the combination of propofol or dexmedetomidine with an opioid. We present our experience with the use of dexmedetomidine as a key component of the anesthetic regimen in a 5-month-old infant with a family history of MH. Previous reports of the use of dexmedetomidine in MH-susceptible patients are reviewed and its benefits in such patients discussed.

  11. Anesthetic management of transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI is an emergent technique for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. TAVI poses significant challenges about its management because of the procedure itself and the population who undergo the implantation. Two devices are currently available and marketed in Europe and several other technologies are being developed. The retrograde transfemoral approach is the most popular procedure; nevertheless, it may not be feasible in patients with significant aortic or ileo-femoral arterial disease. Alternatives include a transaxillary approach, transapical approach, open surgical access to the retroperitoneal iliac artery and the ascending aorta. A complementary approach using both devices and alternative routes tailored to the anatomy and the comorbidities of the single patient is a main component for the successful implementation of a TAVI program. Anesthetic strategies vary in different centers. Local anesthesia or general anesthesia are both valid alternatives and can be applied according to the patient′s characteristics and procedural instances. General anesthesia offers many advantages, mainly regarding the possibility of an early diagnosis and treatment of possible complications through the use of transesophageal echocardiography. However, after the initial experiences, many groups began to employ, routinely, sedation plus local anesthesia for TAVI, and their procedural and periprocedural success demonstrates that it is feasible. TAVI is burdened with potential important complications: vascular injuries, arrhythmias, renal impairment, neurological complications, cardiac tamponade, prosthesis malpositioning and embolization and left main coronary artery occlusion. The aim of this work is to review the anesthetic management of TAVI based on the available literature.

  12. Cortical control of hering-breuer reflexes in anesthetized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrov VG; Mercuriev VA; Ivanova TG; Tarasievich AA; Aleksandrova NP

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It had been hypothesized that the regions of prefrontal cortex which are involved in respiratory control can modulate Hering-Breuer reflexes evoked by vagal input from pulmonary stretch receptors. In the present study, experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized spontaneously breathing Wistar rats. The expiratory-promoting reflex was evaluated from changes in expiratory time immediately after airway occlusion at the end of inspiration. The inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was es...

  13. Design and construction of the first prototype ionization chamber for CSNS and PA beam loss monitor (BLM) system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mei-Hang; TIAN Jian-Min; CHEN Chang; CHEN Yuan-Bo; XU Tao-Guang; LU Shuang-Tong

    2009-01-01

    Design and construction of the first prototype ionization chamber for CSNS and Proton Accelerator (PA) beam loss monitor (BLM) system is reported. The low leakage current (<0.1 pA), good plateau (≈800 V) and linearity range up to 200 Roentgen/h axe obtained in the first prototype. All of these give us good experience for further improving the ionization chamber construction.

  14. Handling of BLM abort thresholds in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Holzer, EB; Zamantzas, C; Kruk, G; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Nemcic, M; Orecka, A; Jackson, S; Roderick, C; Skaugen, A

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system (BLM) for the LHC consists of about 3600 Ionization Chambers (IC) located around the ring. Its main purpose is to request a beam abort when the measured losses exceed a certain threshold. The BLM detectors integrate the measured signals in 12 different time intervals (running from 40us to 83.8s) enabling for a different set of abort thresholds depending on the duration of the beam loss. Furthermore, 32 energy levels running from 450GeV to 7TeV account for the fact that the energy density of a particle shower increases with the energy of the primary particle, i.e. the beam energy. Thus, a set of ! 3600 × 12 × 32 = 1.3 · 106 thresholds must be handled. These thresholds are highly critical for the safety of the machine and depend to a large part on human judgment, which cannot be replaced by automatic test procedures. The BLM team has defined well established procedures to compute, set and check new BLM thresholds, in order to avoid and/or find non-conformities due to manipulat...

  15. 四种常用实验麻醉药物对大鼠心血管系统的影响%Impact of four anesthetic drugs commonly used in animal experiments on the cardiovascular system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安会; 谷捷; 吴涛; 袁肇凯; 蔡雄; 胡志希; 简伟雄; 李鑫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of four different anesthetic drugs commonly used in animal experi-ments on cardiovascular system in rats.Methods Electrocardiogram ( ECG) and blood pressure were dynamically recor-ded by a BioPac MP150 system after anesthesia.In addition, the blood glucose at different time points and hepatic func-tion, kidney function, cardiac enzymes and electrolytes at the end of the test were collected.Rusults Chloral hydrate caused severe ventricular arrhythmia.Isoflurane had inhibitory effect on the heart rate.Pentobarbital sodium induced a in-crease of ECG P wave.Urethane caused J point elevation of ECG.Blood pressure in the urethane-and pentobarbital sodi-um-treated groups were increased.Chloral hydrate caused CK to be raised, while isoflurane showed the opposite effect on CK and CKMB.Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the pentobarbitol sodium and isoflurane groups were decreased.Creatinine in the chloral hydrate, pentobarbital sodium and isoflurane groups were lower, and the serum sodium and potassium were decreased in the four groups.Conclusions Chloral hydrate has obvious effect on the cardio-vascular system, and is not suitable for animal studies on cardiovascular diseases.Pentobarbital sodium, urethane, isoflu-rane can be chosen for animal studies on cardiovascular diseases.%目的:探讨不同动物实验麻醉药物对大鼠心血管系统的影响。方法采用BioPac MP150动态记录四种麻醉药物麻醉后大鼠的心电图、血压,采集麻醉后不同时间点大鼠的血糖以及实验终点肝肾功能、心肌酶、电解质。结果水合氯醛可引起严重的室性心律失常,异氟烷对心率有抑制作用,戊巴比妥钠可引起大鼠心电图P波增高,乌拉坦可引起大鼠心电图J点抬高。乌拉坦、戊巴比妥钠均可引起SBP升高,水合氯醛可引CK升高,异氟烷可降低CK、CKMB,戊巴比妥钠、异氟烷有降低ALT、AST的作用,水合氯醛、

  16. 78 FR 29379 - BLM Director's Response to the Appeal by the Governors of Utah and Wyoming of the BLM Assistant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...) for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land... for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the BLM in Colorado, Utah... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  17. [Facial locoregional anesthetics: principles and precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, H; Lacroix, G; Cordier, A; Bey, E; Duhamel, P

    2009-12-01

    Facial locoregional anesthetics (ALR) with nervous blocks are simple and reliable to perform, need little technical resources with a very low iatrogenic risk. These blocks allow anesthesia without deforming wound banks using the same materials as usual local anesthetic procedures. Three principal nervous blocks, in a straight line along the vertical pupil axis, allow managing - even extensive - facial wounds. Few side effects may occur which can be easily prevented. It is a good alternative to local anesthetic for the treatment of extensive and deep areas which is performed with a lower number of injections and a high rate of success. These techniques are easy to learn and practise. These anesthetic techniques allow a nice treatment of different kinds of facial wounds from simple suture to flaps.

  18. LOCAL ANESTHETICS IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    risto Daskalov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in the dental medicine is pain alleviation. Many studies in the dental anesthesiology result in the production of new agents for locoregional anesthesia. Objective: This article aim to present the results of the last studies on the effect of the local anesthetics used in the oral surgery on patients with cardiovascular diseases. Material: A general review of the existing literature on the effect of the adrenaline, included as vasoconstrictor in the local anesthetics, used in patients with cardiovascular diseases is made. The benefits of vasoconstrictors for the quality of the anesthetic effect are proven. Conclusion: A small amount of adrenaline in the anesthetic solution does not result in complications development in patients with controlled cardiovascular diseases. Articaine is recommended agent of first choice for local anesthesia in the oral surgery.

  19. Local anesthetics: dentistry's most important drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1994-12-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Horace Wells opened the door to local anesthetics. Since then, many advances have been made in pain control. The development of dentistry's most important drugs is highlighted here.

  20. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdi, Madhuri S.; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H.

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit differ...

  1. [Effect of local anesthetics on the postoperative inflammatory response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloeil, H; Mazoit, J-X

    2009-03-01

    Current knowledge suggests that peripheral inflammation following surgery activates and sensitizes both peripheral and central nervous system. These phenomena involved in the maintenance of the inflammatory response lead to hypersensibility, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperalgesia participates in the general experience of postoperative pain and ALo in the development of chronic pain. A correlation between the ability of treatments to reduce areas of hypersensitivity surrounding the wound after surgery and their ability to reduce the incidence of chronic pain has been shown. For a long time, local anaesthetics have been used for their capacity to block nociceptive input. They can ALo modulate the inflammatory response following a surgical trauma. By inhibiting the nervous conductivity at the site of the trauma, local anesthetics attenuate the sensitization of the nervous system and therefore the inflammatory phenomena. They ALo exert intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the local and systemic liberation of inflammatory mediators. The mechanisms involved are not clearly elucidated. Local, systemic, and spinal inflammatory mechanisms may be influenced by local anesthetics through multiple different mechanisms. The therapeutic implications of effects of local anesthetics on local, systemic, and spinal inflammatory responses merit further study. PMID:19297121

  2. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    CERN Document Server

    Yukai, Chen; Lijuan, He; Weimin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system differed from the old one to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the new machine's operation parameters and discusses the way to choose proper monitoring positions. Base on these comprehensive analysis, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  3. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  4. On the BLM optimal renormalization scale setting for semihard processes

    CERN Document Server

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The BFKL approach for the investigation of semihard processes is plagued by large next-to-leading corrections, both in the kernel of the universal BFKL Green's function and in the process-dependent impact factors, as well as by large uncertainties in the renormalization scale setting. All that calls for some optimization procedure of the perturbative series. In this respect, one of the most common methods is the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) one, that eliminates the renormalization scale ambiguity by absorbing the non-conformal $\\beta_0$-terms into the running coupling. In this paper, we apply BLM scale setting procedure directly to the amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. We show that, due to the presence of $\\beta_0$-terms in the next-to-leading expressions for the impact factors, the optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the type of process in question.

  5. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yuichiro; Iwano, Hidetomo; Sakamoto, Takako; Hirabayashi, Manabu; Kaneko, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents -medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  6. Is the BLM system ready to go to higher intensities?

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Guerrero, A; Grishin, S; Holzer, E; Jackson, S; Kurfuerst, C; Lechner, A; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The higher beam intensities will enhance the effects of the beam losses observed during 2010 run. In particular beam losses due to so called UFO events are discussed, but also other beam loss phenomena like luminosity losses, injection losses and the leakage from the collimation system are considered. The current understanding of the quench limits reflected in the BLM thresholds on the cold magnets is presented. The thresholds for possible increased beam energy are reviewed.

  7. BLM has early and late functions in homologous recombination repair in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, W K; Hanada, K; Kanaar, R;

    2010-01-01

    ' roles, such as dissolution of double Holliday junctions. However, most of the evidence for these putative roles comes from in vitro biochemical data. In this study, we report the characterization of mouse embryonic stem cells with disruption of Blm and/or Rad54 genes. We show that Blm has roles both...... in Rad54(-/-) cells rescued their mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, and decreased both the level of DNA damage and cell cycle perturbation induced by MMC, suggesting an early role for Blm. Our data are consistent with Blm having at least two roles in HR repair in mammalian cells....

  8. 75 FR 34152 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... attend and need special assistance, such as sign language interpretation, transportation, or other reasonable accommodations, should contact the BLM. Dated: June 9, 2010. Julia Dougan, Acting State...

  9. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  10. Transcriptomic and Protein Expression Analysis Reveals Clinicopathological Significance of Bloom Syndrome Helicase (BLM) in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Agarwal, Devika; Doherty, Rachel; Moseley, Paul M; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Alshareeda, Alaa T; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Y T; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) has key roles in homologous recombination repair, telomere maintenance, and DNA replication. Germ-line mutations in the BLM gene causes Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by premature aging and predisposition to multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The clinicopathologic significance of BLM in sporadic breast cancers is unknown. We investigated BLM mRNA expression in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1,950) and validated in an external dataset of 2,413 tumors. BLM protein level was evaluated in the Nottingham Tenovus series comprising 1,650 breast tumors. BLM mRNA overexpression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)), progesterone receptor-negative (PR(-)), and triple-negative phenotypes (ps < 0.0001). BLM mRNA overexpression was also linked to aggressive molecular phenotypes, including PAM50.Her2 (P < 0.0001), PAM50.Basal (P < 0.0001), and PAM50.LumB (P < 0.0001) and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/high proliferation; P < 0.0001). PAM50.LumA tumors and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/low proliferation) were more likely to express low levels of BLM mRNA (ps < 0.0001). Integrative molecular clusters (intClust) intClust.1 (P < 0.0001), intClust.5 (P < 0.0001), intClust.9 (P < 0.0001), and intClust.10 (P < 0.0001) were also more likely in tumors with high BLM mRNA expression. BLM mRNA overexpression was associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS; ps < 0.000001). At the protein level, altered subcellular localization with high cytoplasmic BLM and low nuclear BLM was linked to aggressive phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, BLM mRNA and BLM protein levels independently influenced BCSS. This is the first and the largest study to provide evidence that BLM is a promising biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:25673821

  11. Neonate with hypoglycemia for pancreatectomy: Anesthetic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Alka; Kohli, Jasvinder Kaur; Senapati, Nihar Nalini; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is rare and an important cause of hypoglycemia in neonates. It can lead to brain damage or death secondary to severe hypoglycemia. We present the anesthetic management in a diagnosed case of PHHI in an 8-day-old male neonate for total pancreatectomy.

  12. Collaborating functions of BLM and DNA topoisomerase I in regulating human rDNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grierson, Patrick M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Acharya, Samir, E-mail: samir.acharya@osumc.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Groden, Joanna [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an inherited disorder caused by loss of function of the recQ-like BLM helicase. It is characterized clinically by severe growth retardation and cancer predisposition. BLM localizes to PML nuclear bodies and to the nucleolus; its deficiency results in increased intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination, including hyper-recombination of rDNA repeats. Our previous work has shown that BLM facilitates RNA polymerase I-mediated rRNA transcription in the nucleolus (Grierson et al., 2012 [18]). This study uses protein co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) to identify a direct interaction of DNA topoisomerase I with the C-terminus of BLM in the nucleolus. In vitro helicase assays demonstrate that DNA topoisomerase I stimulates BLM helicase activity on a nucleolar-relevant RNA:DNA hybrid, but has an insignificant effect on BLM helicase activity on a control DNA:DNA duplex substrate. Reciprocally, BLM enhances the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I on supercoiled DNA substrates. Our study suggests that BLM and DNA topoisomerase I function coordinately to modulate RNA:DNA hybrid formation as well as relaxation of DNA supercoils in the context of nucleolar transcription.

  13. Completing the Calculation of BLM corrections to B -> Xs gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Misiak, Mikolaj; Poradzinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative O(alpha_s^2) corrections to BR(B -> Xs gamma) in the BLM approximation receive contributions from two-, three- and four-body final states. While all the two-body results are well established by now, the other ones have remained incomplete for several years. Here, we calculate the last contribution that has been missing to date, namely the one originating from interference of the current-current and gluonic dipole operators (K_18^{(2)beta_0} and K_{28}^{(2)beta_0}). Moreover, we c...

  14. Clinical features of pheochromocytoma and perioperative anesthetic management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗爱伦; 郭向阳; 易杰; 任洪智; 黄宇光; 叶铁虎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical features of pheochromocytoma and summarize experiences of anesthetic management during the perioperative period. Methods Two hundred and fifty eight patients who were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively for clinical features. According to different preoperative pharmalogical preparations, perioperative mortalities were analyzed in three periods (Period 1: January 1955-December 1975; Period 2: January 1976-December 1994; Period 3: January 1995-July 2001). In Period 3, hemodynamic changes in the patients undergoing different anesthetic methods were analyzed. Results About 5.8% (15/258) of pheochromocytoma was an integral part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type Ⅱ or mixed type. Sixty percent (149/249) of the patients who had undergone surgery possessed evidence of catecholamine cardiac toxicity preoperatively. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 59% (147/249) of the patients before surgery. Perioperative mortality was significantly decreased from 8% (5/60) in Period 1 to 1.2% (1/75) in Period 2 (P<0.01). No perioperative deaths occurred in Period 3. The volume infused during the operation was significantly higher both in the epidural anesthesia group (3474 ml±624 ml, P<0.01) and in the epidural plus general anesthesia group (3654 ml±475 ml, P<0.01) than in the general anesthesia group (2534 ml±512 ml). There were favorable hemodynamic characteristics in patients before removal of the tumor in the epidural anesthesia group and in the epidural plus general anesthesia group, as compared with the general anesthesia group. Conclusions A positive surgical outcome of the excision of pheochromocytoma depends on multiple factors, including careful assessment of potential vital organ damage before surgery and restoration of blood volume by establishing α-blockade preoperatively, meticulous anesthetic management of patients during surgery, and appropriate circulatory support after

  15. Association of BLM and BRCA1 during Telomere Maintenance in ALT Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Acharya

    Full Text Available Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during DNA repair, the functional consequences of BLM-BRCA1 association in telomere maintenance are not completely understood. Our earlier work showed the involvement of BRCA1 in different mechanisms of ALT, and telomere shortening upon loss of BLM in ALT cells. In order to delineate their roles in telomere maintenance, we studied their association in telomere metabolism in cells using ALT. This work shows that BLM and BRCA1 co-localize with RAD50 at telomeres during S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle in immortalized human cells using ALT but not in cells using telomerase to maintain telomeres. Co-immunoprecipitation of BRCA1 and BLM is enhanced in ALT cells at G2. Furthermore, BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively. Biochemical assays demonstrate that full-length BRCA1 increases the unwinding rate of BLM three-fold in assays using a DNA substrate that models a forked structure composed of telomeric repeats. Our results suggest that BRCA1 participates in ALT through its interactions with RAD50 and BLM.

  16. Laparoscopic colectomy in an adult with single ventricle physiology: Anesthetic implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of adult patients with complex congenital heart conditions are presenting for noncardiac surgery later in life. These disorders can present challenges for surgical and anesthesia providers. Specifically, single ventricle lesions offer anatomic and physiologic concerns during the perioperative period. Single ventricle physiology represents a delicate balance between systemic and pulmonary blood flow. Any alterations in blood flow through these systems can produce undesirable hemodynamic changes, especially during the perioperative period. We present a case of an adult patient with a single left ventricle who presented for laparoscopic total colectomy due to inflammatory bowel disease. His abnormal anatomy coupled with the hemodynamic disruptions caused by laparoscopy presented significant anesthetic challenges. We highlight the anesthetic concerns of single ventricle physiology, specifically pertaining to laparoscopic surgery. We provide recommendations for safely managing these patients perioperatively. With detailed preoperative evaluation and close hemodynamic monitoring during the perioperative period, these patients can experience successful surgical and anesthetic outcomes.

  17. On Beyond Lidocaine: Reconsidering Local Anesthetics in Tumescent Liposuction-A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Henry C

    2016-02-01

    The use of tumescent solution in liposuction is now considered standard of care; however, much debate still exists regarding its ideal components, especially surrounding the inclusion of local anesthetics. This article reviews the discussion regarding the use of local anesthetics in tumescent liposuction and how it may evolve in the future. The need for local anesthetic additives in tumescent liposuction has been questioned, and the use of longer-acting agents discouraged; however, increasing number of reports in recent years have described the increasingly widespread use of tumescent anesthesia where a wetting solution is infiltrated to achieve anesthesia in an operative field for procedures other than liposuction. More high-level evidence, such as randomized controlled clinical trials, will be required; however, it should be possible to develop a useful standardized algorithm that can guide surgeons to optimize patient safety as well as patient experience. PMID:26808738

  18. The modifying effect of anesthetic technique on the metabolic and endocrine responses to anesthesia and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1988-01-01

    and the widespread use of the term "stress free anesthesia" in surgery is therefore not valid. However, continuous administration of local anesthetic agents in the epidural space is the most effective technique in so far as reduction of the stress response is concerned. The clinical implication of a variable...... reduction in the stress response to surgery by different anesthetic techniques remains largely unsettled, since only few controlled studies have been published on the clinical effects of pain relief and general anesthesia. However, a vast amount of data exist from controlled studies comparing regional...... anesthesia with local anesthetics and general anesthesia. The cumulative experience from these studies have demonstrated an advantageous effect on postoperative morbidity parameters such as blood loss, postoperative thromboembolic complications, pulmonary infective complications, gastrointestinal motility...

  19. A Blm-Recql5 partnership in replication stress response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xincheng Lu; Hua Lou; Guangbin Luo

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA damage response and repair not only can result in genome instability and cancer predisposition, but also can render the cancer cells intrinsically more vulnerable to certain types of DNA damage insults. Particularly, replication stress is both a hallmark of human cancers and a common instigator for genome instability and cell death. Here, we review our work based on the genetic knockout studies on Blm and Recql5, two members of the mammalian RecQ helicase family. These studies have uncovered a unique partnership between these two helicases in the implementation of proper mitigation strategies under different circumstances to promote DNA replication and cell survival and suppress genome instability and cancer. In particular, current studies have revealed the presence of a novel Recql5/RECQL5-dependent mechanism for suppressing replication fork collapse in response to global replication fork stalling following exposure to camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and a potent inhibitor of DNA replication. The unique partnership between Blm and Recql5 in coping with the challenge imposed by replication stress is discussed. In addition, given that irinotecan and topotecan, two CPT derivatives, are currently used in clinic for treating human cancer patients with very promising results, the potential implication of the new findings from these studies in anticancer treatments is also discussed.

  20. Anesthetic gases and occupationally exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Schifano, Maria Pia; Capozzella, Assunta; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate whether the occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could cause alterations of blood parameters in health care workers. 119 exposed subjects and 184 not exposed controls were included in the study. Each worker underwent the complete blood count test (CBC), proteinaemia, leukocyte count, serum lipids, liver and kidney blood markers. The liver blood markers show statistically significant differences in health care workers compared with controls (pGGT, total bilirubin, lymphocytes and neutrophils was statistically significant in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The results suggest that occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could influence some haematochemical hepatic and hematopoietic parameters in exposed health care workers. PMID:24374387

  1. Opioid induced hyperalgesia in anesthetic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Yeomans, David C

    2014-11-01

    Pain is difficult to investigate and difficult to treat, in part, because of problems in quantification and assessment. The use of opioids, combined with classic anesthetics to maintain hemodynamic stability by controlling responses to intraoperative painful events has gained significant popularity in the anesthetic field. However, several side effects profiles concerning perioperative use of opioid have been published. Over the past two decades, many concerns have arisen with respect to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), which is the paradoxical effect wherein opioid usage may decrease pain thresholds and increase atypical pain unrelated to the original, preexisting pain. This brief review focuses on the evidence, mechanisms, and modulatory and pharmacologic management of OIH in order to elaborate on the clinical implication of OIH.

  2. Ubiquitin Metabolism Affects Cellular Response to Volatile Anesthetics in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Darren; Reiner, Thomas; Keeley, Jessica L.; Pizzini, Mark; Keil, Ralph L.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of volatile anesthetics, we are studying mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have altered sensitivity to isoflurane, a widely used clinical anesthetic. Several lines of evidence from these studies implicate a role for ubiquitin metabolism in cellular response to volatile anesthetics: (i) mutations in the ZZZ1 gene render cells resistant to isoflurane, and the ZZZ1 gene is identical to BUL1 (binds ubiquitin ligase), which appears to be invo...

  3. Meiotic and Mitotic Phenotypes Conferred by the blm1-1 Mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MSH4 Suppression of the Bleomycin Hypersusceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Wood Moore

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Oxidative damage can lead to a number of diseases, and can be fatal. The blm1-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers hypersusceptibility to lethal effects of the oxidative, anticancer and antifungal agent, bleomycin. For the current report, additional defects conferred by the mutation in meiosis and mitosis were investigated. The viability of spores produced during meiosis by homozygous normal BLM1/BLM1, heterozygous BLM1/blm1-1, and homozygous mutant blm1-1/blm1-1 diploid strains was studied and compared. Approximately 88% of the tetrads derived from homozygous blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant diploid cells only produced one or two viable spores. In contrast, just one tetrad among all BLM1/BLM1 and BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads only produced one or two viable spores. Rather, 94% of BLM1/BLM1 tetrads and 100% of BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads produced asci with four or three viable spores. Thus, at least one copy of the BLM1 gene is essential for the production of four viable spores after meiosis. During mitotic growth, mutant blm1-1 strains grew at reduced rates and produced cells with high frequencies of unusual morphologies compared to wild-type strains. These results indicated BLM1 is also essential for normal mitotic growth. We also investigated the suppression by the MSH4 gene, a meiosis-specific MutS homolog, of the bleomycin hypersusceptibility of blm1-1 mutant cells, and the relationship of MSH4 to BLM1. We screened a genomic library, and isolated the MSH4 gene on the basis of its ability to suppress lethal effects of bleomycin in blm1-1 cells. However, genetic mapping studies indicated that BLM1 and MSH4 are not the same gene. The possibility that chromosomal nondisjunction could be the basis for the inability of blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant cells to produce four viable spores after meiosis is discussed.

  4. Number of Drilling Permits Approved by Fiscal Year on Federal Lands by BLM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of Applications for Permit to Drill (APDs) by state approved by the BLM each fiscal year. Oil and gas operators may not begin...

  5. 2012 Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  6. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  7. Eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Joaquim Bernardes Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook, and to determine the minimum effective concentration for use in handling procedures. In the first trial, juvenile common snook were subjected to immersion baths at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg L-1 eugenol concentrations, after which induction and recovery times were evaluated. In the second experiment, the lethal exposure time (LT50 at 75 mg L-1 was estimated. Minimum effective eugenol concentration was 50 mg L-1, andthe stage of deep anesthesia and recovery were, respectively, reached at 126.3 and 208.8 s. At 75 mg L-1, LT50 was 1,314 s, and induction time and recovery were also satisfactory; however, fish cannot tolerate over 229 s exposure.

  8. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.; (Drexel-MED); (UPENN)

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  9. A Unitary Anesthetic-Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L.; Brannigan, G; Economou, N; Xi, J; Hall, M; Liu, R; Rossi, M; Dailey, W; Grasty, K; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  10. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  11. Interaction of anesthetics with neurotransmitter release machinery proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P

    2013-02-01

    General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.

  12. The radiation hardness of silica optical fiber used in the LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LED-fiber system has been used to monitor BLM and BESIII EMC. A radiation hard silica optical fiber is essential for its stability and reliability. Three types of silica optical fibers, silicone-clad silica optical fiber with high OH- content (SeCS), silica-clad silica optical fiber with low OH- content (SCSL) and silica-clad silica opical fiber with high OH- content (SCSH) were studied. In the experiment, 12 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by 60Co and 3 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by BEPCII background radiation. Radiation hardness: the radiation hardness of SCSH is best and meets the radiation hardness requirement for LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC. The transmission of SeCS and SCSH decreased to around 80% under the 60Co-irradiation of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively. The radiation hardness of SeCS is worst because of its silicone cladding. Recovery characteristics: 60Co-irradiated by the same doses, there were both more annealable and more permanent color centers formed in SeCS than SCSL, and for the same kind of fibers, as long as the irradiated doses are under a certain amount (for example, less than 5 Gy for SeCS), the higher the doses, both the more annealable and the more permanent color centers are formed.

  13. Challenges for the cataract surgeon treating people with dementia: a qualitative study exploring anesthetic choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferis JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Mary Jefferis,1–3 Michael Patrick Clarke,1,3 John-Paul Taylor,2 Katie Rhian Brittain4 1Newcastle Eye Centre, Royal Victoria Infirmary, 2Institute for Ageing and Health, 3Institute of Neurosciences, 4Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Background: In light of the growing number of people with dementia and age-related cataract, as well as changing anesthetic practices for cataract surgery, this study aimed to explore the experiences of cataract surgeons in managing patients with dementia and making anesthetic decisions.Methods: This was a qualitative study using semistructured interviews with senior cataract surgeons from two centers in England. Fourteen surgeons were interviewed, and a thematic approach informed by grounded theory was used for the analysis.Results: Choice of anesthesia for people with dementia was a central theme arising from the data. Surgeons varied in their thresholds for using general anesthesia. Decisions about suitability for local anesthesia were limited by time constraints and generally made rapidly and based on instinct; dementia was not always apparent at the point of preassessment. Surgeons used a variety of topical, sub-Tenon’s, and sharp needle blocks for people with dementia. Surgeons discussed techniques to help patients tolerate local anesthesia, such as clear communication, a primary nurse, hand-holding, and support from an anesthetist. However, within our sample, some surgeons had had negative experiences of operating on people with dementia, where an incorrect judgment had been made that they could tolerate local anesthetic cataract surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the differing practices of cataract surgeons when making anesthetic choices for people with dementia and the challenges they face. In order to avoid the situation of a patient with dementia becoming distressed during awake surgery, increased time at preassessment and anesthetic support

  14. Evaluation of the aesthetics of physical methods of euthanasia of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Debra L; Johnson, Steven W

    2011-09-01

    Dissection of living brain tissue for in vitro experiments requires the use of a rapid euthanasia method. However, the method must not subject animals to unnecessary pain and must be aesthetically acceptable to experimenters. The purposes of the current study were to assess the aesthetics of 6 euthanasia methods, measure the procedure duration, and evaluate brain for pathology after each procedure. We digitally recorded euthanasia of isoflurane-anesthetized rats by 6 physical methods: anesthetic overdose, cardiac exsanguination, decapitation, closed intrathoracic transection of the great vessels and heart, thoracic percussion, and thoracotomy with rupture of great vessels. Volunteer researchers and animal caretakers watched the video and completed an associated questionnaire. Anesthetic overdose and cardiac exsanguinations were rated most aesthetically pleasing, although these procedures took the longest to complete. In contrast, decapitation and thoracic percussion were the least aesthetically pleasing, but these methods were the quickest. No demographic factor was identified that could predict whether a given euthanasia procedure would be favored for aesthetic reasons, and participants provided a wide variety of rationales for the aesthetic ratings they assigned. Although all of these euthanasia methods meet the criteria of approved methods of euthanasia of anesthetized rats as defined by the AVMA, aesthetic features and the scientific need for rapid euthanasia are both considerations in selecting a method.

  15. Anesthetic exposure and health of dental personnel, 1 June 1978-30 November 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey was conducted to determine possible health hazards in the dental profession, with particular attention being given to the results of exposure to anesthetic gases. The survey contacted 30,650 dentists and 30,547 chairside assistants who were subsequently grouped according to exposure to inhalation anesthetics in the dental operatory during the course of their employment experience. An increase in liver disease 1.7 above that expected was noted in male dentists heavily exposed to anesthetics, combined with a 1.2 fold increase for kidney disease and 1.9-fold increase for neurological disease. The spontaneous abortion rate in wives of male dentists was 1.5-fold higher than expected. Occupational exposure to anesthetics, either direct or indirect, was associated with significant increases in spontaneous abortion over control levels during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy showed increased risk of spontaneous abortion, with a 27% increase occurring in dental assistants and a 21% increase in wives of dentists. A 34% increased risk of babies having congenital abnormalities was noted among smoking dental assistants.

  16. Anesthetic Management of Direct Laryngoscopy and Dilatation of Subglottic Stenosis in a Patient with Severe Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Elsharkawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the anesthetic management of a patient with severe myasthenia gravis and tracheal stenosis; the patient was scheduled for direct laryngoscopy and dilatation. The combination of myasthenia gravis and tracheal obstruction presents several difficulties for anesthetic management. The airway is shared; therefore, any complications are also shared by the anesthesiologist and bronchoscopists. The potential for respiratory compromise in patients undergoing the two procedures requires that anesthesiologists be familiar with the underlying disease state, as well as the interaction of anesthetic and nonanesthetic drugs in a case involving myasthenia gravis. We reviewed the literature and report our experience in this case. There is no strong evidence for choosing one approach to general anesthesia over another for bronchoscopy. Careful preoperative planning and experience in airway management and jet ventilation are crucial to prevent an adverse outcome and obtain favorable results.

  17. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local...... anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent...... of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. Clinical Implications. Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high...

  18. Obstetric use of nitroglycerin: Anesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Saroa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitroglycerin has been used in anesthetic practice for induced hypotension and managing perioperative hypertension and myocardial ischemia. Contrary to the continuous low dose infusions (5-20 mcg/min used for the same, intravenous bolus dosages are sometimes administered at the behest of obstetricians for removal of retained placenta. Use of nitroglycerine in managing retained placenta is undertaken as a last resort when other measures fail to relax the uterine smooth muscles. Intravenous nitroglycerine relaxes smooth muscle cells by releasing nitric oxide thus causing prompt cervico-uterine relaxation. However, administration of nitroglycerine in this manner is not without risks which should be kept in mind while using it for obstetric purposes. We hereby report a case of 22-year-old female scheduled for manual removal of placenta where unpredictable and unexpected hypoxemia was observed following nitroglycerine administration.

  19. Anesthetic management of an infant for aortopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheomalacia is a rare condition characterized by weakness of tracheobronchial cartilaginous bridges. Severe weakness results in tracheal collapse during inspiration, obstructing normal airflow. Tracheomalacia may also be associated with esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, and gastroesophageal reflux. Aortopexy is an established surgical procedure for treatment of severe tracheomalacia. A 2-month-old boy was scheduled for aortopexy. He had already undergone repair of tracheoesophageal fistula and had failed multiple attempts at extubation. Intraoperative flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed to guide the amount and direction of aortopexy for assuring the most effective tracheal decompression. Since tracheomalacia is best assessed in a spontaneously breathing patient, it was an anesthetic challenge to maintain an adequate depth of anesthesia while allowing the patient to breathe spontaneously. Throughout the intraoperative period, SpO 2 remained ≥96%. Following the procedure, the trachea was extubated and patient was able to breathe normally.

  20. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABAA receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABAA receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish

  1. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldwein, C.G.; Silva, L.L. [Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Reckziegel, P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Barros, F.M.C. [Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bürger, M.E.; Baldisserotto, B. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mallmann, C.A. [Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Schmidt, D.; Caron, B.O. [Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus de Frederico Westphalen, Frederico Westphalen, RS (Brazil); Heinzmann, B.M. [Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABA{sub A} receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABA{sub A} receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish.

  2. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKitano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The RecQ family DNA helicases WRN (Werner syndrome protein and BLM (Bloom syndrome protein play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson-Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates.

  3. Can anesthetic treatment worsen outcome in status epilepticus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Raoul; Kaplan, Peter W

    2015-08-01

    Status epilepticus refractory to first-line and second-line antiepileptic treatments challenges neurologists and intensivists as mortality increases with treatment refractoriness and seizure duration. International guidelines advocate anesthetic drugs, such as continuously administered high-dose midazolam, propofol, and barbiturates, for the induction of therapeutic coma in patients with treatment-refractory status epilepticus. The seizure-suppressing effect of anesthetic drugs is believed to be so strong that some experts recommend using them after benzodiazepines have failed. Although the rationale for the use of anesthetic drugs in patients with treatment-refractory status epilepticus seems clear, the recommendation of their use in treating status epilepticus is based on expert opinions rather than on strong evidence. Randomized trials in this context are lacking, and recent studies provide disturbing results, as the administration of anesthetics was associated with poor outcome independent of possible confounders. This calls for caution in the straightforward use of anesthetics in treating status epilepticus. However, there are still more questions than answers, and current evidence for the adverse effects of anesthetic drugs in patients with status epilepticus remains too limited to advocate a change of treatment algorithms. In this overview, the rationale and the conflicting clinical implications of anesthetic drugs in patients with treatment-refractory status epilepticus are discussed, and remaining questions are elaborated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  4. Comparison of anesthetic agents in the sea otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.D.; Kocher, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Five anesthetic agents (CI744, etorphine, fentanyl, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane) were tested to establish the dosage of a safe, effective, short-acting anesthetic for use in the sea otter. Etorphine, at a dosage of 0.75 mg per adult otter and used in conjunction with diazepam, at a dosage of 1.25 mg per adult otter, met most of the requirements for use under field conditions. Halothane, administered through an anesthetic machine, proved to be effective for use in a veterinary hospital.

  5. Local anesthetics: dentistry's most important drugs, clinical update 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F

    2006-12-01

    Local anesthetics are the safest most effective drugs in medicine for the control and management of pain. They also represent the most important drugs in dentistry. Today, dentistry has a spectrum of local anesthetics that permit pain control to be tailored to the specific needs of the patient: short-, intermediate-, and long-acting drugs. Bupivacaine has become a standard part of the armamentarium for postsurgical pain control while articaine has become the second-most used local anesthetic in the United States since its introduction in 2000. Despite an increase in anecdotal reports of paresthesia since articaine's introduction there is yet, no supporting scientific evidence.

  6. [A regular internal auditing and registration of critical incidents regarded as safety maintenance elements within the anesthetic management of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, V L; Likhvantsev, V V; Alekseev, A A

    2004-01-01

    The paper summarizes a 5-year experience of evaluating the safety of anesthetic management of patients with thermal lesions treated at the department of thermal lesions of Vishnevsky's Institute of Surgery, Russia's Academy of Medical Sciences. Regular internal auditings, based on the principles of registering the critical incidents, the course of 1473 general anesthesia managements was analyzed in 168 patients. The conclusion is that the introduction of protocols of anesthetic management as well as a regular monitoring over meeting the fixed targets cut the total frequency of critical incidents from 2.85 to 1.19 as estimated per one general anesthesia. Finally the authors suggest a concept whose essence in that the operation of the modern anesthesiology department must be based on a scientifically substantiated technology of anesthetic management.

  7. DNA double strand break repair in mammalian cells: role of MRE11 and BLM proteins at the initiation of Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions, which can lead to genetic rearrangements. Two pathways are responsible for repairing these lesions: homologous recombination (HR) and non homologous end joining (NHEJ). In our laboratory, an intrachromosomal substrate has been established in order to measure the efficiency and the fidelity of NHEJ in living cells (Guirouilh-Barbat 2004). This approach led us to identify a KU-independent alternative pathway, which uses micro homologies in the proximity of the junction to accomplish repair - the alternative NHEJ (Guirouilh-Barbat 2004, Guirouilh-Barbat et Rass 2007). The goal of my thesis consisted in identifying and characterising major actors of this pathway. In the absence of KU, alternative NHEJ would be initiated by ssDNA resection of damaged ends. We showed that the nuclease activity of MRE11 is necessary for this mechanism. MRE11 overexpression leads to a two fold stimulation of NHEJ efficiency, while the extinction of MRE11 by siRNA results in a two fold decrease. Our results demonstrate that the proteins RAD50 and CtIP act in the same pathway as MRE11. Moreover, in cells deficient for XRCC4, MIRIN - an inhibitor of the MRN complex - leads to a decrease in repair efficiency, implicating MRE11 in alternative NHEJ. We also showed that MRE11 can act in an ATM-dependent and independent manner (Rass et Grabarz Nat Struct Mol Biol 2009). The initiation of break resection needs to be pursued by a more extensive degradation of DNA, which is accomplished in yeast by the proteins Exo1 and Sgs1/Dna2. In human cells, in vitro studies have recently proposed a similar model of a two-step break resection. We chose to elucidate the role of one of the human homologs of Sgs1 - the RecQ helicase BLM - in the resection process. Our experiments show, that he absence of BLM decreases the efficiency of end joining by NHEJ, accompanied by an increase in error-prone events, especially long-range deletions (≥200 nt). This

  8. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Ahn, Jung-Hwan; Min, Young-Gi

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of the TASER X26 discharge duration in an anesthetized swine model. Fourteen swines were anesthetized and then exposed to TASER X26 discharge for 5 sec (n = 5) or for 10 sec (n = 6). The sham control group (n = 3) was anesthetized and studied using the same protocol except TASER X26 discharges during the experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after TASER discharge and returned to baseline value at 15 min after 5 sec of TASER discharge but did not return to baseline values during the 30-min observation period after 10 sec of TASER discharge. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. PMID:23066880

  9. BLM realization for ${\\mathcal U}_{\\mathbb Z}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, Beilinson-Lusztig-MacPherson (BLM) discovered a realization \\cite[5.7]{BLM} for quantum $\\frak{gl}_n$ via a geometric setting of quantum Schur algebras. We will generailze their result to the classical affine case. More precisely, we first use Ringel-Hall algebras to construct an integral form ${\\mathcal U}_{\\mathbb Z}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$ of ${\\mathcal U}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$, where ${\\mathcal U}(\\hat{\\frak{gl}}_n)$ is the universal enveloping algebra of the loop algebra $\\hat{\\frak{g...

  10. Adsorbent comparisons for anesthetic gas capture in hospital air emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrata, Mina; Moralejo, Carol; Anderson, William A

    2016-08-23

    For the development of emission control strategies, activated carbon, zeolite, molecular sieves, and a silica gel were tested for adsorption of the newer anesthetic gases isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from air. The activated carbon Norit GCA 48 was selected for the best performance, and adsorption isotherms at room temperature were developed for the three anesthetics. Equilibrium capacities for this carbon were in the range of 500 to 1,000 mg g(-1) for these anesthetics at partial pressures ranging from 5 to 45 Torr, with the most volatile compound (desflurane) showing the least favorable adsorption. Activated carbons are therefore suggested for use as effective adsorbents in emission control of these anesthetic gases from hospitals. PMID:27222158

  11. The Timing of Acupuncture Stimulation Does Not Influence Anesthetic Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyak, Grigory; Sengupta, Papiya; Lenhardt, Rainer; Liem, Edwin; Anthony G Doufas; Sessler, Daniel I.; Akça, Ozan

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective when induced before induction of general anesthesia than afterwards. We tested the hypothesis that electro-acupuncture initiated 30 minutes before induction reduces anesthetic requirement more than acupuncture initiated after induction. Seven volunteers were each anesthetized with desflurane on 3 study days. Needles were inserted percutaneously at 4 acupuncture points thought to produce analgesia in the upper abdominal area and provide genera...

  12. Pain management via local anesthetics and responsive hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Bagshaw, Kyle R; Hanenbaum, Curt L; Carbone, Erica J.; Lo, Kevin WH; Laurencin, Cato T.; Walker, Joseph; Nair, Lakshmi S.

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic pain control is a significant clinical challenge that has been largely unmet. Local anesthetics are widely used for the control of post-operative pain and in the therapy of acute and chronic pain. While a variety of approaches are currently used to prolong the duration of action of local anesthetics, an optimal strategy to achieve neural blockage for several hours to days with minimal toxicity has yet to be identified. Several drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micropa...

  13. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR. These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs. The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure.

  14. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure.

  15. Intravenous lipid emulsion for treatment of local anesthetic toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Caroline Kosh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available M Caroline Kosh, April D Miller, Jill E Michels, , Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina Campus, Columbia, South Carolina, USADate of Preparation: 14th July 2010 Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity?Results: Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in successfully reversing cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and cardiac collapse seen with severe systemic local anesthetic toxicity. There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics.Implementation: Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating rooms and emergency departments. Various dosing protocols have been published in the medical literature. Although the dosing protocols are based on low-level evidence, a lack of major adverse events makes lipid emulsion an appropriate therapy for treating cardiotoxic symptoms induced by local anesthetics.Keywords: intravenous lipid emulsion, local anesthetics

  16. Cortical control of hering-breuer reflexes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrov VG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It had been hypothesized that the regions of prefrontal cortex which are involved in respiratory control can modulate Hering-Breuer reflexes evoked by vagal input from pulmonary stretch receptors. In the present study, experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized spontaneously breathing Wistar rats. The expiratory-promoting reflex was evaluated from changes in expiratory time immediately after airway occlusion at the end of inspiration. The inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was estimated from changes in inspiratory time provoked by airway occlusion at the end of expiration. The results indicate that electrical microstimulation of the responsive sites within the insular cortex significantly weakened both expiratory-promoting and inspiratory-inhibitory reflex. Activation of the infralimbic cortex depressed expiratory-promoting reflex, but inspiratory-inhibitory reflex was enhanced. These results suggest that stimulation of the prefrontal cortex influences vagally mediated control of the respiratory phases timing and several regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate distinct sets of neurons in the network controlling inspiratory and expiratory phases of a breath cycle.

  17. General anesthetics inhibit erythropoietin induction under hypoxic conditions in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoharu Tanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO, originally identified as a hematopoietic growth factor produced in the kidney and fetal liver, is also endogenously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS. EPO in the CNS, mainly produced in astrocytes, is induced under hypoxic conditions in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-dependent manner and plays a dominant role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis. We investigated the effect of general anesthetics on EPO expression in the mouse brain and primary cultured astrocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were exposed to 10% oxygen with isoflurane at various concentrations (0.10-1.0%. Expression of EPO mRNA in the brain was studied, and the effects of sevoflurane, halothane, nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, ketamine, and propofol were investigated. In addition, expression of HIF-2α protein was studied by immunoblotting. Hypoxia-induced EPO mRNA expression in the brain was significantly suppressed by isoflurane in a concentration-dependent manner. A similar effect was confirmed for all other general anesthetics. Hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2α protein was also significantly suppressed with isoflurane. In the experiments using primary cultured astrocytes, isoflurane, pentobarbital, and ketamine suppressed hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2α protein and EPO mRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that general anesthetics suppress activation of HIF-2 and inhibit hypoxia-induced EPO upregulation in the mouse brain through a direct effect on astrocytes.

  18. Benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morato-Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis is a native species from Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and Argentina where it is of great economic importance for artisanal fishing. One difficulty in laboratory research with pejerrey is related to its sensitivity, as it presents higher basal cortisol levels than other freshwater species. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings. Two experiments were done where fingerlings (57±7.8mm and 1.1±0.44g were exposed to benzocaine with concentrations between 40mgL-1 and 120mgL-1 and to clove oil with concentrations between 12mgL-1 and 75mgL-1. Survival, anesthesia induction time and recovery time for each pharmaceutics were evaluated. Both benzocaine and clove oil pharmaceutics showed efficiency as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings, with negative correlation between the dose of anesthetics and the anesthesia induction time. For benzocaine, the concentrations between 80mgL-1 and 100mgL-1 showed better results, as for clove oil the optimal concentrations were between 25mgL-1 and 50mgL-1. On the other hand, the anesthesia recovery time did not present significant variation on the different concentrations of the tested products. The tested products are highly metabolizable by pejerrey.

  19. Anesthetics rapidly promote synaptogenesis during a critical period of brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    Full Text Available Experience-driven activity plays an essential role in the development of brain circuitry during critical periods of early postnatal life, a process that depends upon a dynamic balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Since general anesthetics are powerful pharmacological modulators of neuronal activity, an important question is whether and how these drugs can affect the development of synaptic networks. To address this issue, we examined here the impact of anesthetics on synapse growth and dynamics. We show that exposure of young rodents to anesthetics that either enhance GABAergic inhibition or block NMDA receptors rapidly induce a significant increase in dendritic spine density in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus. This effect is developmentally regulated; it is transient but lasts for several days and is also reproduced by selective antagonists of excitatory receptors. Analyses of spine dynamics in hippocampal slice cultures reveals that this effect is mediated through an increased rate of protrusions formation, a better stabilization of newly formed spines, and leads to the formation of functional synapses. Altogether, these findings point to anesthesia as an important modulator of spine dynamics in the developing brain and suggest the existence of a homeostatic process regulating spine formation as a function of neural activity. Importantly, they also raise concern about the potential impact of these drugs on human practice, when applied during critical periods of development in infants.

  20. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority...

  1. Anesthetic effects changeable in habitual drinkers: Mechanistic drug interactions with neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hironori

    2016-07-01

    Clinicians often experience the reduced efficacy of general and local anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs in habitual drinkers and chronic alcoholics. However, the mechanistic background underlying such anesthetic tolerance remains unclear. Biogenic indoleamines condense with alcohol-derived aldehydes during fermentation processes and under physiological conditions to produce neuro-active tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines, many of which are contained not only in various alcoholic beverages but also in human tissues and body fluids. These indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products are increased in the human body because of their exogenous and endogenous supply enhanced by alcoholic beverage consumption. Since tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines target receptors, ion channels and neuronal membranes which are common to anesthetic agents, we propose a hypothesis that they may pharmacodynamically interact at GABAA receptors, NMDA receptors, voltage-gated Na(+) channels and membrane lipid bilayers to attenuate anesthetics-induced positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulation, NMDA receptor antagonism, ion channel blockade and neuronal membrane modification, thereby affecting anesthetic efficacy. The condensation products may also cooperatively interact with ethanol that induces adaptive changes and cross-tolerance to anesthetics and with dopamine-aldehyde adducts that act on GABAA receptors and membrane lipids. Because tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines are metabolized to lose or decrease their neuro-activities, induction of the relevant enzymes by habitual drinking could produce an inter-individual difference of drinkers in susceptibility to anesthetic agents. The present hypothesis would also provide a unified framework for different modes of anesthetic action, which are inhibited by neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption. PMID:27241259

  2. Evaluation of anesthetic effect of ropivacaine in surgery of chronic periapical lessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ropivacaine is used in orthopedcs, gyneacology, surgery, ophtamology, whereas experience about its usage in dentistry is still limited. The aim of this research was to compare the anesthetic effect between local anesthetics ropivacaine and bupivacaine, in surgical disposals of chronical periapical lessions in maxilla. Material and methods. The study included the patients that had indications for surgical removal of chronical periapical lessions at one of the frontal teeth of upper jaw. The total total number of examinees was 60, and they were devided in two groups. Ropivacaine chloride (0.75% was used as a local anesthetic in one group (Naropin® 0,75%; Astra Zeneca, and in the other one bupivacaine chloride (0.5% (Vexelit® 0,5%; Zdravlje. The autors applied 1,8 ml of block anesthesia for the n. infraorbitalis (intraoral approach as well as 0,2 ml of the local anesthetic from the palatine side for the final branches of n. nasopalatinus in order to observe the folloving anesthetic parameters. I. Beginning of anesthesia was followed by the appearence of upper lip numbness. II. Pain rating scale according to Sisk was used for the objective measurement of the anesthesia quality. III. The pain intensity during the intervention was measured by visual analogous scale, on which the patient denoted the intensity of pain he had felt during the intervention. IV. Duration of anesthetic effect - it is followed by soft tissues numbness. Results and discussion. After the ropivacaine application anesthesia effect started in 1.57 min. and after the usage of bupivacaine in 1.67 min. The mean duration of soft tissue numbness after the application of ropivacaine was 321 minutes. Bupivacaine had a shorter anesthetic effect - 296.5 minutes. The quality of anesthesia after the usage of ropivacaine was assessed by the surgeons with average mark - 1.76. Interventions in which this anesthetic was used were performed with minimal pain and without additional

  3. Experiences with 57Co-labelled bleomycin in tumour diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Co-BLM is a tumour-affine substance which has been tested in clinical experiments in more than 100 patients. The main indication for 57Co-BLM tumour scintiscanning is in the diagnosis of liver metastases where the detection limit can be considerably improved, in particular by the subtraction method proposed by Haubold. So far, no other tumour-affine substance has yielded satisfactory results. In contrast to gallium, 57Co is excreted mostly renally; The BLM content of the liver 24 h p.i. is less than 1% of the dose applied. The low background activity thus provides a good chance of locating small liver metastases with the aid of radioactively labelled BLM. (orig./AJ)

  4. Liquid general anesthetics lower critical temperatures in plasma membrane vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Ellyn; Machta, Benjamin B; Veatch, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    A large and diverse array of small hydrophobic molecules induce general anesthesia. Their efficacy as anesthetics has been shown to correlate both with their affinity for a hydrophobic environment and with their potency in inhibiting certain ligand gated ion channels. Here we explore the effects that n-alcohols and other liquid anesthetics have on the two-dimensional miscibility critical point observed in cell derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). We show that anesthetics depress the critical temperature (Tc) of these GPMVs without strongly altering the ratio of the two liquid phases found below Tc. The magnitude of this affect is consistent across n-alcohols when their concentration is rescaled by the median anesthetic concentration (AC50) for tadpole anesthesia, but not when plotted against the overall concentration in solution. At AC50 we see a 4{\\deg}C downward shift in Tc, much larger than is typically seen in the main chain transition at these anesthetic concentrations. GPMV miscibility critic...

  5. [Experimental studies on the recovery of anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, T; Gross-Alltag, F; Ermisch, J; Hähnel, J; Weber, L; Friesdorf, W

    1992-02-01

    The volatile anesthetic agents halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and contribute to ozone depletion. Although the contribution is small, its importance is rising, as technical CFCs will be phased out according to the Montreal protocol (1987) and the London conference (1990) by the year 2000. Alternative procedures and CFC-free volatile agents such as des- and sevoflurane do not contribute to depletion of the ozone layer, but will not replace standard methods using volatile anesthetic agents in the near future. METHODS. In an experimental setup, we filtered anesthetic waste gases from scavenging systems of rebreathing circles by activated carbon filters. The filtered substances were desorbed by a heat chamber and condensed in a cold trap. RESULTS. By this method, it was possible to retrieve 50%-60% of the applied gases. Gas chromatographic analysis showed halothane containing traces of pollutants and isoflurane and enflurane as pure substances. DISCUSSION. The retrieval of anesthetic waste gases is easy; no sophisticated technical equipment is necessary. Purity of substances could make recycling possible and offer a method to avoid environmental pollution by volatile anesthetics. PMID:1562100

  6. Blood gases and energy metabolites in mouse blood before and after cerebral ischemia: the effects of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Tina M; Horn, Tobias; Lang, Dorothee; Klein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The levels of blood gases and energy metabolites strongly influence the outcome of animal experiments, for example in experimental stroke research. While mice have become prominent animal models for cerebral ischemia, little information is available on the effects of anesthetic drugs on blood parameters such as blood gases, glucose and lactate in this species. In this work, we collected arterial and venous blood samples from female CD-1 mice before and after cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and we tested the influence of different anesthetic drugs. We found that all of the injectable anesthetics tested (ketamine/xylazine, chloral hydrate, propofol and pentobarbital) caused a decrease in blood pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and an increase of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), indicating respiratory depression. This was not observed with inhalable anesthetics such as isoflurane, sevoflurane and halothane. Significant and up to two-fold increases of blood glucose concentration were observed under isoflurane, halothane, ketamine/xylazine, chloral hydrate, and propofol anesthesia. Lactate concentration rose significantly by 2-3-fold during inhalation of isoflurane and halothane treatment, but decreased by more than 50% after administration of pentobarbital. Permanent cerebral ischemia induced respiratory acidosis (low pH and pO2, high pCO2) which was most prominent after 24 h. Postsurgical treatment with Ringer-lactate solution (1 mL, intraperitoneal) caused a recovery of blood gases to basal levels after 24 h. Use of isoflurane for surgery caused a minor increase of blood glucose concentrations after one hour, but a strong increase of blood lactate. In contrast, anesthesia with pentobarbital did not affect glucose concentration but strongly reduced blood lactate concentrations one hour after surgery. All values recovered at three hours after MCAO. In conclusion, anesthetic drugs have a strong influence on murine

  7. Anesthetic Considerations for the Parturient After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaveni, Daria M; Cohn, Jennifer H; Hoctor, Katherine G; Longman, Ryan E; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 40 years, the success of organ transplantation has increased such that female solid organ transplant recipients are able to conceive and carry pregnancies successfully to term. Anesthesiologists are faced with the challenge of providing anesthesia care to these high-risk obstetric patients in the peripartum period. Anesthetic considerations include the effects of the physiologic changes of pregnancy on the transplanted organ, graft function in the peripartum period, and the maternal side effects and drug interactions of immunosuppressive agents. These women are at an increased risk of comorbidities and obstetric complications. Anesthetic management should consider the important task of protecting graft function. Optimal care of a woman with a transplanted solid organ involves management by a multidisciplinary team. In this focused review article, we review the anesthetic management of pregnant patients with solid organ transplants of the kidney, liver, heart, or lung. PMID:27285002

  8. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs. PMID:26352957

  9. Costs of anesthetics and other drugs in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs are real and transparent costs of treatment, which are subject to constant monitoring and changes. The study was aimed at measuring and analyzing consumption of anesthetics and other drugs in anesthesia in the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Material and Methods. This paper is part of a five-year (2005-2009, academic, pharmacoeconomic retrospective-prospective study (the 4th phase. We calculated the costs of anesthetics and other drugs in all anesthetized patients at the Institute of Anesthesia and Reanimation, Clinical Center of Serbia in 2006. The data, obtained from the Clinical Centre of Serbia Database, were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods using computer program Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows. Results. The amount of money spent for the application of 33,187 general and 16,394 local anesthesia and 20,614 anesthesiology procedures was 83,322,046.36 RSD (Euros 1,054,705.4, which was 5.93% of the funds allocated for all drugs used at the Clinical Center of Serbia. Of the total fund for drugs, 57.8% was spent for anesthetics (local anesthetics 1.2% and muscle relaxants, whereas 42.2% was spent for other drugs in anesthesia. The highest amount was spent at the Emergency Center (35.8%, then at the Cardio-surgery (11.9% and the Neurosurgery (10.9% because of the large number and length of surgical interventions. Conclusion. There is no space for rationalizing the costs of anesthetics and other drugs in anesthesia.

  10. 2012 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  11. Road and Street Centerlines, BLM Horse Valley, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'BLM Horse Valley'. The extent of these...

  12. ANESTHETIC CHALLENGES FACED IN A CHILD WITH TREACHER - COLLINS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajananda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesiologists come across pediatric patients with rare diseases and syndromes scheduled for various operative interventions. Treacher Collins syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial deformities , the incidence being 1 in 40 , 000 - 70 , 000 births 1 - 3 . Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS poses serious problem in securing and maintaining airway due to facial deformity. Difficulty in intubation increases as the patient’s age increases. It requires meticulous planning and assessment of the airway prior to each anesthetic technique. Here we describe and discuss successful anesthet ic management of an 8 year old boy posted for cana loplasty of the right ear

  13. Alveolar subphase pH in the lungs of anesthetized rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, D W; Goerke, J; Clements, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    We measured the pH of the alveolar subphase fluid by puncturing the most superficial alveoli of the exposed lungs of anesthetized rabbits with H+-selective and nonselective KCl microelectrodes. In these experiments, we bathed the lung surface with paraffin oil or buffered Ringer's solutions that had a CO2 tension of 40 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) and found an alveolar pH of 6.92 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- sEM). When the pH of the surface buffer was below 6.7 or above 7.5, alveolar pH varied with surface...

  14. Electronic dental anesthesia in a patient with suspected allergy to local anesthetics: report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F; Quinn, C L

    1988-01-01

    A 56-year-old patient with alleged allergy to local anesthetics required restorative dental treatment. Electronic dental anesthesia was used successfully, in lieu of injectable local anesthetics, to manage intraoperative pain associated with the restoration of vital mandibular teeth.

  15. Measurements and Simulations of Ionization Chamber Signals in Mixed Radiation Fields for the LHC BLM System

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Ferioli, G; Holzer, EB; Stockner, M

    2006-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system must prevent the super conducting magnets from quenching and protect the machine components from damage. The main monitor type is an ionization chamber. About 4000 of them will be installed around the ring. The lost beam particles initiate hadronic showers through the magnets, which are measured by the monitors installed outside of the cryostat around each quadrupole magnet. They probe the far transverse tail of the hadronic shower. The specification for the BLM system includes a factor of two absolute precision on the prediction of the quench levels. To reach this accuracy a number of simulations are being combined to calibrate the monitor signals. To validate the monitor calibration the simulations are compared with test measurements. This paper will focus on the simulated prediction of the development of the hadronic shower tails and the signal response of ionization chambers to various particle types and energies. Test measurements have been performed at CERN and ...

  16. Dose-dependent effects of the clinical anesthetic isoflurane on Octopus vulgaris: a contribution to cephalopod welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Winlow, William; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in animal welfare legislation relating to invertebrates has provoked interest in methods for the anesthesia of cephalopods, for which different approaches to anesthesia have been tried but in most cases without truly anesthetizing the animals. For example, several workers have used muscle relaxants or hypothermia as forms of "anesthesia." Several inhalational anesthetics are known to act in a dose-dependent manner on the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a pulmonate mollusk. Here we report, for the first time, on the effects of clinical doses of the well-known inhalational clinical anesthetic isoflurane on the behavioral responses of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris. In each experiment, isoflurane was equilibrated into a well-aerated seawater bath containing a single adult O. vulgaris. Using a web camera, we recorded each animal's response to touch stimuli eliciting withdrawal of the arms and siphon and observed changes in the respiratory rate and the chromatophore pattern over time (before, during, and after application of the anesthetic). We found that different animals of the same size responded with similar behavioral changes as the isoflurane concentration was gradually increased. After gradual application of 2% isoflurane for a maximum of 5 min (at which time all the responses indicated deep anesthesia), the animals recovered within 45-60 min in fresh aerated seawater. Based on previous findings in gastropods, we believe that the process of anesthesia induced by isoflurane is similar to that previously observed in Lymnaea. In this study we showed that isoflurane is a good, reversible anesthetic for O. vulgaris, and we developed a method for its use.

  17. The roles of WRN and BLM RecQ helicases in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Bermudez, Aaron; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto; Cotton, Victoria E.; Gravani, Athanasia; Jeyapalan, Jennie N.; Royle, Nicola J.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of all cancers, but a higher proportion of sarcomas, use the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. Two RecQ helicase genes, BLM and WRN, play important roles in homologous recombination repair and they have been implicated in telomeric recombination activity, but their precise roles in ALT are unclear. Using analysis of sequence variation present in human telomeres, we found that a WRN– ALT+ cell line lacks the class of complex...

  18. Effects of Anesthetic Management on Early Postoperative Recovery, Hemodynamics and Pain After Supratentorial Craniotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ayrian, Eugenia; Kaye, Alan David; Varner, Chelsia L.; Guerra, Carolina; Vadivelu, Nalini; Urman, Richard D.; Zelman, Vladimir; Lumb,Philip D.; De Rosa, Giovanni; Bilotta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Various clinical trials have assessed how intraoperative anesthetics can affect early recovery, hemodynamics and nociception after supratentorial craniotomy. Whether or not the difference in recovery pattern differs in a meaningful way with anesthetic choice is controversial. This review examines and compares different anesthetics with respect to wake-up time, hemodynamics, respiration, cognitive recovery, pain, nausea and vomiting, and shivering. When comparing inhalational anesthetics to in...

  19. Concentrations of anesthetics across the water-membrane interface; the Meyer-Overton hypothesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.; New, M. H.; Chipot, C.

    1998-01-01

    The free energies of transferring a variety of anesthetic and nonanesthetic compounds across water-oil and water-membrane interfaces were obtained using computer simulations. Anesthetics exhibit greatly enhanced concentrations at these interfaces, compared to nonanesthetics. The substitution of the interfacial solubilites of the anesthetics for their bulk lipid solubilities in the Meyer-Overton relation, was found to give a better correlation, indicating that the potency of an anesthetic is directly proportional to its solubility at the interface.

  20. Intralipid Therapy for Inadvertent Peripheral Nervous System Blockade Resulting from Local Anesthetic Overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Ihab Kamel; Gaurav Trehan; Rodger Barnette

    2015-01-01

    Although local anesthetics have an acceptable safety profile, significant morbidity and mortality have been associated with their use. Inadvertent intravascular injection of local anesthetics and/or the use of excessive doses have been the most frequent causes of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Furthermore, excessive doses of local anesthetics injected locally into the tissues may lead to inadvertent peripheral nerve infiltration and blockade. Successful treatment of LAST with intr...

  1. Differential regional metabolism of glucagon in anesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Kelstrup, Mette; Trebbien, Ramona;

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon metabolism under basal (endogenous) conditions and during intravenous glucagon infusion was studied in anesthetized pigs by use of midregion (M), COOH-terminal (C), and NH2-terminal (N)-RIAs. Arteriovenous concentration differences revealed a negative extraction of endogenous glucagon...

  2. A noninvasive monitoring device for anesthetics in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Deborah M.; Fuentes, Juan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive device capable of recording both gill and lateral fin movements was assembled and used to analyze initial and post-treatment activity frequency (Hz) in fish exposed to anesthetics. Exposure of platy fish (Xiphosphorus maculatus) to saponins from quillaja bark (0.185 mM and 0.555 m...

  3. Cimetidine as pre-anesthetic agent for cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Storm, K; Holmskov, A

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study of 39 consecutive cesarean sections, 20 patients received cimetidine 400 mg intramuscularly as a pre-anesthetic, an 19 control patients were given NaCl. No perinatal effects on the infants were observed by cardiotocography before delivery, and K, Na, pH, PCO2, HCO...

  4. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  5. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale-dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2014-01-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients $\\beta_i$ of the QCD $\\beta$-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all $\\beta_i$-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules $C^{\\rm Bjp}_{\\rm NS}(a_s)$ the $\\beta_i$-dependent...

  6. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  7. Alteration of canine left ventricular diastolic function by intravenous anesthetics in vivo. Ketamine and propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, P S; Schmeling, W T; Kampine, J P; Warltier, D C

    1992-03-01

    Diastolic function has been shown to influence overall cardiac performance significantly, but the effect of intravenous anesthetics on diastolic function has not been previously characterized in vivo. The effects of ketamine and propofol on two indices of left ventricular diastolic function were examined in chronically instrumented dogs. Because autonomic nervous system function may significantly influence the systemic hemodynamic actions produced by intravenous anesthetics in vivo, experiments were performed in the presence of pharmacologic blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Two groups comprising a total of 14 experiments were performed using 7 dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular pressure, the maximum rate of increase of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt), subendocardial segment length, and cardiac output. Systemic hemodynamics and diastolic function were recorded and evaluated in the conscious state and after a 20-min equilibration at 25-, 50-, and 100-mg.kg-1.h-1 infusion doses of ketamine or propofol. Ventricular relaxation was described using the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation (tau) assuming a nonzero asymptote of ventricular pressure decay. Regional chamber stiffness, an index of passive ventricular filling, was described using an exponential equation relating segment length to ventricular pressure between minimum ventricular pressure and the onset of atrial systole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539854

  8. Paired assessment of volatile anesthetic concentrations with synaptic actions recorded in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J McDougall

    Full Text Available The volatile anesthetic isoflurane poses a number of experimental challenges in the laboratory. Due to its rapid evaporation, the open conditions of most in vitro electrophysiological recording systems make the determination of actual isoflurane concentrations a challenge. Since the absolute anesthetic concentration in solution is directly related to efficacy, concentration measurements are important to allow comparisons between laboratory and clinical studies. In this study we quantify the sources of isoflurane loss during experimentation and describe a method for the measurement of isoflurane concentrations using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry simultaneous to in vitro electrophysiological measurements. Serial samples of perfused bath solution allowed correlation of isoflurane concentrations with ongoing biological effects. Saturated physiological solutions contained 13.4 +/- 0.2 mM isoflurane and were diluted to desired "nominal" concentrations for experiments. The perfusion system established stable isoflurane concentrations within the bath by 2 minutes. However, bath isoflurane concentrations varied substantially and unpredictably between experiments. The magnitudes of such discrepancies in isoflurane concentrations spanned clinically important levels. Our studies suggest that, despite countermeasures, solution handling significantly impacted the isoflurane content in the tissue bath. The magnitude of these discrepancies appears to necessitate systematic direct measurement of bath isoflurane concentrations during most in vitro conditions.

  9. Effects of different general anesthetics on serum hemolysis and hepatic and muscular glycogenolysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.A. Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics can affect the structure and biological function of tissues and systems differentially. The aim of the present study was to compare three injectable anesthetics generally used in experiments with animals in terms of the degree of hemolysis and glycogenolysis occurring after profound anesthesia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (330-440 g were divided into three groups (N = 8: chloral hydrate (CH, ketamine + xylazine (KX, Zoletil 50® (zolazepam and tiletamine + xylazine (ZTX. After deep anesthesia, total blood was collected. The liver and white (WG and red gastrocnemius (RG muscles were also immediately removed. The degree of serum hemolysis was quantified on the basis of hemoglobin concentration (g/L. Hepatic and muscular glycogen concentrations (mmol/kg wet tissue were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric method. The CH and KX groups exhibited serum hemolysis (4.0 ± 2.2 and 1.9 ± 0.9 g/L, respectively; P < 0.05 compared to the ZTX group, which presented none. Only KX induced elevated glycogenolysis (mmol/kg wet tissue in the liver (86.9 ± 63.2 and in WG (18.7 ± 9.0 and RG (15.2 ± 7.2; P < 0.05. The CH and ZTX groups exhibited no glycogenolysis in the liver (164.4 ± 41.1 and 176.8 ± 54.4, respectively, WG (28.8 ± 4.4, 32.0 ± 6.5, respectively or RG (29.0 ± 4.9; 25.3 ± 8.6, respectively. Our data indicate that ZTX seems to be an appropriate general anesthetic for studies that seek to simultaneously quantify the concentration of glycogen and serum biochemical markers without interferences. ZTX is reasonably priced, found easily at veterinary markets, quickly induces deep anesthesia, and presents a low mortality rate.

  10. Effects of anesthetic agents on systemic critical O2 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, P; Gilbart, E; Engelman, E; Schmartz, D; Vincent, J L

    1991-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that anesthetic agents can alter tissue O2 extraction capabilities in a dog model of progressive hemorrhage. After administration of pentobarbital sodium (25 mg/kg iv) and endotracheal intubation, the dogs were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide, ventilated with room air, and splenectomized. A total of 60 dogs were randomized in 10 groups of 6 dogs each. The first group served as control (C). A second group (P) received a continuous infusion of pentobarbital (4 mg.kg-2.h-2), which was started immediately after the bolus dose. Three groups received enflurane (E), halothane (HL), or isoflurane (I) at the end-tidal concentration of 0.7 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). The sixth group received halothane at the end-tidal concentration of 1 MAC (HH). Two groups received intravenous alfentanil at relatively low dose (AL) or high dose (AH). The last two groups received intravenous ketamine at either relatively low dose (KL) or high dose (KH). In each group, O2 delivery (Do2) was progressively reduced by hemorrhage. At each step, systemic Do2 and O2 consumption (VO2) were measured separately and the critical point was determined from a plot of Vo2 vs. Do2. The critical O2 extraction ratio (OER) in the control group was 65.0 +/- 7.8%. OER was lower in all anesthetized groups (P, 44.3 +/- 11.8%; E, 47.0 +/- 7.7%; HL, 45.7 +/- 11.2%; I, 44.3 +/- 7.1%; HH, 33.7 +/- 6.0%; AL, 56.5 +/- 9.6%; AH, 43.5 +/- 5.9%; KH, 57.7 +/- 7.1%), except in the KL group (78.3 +/- 10.0%). The effects of halothane and alfentanil on critical OER were dose dependent (P less than 0.05), whereas critical OER was significantly lower in the KH than in the KL group. Moreover, the effects of anesthetic agents on critical Do2 appeared related to their effects on systemic vascular resistance. Anesthetic agents therefore alter O2 extraction by their peripheral vascular effects. However, ketamine, with its unique sympathetic stimulant properties, had a lesser effect

  11. Vibrational Infrared Lifetime of the Anesthetic nitrous oxide gas in solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chieffo, Logan; Shattuck, Jeffrey; Hong, Mi K; Ziegler, Lawrence; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2006-01-01

    The lifetime of the asymmetric fundamental stretching 2218 cm$^{-1}$ vibration of the anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (N$_2$O) dissolved in octanol and olive oil is reported. These solvents are model systems commonly used to assess anesthetic potency. Picosecond time-scale molecular dynamics simulations have suggested that protein dynamics or membrane dynamics play a role in the molecular mechanism of anesthetic action. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy with 100 fs time resolution is an ideal tool to probe dynamics of anesthetic molecules on such timescales. Pump-probe studies at the peak of the vibrational band yield a lifetime of $55 \\pm 1$ ps in olive oil and $52 \\pm 1 ps$ in octanol. The similarity of lifetimes suggests that energy relaxation of the anesthetic is determined primarily by the hydrophobic nature of the environment, consistent with models of anesthetic action. The results show that nitrous oxide is a good model system for probing anesthetic-solvent interactions using nonlinear infrared spectroscop...

  12. BlmB and TlmB provide resistance to the bleomycin family of antitumor antibiotics by N-acetylating metal-free bleomycin, tallysomycin, phleomycin, and zorbamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; Unsin, Claudia; Galm, Ute; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Shen, Ben

    2014-11-11

    The bleomycin (BLM) family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consists of BLMs, tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycins (PLMs), and zorbamycin (ZBM). The self-resistant elements BlmB and TlmB, discovered from the BLM- and TLM-producing organisms Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, respectively, are N-acetyltransferases that provide resistance to the producers by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotics required for activity. Although each member of the BLM family of antibiotics possesses a conserved metal-binding domain, the structural differences between each member, namely, the bithiazole moiety and C-terminal amine of BLMs, have been suggested to instill substrate specificity within BlmB. Here we report that BlmB and TlmB readily accept and acetylate BLMs, TLMs, PLMs, and ZBM in vitro but only in the metal-free forms. Kinetic analysis of BlmB and TlmB reveals there is no strong preference or rate enhancement for specific substrates, indicating that the structural differences between each member of the BLM family play a negligible role in substrate recognition, binding, or catalysis. Intriguingly, the zbm gene cluster from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892 does not contain an N-acetyltransferase, yet ZBM is readily acetylated by BlmB and TlmB. We subsequently established that S. flavoviridis lacks the homologue of BlmB and TlmB, and ZbmA, the ZBM-binding protein, alone is sufficient to provide ZBM resistance. We further confirmed that BlmB can indeed confer resistance to ZBM in vivo in S. flavoviridis, introduction of which into wild-type S. flavoviridis further increases the level of resistance.

  13. [Anesthetic Management of Three Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Naoko; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Inamori, Noriko; Nishimura, Shinya; Mori, Takahiko

    2015-08-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronically progressing or relapsing disease caused by immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy. We report the anesthetic management of three CIDP patients who underwent elective orthopedic surgeries. Owing to the risk of neuraxial anesthetics triggering demyelination, general anesthesia was selected to avoid epidural or spinal anesthesia or other neuraxial blockade. It was also judged prudent to avoid prolonged perioperative immobilization, which might compress vulnerable peripheral nerves. For Patient 1, general anesthesia was induced with propofol, remifentanil, and sevoflurane, and was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. For Patients 2 and 3, general anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. For tracheal intubation, under careful monitoring with peripheral nerve stimulators, minimal doses of rocuronium (0.6-0.7 mg x kg(-1)) were administered. When sugammadex was administered to reverse the effect of rocuronium, all patients rapidly regained muscular strength. Postoperative courses were satisfactory without sequelae.

  14. Trace anesthetic gases during xenon arc photocoagulation for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, A M; Abramson, D H; Sussman, D; Servodidio, C; Turner, L

    1989-10-01

    In pediatric ocular examinations, administration of continuous-flow anesthetic gases containing nitrous oxide, halothane, and oxygen enables the physician to do safe, controlled, reproducible examinations. We did a study in which the levels of waste anesthetic gases were measured during xenon arc photocoagulation procedures used for retinoblastoma. Waste nitrous oxide and halothane gases measured during these procedures significantly exceeded the levels recommended by the National Institute of Safety and Health. These high levels are of particular importance because of the physician's proximity to the patient during the procedure. The high levels of waste gases may have immediate deleterious effects on the physician's functioning capacity and may also pose long-term health hazards for the physician and operating room personnel. PMID:2589745

  15. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  16. Antidepressants and local anesthetics: drug interactions of interest to dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Rosa Chioca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since there is a vast variety of pharmacological treatments for mental conditions, it has been increasingly more common that patients seeking dentistry treatment are continually using psychoactive drugs as antidepressants. The number of people taking antidepressants is increasing; consequently, dentists should update their knowledge on the interaction between this drug class and those used in dental daily practice, such as local anesthetics and vasoconstrictors. Objective: To conduct a literature review on this subject. Literature review and conclusion: Literature data suggest that sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine associated with local anesthetics may potentiate the side effects of antidepressants, particularly tricyclics and MAO inhibitors, on the cardiovascular system. There are few clinical trials and preclinical studies on this subject, and most of them were carried out between the 60s and 80s. Current studies are needed, since many new antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action are currently marketed and being used.

  17. Assessment of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhn EG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Endale Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn, Vidhya Nagaratnam Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The evaluation of patient satisfaction is a core aspect of the continuous quality improvement in anesthesia service that can be affected by the preoperative anesthetist visit. This visit enables the anesthetist to know about the patient's general health status and the nature of surgery, to choose the type of anesthesia, and to discuss perioperative complications and their management with the patient. Patients have sometimes complained about the information given during the preoperative anesthetic evaluation in the University of Gondar teaching and referral hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the level of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2013. All consecutive elective patients who were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period were interviewed 24 hours after operation. A pretested questionnaire and checklists, which were developed based on the hospital's anesthetic evaluation sheet, were used for data collection. Results: A total of 116 elective patients were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period. Of these, 102 patients were included in our study, with a response rate of 87.9%. Anesthetists introduced themselves to ~24% patients; provided information about anesthesia to ~32%, postoperative complications to ~21%, postoperative analgesia to ~18, and postoperative nausea and vomiting to ~21%; and spent adequate time with ~74%. Patients' questions were answered by the anesthetist in ~65% of cases, and ~65% of patients had reduced anxiety after the anesthetist visit. The patients' overall satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit was ~65%. Conclusion and recommendation: Patient satisfaction with the

  18. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M.J.; Pitts, T. E.; Mortensen, A.; CORRIE, L.W.; Davenport, P. W.; Bolser, D C

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphr...

  19. The impact of anesthetics and hyperoxia on cortical spreading depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Chiho; Nozari, Ala; MOSKOWITZ, MICHAEL A.; Ayata, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a transient neuronal and glial depolarization that propagates slowly across the cerebral cortex, is the putative electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura. It negatively impacts tissue injury during stroke, cerebral contusion and intracranial hemorrhage. Susceptibility to CSD has been assessed in several experimental animal models in vivo, such as after topical KCl application or cathodal stimulation. Various combinations of anesthetics and ambie...

  20. Anesthetic Management in a Gravida with Type IV Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, Elizabeth; Davila, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder of the connective tissues caused by abnormalities in collagen formation. OI may present many challenges to the anesthesiologist. A literature review reveals a wide range of implications, from basic positioning to management of the difficult airway. We present the anesthetic management of a 25-year-old gravid woman with OI, fetal demise, and possible uterine rupture, admitted for an exploratory laparotomy.

  1. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATION S IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMON ARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a spectrum of diseases that includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway disease. It i s characterized by progressive increased resistance to breathing. Patients with marked obstructive pulmonary disease are at increased risk for both intraoperative and Postoperative pulmonary complications. These patients require thorough preoperative prepa ration, meticulous intraoperative management & postoperative care. This article describes anesthetic considerations in a patient with COPD.

  2. A preliminary trial comparison of several anesthetic techniques in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. L.; Luna, S P; de Castro, G B; Massone, F; Rosa, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of several drug combinations (atropine, xylazine, romifidine, methotrimeprazine, midazolam, or fentanyl) with ketamine for short term anesthesia in cats. Twelve cats were anesthetized 6 times by using a cross-over Latin square protocol: methotrimeprazine was combined with midazolam, ketamine, and fentanyl; midazolam and ketamine; romifidine and ketamine; and xylazine and ketamine. Atropine was combined with romifidine and ketamine, and xylaz...

  3. Anesthetic considerations in Demons-Meigs’ syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fjouji, Salaheddine; Bensghir, Mustapha; Haimeur, Charki; Azendour, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Demons-Meigs’ syndrome is characterized by the presence of a benign ovarian tumor associated with ascites and a right-sided hydrothorax. Its pathophysiology remains unclear. Anesthesia of this syndrome is a real challenge. Respiratory, hemodynamic, metabolic problems and abdominal hypertension are the main anesthetic risks. Case presentation A 52-year-old African woman with Demons-Meigs’ syndrome was admitted for elective surgery under general anesthesia. An abdominal computed to...

  4. Mirror syndrome and anesthetic management%镜像综合征与麻醉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振东; 刘志强

    2016-01-01

    Background Mirror syndrome is a rare entity associated with pregnancy.It is related to an increase in fetal mortality and maternal morbility.Clinicians are still short of experience of treating mirror syndrome.There are great risks during anesthesia for patients with mirror syndrome.Objective To review the risks and challenges of mirror syndrome occurred in obstetric surgery.Content This paper describes the pathophysiology and complications of mirror syndrome,and analyze the anesthetic management of mirror syndrome.Trend Awareness of the syndrome is important and we should be care for this type anesthetic management.%背景 镜像综合征是产科中一类罕见的并发症,危及母婴安全,目前临床对其认识不足.镜像综合征的病理生理较为特殊,麻醉管理有较大的风险. 目的 了解镜像综合征对麻醉管理的可能威胁或挑战. 内容 综述镜像综合征的病理生理、并发症及其与临床麻醉的关系. 趋向 产科麻醉中应警惕该类产科并发症,做好相应的麻醉管理.

  5. The bonding of anesthetics and antibiotics on the carboxymethylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodić-Grabovac Branka B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of biologically active material is one of the most interesting trends in the chemical modification of cellulose. The possibility of obtaining biologically active cellulosic material by sorption of procaine hydrochloride and gentamicin sulphate on CMC was investigated in this paper. The sorption of therapeutics on CMC samples with different degree of substitution was carried out in water solutions of anesthetic and antibiotic, while the desorption was done in 0.95% NaCl solution. The amount of bonded and released therapeutics was determined by UV spe-ctrophotometry. It was found that degree of substitution of car-boxymethylcellulose and concentration of chemotherapeutic water solution have significant influence on the amount of bonded anesthetic and antibiotic. The maximum amount of bonded chemotherapeutic was 72.15 mg of procaine hydrochloride and 165.49 mg of gentamicin sulphate per gram CMC. In both cases the amounts of bonded chemotherape-utics correspond to the concentration of local anesthetic and antibiotic preparation that are used in therapeutic purposes.

  6. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with 131I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with 125I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular 131I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass

  7. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia;

    2013-01-01

    represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role...

  8. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  9. Randomized clinical trial of local anesthetic versus a combination of local anesthetic with self-hypnosis in the management of pediatric procedure-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liossi, Christina; White, Paul; Hatira, Popi

    2006-05-01

    A prospective controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an analgesic cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, or EMLA) with a combination of EMLA with hypnosis in the relief of lumbar puncture-induced pain and anxiety in 45 pediatric cancer patients (age 6-16 years). The study also explored whether young patients can be taught and can use hypnosis independently as well as whether the therapeutic benefit depends on hypnotizability. Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: local anesthetic, local anesthetic plus hypnosis, and local anesthetic plus attention. Results confirmed that patients in the local anesthetic plus hypnosis group reported less anticipatory anxiety and less procedure-related pain and anxiety and that they were rated as demonstrating less behavioral distress during the procedure. The level of hypnotizability was significantly associated with the magnitude of treatment benefit, and this benefit was maintained when patients used hypnosis independently. PMID:16719602

  10. A novel frameshift mutation in BLM gene associated with high sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in heterozygous family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Ghada; Hadj Salem, Ikhlas; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Kallabi, Fakhri; Turki, Hamida; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ayadi, Hamadi; Kamoun, Hassen

    2014-11-01

    The Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomic recessive disorder comprising a wide range of abnormalities, including stunted growth, immunodeficiency, sun sensitivity and increased frequency of various types of cancer. Bloom syndrome cells display a high level of genetic instability, including a 10-fold increase in the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) level. Bloom syndrome arises through mutations in both alleles of the BLM gene, which was identified as a member of the RecQ helicase family. In this study, we screened a Tunisian family with three BS patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed several chromosomal aberrations, and an approximately 14-fold elevated SCE frequency in BS cells. A significant increase in SCE frequency was observed in some family members but not reaching the BS patients values, leading to suggest that this could be due to the heterozygous profile. Microsatellite genotyping using four fluorescent dye-labeled microsatellite markers revealed evidence of linkage to BLM locus and the healthy members, sharing higher SCE frequency, showed heterozygous haplotypes as expected. Additionally, the direct BLM gene sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.3617-3619delAA (p.K1207fsX9) in BS patients and a heterozygous BLM mutation in the family members with higher SCE frequency. Our findings suggest that this latter mutation likely leads to a reduced BLM activity explaining the homologous recombination repair defect and, therefore, the increase in SCE. Based on the present data, the screening of this mutation could contribute to the rapid diagnosis of BS. The genetic confirmation of the mutation in BLM gene provides crucial information for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Drill baby drill: An analysis of how energy development displaced ranching's dominance over the BLM's subgovernment policymaking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis, Robert Earl, Jr.

    Academic literature analyzing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land-use subgovernment stops at the Taylor Grazing Act and concludes that the historical development of administering grazing on public lands led to the capture of the BLM by ranching interests. Using a two-pronged methodological approach of process tracing and elite interviews this dissertation seeks to advance our collective knowledge of subgovernment theory by (a) clarifying the impact executive decision-making has on subgovernments and (b) identifying the conditions under which strategically competitive behavior between two competing subgovernment actors occurs. The dissertation seeks to update the literature by explaining what has caused the BLM to shift from a rancher-dominated agency to an energy dominated agency by identifying conditions under which subgovernment actors strategically respond to a political conflict. The research poses two questions: (1) how have executive actions disrupted an existing balance of power in a so-called "strong corner" of an entrenched subgovernment system and (2) what happens when conflict and competition break out between allied members of the system? Analysis indicates that as the BLM responded to Executive actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional allies: ranching and energy. Triggered by the unintended consequence of awakening long-dormant legislation, split-estate energy development---where property rights are severed between private surface and federal mineral estates---expanded across the West. In turn, this expansion helped establish the conditions for conflict and in doing so disrupted the balance of power between large public resource use interests in the relatively stable land-use subgovernment of the BLM. Indicative of energy's emerging dominance of the BLM's subgovernment, split-estate energy development led ranching interests to seek the protection of their Western state legislatures. This shift in

  12. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary cost projections were computed for several alternative strategies that could be used by BLM to manage three wild horse populations. The alternatives included existing gather and selective removal methods, combined with potential contraceptive applications of varying duration and other potentially useful management techniques. Costs were projected for a 20-year economic life using the Jenkins wild horse population model and cost estimates from BLM that reflect state-by-state per horse removal, adoption, long-term holding, and contraceptive application expenses. Important findings include: Application of currently available 2-year contraceptives appears capable of reducing variable operating costs for wild horse populations by about 21% on average.

  13. Liver volume, as assessed by four ultrasonic crystals arranged to form a tetrahedron, decreases during anaphylactic shock in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hiromichi; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Wei; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2010-12-01

    We determined the hepatic volume change in anaphylactic hypotension by using four ultrasonic crystals in anesthetized rats. The hepatic volume was measured with four ultrasonic crystals arranged to form a tetrahedron on the liver surface. Before in vivo experiments, using isolated perfused rat liver preparations, we compared the measured liver volume changes with the whole-liver weight changes during hepatic blood flow rate changes and venoconstriction induced by norepinephrine. The measured relative change of the tetrahedron volume (V[utc]; percentage changes of the initial volume) was closely correlated with the liver weight change (W; percentage changes of the initial liver weight): V(utc) = 0.85W - 4.11 (r² = 0.67). Then, we measured the liver weight and the tetrahedron volume during hepatic anaphylaxis in isolated perfused liver excised from the rats sensitized with ovalbumin. An injection of the antigen into the perfusate caused anaphylactic venoconstriction, liver weight loss (1.1 ± 0.3 g; 9% ± 1%), and the tetrahedron volume reduction (12% ± 4%). Finally, we measured the liver volume change during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized rats. When the antigen was i.v. injected into anesthetized rats, along with systemic hypotension and hepatic venoconstriction, the liver tetrahedron volume decreased by 6% ± 2% from baseline. In conclusion, we established a method to measure the hepatic volume by using four ultrasonic crystals forming a tetrahedron. Using this ultrasonic crystal method, we demonstrated that liver volume decreases during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  14. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  15. Analysis of fast losses in the LHC with the BLM system

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot, E; Holzer, E; Dehning, B; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Emery, J; Zamantzas, C; Effinger, E; Marsili, A; Wenninger, J; Baer, T; Schmidt, R; Yang, Z; Zimmerman, F; Fuster, N

    2011-01-01

    About 3600 Ionization Chambers are located around the LHC ring to detect beam losses that could damage the equipment or quench superconducting magnets. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs) integrate the losses in 12 different time intervals (from 40 us to 83.8 s) allowing for different abort thresholds depending on the duration of the loss and the beam energy. The signals are also recorded in a database at 1 Hz for offline analysis. During the 2010 run, a limiting factor in the machine availability were sudden losses appearing around the ring on the ms time scale and detected exclusively by the BLM system. It is believed that such losses originate from dust particles falling into the beam, or being attracted by its strong electromagnetic field. This document describes some of the properties of these ”Unidentified Falling Objects” (UFOs) putting special emphasis on their dependence on beam parameters (energy, intensity, etc). The subsequent modification of the BLM beam abort thresholds for the 2011 run that were ...

  16. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Crescentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.

  17. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  18. Very High Radiation Detector for the LHC BLM System Based on Secondary Electron Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, EB; Kramer, D

    2007-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system plays a vital role in the active protection of the LHC accelerators elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production...

  19. Different distribution of fluorinated anesthetics and nonanesthetics in model membrane: a 19F NMR study.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tang; Yan, B.; Xu, Y

    1997-01-01

    Despite their structural resemblance, a pair of cyclic halogenated compounds, 1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane (F3) and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6), exhibit completely different anesthetic properties. Whereas the former is a potent general anesthetic, the latter produces no anesthesia. Two linear compounds, isoflurane and 2,3-dichlorooctofluorobutane (F8), although not a structural pair, also show the same anesthetic discrepancy. Using 19F nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, we inves...

  20. Systematic review of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for local anesthetic toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Bania, Theodore C; Lavergne, Valéry;

    2016-01-01

     = 35, 42%). There were 81 (98%) survivors including 63 (76%) with no reported sequelae from the LA poisoning or ILE, although the presence or absence of sequelae was not reported in 15 (18%) cases. Animal studies included 29 randomized controlled studies, three observational studies, five case series......BACKGROUND: Following national and regional recommendations, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has become established in clinical practice as a treatment for acute local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, although evidence of efficacy is limited to animal studies and human case reports. A collaborative lipid......-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pre-treatment experiments, pharmacokinetic studies not involving toxicity and studies that did not address antidotal use of ILE were excluded. RESULTS: We included 113 studies and reports. Of these, 76 were human and 38 animal studies. One publication included both a human...

  1. Effect of anesthetics on gastric damage using two models of portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula; RS; Camara; Gisele; P; Moi; José; Geraldo; P; Ferraz; José; Murilo; R; Zeitune

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of sodium pentobarbitone(SP) or ketamine/xylazine(KX) anesthetics on acute gastric injury.METHODS:Portal hypertension was induced by bile duct ligation(BDL) or portal vein stenosis(PVS).Ethanol(EtOH)-induced gastric damage was assessed using ex vivo gastric chamber experiments.Gastric blood flow(GBF) was also measured by laser doppler flowmetry.RESULTS:EtOH-induced gastric damage was reduced in BDL rats under KX anesthesia in comparison to those under SP anesthesia.GBF dysfunction in fasted BDL rats was partially restored under KX anesthesia.In contrast,in fasted PVS rats,EtOH-induced gastric damage was increased under KX anesthesia while GBF was reduced.CONCLUSION:The use of KX anesthesia in experimental procedures involving cirrhotic rats(but not those with pure portal hypertension) is preferable to SP anesthesia.

  2. Alveolar Subphase pH in the Lungs of Anesthetized Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, D. W.; Goerke, J.; Clements, J. A.

    1981-11-01

    We measured the pH of the alveolar subphase fluid by puncturing the most superficial alveoli of the exposed lungs of anesthetized rabbits with H+-selective and nonselective KCl microelectrodes. In these experiments, we bathed the lung surface with paraffin oil or buffered Ringer's solutions that had a CO2 tension of 40 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) and found an alveolar pH of 6.92± 0.01 (mean ± SEM). When the pH of the surface buffer was below 6.7 or above 7.5, alveolar pH varied with surface buffer pH. With the nonselective electrode, we did not find a significant electrical potential difference between the alveolar fluid and the pleural surface. These results are consistent with active transport of H+ (or HCO3-) across alveolar epithelium.

  3. COMPARISON OF COMMON CLINICALLY USED LOCAL ANESTHETICS ON ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthireddy Srinivas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The animal models used in this study were Plexus anesthesia in frogs, Infiltration anesthesia in guinea pigs, Surface anesthesia in rabbits. The drugs were diluted with normal saline. Lignocaine2%: xylocaine hydrochloride injection IP, Bupivacaine 0.5%: Bupivacaine hydrochloride injections IP were prepared. Plexus anesthesia: Frog was pithed and spinal cord was destroyed up to the 3 vertebra. The abdominal pouch was filled with local anesthetic solution. Reflex activity was tested by immersing both feet of the frog every two minutes for not longer than 10 seconds into N/10 Hydrochloric acid. The time was noted. Surface anesthesia: Albino rabbits of either sex weighing 2.5 – 3.0kg ware selected. The conjunctival sac of one eye was held open, thus formed a pouch. 0.5ml of solution of the anesthetic was applied into the conjunctival sac for 30 sec. Infiltration anesthesia: Preparation of guinea pig: Guinea pigs (either sex weighing 250-300grams were used. Lignocaine produced rapid onset of plexus anesthesia in Frogs in comparison to the bupivacaine at concentration of 0.1% & 0.2% which is statistically significant. Bupivacaine is more potent than the lignocaine as a surface anesthetic agent in the Rabbit, where as lignocaine could produce surface anesthesia at concentration of 0.5% or 0.1% or both. Both bupivacaine and lignocaine produced infiltration anesthesia on intradermal injection in guinea pigs but the duration of infiltration anesthesia produced by bupivacaine is more prolonged which is statistically significant in comparison to the lignocaine at all the three concentrations tested i.e. 0.05%, 0.1% & 0.2%.

  4. Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Links Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics with Mitochondrial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Pavel I; Woods, Christian B; Quintana, Albert; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Morgan, Philip G; Sedensky, Margaret M

    2016-08-22

    An enigma of modern medicine has persisted for over 150 years. The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. Many attractive putative molecular targets have failed to produce a significant effect when genetically tested in whole-animal models [1-3]. However, mitochondrial defects increase VA sensitivity in diverse organisms from nematodes to humans [4-6]. Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine [7]. The change in VA sensitivity is the largest reported for a mammal. Limiting NDUFS4 loss to a subset of glutamatergic neurons recapitulates the VA hypersensitivity of Ndufs4(KO) mice, while loss in GABAergic or cholinergic neurons does not. Baseline electrophysiologic function of CA1 pyramidal neurons does not differ between Ndufs4(KO) and control mice. Isoflurane concentrations that anesthetize only Ndufs4(KO) mice (0.6%) decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) only in Ndufs4(KO) CA1 neurons, while concentrations effective in control mice (1.2%) decreased sEPSC frequencies in both control and Ndufs4(KO) CA1 pyramidal cells. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were not differentially affected between genotypes. The effects of isoflurane were similar on evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) in KO and control hippocampal slices. We propose that CA1 presynaptic excitatory neurotransmission is hypersensitive to isoflurane in Ndufs4(KO) mice due to the inhibition of pre-existing reduced complex I function, reaching a critical reduction that can no longer meet metabolic demands. PMID:27498564

  5. Articaine - the best choice of local anesthetic in contemporary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizharadze, N; Mamaladze, M; Chipashvili, N; Vadachkoria, D

    2011-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the foundation of pain control techniques in clinical dentistry. Within the rich local anesthetic drugs available in dentistry for the prevention and management of pain 4% articaine solutions achieve highest level of anesthetic potency and lowest systemic toxicity in all clinical situations, prior to its superlative physicochemical characteristics and the pharmacological profile. These are - low lipid solubility, high plasma protein binding rate, fast metabolization, fast elimination half time; low blood level. Articaine inactivates in both ways: in the liver and the blood serum. It has good spreading through tissues. Thus, articaine seems to be the local anesthetic of first choice in tissues with suppurative inflammation, for adults, children (over 4), elderly, pregnant women, breastfeeding women, patients suffering from hepatic disorders and renal function impairment. In Articaine solutions (1: 200,000) epinephrine is in low concentration, thus in patients at high risk adverse responses are maximally decreased. In these patients articaine should be used with careful consideration of risk/benefit ratio. Articaine solutions must not be used in persons who are allergic or hypersensitive to sulphite, due to content of Sodium metabisulfite as vasoconstrictor's antioxidant in it. Incidence of serious adverse effects related to dental anesthesia with articaine is very low. Toxic reactions are usually due to an inadvertent intravascular injection or use of excessive dose. To avoid overdoses maximum recommendation dose (MRD) must not be exceeded and aspiration test always performed prior all LA injections. In these article we introduce new graphs providing a quick and effect way to determine maximum LA dose. If the overdose reactions develop, adherence to the basic step of emergency management with end to a successful outcome in virtually all cases. PMID:21346262

  6. Update on administration of anesthetics and psychoactive drugs for pain management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weiping

    2015-06-01

    Anesthetics and psychoactive drugs could relieve diseases, if used properly. However, they can cause dependency, and their misuse or abuse could adversely affect people's health and social stability. For a long time, the Chinese government has been reinforcing the regulation on anesthetics and psychoactive drugs to ensure their legal and proper usage, and to prevent abuse. The state council issued 'the regulations on the administration of anesthetic drugs and psychotropic drugs' in 2005, based on which a legal system was established for administration of anesthetics and psychoactive drugs with the objectives of ensuring their legitimate medical utilization, and preventing illegal abuse.

  7. An improved method for lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs within an animal facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Flescher, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    Transporting anesthetized pigs in a laboratory setting often requires strenuous manual lifting, posing a hazard to the safety of animal care personnel and to the welfare of the pigs. The authors developed an improved approach to lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs weighing up to 350 kg using...... mechanical lifts. Different equipment was used to accommodate pigs of different sizes as well as the building designs of three animal facilities. Using the lifts, anesthetized pigs are carried on sheets to maintain their comfort while being transported. The approach refines previous methods for handling...... and transporting anesthetized pigs and reduces the risk of injury to personnel....

  8. Effects of Anesthetic Management on Early Postoperative Recovery, Hemodynamics and Pain After Supratentorial Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrian, Eugenia; Kaye, Alan David; Varner, Chelsia L; Guerra, Carolina; Vadivelu, Nalini; Urman, Richard D; Zelman, Vladimir; Lumb, Philip D; Rosa, Giovanni; Bilotta, Federico

    2015-10-01

    Various clinical trials have assessed how intraoperative anesthetics can affect early recovery, hemodynamics and nociception after supratentorial craniotomy. Whether or not the difference in recovery pattern differs in a meaningful way with anesthetic choice is controversial. This review examines and compares different anesthetics with respect to wake-up time, hemodynamics, respiration, cognitive recovery, pain, nausea and vomiting, and shivering. When comparing inhalational anesthetics to intravenous anesthetics, either regimen produces similar recovery results. Newer shorter acting agents accelerate the process of emergence and extubation. A balanced inhalational/intravenous anesthetic could be desirable for patients with normal intracranial pressure, while total intravenous anesthesia could be beneficial for patients with elevated intracranial pressure. Comparison of inhalational anesthetics shows all appropriate for rapid emergence, decreasing time to extubation, and cognitive recovery. Comparison of opioids demonstrates similar awakening and extubation time if the infusion of longer acting opioids was ended at the appropriate time. Administration of local anesthetics into the skin, and addition of corticosteroids, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, and PCA therapy postoperatively provided superior analgesia. It is also important to emphasize the possibility of long-term effects of anesthetics on cognitive function. More research is warranted to develop best practices strategies for the future that are evidence-based. PMID:26345202

  9. Volatile anesthetic for the control of posthypoxic refractory myoclonic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Rayadurg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posthypoxic myoclonus (Lance-Adams syndrome is characterized by myoclonus involving multiple muscle groups which is resistant to most conventional antiepileptic drugs. We present a case of hypoxic brain injury-induced myoclonic status epilepticus successfully controlled with isoflurane. The antimyoclonic effects of isoflurane are likely due to potentiation of inhibitory postsynaptic GABA A receptor-mediated currents and its effects on thalamocortical pathways. It is effective even when intravenous agents fail to control myoclonus. It may be a useful alternative to intravenous anesthetics as a third tier therapy in patients with refractory status myoclonus.

  10. The anesthetic management in the patient with Kabuki makeup syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın Erden

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kabuki makeup syndrome is characterized by mentalretardation, characteristic facial appearance (ektropion,skeletal abnormalities, joint laxity, short stature. The syndromeis thought to be a consequence of otosomal dominantmutation. Important factors in anesthetical managementof these patients include; difficult airway, cardiologicproblems, obstructive sleeps apne, hypotoni and malignshyperthermia risks. In this case report we aimed to discussanesthesic management of a patient with Kabukisyndrome -a rare clinical entity in our country- . J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (1: 116-118Key words: kabuki makeup, tympanoplasty, general anesthesia

  11. Anesthetic considerations for adults undergoing fontan conversion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Emad B; Motta, Pablo; Vener, David F

    2013-06-01

    There are currently in North America more adults with congenital heart disease than children. This article discusses the anesthetic considerations in adults with single-ventricle physiology and prior repairs who present for Fontan conversion surgery as a demonstration of the challenges of caring for adults undergoing interventions for the repair of congenital heart defects. The care of these patients requires an understanding of the impact of passive pulmonary blood flow and single systemic ventricular physiology. The perioperative morbidity in this patient population remains high. PMID:23711650

  12. Regulation of gene expression by the BLM helicase correlates with the presence of G-quadruplex DNA motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Tang, Weiliang; Robles, Ana I;

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction, and other features observed in Bloom syndrome individuals. BLM binds to G-quadruplex (G4) DNA, and G4 motifs were enriched at transcription start sites (TSS) and especially within first introns (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001) of differentially expressed mRNAs in Bloom syndrome compared with normal...

  13. A literature review on anesthetic practice for carotid endarterectomy surgery based on cost, hemodynamic stability, and neurologic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzner, Mark C; Skurnowicz, Julie A; Mitchell, Anne

    2007-06-01

    An extensive literature review was undertaken to evaluate the best anesthetic practice for carotid endarterectomy surgery. Two anesthetic techniques were evaluated: general anesthetic with an endotracheal tube and regional anesthetic block. Three variables were reviewed with respect to significant clinical outcomes based on anesthetic technique. Relevant literature was obtained through multiple sources that included professional journals, a professional website, and textbooks. According to the literature, there is an advantage to performing regional anesthesia with respect to cost and neurologic status. Information analyzed was inconclusive with respect to hemodynamic stability and anesthetic technique. We conclude that regional anesthesia may have some slight advantages; however, more investigation is warranted. PMID:17591300

  14. Anesthetic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum in Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 and its effects on stress parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic activity of the essential oil (EO of Ocimum americanum L. in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen . In the first experiment, the depressor effects and chemical composition of the leaf EO (LEO and inflorescence EO (IEO were compared. Juveniles (n = 10 were placed in aquaria containing different concentrations of EO (25 - 500 mg L-1 to determine the point at which anesthesia was induced and the length of the recovery period. In the following experiment, the effects of 300 and 500 mg L-1 LEO exposure on stress parameters (plasma cortisol, glucose and sodium levels after air exposure for 1 min were assayed. Fish (n = 10 per sampling time were sampled immediately or transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria until sampling (15, 30, 60 or 240 min. LEO was composed mainly of β-linalool and 1,8-cineole in similar proportions, whereas IEO showed β-linalool as major compound. Anesthesia was obtained in silver catfish with 200-500 mg L-1 between 4-8 min for LEO and 6-16 min for IEO. Lower EO concentrations did not reach anesthetic stage up to 30 min. LEO used as anesthetic prevented the cortisol increase and sodium loss induced by aerial exposure. Glucose levels were raised in catfish exposed to LEO compared to basal group (not air exposed in almost all observation times. EO of O. americanum obtained from leaves was considered suitable to anesthetic procedures due to its fast induction and handling-induced stress prevention.

  15. The impact of four different classes of anesthetics on the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, M; Behuliak, M; Zicha, J

    2013-01-01

    Most anesthetics induce characteristic hemodynamic changes leading to blood pressure (BP) reduction but the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in this BP reduction is unknown. We therefore studied the influence of four widely used anesthetics - pentobarbital (P), isoflurane (ISO), ketamine-xylazine (KX) and chloralose-urethane (CU) - on the participation of these vasoactive systems in BP maintenance. BP effects elicited by the acute sequential blockade of RAS (captopril), SNS (pentolinium) and NO synthase (L-NAME) were compared in conscious and anesthetized Wistar or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Except for pentobarbital all studied anesthetics evidenced by diminished BP responses to pentolinium. The absolute pentolinium-induced BP changes were always greater in SHR than Wistar rats. KX anesthesia eliminated BP response to pentolinium and considerably enhanced BP response to NO synthase inhibition in SHR. In both rat strains the anesthesia with ISO or CU augmented BP response to captopril, decreased BP response to pentolinium and attenuated BP response to NO synthase inhibition. In conclusion, pentobarbital anesthesia had a modest influence on BP level and its maintenance by the above vasoactive systems. Isoflurane and chloralose-urethane anesthesia may be used in cardiovascular experiments if substantial BP decrease due to altered contribution of RAS, SNS and NO to BP regulation does not interfere with the respective research aim. Major BP reduction (namely in SHR) due to a complete SNS absence is a major drawback of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. PMID:24020816

  16. Use of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S

    1999-01-01

    The Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) is a topical application, which has proved to be a useful medication for providing pain relief among children. It is an emulsion containing a 1:1 mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine. The high concentration of the uncharged anesthetic base in the microdroplets of the emulsion ensure effective skin penetration. In the pediatric population EMLA has been shown to be efficacious when it is used prior to venipuncture, cannulation, lumbar puncture, laser treatment of port wine stains, curettage of molluscum contagiosum or vaccination. For several of these indications, the efficacy has been documented by double blind controlled trials, that have used objective and quasi-objective scales for assessing pain relief. The dose of EMLA is between 0.5 to 1 gram, and the cream should be applied half to one hour prior to the procedure. Local side effects are very mild, and the only systemic side effect of importance is the risk of methemoglobinemia in young infants. The literature has conflicting reports about the safety of EMLA in neonates.

  17. Clinical application of thoracic paravertebral anesthetic block in breast surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Socorro Faria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimum treatment for postoperative pain has been of fundamental importance in surgical patient care. Among the analgesic techniques aimed at this group of patients, thoracic paravertebral block combined with general anesthesia stands out for the good results and favorable risk-benefit ratio. Many local anesthetics and other adjuvant drugs are being investigated for use in this technique, in order to improve the quality of analgesia and reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of paravertebral block compared to other analgesic and anesthetic regimens in women undergoing breast cancer surgeries. METHODS: Integrative literature review from 1966 to 2012, using specific terms in computerized databases of articles investigating the clinical characteristics, adverse effects, and beneficial effects of thoracic paravertebral block. RESULTS: On the selected date, 16 randomized studies that met the selection criteria established for this literature review were identified. Thoracic paravertebral block showed a significant reduction of postoperative pain, as well as decreased pain during arm movement after surgery. CONCLUSION: Thoracic paravertebral block reduced postoperative analgesic requirement compared to placebo group, markedly within the first 24 h. The use of this technique could ensure postoperative analgesia of clinical relevance. Further studies with larger populations are necessary, as paravertebral block seems to be promising for preemptive analgesia in breast cancer surgery.

  18. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Chu, A.M.

    1979-09-01

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken to minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam.

  19. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for neurosurgical procedures: anesthetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Bernadette; Walsh, Robert P

    2011-02-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) for tumor resection allows a neurosurgeon to pinpoint the exact location of the tumor before resection and to navigate to the tumor after the incision is made. Although the anesthetic management is not substantially different from that for other neurosurgical procedures, strategies to keep the patient and operating room personnel safe can be challenging. Because of the risk of injury by the strong force of the magnet, safety precautions with respect to anesthetic delivery must be taken. Ferrous objects must be removed and kept outside the operating room. Only MRI-compatible equipment is allowed in the MRI operating room. This includes the anesthesia machine, anesthesia cart, intubating equipment, monitors, stethoscopes, poles for intravenous solutions, and body warmers. Surgical equipment and instruments must be MRI-compatible. Absolute contraindications to entering the MRI suite include pacemakers, cochlear implants, certain cranial aneurysm clips, and metal joints or implants. Goals of anesthesia delivery during IMRI procedures include the following: (1) promoting the safety of patients and staff, (2) preventing MRI-associated accidents, (3) identifying potential equipment-related hazards, (4) recognizing limitations of physiologic monitoring, and (5) acknowledging other potential hazards such as noise. PMID:21473229

  20. Monitoring system experiments on beam loss at SSRF injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xia, XiaoBin; Xu, XunJiang; Liu, Xin; Xu, JiaQiang; Wang, GuangHong; Zeng, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Experiments on beam loss by using beam loss monitoring (BLM) system were carried out at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) injector. This system used highly sensitive and current-integrated Si-photodiode detectors and an Ethernet data acquisition (DAQ) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the Si-photodiode detectors are a useful tool that provides dynamic information on beam loss and investigates problems of machine operation. It also shows that the Si-photodiode BLM system is suitable for pulse-radiation of high-energy accelerators.

  1. Monitoring system experiments on beam loss at SSRF injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on beam loss by using beam loss monitoring (BLM) system were carried out at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) injector. This system used highly sensitive and current-integrated Si-photodiode detectors and an Ethernet data acquisition (DAQ) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the Si-photodiode detectors are a useful tool that provides dynamic information on beam loss and investigates problems of machine operation. It also shows that the Si-photodiode BLM system is suitable for pulse-radiation of high-energy accelerators.

  2. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  3. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine;

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  4. Bilateral Fetal Hydrothorax Requiring Intrauterine Fetal Thoracoamniotic Shunts: Anesthetic Considerations and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hache, John J.; Emery, Stephen P.; Vallejo, Manuel C.

    2009-01-01

    After prenatal diagnosis of bilateral fetal hydrothorax, ascites, and polyhydramnios, bilateral thoracoamniotic shunts were placed at 29 weeks gestation using an ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive technique. Anesthetic care was managed using intravenous sedation and local anesthesia infiltration. The anesthetic considerations for such procedures are discussed.

  5. Bilateral Fetal Hydrothorax Requiring Intrauterine Fetal Thoracoamniotic Shunts: Anesthetic Considerations and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Hache

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After prenatal diagnosis of bilateral fetal hydrothorax, ascites, and polyhydramnios, bilateral thoracoamniotic shunts were placed at 29 weeks gestation using an ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive technique. Anesthetic care was managed using intravenous sedation and local anesthesia infiltration. The anesthetic considerations for such procedures are discussed.

  6. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local...... anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent...... of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high...

  7. Anticholeretic effect of substance P in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, I; Thulin, L; Hellgren, M

    1978-03-01

    Nine anesthetized dogs were provided with acute common duct fistulas after exclusion of the gallbladder. Synthetic Substance P was administered as caval infusions in a dosage of 0.5-20 ng x kg-1 x min-1, duration 10 min. The output of hepatic bile, sodium and amylase decreased during infusion by 40-52 per cent at the highest doses. After termination of infusion all 3 parameters increased by 19-60 per cent above the basal level. The biliary concentration of sodium was constant, while that of amylase increased during infusion. The responses were dose-related. The anticholeresis induced by substance P might be due to inhibition of the canalicular bile fraction, which presumably is mediated by active sodium transport and independent of bile salt excretion.

  8. Anesthetic management of a child undergoing bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediha Turktan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine secreting neuroendocrine tumor in children. It is usually localized unilaterally in adults but often bilaterally in children. The symptoms are variable related to the level of secreted catecholamine. The most common symptoms are hypertension, tachycardia and headache. Beta blockers, alcohol consumption, injection of contrast substance and surgical procedures may lead to attacks. The most effective treatment is surgical resection. In recent years, laparoscopic surgery has been more preferred. Anesthetic management is very important in this cases. Especially, sudden hemodynamic changes may be observed during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In our case, the control of hemodynamic changes with esmolol and norepinephrine infusion were discussed during bilaterally laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a 14-year old child with pheochromocytoma. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 171-174

  9. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  10. Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics: A modern view of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ovezov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All general anesthetics routinely used in clinical practice are noted to have a neurotoxic effect on the brain in different animal species including primates. The negative effects observed both in young and sexually mature animals include apoptotic neuronal cell death, suppression of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, neuroinflammation, as well as learning and memory impairments. A number of epidemiologic surveys have established an association between anesthesia in patients younger than 3 to 4 years and subsequent learning disabilities and language disorders whereas others have not found this link. In middle-aged and elderly patients, anesthesia is frequently associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The key component of its pathogenesis (general anesthesia itself or other factors, such as operative injury, an inflammatory response, pain syndrome, intraoperative complications, underlying disease in a patient remains unelucidated. It is concluded that there is a need for additional experimental and clinical studies of the pathogenesis of these undesirable phenomena to be prevented and corrected.

  11. Anesthetic considerations for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Kothandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysm is defined as a localized and permanent dilatation with an increase in normal diameter by more than 50%. It is more common in males and can affect up to 8% of elderly men. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA and other risk factors include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of aneurysms, inflammatory vasculitis, and trauma. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair [EVAR] is a common procedure performed for AAA, because of its minimal invasiveness as compared with open surgical repair. Patients undergoing EVAR have a greater incidence of major co-morbidities and should undergo comprehensive preoperative assessment and optimization within the multidisciplinary settings. In majority of cases, EVAR is extremely well-tolerated. The aim of this article is to outline the Anesthetic considerations related to EVAR.

  12. Anesthetic considerations for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothandan, Harikrishnan; Haw Chieh, Geoffrey Liew; Khan, Shariq Ali; Karthekeyan, Ranjith Baskar; Sharad, Shah Shitalkumar

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysm is defined as a localized and permanent dilatation with an increase in normal diameter by more than 50%. It is more common in males and can affect up to 8% of elderly men. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and other risk factors include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of aneurysms, inflammatory vasculitis, and trauma. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair [EVAR] is a common procedure performed for AAA, because of its minimal invasiveness as compared with open surgical repair. Patients undergoing EVAR have a greater incidence of major co-morbidities and should undergo comprehensive preoperative assessment and optimization within the multidisciplinary settings. In majority of cases, EVAR is extremely well-tolerated. The aim of this article is to outline the Anesthetic considerations related to EVAR. PMID:26750684

  13. Anesthetic management of robot-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlekar, Anil; Dutta, Devesh; Saxena, Ravindra; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare disorder involving neuromuscular junction. In conjunction with medical therapy, thymectomy is a known modality of treatment of MG and has shown to increase the probability of remission and overall symptomatic improvement. For minimally invasive thymectomy, video-.assisted thoracoscopic surgery has been the preferred surgical approach till recently. The robotic surgical procedure must necessarily bring new challenges to the anesthesiologists to effectively meet the specific requirements of the technique. At present, there is a paucity of literature regarding the anesthetic concerns of robotic assisted thymectomy, patient in question specifically posed a challenge since different maneuvers and techniques had to be tried to obtain optimum surgical conditions with stable ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters. Concerns of patient positioning and hemodynamic monitoring have also been discussed. PMID:27625494

  14. The effects of anesthetic agents on oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakan, Selvinaz; Düzgüner, Vesile

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the instability between antioxidant defense of the body and the production of free radical that causes peroxydation on the lipid layer. Free radicals are reactive oxygen species that are produced in the course of normal metabolisms of aerobe organisms and they may cause disorders in cell structure and organelles by interacting macromolecules, like lipid, protein, nucleic acids. Therefore, they may cause cardiovascular, immune system, liver, kidney illnesses and many other illnesses like cancer, aging, cataract, diabetes. It is known that many drugs used for the purpose of anesthetizing may cause lipid peroxidation in organism. For these reasons, determining the Oxidative stress index of anaesthetic stress chosen in the ones that are exposed to long term anaesthetic agents and anaesthesia appliccations, is so substantial.

  15. From micro- to nanostructured implantable device for local anesthetic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetto, Laura; Brambilla, Paola; Marcello, Elena; Bloise, Nora; De Gregori, Manuela; Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Peloso, Andrea; Allegri, Massimo; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics block the transmission of painful stimuli to the brain by acting on ion channels of nociceptor fibers, and find application in the management of acute and chronic pain. Despite the key role they play in modern medicine, their cardio and neurotoxicity (together with their short half-life) stress the need for developing implantable devices for tailored local drug release, with the aim of counterbalancing their side effects and prolonging their pharmacological activity. This review discusses the evolution of the physical forms of local anesthetic delivery systems during the past decades. Depending on the use of different biocompatible materials (degradable polyesters, thermosensitive hydrogels, and liposomes and hydrogels from natural polymers) and manufacturing processes, these systems can be classified as films or micro- or nanostructured devices. We analyze and summarize the production techniques according to this classification, focusing on their relative advantages and disadvantages. The most relevant trend reported in this work highlights the effort of moving from microstructured to nanostructured systems, with the aim of reaching a scale comparable to the biological environment. Improved intracellular penetration compared to microstructured systems, indeed, provides specific drug absorption into the targeted tissue and can lead to an enhancement of its bioavailability and retention time. Nanostructured systems are realized by the modification of existing manufacturing processes (interfacial deposition and nanoprecipitation for degradable polyester particles and high- or low-temperature homogenization for liposomes) or development of novel strategies (electrospun matrices and nanogels). The high surface-to-volume ratio that characterizes nanostructured devices often leads to a burst drug release. This drawback needs to be addressed to fully exploit the advantage of the interaction between the target tissues and the drug: possible strategies

  16. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  17. Inhibition of murine cardiomyocyte respiration by amine local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburawi, Elhadi H; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-12-01

    The hydrophobic amino acyl amide-linked local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine and bupivacaine) impose potent cardiac toxicity and direct mitochondrial dysfunction. To investigate these adverse events, an in vitro system was employed to measure their effects on O2 consumption (cellular respiration) by murine myocardium. Specimens were collected from the ventricular myocardium and immediately immersed in ice-cold Krebs-Henseleit buffer saturated with 95 % O2:5 % CO2. O2 concentration was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates of Pd(II)-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-tetrabenzoporphyrin. Myocardial O2 consumption was linear with time (zero-order kinetics); its rate (k, in μM O2 min(-1)), thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Lidocaine and bupivacaine produced immediate and sustained inhibition of cellular respiration at plasma concentrations of the drugs (low micromolar range). Bupivacaine was twice as potent as lidocaine. The inhibition was dose-dependent, saturating at concentrations ≥30 μM. At saturating doses, lidocaine produced ~20 % inhibition and bupivacaine ~40 % inhibition. Cellular ATP was also decreased in the presence of 30 μM lidocaine or bupivacaine. The studied amines inhibited myocardial cellular respiration. This effect is consistent with their known adverse events on mitochondrial function. The described approach allows accurate assessments and comparisons of the toxic effects of local anesthetics on heart tissue bioenergetics. PMID:24254523

  18. Under Utilization of Local Anesthetics in Infant Lumbar Punctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorchynski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar Puncture (LP is an invasive procedure frequently used to diagnose meningitis among the pediatric population. Neonates and infants have not routinely received local anesthesia prior to LP. Study Objective: To determine whether emergency medicine physicians and pediatricians use local analgesics on neonates and infants prior to performing an LP and to identify which local anesthetics, if any, were used. Methods: Prospective, cohort study of all infants, six months of age or less, that received an LP in the emergency department (ED or inpatient pediatric units for suspected meningitis during a period of year at a university tertiary care hospital. Results: A total sample population of 111 infants that received an LP within the study period. A control population of 42 adults received an LP. Only 40.4% (45/111 of the infants received local analgesia prior to LP: either 1% lidocaine, EMLA or a combination of the two. Infants were less likely to receive lidocaine or EMLA prior to LP compared to adult subjects (OR= 0.27; 95% CI0.12 to 0.62. No neonates that were less than one month of age received local procedural anesthesia by emergency medicine or pediatric physicians. ED physicians’ use of local anesthesia prior to LP increased with increasing age of the infant. The pediatricians in this study used local anesthesia prior to LP when the infant was at least five months of age. Discussion: The data objectively support recent literature regarding the under use or lack of use of analgesia prior to LP among neonates and infants. Local anesthetics should be used routinely without exception prior to performing an LP in the pediatric population.

  19. Anesthetic Activity of Alfaxalone Compared with Ketamine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Ayers, Jessica D; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the use of alfaxalone compared with ketamine, both alone and in combination with xylazine, for anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice. We assessed time to onset of anesthesia, duration of action, reflex responses, respiratory rate, and clinical signs. Alfaxalone (80 mg/kg IP) induced a light surgical plane of anesthesia in all mice, with a time to onset of 2.2 ± 0.2 min and duration of 57.1 ± 3.8 min, whereas ketamine (80 mg/kg IP) provided only sedative effects (time to onset, 5.4 ± 0.4 min; duration, 6.9 ± 0.8 min). Clinically, alfaxalone caused a spectrum of activities, including popcorn-like jumping movements after injection, intense scratching of the face, hyperresponsiveness to noise or touch, and marked limb jerking during recovery. Adding xylazine to the single-agent protocols achieved deep surgical anesthesia (duration: alfaxalone + xylazine, 80.3 ± 17.8 min; ketamine + xylazine, 37.4 ± 8.2 min) and ameliorated the adverse clinical signs. Our preliminary analysis suggests that, because of its side effects, alfaxalone alone is not a viable anesthetic option for mice. Although alfaxalone combined with xylazine appeared to be a more viable option, some mice still experienced mild adverse reactions, and the long duration of action might be problematic regarding the maintenance of body temperature and monitoring of recovery. Further studies evaluating different routes of administration and drug combinations are warranted. PMID:27423149

  20. Blm-s, a BH3-Only Protein Enriched in Postmitotic Immature Neurons, Is Transcriptionally Upregulated by p53 during DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death is a pivotal process that regulates neuronal number during development. Key regulators of this process are members of the BCL-2 family. Using mRNA differential display, we identified a Bcl-2 family gene, Blm-s (Bcl-2-like molecule, short form, enriched in postmitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex. BLM-s functions as a BH3-only apoptosis sensitizer/derepressor and causes BAX-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by selectively binding to prosurvival BCL-2 or MCL-1. When challenged with γ-irradiation that produces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, Blm-s is transcriptionally upregulated in postmitotic immature neurons with concurrently increased apoptosis. RNAi-mediated depletion of Blm-s protects immature neurons from irradiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Blm-s is a direct target gene of p53 and AP1 via the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathways activated by DSBs. Thus, BLM-s is likely an apoptosis sensor activated by DSBs accumulating in postmitotic immature neurons.

  1. CSNS束流损失监控(BLM)系统电离室的改进%Improved Design and Construction of the Lonization Chamber for CSNS Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中亮; 陈昌; 徐美杭; 田建民; 阮向东; 韩晨霞; 陈元柏; 徐韬光; 陆双桐

    2011-01-01

    Improved design and construction of the ionization chamber (IC) for CSNS and PA beam loss monitor (BLM) system is reported. The good plateau( ≥2 000 V) and the measurement range up to 3.6 × 105rad/h are obtained in the improved ionization chamber. All of these show us the performances of the improved ionization chamber can be satisfied for CSNS BLM application.%报道了中国散裂中子源工程(CSNS)和强流质子加速器(PA)柬流损失监控(BLM)系统的电离室的改进.对改进后的电离室测量得到,电离室有良好的坪特性(坪长≥2 000 V),测量的辐照剂量范围到3.6×10 5rad/h,高压加到3500 V仍能稳定工作.测量的结果表明电离室探头性能已能满足CSNS和PA对束流损失监控的性能需求.

  2. Genetic variation in the NBS1, MRE11, RAD50 and BLM genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoyne Randy D; Connors Joseph M; Gallagher Richard P; Lai Agnes S; Leach Stephen; MacArthur Amy C; Schuetz Johanna M; Spinelli John J; Brooks-Wilson Angela R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Translocations are hallmarks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) genomes. Because lymphoid cell development processes require the creation and repair of double stranded breaks, it is not surprising that disruption of this type of DNA repair can cause cancer. The members of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex and BLM have central roles in maintenance of DNA integrity. Severe mutations in any of these genes cause genetic disorders, some of which are characterized by increased risk ...

  3. R2E-related MD: slow controlled losses for RadMon/BLM cross-checks

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Spiezia, G; Sapinski, M; Priebe, A; Nordt, A; Pojer, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dedicated R2E MD has been to evaluate the R factor (i.e. the ratio between the thermal neutron fluence and the high energy hadron fluence (>20MeV) for various tunnel locations, to measure the HEH radiation level gradient along the MBC dipole and on the MQ, to check the ratio the BLM measured dose and RadMon SEU counts and to study the dose gradient between the standard BLM beam axis location and at the level of the equipment location. Within the R2E Mitigation Project, these accurate measurement and cross-check of the mentioned parameters are of great importance for the evaluation and interpretation of the R2E-related radiation levels, as well as for the evaluation of the failure cross-section of specific equipment (i.e. QPS ISO150). In addition, a short part of the MD has been devoted to the comparison of BLM signals generated by loss directed inwards and outwards with respect to the LHC ring.

  4. Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Study of Bloom’s Syndrome Protein (BLM for Finding Potential Lead Drug Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Verma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of locus-specific mutations within the BLM result in development of Bloom Syndrome and patients are found to be immune deficient. HRDC domain amino acid Lys1270 is presumably to play role in mediating interactions with DNA. Single point mutation of Lys1270 (K1270V reduces the potency of Double Holliday junction (DHJ DNA unwinding so BLM lead to its functional loss. Quadruplex formation have role in immunoglobulin heavy chain switching and inhibiting RecQ helicases activity in-vitro in BLM. Variety of G-Quadruplex ligands are employed by molecular docking for arriving at lead compound identification. The scoring function of docking results describes protein-ligand interaction and it conjointly instructed that docking of ligand at mutational binding site shows some repressing function to make potential lead drug molecule. So as to know the elaborated purposeful functional mechanism of protein and to relate impact of mutation with function and activity; dock screening, hit identification and lead optimization facilitate in design of lead drug compound.

  5. [Pediatric anesthetic during brain immaturity and neurodevelopment disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catré, Dora; Lopes, Maria Francelina; Cabrita, António Silvério; Silva Viana, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Diversos estudos experimentais e clínicos sugerem que fármacos usados em anestesia pediátrica podem exercer efeitos indesejáveis sobre o sistema nervoso central imaturo. O objetivo desta revisão consistiu em avaliar os resultados e conclusões de estudos publicados na literatura sobre perturbações persistentes do neurodesenvolvimento após exposição a anestésicos de crianças em fase de imaturidade cerebral. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diversas bases de dados (PubMed, SciELO e Cochrane Library), utilizando os termos ‘Pediatric anesthesia OR Pediatric anesthetic OR Developing brain anesthetic OR Developing brain anesthesia AND behavior disorders’ e foram incluídos os estudos em humanos, referentes a efeitos persistentes no neurodesenvolvimento após exposição a anestésicos nos primeiros quatro anos de idade. Resultados: Dez estudos retrospetivos cumpriram os critérios de inclusão. Destes, sete sugerem alteração do neurodesenvolvimento por exposição de criança pequena à anestesia, por oposição aos resultados obtidos pelos restantes três. Discussão: Embora maioritariamente utilizem bases de dados amplas, os estudos encontrados são retrospetivos, variam nos grupos teste, incluem variáveis de confusão por vezes contornáveis e alguns apresentam incorreções na escolha da população teste e controlo que podem comprometer a fiabilidade dos resultados. Conclusão: As numerosas limitações dos poucos estudos clínicos disponíveis fazem com que a informação reportada ainda se considere insuficiente para mudar a prática clínica atual. No entanto, sendo indiscutível que se mantêm as recomendações para providenciar anestesia quando necessária, independentemente da idade, os alertas encontrados na literatura são preocupantes, existindo indicação para que sempre que possível sejam ponderadas alternativas que possam contribuir para diminuir os riscos da exposição anestésica.

  6. Amperometric cell for subcutaneous detection of hydrogen sulfide in anesthetized experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas. It has been recognized that H2S evolving in biochemical reactions in living organisms has an important role in different physiologic processes. Nowadays, H2S is known as an endogenous messenger molecule. Natural sulfurous spring water has been proved beneficial in the therapy of diseases of the skin and other organs (Boros et al 2013). In vivo real-time detection of local H2S concentration is an important but challenging task. We developed a two-electrode amperometric cell for selective subcutaneous detection of H2S in anesthetized mice. The cell is a small size implantable gas sensor containing a platinum disc anode and a silver cathode. The selectivity is provided by a membrane permeable only by gases. There is a buffered reversible electrochemical mediator solution in an oxidized form inside the cell. As gaseous H2S penetrates into the cell the mediator is reduced, and +0.4 V versus the reference is employed on the platinum working electrode. The reduced mediator is oxidized on the anode surface. The current provides an analytical signal representing the concentration of H2S. Appropriate shape, size and membrane material were selected, and optimal working parameters—such as mediator concentration, pH and cell voltage—were determined in vitro. The lower limit of detection in the stirred sample solution at pH = 5.5 was as small as 9.4  ×  10−7 M and a dynamic concentration range of 0–6  ×  10–4 M could be achieved. The detecting surfaces of the cell were covered with freshly dissected mouse skin to test dermal H2S permeability. In other experiments, the cell was implanted subcutaneously in an anesthetized mouse and the animal was submerged in a buffer solution containing different concentrations of H2S so that the skin surface over the sensor was covered by the solution. Measurements of subcutaneous H2S concentration were taken. The experiments clearly proved that H2S diffuses through the skin

  7. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry...

  8. The Effects of Anesthetic Technique on Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Ankle Fracture Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kristian P; Møller, Ann M; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of common anesthetic techniques on postoperative opioid consumption in ankle fracture surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 622 patients with isolated ankle fractures undergoing primary reconstructive surgery. Patients...

  9. Determination of Anesthetic Effects of Some Medicinal Plants on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil METİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anesthetics effects of spearmint (Menta piperita oil and lavandula (Lavandula angustifolia oil as alternative to clove (Eugenia caryophylatta oil were evaluated on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oils (30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg l-1 for induction of anesthesia. Results showed that induction time decreased with increasing of the concentration of the clove oil and spearmint oil. However, recovery time increased with increasing of the concentration of this anesthetics. 40 and 50 mg l-1 doses of clove oil and 200 mg l-1 of mint oil were showed similar anesthetic effect. Lavandula oil was showed sedative effects on rainbow trout. These findings suggested that spearmint oil is useful anesthetics for rainbow trout.

  10. Effects of Theophylline on Anesthetized Malignant Hyperthermia-Susceptible Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Fiege

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Theophylline was shown to induce contracture development in porcine malignant hyperthermia (MH susceptible (MHS skeletal muscles in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the in vivo effects of theophylline in MHS and MH normal (MHN swine. Methods. MH-trigger-free general anesthesia was performed in MHS and MHN swine. Theophylline was administered intravenously in cumulative doses up to 93.5 mg⋅kg-1. The clinical occurrence of MH was defined by changes of central-venous pCO2, central-venous pH, and body core temperature. Results. Theophylline induced comparable clinical alterations in the anesthetized MHS and MHN swine, especially in regard to hemodynamic data. No pig developed hypermetabolism and/or MH according to defined criteria. All animals died with tachycardia followed by ventricular fibrillation. Conclusions. The cumulative theophylline doses used in this study were much higher than doses used therapeutically in humans, as demonstrated by measured blood concentrations. Theophylline is thus not a trigger of MH in genetically determined swine.

  11. Anesthetic Management of a Pediatric Patient With Wilsons Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Mehmet; Karapolat, Sami

    2010-01-01

    Wilsons disease, characterized by cirrhosis, extrapyramidal symptoms and Kayser-Fleischer corneal rings, is a rare hereditary disease of human copper metabolism. Clinical findings in Wilsons disease are complex and neurological symptoms such as tremor, dysarthria, rigid dystonia, seizures, psychiatric disorders, acute liver failure, chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis may develop. A 4-year-old male patient was operated for traumatic depressed skull fracture and intracerebral hematoma. He was diagnosed with Wilsons disease at the age of 2.5 years and treated with zinc sulphate and D-penicillamine. General anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, atracurium, and maintained with isoflurane, and oxygen. No complications were encountered during the operation or in the postoperative period. We concluded that general anesthesia can successfully be given to Wilsons disease patients using an anesthetic agent, the metabolism of which is least affected by the liver disease, one that induces least hepatic toxicity. By close follow-up of patients clinically and biochemically, it is possible to reduce the complication rates to a minimum. Keywords Wilson's Disease; Craniocerebral trauma; Thoracic injuries; General anesthesia; Surgery PMID:21811529

  12. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M J; Pitts, T E; Mortensen, A; Corrie, L W; Davenport, P W; Bolser, D C

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (-)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (-)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (-)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (-)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (-)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  13. The articulo-cardiac sympathetic reflex in spinalized, anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ito, Ryuzo

    2006-04-01

    Somatic afferent regulation of heart rate by noxious knee joint stimulation has been proven in anesthetized cats to be a reflex response whose reflex center is in the brain and whose efferent arc is a cardiac sympathetic nerve. In the present study we examined whether articular stimulation could influence heart rate by this efferent sympathetic pathway in spinalized rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-intact rats, noxious articular movement of either the knee or elbow joint resulted in an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, although in acutely spinalized rats a noxious movement of the elbow joint resulted in a significant increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, a noxious movement of the knee joint had no such effect and resulted in only a marginal increase in heart rate. Because this marginal increase was abolished by adrenalectomy suggests that it was due to the release of adrenal catecholamines. In conclusion, the spinal cord appears to be capable of mediating, by way of cardiac sympathetic nerves, the propriospinally induced reflex increase in heart rate that follows noxious stimulation of the elbow joint, but not the knee joint.

  14. Anesthetic and surgical complications in 219 cases of myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, J; Allard, P; Gobeil, G; Girard, M; De Braekeleer, M; Bégin, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency, type, and severity of perioperative complications after a first surgery under general anesthesia in patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) and to measure the association with suspected risk factors. Numerous cases of perioperative complications in DM patients have been reported. Hazards have been associated with the use of thiopentone, suxamethonium, neostigmine, and halothane. A retrospective study of perioperative complications was conducted for 219 DM patients who had their first surgery under general anesthesia at the Chicoutimi Hospital. The overall frequency of complications was 8.2% (18 of 219). Most complications (16 of 18) were pulmonary, including five patients with acute ventilatory failure necessitating ventilatory support, four patients with atelectasis, and three patients with pneumonia. Using multivariate analysis, we found that the risk of perioperative pulmonary complications (PPC) was significantly higher after an upper abdominal surgery (odds ratio (OR), 24.4; 95% CI, 4.0 to 149.3) and for patients with a severe muscular disability, as assessed by the presence of proximal limb weakness (OR, 14.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 134.4). The likelihood of PPC was not related to any specific anesthetic drug. Because of the increased risk of PPC, careful monitoring during the early postoperative period, protection of upper airways, chest physiotherapy, and incentive spirometry are mandatory in all symptomatic DM patients, particularly those with a severe muscular disability or those who have undergone an upper abdominal surgery.

  15. [Anesthetic management of a patient with Mulvihill-Smith syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Junya; Yamada, Tatsuya; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Junzo

    2007-07-01

    Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is a rare disease that belongs to progeroid syndromes. This syndrome is characterized by a senile face with an underdeveloped lower half, short stature, microcephaly, multiple pigmented nevi, immunodeficiency, hearing loss, and high-pitched voice. We report anesthetic management of a 27-year-old woman, 138 cm and 27 kg, with this syndrome, who underwent removal of mandibular cyst, partial resection of tongue and keratoplasty. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium. There was difficulty in maintaining adequate ventilation with a face mask for children, and we used a mask for infants. Her Cormack grade was rated 3 but her trachea could be intubated assisted by BURP procedure. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen supplemented with fentanyl. The changes of blood pressure during anesthesia were extraordinary, suggesting the presence of advanced arteriosclerosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, with stable hemodynamics, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on 9th postoperative day. Anesthesia for Mulvihill-Smith syndrome should be performed with caution for the potential risk of difficult airway and unstable hemodynamics. PMID:17633848

  16. Urotensin Ⅱ inhibits carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ming WU; Hong-mei XUE; Lin XIAO; Rui-rong HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of urotensin Ⅱ (UV) on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB). Methods: The functional curve of carotid sinus baroreflex was measured by recording changes in arterial pressure in anesthetized male rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. Results: UⅡ at the concentration of 3 nmol/L had no effect on the CSB, while at the concentration of 30, 300 and 3000 nmol/L inhibited the CSB, shifting the functional curve of the baroreflex upward and to the right. There was a marked decrease in peak slope and reflex decrease in blood pressure. These effects of UⅡ were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with verapamil (an antagonist of the L-type calcium channel, 10 μmol/L) partially eliminated the above effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Pretreatment with BIM-23127 (3 μmol/L),an antagonist of human and rat UⅡ receptors, abolished the actions of UⅡ on the CSB. Pretreatment with, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 100 μmol/L did not affect the inhibitory effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Conclusion: These data suggest that UⅡ exerts an inhibitory action on the isolated CSB. Such an action of UV is predominantly mediated by the UⅡ receptors in vascular smooth muscles, resulting in the opening of L-type calcium channels.

  17. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26436857

  18. Respiratory-related hypoglossal nerve activity: influence of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J C; St John, W M; Bartlett, D

    1983-09-01

    In decerebrate, vagotomized, paralyzed, and ventilated cats, phrenic and respiratory-related hypoglossal discharges were evident at normocapnic normoxia or hyperoxia. Both increased progressively in hypercapnia or hypoxia. With increasing drive, onset of inspiratory hypoglossal activity began earlier relative to phrenic onset; an early expiratory hypoglossal burst was also observed. Following subanesthetic doses of chloralose, halothane, ketamine, or pentobarbital, hypoglossal activity was depressed much more than phrenic discharge. In moderate hypercapnia or hypoxia, phrenic activity increased more than hypoglossal, whereas, at high drive, the latter rose more sharply in some cats. Electromyograms of the diaphragm and genioglossus were recorded in intact awake cats to determine if their responses and those of decerebrates are comparable. Respiratory-related genioglossal discharge was evident in normocapnia. We conclude that anesthesia suppresses hypoglossal motor activities much more than those of the bulbospinal-phrenic system. Data for decerebrate cats and unanesthetized cats or humans provide no evidence of a differential distribution of chemoreceptor afferents on hypoglossal and bulbospinal-phrenic neurons, as suggested by results in anesthetized animals. PMID:6629915

  19. Hydrogen sulfide facilitates carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin XIAO; Yu-ming WU; Hao ZHANG; Yi-xian LIU; Rui-rong HE

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To study effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB).Methods:The functional curve of the carotid sinus baroreflex was measured by recording changes in arterial pressure in anesthetized male rats with perfused carotid sinus.Results:H2S(derived from sodium hydrosulfide)at concentrations of 25,50,and 100 μmol/L facilitated the CSB,shifting the functional curve of the baroreflex downward and to the left.There was a marked increase in peak slope(PS)and reflex decrease in blood pressure(RD).Effects were concentration-dependent.Pretreatment with glibenclamide(20 μmol/L),a KATP channel blocker,abolished the above effects of H2S on CSB.Pretreatment with Bay K8644 (an agonist of calcium channels;500 nmol/L)eliminated the effect of H2S on CSB.An inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase(CSE),DL-propargylglycine(PPG;200 μmol/L),inhibited CSB in male rats and shifted the functional curve of the baroreflex upward and to the right.Conclusion:These data suggest that exogenous H2S exerts a facilitatory role on isolated CSB through opening KATP channels and further closing the calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.Endogenous H2S may activate the activity of the CSB in vivo.

  20. The sodium channel as a target for local anesthetic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Fozzard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Na channels are the source of excitatory currents for the nervous system and muscle. They are the target for a class of drugs called local anesthetics (LA, which have been used for local and regional anesthesia and for excitatory dysfunction problems such as epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia. LA drugs are prototypes for new analgesic drugs. The LA drug binding site has been localized to the inner pore of the channel, where drugs interact mainly with a phenylalanine in domain IV S6. Drug affinity is both voltage- and use-dependent. Voltage-dependency is the result of changes in the conformation of the inner pore during channel activation and opening, allowing high energy interaction of drugs with the phenylalanine. LA drugs also reduce the gating current of Na channels, which represents the movement of charged residues in the voltage sensors. Specifically, drug binding to phenylalanine locks the domain III S4 in its outward (activated position, and slows recovery of the domain IV S4. Although strongly affecting gating, LA drugs almost certainly also block by steric occlusion of the pore. Molecular definition of the binding and blocking interactions may help in new drug development.

  1. Anesthetic Management of a Pediatric Patient with Arginase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Atım

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle in which a defect in conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine leads to hyperammonemia. Patients with urea cycle disorders may show increased protein catabolism due to inadequate intake of energy, protein and essential amino acids; infections, fever and surgery. A 12-year-old girl with arginase deficiency, ASA II who weighed 40 kg was scheduled for bilateral adductor, quadriceps and gastrocnemius tenotomies. She had mental retardation, spasticity and flexion posture of thelower limbs. Metabolic homeostasis was restored with appropriate diet. Successful anesthetic management allowed the patient to be discharged 48 hours after surgery. Increased levels of arginine and ammonia during or after surgery may lead to serious complications such as hypotension, cerebral edema, convulsions, hypothermia and spasticity. Thus special attention must be given to metabolic homeostasis and nutrition of the patients with arginase deficiency in the perioperative period. Primary goals should be to minimize stress levels by effective anxiolysis, provide an adequate amount of protein-free energy with proper fluid management and to obtain an effective preemptive and postoperative analgesia. In addition to a high level of knowledge, successful anesthesia requires professional communication among nursing staff, dietitians, pediatric metabolism specialist, surgeon and anesthesiologist.

  2. Extended duration local anesthetic agent in a rat paw model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowicz, D E; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Weiniger, C F

    2014-07-01

    Encapsulated local anesthetics extend postoperative analgesic effect following site-directed nerve injection; potentially reducing postoperative complications. Our study aim was to investigate efficacy of our improved extended duration formulation - 15% bupivacaine in poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 synthesized by ring opening polymerization. In vitro, around 70% of bupivacaine was released from the p(DLLA-CO) 3:7 after 10 days. A single injection of the optimal formulation of 15% bupivacaine-polymer or plain (0.5%) bupivacaine (control), was injected via a 22G needle beside the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia; followed (in some animals) by a 1cm longitudinal incision through the skin and fascia of the paw area. Behavioral tests for sensory and motor block assessment were done using Hargreave's hot plate score, von Frey filaments and rearing count. The 15% bupivacaine formulation significantly prolonged sensory block duration up to at least 48 h. Following surgery, motor block was observed for 48 h following administration of bupivacaine-polymer formulation and rearing was reduced (returning to baseline after 48 h). No significant differences in mechanical nociceptive response were observed. The optimized bupivacaine-polymer formulation prolonged duration of local anesthesia effect in our animal model up to at least 48 h. PMID:24726301

  3. Anterior and posterior tibial anesthetic block in diabetic foot surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio Ojeda González

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of high and increasing prevalence and its complications follow a parallel course. Its morbidity is derived from its own complications which are produced at a long or short term and peripheral vascular disease hihglights among them.Objective: to check the usefulness of the anterior and posterior blockade of the tibia for the surgery of the diabetic foot. Method: Prospective study carried out from January to December 2003 at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ to patients who are carriers of a diabetic foot and who were initially assisted at the service of Angiology and later at the service of Anesthesiology when the surgical procedures were decided. All the patients were applied an anterior and posterior blockade of the tibial nerve . The variables measured were: age, weight, height, surgical time, type of surgery, cardiac frequency medium arterial pressure, and classification of patients according to the American Association of Anesthesiology All the patients were applied a scale for assessing pain in three different moments.Result: There was a predominance of females . The blockade of the posterior tibial nerve with lidocaine 1 % in different points permitted the performance of the surgical techniques proposed. The anesthetic procedure was favorable, and economic since the patients did not requiere of the use of analgesic in the post operatory stage.

  4. Strategies for the prevention of asthmatic, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during the administration of anesthetics and/or contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, G; Lobefalo, G; Di Florio, E; Di Iorio, C; Occhiochiuso, L; Romano, L; Savoia, G; Massa, R M; D'Amato, G

    2008-01-01

    General anesthetics and contrast media can cause anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions. These events are of great concern to radiologists and anesthesiologists because of their relatively high prevalence, possible threat to life, and medical-legal consequences. Points discussed in this review are the critical evaluation of risk factors affecting prevention strategies, the need to be aware of pathogenic mechanisms relevant to prevention strategies, the use of alternative products if a culprit agent is known, the recognition of early signs of a reaction, the need to keep records of reactions on a patient's medical chart, the planning of prophylactic therapy, recommended actions after a reaction to an anesthetic or contrast medium, and the suggested establishment of allergy-anesthesiology centers to improve cooperation, and medical-legal issues. As any drug or contrast medium administered during general anesthesia or a diagnostic procedure can induce a potentially life-threatening or fatal event even in the absence of any evident risk factor in the patient's medical history or clinical status, we usually premedicate susceptible individuals at least to attenuate the severity of an unpredictable reaction, although we cannot rely on the efficacy of premedication to completely prevent a severe event. These recommendations, which are based on the literature and on the experience of our working group, aim to provide useful information for physicians and other specialists who operate in the absence of an allergy consultant. PMID:18361095

  5. The stress response and anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia for total Hip Replacement in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Tian, Chun; Li, Min; Peng, Ming-Qing; Ma, Kun-Long; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Ding, Jia-Hui; Cai, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Recently, some scholars suggested that it is important to keep a stablehemodynamic state and prevent the stress responses in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). We conducted this randomized prospective study to observe anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia and stress response to it in geriatric patients during THR. We compared the effect of unilateral spinal and bilateral spinal on inhibition of stress response through measuring Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and cortisol (CORT). Plasma concentrations of NE, E and CORT were determined in blood samples using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) at three time points: To (prior to anesthesia) T1 (at the time point of skin closure), T2 (twenty-four hours after the operation). Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (unilateral spinal anesthesia) and group B (conventional bilateral spinal anesthesia). 7.5tymg of hypobaric bupivacaine were injected into subarachnoid cavity at group A and 12mg hypobaric bupivacaine were given at group B. The onset time of sensory and motor block, loss of pinprick sensation, degree of motor block, regression of sensory and motor blocks and hemodynamic changes were also recorded. These data were used to evaluate anesthetic potency of spinal anesthesia. The results of this experiment show that unilateral spinal anesthesia can provide restriction of sensory and motor block, minimize the incidence of hypotension and prevent the stress responses undergoing THR. It is optimal anesthesia procedure for geriatric patients by rapid subarachnoid injection of small doses of bupivacaine.

  6. Anesthetic management of a child with autistic spectrum disorder and homocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disability of the central nervous system with rapid worsening. A subset of patients also has mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased sensitivity to various anesthetic agents. Rarely, gene mutation in these patients results in homocysteinemia which causes higher incidences of thromboembolism, hypoglycemia, and seizures. Anesthetic management of ASD with homocysteinemia and refractory seizures has not been previously reported.

  7. Cimethidine pre-anesthetic. A prophylactic method against Mendelson's syndrome in cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Storm, K

    1983-01-01

    Twenty patients undergoing cesarean section received cimethidine 400 mg intramuscularly as pre-anesthetic approximately 70 minutes prior to gastric aspiration. The average pH was 5.05, as against 2.97 in the control group (p less than 0.01). No significant reduction in the aspirated volumes...... in the infants. Hence, cimethidine is a safe and useful pre-anesthetic for patients undergoing cesarean section, irrespective of indication and, consequently, much to be preferred to oral antacids....

  8. Wound infiltration with local anesthetics for post-operative pain relief in lumbar spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, M; Møiniche, S; Olsen, K S

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery.......In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery....

  9. Precautionary practices for administering anesthetic gases: A survey of physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L

    2016-10-01

    Scavenging systems and administrative and work practice controls for minimizing occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases have been recommended for many years. Anesthetic gases and vapors that are released or leak out during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases. To better understand the extent recommended practices are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted in 2011 among members of professional practice organizations representing anesthesia care providers including physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, and anesthesiologist assistants. This national survey is the first to examine self-reported use of controls to minimize exposure to waste anesthetic gases among anesthesia care providers. The survey was completed by 1,783 nurse anesthetists, 1,104 physician anesthesiologists, and 100 anesthesiologist assistants who administered inhaled anesthetics in the seven days prior to the survey. Working in hospitals and outpatient surgical centers, respondents most often administered sevoflurane and, to a lesser extent desflurane and isoflurane, in combination with nitrous oxide. Use of scavenging systems was nearly universal, reported by 97% of respondents. However, adherence to other recommended practices was lacking to varying degrees and differed among those administering anesthetics to pediatric (P) or adult (A) patients. Examples of practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: using high (fresh gas) flow anesthesia only (17% P, 6% A), starting anesthetic gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (35% P; 14% A); not routinely checking anesthesia equipment for leaks (4% P, 5% A), and using a funnel-fill system to fill vaporizers (16%). Respondents also reported that facilities lacked safe handling procedures (19%) and hazard awareness training (18%). Adherence to precautionary work practices was generally highest among

  10. Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Greenhouse gases make the earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere and include: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Hazardous chemicals enter the air we breathe as a result of dozens of activities carried out during a typical day at a healthcare facility like processing lab samples, burning fossil fuels etc. We sometimes forget that anesthetic agents are also greenhouse gases (GHGs). Anesthetic agents used today are volatile halogenated ethers and the common carrier gas nitrous oxide known to be aggressive GHGs. With less than 5% of the total delivered halogenated anesthetic being metabolized by the patient, the vast majority of the anesthetic is routinely vented to the atmosphere through the operating room scavenging system. The global warming potential (GWP) of a halogenated anesthetic is up to 2,000 times greater than CO2. Global warming potentials are used to compare the strength of different GHGs to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to that of CO2. Here we discuss about the GWP of anesthetic gases, preventive measures to decrease the global warming effects of anesthetic gases and Xenon, a newer anesthetic gas for the future of anesthesia. PMID:25885293

  11. Anesthetic Management for Whole Lung Lavage in Patients with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zihui; Tan, Keng Tiong Jerry; Poopalalingam, Ruban

    2016-04-15

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of lipoproteinaceous materials in the bronchoalveolar tree. Whole lung lavage was introduced in the 1960s and remains a treatment of choice for PAP. The main anesthetic challenge of whole lung lavage is maintaining adequate oxygenation during the procedure. We describe 2 interesting patients with PAP, the anesthetic challenges faced during the lung lavage, and discuss the management strategies adopted in each case. PMID:26795910

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ANESTHETIC AQUI-S® 20E IN MARINE FINFISH AND ELASMOBRANCHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Constance; Yochem, Pamela

    2016-04-01

    Immersion anesthetics are used in hatchery settings by veterinarians, field biologists, and laboratory researchers to aid in handling finfish for medical procedures, research purposes, and moderating perceived stress responses. The only Food and Drug Administration- (FDA) approved anesthetic for food fish, tricaine methanesulfonate, requires a 21-d withdrawal period prior to harvest. Ten percent eugenol (AQUI-S® 20E) has been gaining momentum for FDA approval because of its 0-d withdrawal time if fish are not of harvestable size within 72 h of exposure. We performed two trials to determine appropriate anesthetic doses for two cultured marine finfish: Atractoscion nobilis (white seabass, WSB) and Seriola lalandi (California yellowtail, YT). Fish were held in a treated water bath for 10 min or until opercular beat rate slowed to a rate of <2 beats/min. Based on these results, we conducted a field trial with wild Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (spotted bay bass), Paralabrax nebulifer (barred sand bass), Paralichthys californicus (California halibut), Triakis semifasciata (leopard shark), and Mustelus californicus (grey smooth-hound) at a single dosing regime, with animals held 5-10 min in anesthetic baths. Anesthetic dosing of 35-55 mg L(-1) provided relatively fast induction and good anesthetic maintenance in cultured and wild finfish. Anesthetic induction times were comparable among S. lalandi and A. nobilis at 35-mg L(-1) to 75-mg L(-1) doses, but recovery times were variable. Mortality rates of 20-90% were observed at higher doses (75 mg L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1), A. nobilis; 55 mg L(-1) and 75 mg L(-1), S. lalandi). The apparent increase in sensitivity of S. lalandi may have been associated with nutritional stress in the fish tested. There were no differences in time to anesthesia or recovery among wild finfish species tested at a single dose. Anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery were less predictable in the elasmobranch species tested and additional

  13. Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Greenhouse gases make the earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere and include: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Hazardous chemicals enter the air we breathe as a result of dozens of activities carried out during a typical day at a healthcare facility like processing lab samples, burning fossil fuels etc. We sometimes forget that anesthetic agents are also greenhouse gases (GHGs). Anesthetic agents used today are volatile halogenated ethers and the common carrier gas nitrous oxide known to be aggressive GHGs. With less than 5% of the total delivered halogenated anesthetic being metabolized by the patient, the vast majority of the anesthetic is routinely vented to the atmosphere through the operating room scavenging system. The global warming potential (GWP) of a halogenated anesthetic is up to 2,000 times greater than CO2. Global warming potentials are used to compare the strength of different GHGs to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to that of CO2. Here we discuss about the GWP of anesthetic gases, preventive measures to decrease the global warming effects of anesthetic gases and Xenon, a newer anesthetic gas for the future of anesthesia.

  14. Mathematical method to build an empirical model for inhaled anesthetic agent wash-in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grouls René EJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wide range of fresh gas flow - vaporizer setting (FGF - FD combinations used by different anesthesiologists during the wash-in period of inhaled anesthetics indicates that the selection of FGF and FD is based on habit and personal experience. An empirical model could rationalize FGF - FD selection during wash-in. Methods During model derivation, 50 ASA PS I-II patients received desflurane in O2 with an ADU® anesthesia machine with a random combination of a fixed FGF - FD setting. The resulting course of the end-expired desflurane concentration (FA was modeled with Excel Solver, with patient age, height, and weight as covariates; NONMEM was used to check for parsimony. The resulting equation was solved for FD, and prospectively tested by having the formula calculate FD to be used by the anesthesiologist after randomly selecting a FGF, a target FA (FAt, and a specified time interval (1 - 5 min after turning on the vaporizer after which FAt had to be reached. The following targets were tested: desflurane FAt 3.5% after 3.5 min (n = 40, 5% after 5 min (n = 37, and 6% after 4.5 min (n = 37. Results Solving the equation derived during model development for FD yields FD=-(e(-FGF*-0.23+FGF*0.24*(e(FGF*-0.23*FAt*Ht*0.1-e(FGF*-0.23*FGF*2.55+40.46-e(FGF*-0.23*40.46+e(FGF*-0.23+Time/-4.08*40.46-e(Time/-4.08*40.46/((-1+e(FGF*0.24*(-1+e(Time/-4.08*39.29. Only height (Ht could be withheld as a significant covariate. Median performance error and median absolute performance error were -2.9 and 7.0% in the 3.5% after 3.5 min group, -3.4 and 11.4% in the 5% after 5 min group, and -16.2 and 16.2% in the 6% after 4.5 min groups, respectively. Conclusions An empirical model can be used to predict the FGF - FD combinations that attain a target end-expired anesthetic agent concentration with clinically acceptable accuracy within the first 5 min of the start of administration. The sequences are easily calculated in an Excel file and simple to

  15. Anesthetic induction and recovery of Hippocampus reidi exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Alves da Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the times of anesthetic induction and recovery in slender seahorses (Hippocampus reidi that were exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba (EO, as well as the efficacy of EO as a stress-reducing agent in the transport of this species. Slender seahorses were placed in 1-L aquaria containing different concentrations of EO (0, 10, 20, 50, 150, 300 and 450 µL L-1, and after induction, fish were transferred to aquaria that were free of anesthetic to evaluate their recovery time. In an additional experiment, slender seahorses were transported in plastic bags with 15 µL L-1 of EO for 4 or 24 h. The increased concentration of EO proportionally decreased the time required for the induction of anesthesia. EO treatment (15 µL L-1 inhibited the increase in blood glucose levels that was provoked by transportation for 4 or 24 h. Transportation for 24 h also decreased the number of lymphocytes and increased the neutrophil count, and these effects were avoided with the addition of EO to the water. These results demonstrate that EO was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 10-20 µL L-1 for slight sedation and transport and at 150 µL L-1 for deep anesthesia in the slender seahorse.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os tempos da indução e recuperação anestésica em cavalos marinhos (Hippocampus reidi expostos ao óleo essencial de Lippia alba (OE, assim como a eficácia do OE como um agente redutor de estresse no transporte desta espécie. Os cavalos marinhos foram colocados em aquários contendo 1 litro de água e diferentes concentrações de OE (0, 10, 20, 50, 150, 300 e 450 µL L-1, após a indução, os peixes foram transferidos à aquários livre de anestésico para avaliar o tempo de recuperação. Em um outro experimento os cavalos marinhos foram transportados em sacos plásticos contendo 15 µL L-1 do OE por 4 ou 24h. A concentração crescente do OE diminuiu proporcionalmente o tempo exigido

  16. The effect of peripheral resistance on impedance cardiography measurements in the anesthetized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Lester A H; Peng, Zhi Y; Fok, Benny S; James, Anthony E

    2005-06-01

    In the vasodilated and septic patient, the impedance method of measuring cardiac output (CO) may underestimate the true value. In this study, we sought to determine whether impedance CO (COIC) measurements are influenced by total peripheral resistance (TPR). In eight anesthetized and ventilated dogs, a high-precision flowprobe was placed on the ascending aorta, and direct CO was measured (CO flowprobe (COFP)). Mean arterial blood pressure was measured from the femoral artery. Simultaneous COIC measurements were made. TPR (mean arterial blood pressure x 80/COFP) was varied over 1-2 h by using infusions of phenylephrine and adrenaline and inhaled halothane. The bias between methods of CO measurement (COIC-COFP) was calculated and compared with TPR by using correlation and regression analysis. A total of 547 pairs of CO measurements were collected from the 8 dogs as TPR was varied. COFP changed by a mean of 190% (range, 89%-425%), and TPR changed by a mean of 266% (range, 94%-580%) during the experiment. The impedance method underestimated CO when TPR was low and overestimated CO when TPR was high. There was a logarithmic relationship between the CO bias and TPR. Correlation coefficients (r) between the CO bias and TPR ranged from 0.46 to 0.89 (P TPR halved or doubled. This finding explains the poor agreement between COIC and other methods of CO measurement found in validation studies involving critically ill patients.

  17. Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack A Loeppky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The ventilation ( response to inspired CO 2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims : These experiments were performed to determine whether would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods : We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO 2 -balance O 2 .and to 0 and 10% O 2 -balance N 2 . Results : The time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01, but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double at 100% CO 2 , with the response to 0% O 2 being ~3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR, increased tidal volume (VT and increased the time delay by ~3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and , and reduced the response to CO 2 and increased the time delay by ~12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO 2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions : Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H + and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO 2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies.

  18. From micro- to nanostructured implantable device for local anesthetic delivery

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    Zorzetto L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laura Zorzetto,1 Paola Brambilla,1 Elena Marcello,1 Nora Bloise,2 Manuela De Gregori,3 Lorenzo Cobianchi,4,5 Andrea Peloso,4,5 Massimo Allegri,6 Livia Visai,2,7 Paola Petrini1 1Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering ‘G. Natta’, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Centre for Health Technologies (CHT, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, 3Pain Therapy Service, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo Pavia, Pavia, 4General Surgery Department, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 5Departments of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 6Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, 7Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Lab of Nanotechnology, Pavia, Italy Abstract: Local anesthetics block the transmission of painful stimuli to the brain by acting on ion channels of nociceptor fibers, and find application in the management of acute and chronic pain. Despite the key role they play in modern medicine, their cardio and neurotoxicity (together with their short half-life stress the need for developing implantable devices for tailored local drug release, with the aim of counterbalancing their side effects and prolonging their pharmacological activity. This review discusses the evolution of the physical forms of local anesthetic delivery systems during the past decades. Depending on the use of different biocompatible materials (degradable polyesters, thermosensitive hydrogels, and liposomes and hydrogels from natural polymers and manufacturing processes, these systems can be classified as films or micro- or nanostructured devices. We analyze and summarize the production techniques according to this classification, focusing on their relative advantages and disadvantages. The most relevant trend reported in this work highlights the effort of moving from microstructured

  19. Chromosomal instability associated with a novel BLM frameshift mutation (c.1980-1982delAA) in two unrelated Tunisian families with Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, G; Salem, I Hadj; Masmoudi, A; Ben Rhouma, B; Turki, H; Fakhfakh, F; Ayadi, H; Kamoun, H

    2014-10-01

    The Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with dwarfism, immunodeficiency, reduced fertility and cancer risk. BS cells show genomic instability, particularly an hyper exchange between the sister chromatids due to a defective processing of the DNA replication intermediates. It is caused by mutations in the BLM gene which encodes a member of the RecQ family of DExH box DNA helicases. In this study, we reported cytogenetic, BLM linkage and mutational analyses for two affected Tunisian families. The Cytogenetic parameters were performed by chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays and results showed a significant increase in mean frequency of CA and SCE in BS cells. BLM linkage performed by microsatellite genotyping revealed homozygous haplotypes for the BS patients, evidence of linkage to BLM gene. Mutational analysis by direct DNA sequencing revealed a novel frameshift mutation (c.1980-1982delAA) in exon 8 of BLM gene, resulting in a truncated protein (p.Lys662fsX5). The truncated protein could explain genomic instability and its related symptoms in the BS patients. The screening of this mutation is useful for BS diagnosis confirmation in Tunisian families.

  20. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

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    Anastazja Grabarz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ. BLM represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1 protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2 promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid unscheduled resection that might jeopardize genome integrity.

  1. Anesthetic management in a patient with Kindler′s syndrome

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    Sohan Lal Solanki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male with pan-anterior urethral stricture was scheduled to undergo perineal urethrostomy. He was a known case of Kindler′s syndrome since infancy. He was having a history of blister formation, extensive poikiloderma and progressive cutaneous atrophy since childhood. He had a tendency of trauma-induced blisters with clear or hemorrhagic contents that healed with scarring. The fingers were sclerodermiform with dystrophic nails and inability to completely clench the fist. Airway examination revealed thyromental distance of 7 cm with limited neck extension, limited mouth opening and mallampatti class III with a fixed large tongue. He was reported as grade IV Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic on previous anesthesia exposure. We described the anesthetic management of such case on guidelines for epidermolysis bullosa. In the operating room, an 18-G cannula was secured in the right upper limb using Coban TM Wrap. The T-piece of the cannula was than inserted into the slit and the tape was wrapped around the extremity. The ECG electrodes were placed on the limbs and fixed with Coban TM . Noninvasive blood pressure cuff was applied over the wrap after wrapping the arm with Webril® cotton. Oral fiberoptic tracheal intubation was done after lubricating the laryngoscope generously with a water-based lubricant with 7-mm endotracheal tube. Surgery proceeded without any complication. After reversing the residual neuromuscular block, trachea was extubated once the patient became awake. He was kept in the postanesthesia care unit for 2 hours and then shifted to urology ward.

  2. Capsaicin facilitates carotid sinus baroreceptor activity in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZHANG; Yi-xianLIU; Yu-mingWU; Ze-minWANG; Rui-rongHE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of capsaicin on carotid sinus baroreceptor activity (CBA). METHODS: The functional curve of carotid baroreceptor (FCCB) was constructed and the functional parameters of carotid sinus baroreceptor were measured by recording sinus nerve afferent discharge in anesthetized rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. RESULTS: Low-concentration of capsaicin (0.2μmol/L) had no significant effect on CBA, while perfusion of the isolated carotid sinus with middle-concentration of capsaicin (1μmol/L) could shift FCCB to the left and upward,with peak slope (PS) increased from (2.47%±0.14%)/mmHg to (2.88%±0.10%)/mmHg (P<0.05) and peak integral value of carotid sinus nerve discharge (PIV) enhanced from 211%±5% to 238%±6% (P<0.01). The threshold pressure (TP) and saturation pressure (SP) were significantly decreased from 68.0±1.1 to 62.7±1.0mmHg (P<0.01) and from 171.0±1.6 to 165.0±0.6 mmHg (P<0.01). By perfusing with high-concentration of capsaicin (5μmol/L), FCCB was shifted to the left and upward further and the changes of the functional parameters such as PS, TP, and SP were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with ruthenium red (100μmol/L), an antagonist of vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), blocked the effect of capsaicin on CBA. Preperfusion with glibenclamide(20μmol/L), a KATP channel blocker, could eliminate the effect of capsaicin on CBA. CONCLUSION: Capsaicin exerts a facilitatory role on the isolated carotid baroreceptor in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory action of capsaicin may be attributed to the opening of KATP channels mediated by VR1.

  3. Capsaicin facilitates carotid sinus baroreceptor activity in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHANG; Yi-xian LIU; Yu-ming WU; Ze-min WANG; Rui-rong HE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of capsaicin on carotid sinus baroreceptor activity (CBA). METHODS: The functional curve of carotid baroreceptor (FCCB) was constructed and the functional parameters of carotid sinus baroreceptor were measured by recording sinus nerve afferent discharge in anesthetized rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus.RESULTS: Low-concentration of capsaicin (0.2 μmol/L) had no significant effect on CBA, while perfusion of the isolated carotid sinus with middle-concentration of capsaicin (1 μmol/L) could shift FCCB to the left and upward,with peak slope (PS) increased from (2.47 %±0.14 %)/mmHg to (2.88 %±0.10 %)/mmHg (P<0.05) and peak integral value of carotid sinus nerve discharge (PIV) enhanced from 211%±5 % to 238 %±6 % (P<0.01). The threshold pressure (TP) and saturation pressure (SP) were significantly decreased from 68.0±1.1 to 62.7±1.0mmHg (P<0.01) and from 171.0±1.6 to 165.0±0.6 mmHg (P<0.01). By perfusing with high-concentration of capsaicin (5 μmol/L), FCCB was shifted to the left and upward further and the changes of the functional parameters such as PS, TP, and SP were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with ruthenium red (100 μmol/L), an antagonist of vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), blocked the effect of capsaicin on CBA. Preperfusion with glibenclamide(20 μmol/L), a KATp channel blocker, could eliminate the effect of capsaicin on CBA. CONCLUSION: Capsaicin exerts a facilitatory role on the isolated carotid baroreceptor in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory action of capsaicin may be attributed to the opening of KATP channels mediated by VR1.

  4. Pain and efficacy of local anesthetics for central venous access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Culp Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available William C Culp Jr1, Mohammed Yousaf2, Benjamin Lowry1, Timothy C McCowan3, William C Culp21Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Scott and White Hospital, The Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, TX, USA; 2Division of Interventional Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAPurpose: To compare pain during injection and efficacy of analgesia of local anesthetics during central venous line placement.Methods: Sixty-two patients were studied in a randomized, double-blinded prospective fashion. Patients received 1% lidocaine (L, buffered 1% lidocaine (LB, or 2% chloroprocaine (CP injected around the internal jugular vein for procedural analgesia for central venous access. Patients reported pain via a standard linear visual analog scale, with 0 representing no pain and 10 being the worst pain imaginable.Results: Overall patient perception of pain was better with CP and L than LB with mean scores of CP 2.4, L 2.6, LB 4.2. Pain with injection mean scores were CP 2.1, L 2.5, LB 3.2. Pain with catheter placement scores were CP 2.5, L 1.7, LB 3.4. Operator assessment of overall pain values were CP 1.9, L 2.2, LB 3.4. LB consistently scored the worst, though compared with CP, this only reached statistical significance in overall patient pain and pain at catheter insertion compared with L.Conclusion: Though chloroprocaine scored better than lidocaine in 3 of 4 parameters, this trend did not achieve statistical significance. Adding sodium bicarbonate to lidocaine isn’t justified in routine practice, nor is routine replacement of lidocaine with chloroprocaine.Keywords: local anesthesia, analgesia, central venous access, lidocaine, chloroprocaine

  5. Magnesium sulfate inhibits sufentanil-induced cough during anesthetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Li-Jun; Gui, Bo; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sufentanil-induced cough is a common phenomenon during the induction of anesthesia. This double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of prophylactic magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the incidence and severity of sufentanil-induced cough. A total of 165 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were allocated into three groups (I, II, and III; n = 55 each) that were injected with either 50 ml of normal saline, 30 or 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 (diluted with normal saline into 50 ml). One minute following the injection, all patients were injected with 1.0 μg/kg of sufentanil within 5 s. The incidence and severity of cough were recorded 30 s after the sufentanil injection. The hemodynamic parameters and plasma magnesium concentration of the patients were also noted. Three patients dropped out the study due to an obvious burning sensation during the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4. Although the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium level, the increase remained within the therapeutic range (2-4 mmol/L). The incidence of cough was much higher in group I than in groups II and III (47.1% vs. 16.4% and 7.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Compared with group I, group III had the lowest incidence of mild cough and both groups II and III had lower incidence of moderate and severe cough (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the hemodynamic data at three timepoints among the three groups. In conclusion, sufentanil-induced cough may be suppressed effectively and safely by prophylactic use of 30 mg/kg of MgSO4 during anesthetic induction. PMID:26550339

  6. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  7. In-vivo imaging of stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals correlated with retinal activation in anesthetized frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Yang-Guo

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOS) promises a noninvasive method for high resolution examination of retinal function. Using freshly isolated animal retinas, we have conducted a series of experiments to test fast IOSs which have time courses comparable to electrophysiological kinetics. In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo imaging of fast IOSs correlated with retinal activation in anesthetized frog (Rana Pipiens). A rapid (68,000 lines/s) line-scan confocal ophthalmoscope was constructed to achieve high-speed (200 frames/s) near infared (NIR) recording of fast IOSs. By rejecting out-of-focus background light, the line-scan confocal imager provided enough resolution to differentiate individual photoreceptors in vivo. With visible light stimulation, NIR confocal images disclosed transient IOSs with time courses comparable to retinal ERG kinetics. High-resolution IOS images revealed both positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) light responses, with sub-cellular complexity, in the activated retina.

  8. Comparative effects of different anesthetic regimens on the oculocardiac reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oculocardiac reflex (OCR, which is most oftenencountered during strabismus surgery in children, may cause bradycardia,arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest following a variety of stimuli arising in ornear the eyeball. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects ofvarious anesthetic regimens on modulation of the cardiovascular response of theOCR during strabismus surgery.Patients and Methods: Three hundred American Society of Anesthesia (ASAphysical status I-II patients, scheduled for elective strabismus surgery undergeneral anesthesia, randomly allocated in a double blind fashion to one of threeanesthetic regimens of group P ( propofol 2 mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, andatracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction , group K (ketamine racemate 2mg/kg,alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction and group T(thiopental 5mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg atinduction. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded justbefore and at 1, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after induction. OCR was defined as a 20beats/min change in HR induced by traction compared with basal value.Results: Mean heart rate (± SD during the course of surgery in group Pwas significantly slower than in the K group (111.90 ± 1.10 vs. 116.7 ± 0.70respectively, P<0.05 .Mean HR changes (± SD in group K was significantlyhigher than in P group (11.2 ± 1.44 vs. 8.7 ± 1.50 respectively, P<0.05. Meanarterial pressure changes (± SD were significantly lower in group P than ingroup K or T patients (12.5 ± 1.13 vs. 19.3±0.80 or 18.9±0.91 respectively,P<0.05. Frequency of OCR was significantly lower in group K than group T or Ppatients (9% vs. 16% or 13% respectively, P<0.05.Conclusion: Induction of anesthesia with ketamine is associated withleast cardiovascular changes induced by OCR during strabismus surgery.

  9. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  10. Advanced Pre-clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eWang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.

  11. [Anesthetic circle system failure caused by a plastic film--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Naoki; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Minami, Toshiaki

    2006-02-01

    A 44-year-old woman, ASA I, with breast cancer was scheduled for mastectomy. The anesthetic induction was performed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane and 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen. After the loss of eyelash reflex assisted ventilation was initiated. At this point, the capnograph indicated inspired carbon dioxide tension of 18mmHg. Anesthetic machine check was soon carried out again. A visual check of non-return valves detected a plastic film, 18 x 21mm large, caught in the expiratory valve. This plastic film impaired complete occlusion of the orifice for the expiratory gas flow. As a result, the patient was rebreathing carbon dioxide. After removing it, the wave form of the capnograph was normalized and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension decreased immediately from 45mmHg to 33mmHg. As we did not detect any foreign matters at the non-return valves on anesthetic machine check before use, the plastic film might have already existed in the disposable corrugated tube before use. The capnograph is a useful device for detecting anesthetic circle system failure in such a case. It is important that the patients' airway is separated from the anesthetic circle system through the use of a filter to prevent foreign matter from being inhaled. PMID:16491902

  12. Investigation of the transdermal transport of charged local anesthetics in the presence of triterpene saponin glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Christopher J; Scherer, Michael A; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-04-01

    Percutaneous absorption and transdermal delivery of water-soluble drugs have proven to be challenging due to their low permeability through skin. Avicins which are triterpene saponin glycosides (TSGs) derived from the desert plant Acacia victoriae have not been investigated to date as chemical penetration enhancers due to their higher molecular weight (MW 2,000 Da). It was recently shown that avicins exhibit remarkable mobility across skin lipids in spite of their large size due to their unique chemical structure. In this study, the permeation of local anesthetics, lidocaine-HCl, prilocaine-HCl, and bupivacaine-HCL from aqueous vehicle, across full-thickness porcine skin was investigated in the presence of F094-a mixture of avicins. F094 was capable of enhancing the permeability of all three anesthetics from aqueous formulations at extremely low concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 % w/v. The enhancement, which ranged from 2- to 5-fold, was surprisingly independent of molecular weight of the anesthetics and showed clear correlation with aqueous phase solubility of the anesthetics. Since F094 was found to have no impact on the octanol/water partition coefficients of the anesthetics, this suggests that TSGs like avicins most likely impact the aqueous pathways (pericellular/pores within lipids) and as such represent an alternative means of enhancing the transdermal transport of charged drugs from water-based formulations. PMID:25786727

  13. History of T-cain: a local anesthetic developed and manufactured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Masaru; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    In many anesthesia textbooks written in English, lidocaine, tetracaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and chloroprocaine are listed as useful local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia. In contrast, T-cain is not included in these lists, even though it has been reported to be suitable for spinal anesthesia in Japan. T-cain was developed as a local anesthetic in the early 1940s by Teikoku Kagaku Sangyo Inc. in Itami, Japan, by replacing a methyl group on tetracaine (Pantocaine(®)) with an ethyl group. T-cain was clinically approved for topical use in Japan in November 1949, and a mixture of dibucaine and T-cain (Neo-Percamin S(®)) was approved for spinal use in May 1950. Simply because of a lack of foreign marketing strategy, T-cain has never attracted global attention as a local anesthetic. However, in Japan, T-cain has been used topically or intrathecally (as Neo-Percamin S(®)) for more than 60 years. Other than the side effects generally known for all local anesthetics, serious side effects have not been reported for T-cain. In fact, several articles have reported that T-cain decreases the neurotoxicity of dibucaine. In this historical review, the characteristics of T-cain and its rise to become a major spinal anesthetic in Japan are discussed. PMID:26302690

  14. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    Lenise de Lima Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  15. Recognition of anesthetic barbiturates by a protein binding site: a high resolution structural analysis.

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    Simon Oakley

    Full Text Available Barbiturates potentiate GABA actions at the GABA(A receptor and act as central nervous system depressants that can induce effects ranging from sedation to general anesthesia. No structural information has been available about how barbiturates are recognized by their protein targets. For this reason, we tested whether these drugs were able to bind specifically to horse spleen apoferritin, a model protein that has previously been shown to bind many anesthetic agents with affinities that are closely correlated with anesthetic potency. Thiopental, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital were all found to bind to apoferritin with affinities ranging from 10-500 µM, approximately matching the concentrations required to produce anesthetic and GABAergic responses. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the complexes of apoferritin with thiopental and pentobarbital at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the barbiturates bind to a cavity in the apoferritin shell that also binds haloalkanes, halogenated ethers, and propofol. Unlike these other general anesthetics, however, which rely entirely upon van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic effect for recognition, the barbiturates are recognized in the apoferritin site using a mixture of both polar and nonpolar interactions. These results suggest that any protein binding site that is able to recognize and respond to the chemically and structurally diverse set of compounds used as general anesthetics is likely to include a versatile mixture of both polar and hydrophobic elements.

  16. Common Internal Allosteric Network Links Anesthetic Binding Sites in a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Thomas T; Mincer, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics bind reversibly to ion channels, modifying their global conformational distributions, but the underlying atomic mechanisms are not completely known. We examine this issue by way of the model protein Gloeobacter violaceous ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) using computational molecular dynamics, with a coarse-grained model to enhance sampling. We find that in flooding simulations, both propofol and a generic particle localize to the crystallographic transmembrane anesthetic binding region, and that propofol also localizes to an extracellular region shared with the crystallographic ketamine binding site. Subsequent simulations to probe these binding modes in greater detail demonstrate that ligand binding induces structural asymmetry in GLIC. Consequently, we employ residue interaction correlation analysis to describe the internal allosteric network underlying the coupling of ligand and distant effector sites necessary for conformational change. Overall, the results suggest that the same allosteric network may underlie the actions of various anesthetics, regardless of binding site. PMID:27403526

  17. Effects of a standardized anesthetic protocol on hematologic variables in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Epp, Tasha Y; Taylor, Susan M; Carr, Anthony P; Dickinson, Ryan M; Leis, Marina L

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an anesthetic protocol using intravenous ketamine and midazolam, and intramuscular buprenorphine on hematologic variables in cats. Twelve healthy adult cats had blood collected for a complete blood count before and after the induction of anesthesia. There were significant decreases in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits after the induction of anesthesia. On average, red blood cell counts and hematocrits decreased by 25%, and hemoglobin concentrations decreased by 24%. Based on hematocrit, 3/12 samples (25%) taken while the cats were anesthetized would have been interpreted as belonging to anemic patients while none of the cats would have been considered anemic before anesthesia. This study suggests that a complete blood count performed on blood taken under anesthesia with this anesthetic protocol should be interpreted cautiously in order to not make a false diagnosis of anemia. PMID:22577050

  18. Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshita, Naohiro; Oka, Saeko; Tsuji, Kaname; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Morita, Shosuke; Momota, Yoshihiro; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and motor-sensory disorders in all 4 limbs. Most reports have indicated that major challenges with general anesthetic administration in CMTD patients are the appropriate use of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and preparation for malignant hyperthermia in neuromuscular disease. Moderate sedation may be associated with the same complications as those of general anesthesia, as well as dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, reduced perioperative respiratory function, difficulty in positioning, and sensitivity to intravenous anesthetic agents. We decided to use intravenous sedation in a CMTD patient and administered midazolam initially and propofol continuously, with total doses of 1.5 mg and 300 mg, respectively. Anesthesia was completed in 3 hours and 30 minutes without adverse events. We suggest that dental anesthetic treatment with propofol and midazolam may be effective for patients with CMTD.

  19. Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshita, Naohiro; Oka, Saeko; Tsuji, Kaname; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Morita, Shosuke; Momota, Yoshihiro; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and motor-sensory disorders in all 4 limbs. Most reports have indicated that major challenges with general anesthetic administration in CMTD patients are the appropriate use of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and preparation for malignant hyperthermia in neuromuscular disease. Moderate sedation may be associated with the same complications as those of general anesthesia, as well as dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, reduced perioperative respiratory function, difficulty in positioning, and sensitivity to intravenous anesthetic agents. We decided to use intravenous sedation in a CMTD patient and administered midazolam initially and propofol continuously, with total doses of 1.5 mg and 300 mg, respectively. Anesthesia was completed in 3 hours and 30 minutes without adverse events. We suggest that dental anesthetic treatment with propofol and midazolam may be effective for patients with CMTD. PMID:27269665

  20. A high-throughput approach for identification of novel general anesthetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A Lea

    Full Text Available Anesthetic development has been a largely empirical process. Recently, we described a GABAergic mimetic model system for anesthetic binding, based on apoferritin and an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe. Here, a competition assay based on 1-aminoanthracene and apoferritin has been taken to a high throughput screening level, and validated using the LOPAC(1280 library of drug-like compounds. A raw hit rate of approximately 15% was reduced through the use of computational filters to yield an overall hit rate of approximately 1%. These hits were validated using isothermal titration calorimetry. The success of this initial screen and computational triage provides feasibility to undergo a large scale campaign to discover novel general anesthetics.

  1. Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cosimo; Kasaciunaite, Kristina; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Human DNA2 (hDNA2) contains both a helicase and a nuclease domain within the same polypeptide. The nuclease of hDNA2 is involved in a variety of DNA metabolic processes. Little is known about the role of the hDNA2 helicase. Using bulk and single-molecule approaches, we show that hDNA2 is a processive helicase capable of unwinding kilobases of dsDNA in length. The nuclease activity prevents the engagement of the helicase by competing for the same substrate, hence prominent DNA unwinding by hDNA2 alone can only be observed using the nuclease-deficient variant. We show that the helicase of hDNA2 functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases to promote dsDNA degradation by forming a heterodimeric molecular machine. This collectively suggests that the hDNA2 motor promotes the enzyme's capacity to degrade dsDNA in conjunction with BLM or WRN and thus promote the repair of broken DNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18574.001 PMID:27612385

  2. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  3. New procedure to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their interaction with local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocanu A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Mocanu,1 Roxana Diana Pasca,1 Gheorghe Tomoaia,2 Corina Garbo,1 Petre T Frangopol,1 Ossi Horovitz,1 Maria Tomoaia-Cotisel11Chemical Engineering Department, Babes-Bolyai University, 2Orthopedic Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were prepared in aqueous colloid dispersions by the reduction of Ag+ with glucose in alkaline medium. Tetraethyl orthosilicate and l-asparagine were added as stabilizers of NPs. The AgNPs were characterized, and their interaction with three local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, or tetracaine was investigated. Optical spectra show the characteristic absorption band of AgNPs, due to surface plasmon resonance. Modifications in the position and shape of this band reflect the self-assembly of metal NPs mediated by anesthetic molecules and the progress in time of the aggregation process. Zeta-potential measuring was applied in order to characterize the electrostatic stability of the NPs. The size and shape of the AgNPs, as well as the features of the assemblies formed by their association in the presence of anesthetics, were evidenced by transmission electron microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy images showed the characteristics of the films of AgNPs deposited on glass support. The effect of the anesthetics could be described in terms of electrostatic forces between the negatively charged AgNPs and the anesthetic molecules, existing also in their cationic form at the working pH. But also hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the coated nanoparticles and anesthetics molecular species should be considered.Keywords: self-assembled nanostructures, UV-vis spectra, TEM, AFM, zeta potential

  4. Development of three Drosophila melanogaster strains with different sensitivity to volatile anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin; HU Zhao-yang; YE Qi-quan; DAI Shuo-hua

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of action for volatile anesthetics remain unknown for centuries partly owing to the insufficient or ineffective research models. We designed this study to develop three strains derived from a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster with different sensitivities to volatile anesthetics, which may ultimately facilitate molecular and genetic studies of the mechanism involved.Methods Median effective doses (ED50) of sevoflurane in seven-day-old virgin female and male wild-type Drosophila melanogaster were determined. The sensitive males and females of percentile 6-10 were cultured for breeding sensitive offspring (S1). So did median ones of percentile 48-52 for breeding median offspring (M1), resistant ones of percentile 91-95 for breeding resistant offspring (R1). Process was repeated through 31 generations, in the 37th generation, S37,M37 and R37 were used to determine ED50 for enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane,chloroform and trichloroethylene, then ED50 values were correlated with minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values in human.Results From a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster we were able to breed three strains with high, median and low sevoflurane requirements. The ratio of sevoflurane requirements of three strains were 1.20:1.00:0.53 for females and 1.22:1.00:0.72 for males. Strains sensitive, median and resistant to sevoflurane were also sensitive, median and resistant to other volatile anesthetics. For eight anesthetics, ED50 values in three strains correlated directly with MAC values in human.Conclusions Three Drosophila me/anogaster strains with high, median and low sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, but with same hereditary background were developed. The ED50 are directly correlated with MAC in human for eight volatile anesthetics.

  5. Myocardial perfusion of infarcted and normal myocardium in propofol-anesthetized minipigs using 82Rubidium PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Larsen, Bjarke Follin; Kastrup, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    challenges. Animals, which have been anesthetized during PET acquisition, might react differently to used stress medications, and therefore difficulties might exist while evaluating the resulting PET images using standard software packages from commercial vendors optimized for human hearts. Furthermore...... propofol, used for anesthesia, can influence myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve due to its vasorelaxant effect, and interactions might exist between propofol and used stress agents, potentially affecting the result of the examination. We present cardiac 82Rb-PET studies performed in propofol-anesthetized...

  6. Algorithmic complexity as an index of cortical function in awake and pentobarbital-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, F Z; Chen, R F; Tsao, H W; Yen, C T

    1999-11-15

    This study introduces algorithmic complexity to measure characteristics of brain functions. The EEG of the rat was recorded with implanted electrodes. The normalized complexity value was relatively independent of data length, and it showed a simpler and easier calculation characteristic than other non-linear indexes. The complexity index revealed significant differences among awake, asleep, and anesthetized states. It may be useful in tracking short-term and long-term changes in brain functions, such as anesthetized depth, drug effects, or sleep-wakefulness.

  7. Use of anesthetic arthrography in the identification of the source of chronic posttraumatic hindfoot disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective anesthetic arthrography was performed in 18 patients to define precisely the source of chronic posttraumatic hindfoot pain. A solution composed of local anesthetic and iodinated contrast material was injected into the hindfoot articulations, and the clinical response was determined. Although there was close correlation between pain relief and abnormalities depicted with both routine radiography and CT, both imaging methods tended to underestimate the severity of articular involvement, and plain film findings in five patients were misleading as to the site of pain origin. Long-term follow-up evaluation in nine patients who underwent arthrodesis on the basis of arthrographic findings indicated satisfactory results in eight

  8. Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack A. Loeppky

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ventilation (IV response to inspired CO2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims: These experiments were performed to determine whether I V  would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods: We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO2-balance O2.and to 0 and 10% O2-balance N2. Results: The I V  time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01, but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double I V  at 100% CO2, with the response to 0% O2 being 3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR, increased tidal volume (VT and increased the time delay by 3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and I V  , and reduced the response to CO2 and increased the time delay by 12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the I V  response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions: Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H+ and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies.

  9. Effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails

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    Wang Tianshan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly-used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.

  10. Evaluation of the community structure of a rockpool fish assemblage from Peniche (Portugal using clove oil as an anesthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mattioli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to provide the first scientific data of the intertidal ichthyofauna community of Peniche. In order to have an accurate assessment, anesthetics were used, since this method is more effective than visual census. Therefore, the ideal concentration of clove oil to be used as anesthetics for local rock pool fish was tested. Through laboratory experiments with some of the most common species in the area, the concentration 30 mg.L-1was considered ideal. A total of 4 rockpools were sampled between May and July 2012, in two different locations (2 in Praia da Gamboa and 2 in Portinho da Areia Norte, in Peniche (West of Portugal. A total of 508 fishes belonging to 17 different species were registered. Fish abundance, occurrence frequencies and sizes were registered and compared for the two beaches and for the respective tide pools. The most abundant species was Gobius n.sp. while the most frequent was Gobius paganellus. These two species represent 59.1% of all captured species. Praia da Gamboa was the location with the highest abundance of individuals while Portinho da Areia Norte was the location where larger individuals were collected. It was observed that the size of rockpools affects abundance and density of individuals. Substrate, number and type of shelters also affect density, abundance and the mean size of individuals. Considering the studies focusing on intertidal ichthyofauna worldwide are relatively scarce, and being this ecosystem absolutely crucial both for biological but also socio-economic reasons worldwide, a better understanding of this unique ecosystem is mandatory, so it is possible to understand it, in order to preserve it.

  11. Local anesthesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a study comparing eutetic mixture of local anesthetics cream and lidocaine infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Miskowiak, J; Mogensen, P;

    1992-01-01

    A study of the anesthetic efficacy of a eutetic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA cream) versus lidocaine infiltration in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was done. A total of 46 patients had 30 gm. of EMLA cream applied to the skin over the kidney and 45 had subcutaneous infiltration...

  12. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Soliz; Jeffrey Lim; Gang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  13. Isoflurane anesthetic hypersensitivity and progressive respiratory depression in a mouse model with isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.; Manjeri, G.R.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Driessen, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with mitochondrial disorders are frequently anesthetized for a wide range of operations. These disorders may interfere with the response to surgery and anesthesia. We examined anesthetic sensitivity to and respiratory effects of isoflurane in the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse model

  14. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Soliz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  15. The application of a non-linear analysis technique to the monitoring of anesthetic effects in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, P.L.C. van den; Egmond, J. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Dirksen, R.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2000-01-01

    To find a new measure from the EEG that quantifies the effects of anesthetics during surgery, the correlation dimension (CD) of the EEG of eight rats was estimated. To get informed about the anesthetic state, the noxious induced withdrawal reflex (NIWR) was measured, i.e. the force elicited by trans

  16. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices will be changing from 2370 South 2300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119-2022, to 2370 South...

  17. Local anesthetics after total knee arthroplasty: intraarticular or extraarticular administration? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Kristensen, B.B.; Husted, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-volume local infiltration analgesia with additional intraarticular and wound administration of local anesthetic has been shown to be effective after knee replacement, but the optimum site of administration of the local anesthetic (i.e. intraarticular or extraarticular) has not been...... or to receive 20 mL ropivacaine (0.2%) intraarticularly plus 30 mL ropivacaine (0.2%) in the extraarticular wound space 24 hours postoperatively. Pain intensity at rest and with mobilization was recorded for 4 hours after administration of additional local anesthetics. RESULTS: Intensity of pain at rest, during...... flexion, or straight leg lift was not statistically significantly different between the two groups, but there was a tendency of improved analgesia with administration of additional local anesthetic in the extraarticular wound space. INTERPRETATION: The optimal site of administration of local anesthetic...

  18. Anesthetic experience of an adult patient with an unrecognized tracheal bronchus -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yong Seon; Kwak, Young Lan; Choi, Hong Gyu; Oh, Se Young; Lee, Jong Wha

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of problematic tracheal intubation in an adult patient with an unrecognized tracheal bronchus. Immediately after tracheal intubation and position change to prone, bilateral breath sounds were almost absent, and there was a diminished tidal volume. In order to resolve the ventilatory difficulty, the wire-reinforced tube was replaced with a conventional tube, and proper positioning of the tube was completed under fiberoptic guidance. A tracheal bronchus (originating about 1.2 ...

  19. Anesthetic experience of patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Doyeon; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Chung Su; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare primary genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent trabeculation of the left ventricular wall and intertrabecular recesses. Perioperative management of the patient with LVNC might be challenging due to the clinical symptoms of heart failure, systemic thromboembolic events, and fatal left ventricular arrhythmias. We conducted real time intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with LVNC undergoing general anesth...

  20. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites, BLM lands, upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the Upper Animas River watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and metal concentrations below mines or dumps. Information on sites previously identified as needing reclamation is reviewed and available geochemical information is used to rank 26 sites into four classes of priority for reclamation. Although there are more than a thousand mining sites (productive mines and prospects) on BLM lands in the Upper Animas River watershed study area, the majority are very small (less than about 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. In the summers of 1997 and 1998 approximately 200 sites were observed and more than 100 of these that appeared to have the potential to geochemically impact the watershed were examined more carefully and sampled. Building upon the prior work of the BLM and associated agencies, this work attempted to identify the most significant sources of mine-related contamination and to rank those sites as to priority for reclamation. These most significant mining areas have been examined within a geologic framework and were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid and release toxic metals, observed damage to vegetation, potential to release metals based on leach tests, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. No single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, can be used to rank the sites. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations or interactions among several parameters. The most subjective estimate, while ranking

  1. A randomized trial of anesthetic induction agents in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Raveen

    2010-01-01

    venous pressure and stroke volume variation (SVV during induction and intubation, while the effects on the systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI were variable. The midazolam group was the most effective in preventing intubation stress (tachycardia,hypertension. The change from baseline values in heart rate (+ 4%, P = 0.12 and mean arterial pressure (-1%, P = 0.77 after intubation were not statistically significant in the midazolam group. The etomidate group was the least effective of all the four groups in minimizing stress response, with statistically significant increase from baseline in both heart rate (P = 0.001 and mean arterial pressure (P = 0.001 at 1 minute after intubation. All the four anesthetic agents were acceptable for induction in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction despite a 30 - 40% decrease in the cardiac index. Clinician experience along with knowledge of the potential interactions (e.g., premedication, concurrent opioid use is needed to determine hemodynamic stability during anesthetic induction in these patients with ventricular dysfunction.

  2. Combined mucopolysaccharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a child: Anesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child posted for magnetic resonance imaging of brain under general anesthesia with the rare combination of mucopolysachharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The presence of both these disorders has important anesthetic implications. The pathophysiology of this rare combination of disease is reviewed with emphasis on the anesthesia management.

  3. Taking the Headaches out of Anesthetizing "Drosophila": A Cheap & Easy Method of Constructing Carbon Dioxide Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiss, Thomas; Hughes, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is an excellent alternative to conventional methods of anesthetizing fruit flies as it is non-flammable and odorless. We have devised a method of constructing carbon dioxide stages used to keep "Drosophila" immobilized cheaply and easily using empty micropipette tip containers. (Contains 6 figures.)

  4. Comparing different fentanyl concentrations added to local anesthetic mixture in peribulbar block for cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Adding Fentanyl at concentrations ⩾ 2–3 μg/ml to the local anesthetic mixture (Lidocaine and Hyaluronidase for regional peribulbar block provides safe and effective method in improving postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  5. What is the optimal anesthetic protocol for measurements of cerebral autoregulation in spontaneously breathing mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghui; Schuler, Beat; Vogel, Olga; Arras, Margarete; Vogel, Johannes

    2010-12-01

    Autoregulation, an important feature of the cerebral circulation, is affected in many diseases. Since genetically modified mice are a fundamental tool in biomedical research, including neuro(bio)logy also in this specie measurements of cerebral autoregulation (CA) are mandatory. However, this requires anesthesia that unfortunately significantly impacts cerebral perfusion and consequently might distort CA measurements directly or by altering arterial pCO(2). The latter can be avoided by artificial ventilation but requires several control measurements of blood gases, each consuming at least 100 μl of blood or 5% of a mouse's blood volume. To avoid such diagnostic hemorrhage, we systematically analyzed the effect of different common anesthetic protocols used for rodents in spontaneously breathing mice on CA measured with Laser speckle perfusion imaging. Halothane, Isoflurane and Pentobarbital abrogated CA and Ketamin/Xylazine as well as Chloralose had a moderate reproducibility. In contrast, the rather rarely used anesthetic Ethomidate applied in low doses combined with local anesthetics had the best reproducibility. Although with this anesthesia the lower CA limit was lower than with Ketamin/Xylazine and Chloralose as reported in the handful of papers so far dealing with CA in mice, we suggest Ethomidate as the anesthetic of choice for CA measurements in spontaneously breathing mice.

  6. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  7. Anesthetic management of a patient with stiff-person syndrome and thymoma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiang; WANG Dong-xin; WU Xin-min

    2006-01-01

    @@ Stiff-person syndrome (SPS, also called stiff-man syndrome) is a rare neurological disease with autoimmune features. It is characterized by fluctuating and progressive muscle rigidity, and episodic spasm that prominently involve axial and limb musculature.1,2 Herein we report a case of anesthetic management of a patient with SPS for thymectomy and review several other cases.

  8. 静脉麻醉药的研究进展%Research progress of intravenous anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous anesthetics is classified into the barbiturates and non-barbiturates. Although great progress has been made in the intravenous anesthetic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic knowledge and intravenous anesthesia, no intravenous anesthetics at the present is considered to be ideal in all respects. Therefore, it is still urgent to find approaches to create an ideal anesthetic state, which is secure, smooth and easy to control.%静脉麻醉药主要分为巴比妥类药物和非巴比妥类药物,虽然静脉麻醉药药代动力学-药效学知识和静脉麻醉技术均取得了长足进步,但目前还无一种在各方面都十分理想的静脉麻醉药,所以实现安全、易控、平稳和苏醒迅速的理想麻醉状态仍是摆在我们面前最严峻的问题.

  9. Dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjuvant in laparoscopic surgery: An observational study using entropy monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam S Ghodki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2 agonist with properties of sedation, analgesia and anxiolysis, making it an ideal anesthetic adjuvant. Using an anesthetic adjuvant that decreases requirement of anesthetics and analgesics may predispose the patient to awareness. We monitored the depth of anesthesia (DOA using entropy to avoid unwanted awareness under anesthesia. Materials and Methods: 30 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I and II, aged between 18 to 50 years of either gender undergoing laparoscopic surgeries under general anesthesia were studied. Loading dose infusion of dexmedetomidine was started 1 mcg/kg for 15 minutes and patients were premedicated. Routine induction with propofol and fentanyl was carried out, and maintenance infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.2 mcg/kg/hr was given. Patients were monitored with standard monitoring, and in addition, the DOA was monitored with entropy. Results: A 62.5% reduction (0.75 mg/kg in the induction dose of propofol was observed, with a 30% less end-tidal concentration of isoflurane requirement for maintenance of anesthesia, while maintaining the adequate DOA. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is an effective anesthetic adjuvant that can be safely used in laparoscopy without the fear of awareness under anesthesia.

  10. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)

    2012-12-10

    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  11. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  12. State-Dependent Inhibition of Sodium Channels by Local Anesthetics: A 40-Year Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-K; Strichartz, G R

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge about the mechanism of impulse blockade by local anesthetics has evolved over the past four decades, from the realization that Na(+) channels were inhibited to affect the impulse blockade to an identification of the amino acid residues within the Na(+) channel that bind the local anesthetic molecule. Within this period appreciation has grown of the state-dependent nature of channel inhibition, with rapid binding and unbinding at relatively high affinity to the open state, and weaker binding to the closed resting state. Slow binding of high affinity for the inactivated state accounts for the salutary therapeutic as well as the toxic actions of diverse class I anti-arrhythmic agents, but may have little importance for impulse blockade, which requires concentrations high enough to block the resting state. At the molecular level, residues on the S6 transmembrane segments in three of the homologous domains of the channel appear to contribute to the binding of local anesthetics, with some contribution also from parts of the selectivity filter. Binding to the inactivated state, and perhaps the open state, involves some residues that are not identical to those that bind these drugs in the resting state, suggesting spatial flexibility in the "binding site". Questions remaining include the mechanism that links local anesthetic binding with the inhibition of gating charge movements, and the molecular nature of the theoretical "hydrophobic pathway" that may be critical for determining the recovery rates from blockade of closed channels, and thus account for both therapeutic and cardiotoxic actions. PMID:23710324

  13. Are one or two dangerous? Lidocaine and topical anesthetic exposures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Liesl A; Dolan, Teresa Sullivan; Seibert, H Edward

    2009-07-01

    Topical anesthetics are found in a variety of prescription and non-prescription preparations, from teething gels to hemorrhoid creams. In 2003, there were 8576 exposures to local/topical anesthetics reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, with 67% of cases in the age group younger than 6 years old. This report reviews the available literature involving topical anesthetic exposures in children younger than 6 years old, including the National Library of Medicine's Pub Med database (limited to English language) and data from POISINDEX. Additionally, we reviewed the American Association of Poison Control Centers' annual reports from 1983 to 2003. There were 7 deaths in this age range from topical anesthetics. Although the number of deaths is low, the fact that there have been deaths reveals the serious nature of the toxicity that can result from these readily available non-prescription analgesics. Toxicity may result from topical absorption, ingestion, or aspiration. Additionally, toxicity can result from unintentional as well as therapeutic mishaps. Although the number of cases is limited, these medications can be toxic at low doses-which, in children younger than 6 years of age, may amount to as little as a teaspoon.

  14. Comparative analysis of assessment methods for operational and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potakhin S.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to conduct a comparative analysis of methods of evaluation of surgical and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis ofthe extent of the surgical and anesthetic risks and results of treatment of 71 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding has been conducted in the study. To evaluate the surgical and anesthetic risks classification trees are used, scale ТА. Rockall and prognosis System of rebleeding (SPRK, proposed by N. V. Lebedev et al. in 2009, enabling to evaluate the probability of a fatal outcome. To compare the efficacy ofthe methods the following indicators are used: sensitivity, specificity and prediction of positive result. Results. The study compared the results ofthe risk assessment emergency operation by using these methods with the outcome ofthe operation. The comparison ofthe prognosis results in sensitivity leads to the conclusion that the scales ТА. Rockall and SPRK are worse than the developed method of classification trees in recognizing patients with poor outcome of surgery. Conclusion. The method of classification trees can be considered as the most accurate method of evaluation of surgical and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding.

  15. Impact of hyaluronidase on anesthetic distribution in retrobulbar region following sub-Tenon anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurbatović Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Sub-Tenon's block is nowadays commonly used in ophthalmic surgery because of its safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the anesthetic solution with different amounts of hyaluronidase in the retrobulbar space, following an injection into the Sub-Tenon's space. Methods. In this experimental study, 40 pig cadaver heads were used (80 eyeballs. The material was divided into four groups (of 20 eyeballs each. Each group was administered 4.5 ml of a mixture of 2% lignocaine, 0.5% bupivacaine, and 0.5 ml of Indian ink, with different amounts of hyaluronidase - 15 IU/ml, 75 IU/ml, 150 IU/ml, except the control one. Samples of retrobulbar tissue were analyzed using the standard histopathological procedure. After that, they were also analyzed using the Adobe Photoshop program® (Windows, USA. The retrobulbar space was divided into eight zones by four perpendicular lines, which crossed in the centre of the optic nerve. The presence of ink in fat and muscle tissues and in the sheath of the optic nerve was observed. Results. The presence of the local anesthetic solution was significantly higher in inferonasal and superonasal quadrants of the fat and muscle tissues (p < 0.01. The distribution in optic nerve sheath is similar in each quadrant. Distribution of local anesthetic in each zone of the muscle tissue (I-VIII was strongly influenced by the amount of hyaluronidase added. In the fat tissue, the distribution of local anesthetic under the influence of hyaluronidase was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in the areas which were distant from the place of injection (I-IV. The distribution in the optic nerve sheath is significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the group with 150 IU/ml of hyaluronidase. Conclusions. Following a sub-Tenon block local anesthetic was present in the retrobulbar space in a high percentage of the cases. The presence of local anesthetic solution in retrobulbar space depends on the amount of

  16. Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Simões

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis diferentes concentrações de mentol para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurança do anestésico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestésico. A concentração 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeção visual do animal, a concentração mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentração ideal (500mg L-1 não acarretou a morte nos indivíduos, indicando boa margem de segurança para o uso desse anestésico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentração adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sanguínea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol não é um anestésico eficaz para juvenis de tilápia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura.This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction time to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The safe concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose

  17. A cyclodextrin formulation to improve use of the anesthetic tribromoethanol (Avertin ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene McDowell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Efficacy and safety concerns have been raised in the literature with the use of tribromoethanol (TBE (Avertin ® for anesthesia in rats and mice when administered by intraperitoneal (IP injection. Despite the controversy, it remains in common usage as an anesthetic agent in laboratory rodents for short-term surgical procedures. Cyclodextrins have been shown to improve drug solubility and were investigated here as an improved anesthetic formulation for mice. Materials and Methods: The phase solubility of TBE with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD was estimated. The efficacy of two anesthetic regimens was compared in this study; the conventional TBE formulation solubilized in tert-amyl alcohol and a HP-β-CD formulation containing TBE. Mice (n = 6 were administered the formulations by IP injection and the pharmacodynamic parameters of time to induction of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia and recovery time were measured using a combined reflex score (CRS. Results and Discussion: Phase solubility studies showed a linear increase in the solubility of TBE with increasing HP-β-CD concentration and suggested >1:1 binding of the drug in the cyclodextrin complex. At a dose of 260 mg/kg the standard TBE formulation appeared to produce deeper anesthesia than the cyclodextrin formulation, with a minimum average CRS of 1.8 compared with 5.2. No post-mortem pathology was observed in mice that received either the conventional or cyclodextrin formulation. Conclusion: The cyclodextrin TBE formulation did not conclusively provide an improved anesthetic response at a dose of 260 mg/kg compared with the conventional formulation. The improved solubility of TBE with HP-β-CD and the reduced variability in anesthetic response warrants the further investigation of this formulation. This study has also identified the value of using the anticholinergic atropine in association with TBE for anesthesia.

  18. Anesthetic activity of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla and effectiveness in reducing stress during transport of albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Becker, Alexssandro G; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Martins, Dirlaine I; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo Gil; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia triphylla as an anesthetic for albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Juveniles were exposed to concentrations between 20 and 800 μL L(-1) EO of A. triphylla to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In another experiment, both strains were divided into four groups such as 0 (control), 30, 40, or 50 μL L(-1) EO and transported for 5 h. The longest time for anesthetic induction and recovery was observed in the albinos. Both strains reached anesthesia in the 100-800 μL L(-1) (11.1-1.24 min) range, without mortality, being 200 μL L(-1) the best response considering time to anesthesia (5.35 min). Albinos transported with all EO concentrations showed higher values of carbon dioxide in the water of transport, but lower levels were observed in grays transported with 40 and 50 μL L(-1) EO when compared to control fish. The same concentrations did not prevent significant whole-body cortisol rise at the end of transport in the albino strain. Juveniles of both strains transported with EO presented lower ion loss to the water compared to control fish. The EO of A. triphylla is an effective anesthetic for albino and gray silver catfish. This EO increases whole-body cortisol levels in the albino strain, but as it reduces net ion loss as in the gray strain, it can be also recommended for transport. PMID:23974669

  19. A quest to increase safety of anesthetics by advancements in anesthesia monitoring: scientometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassakov KV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamen V Vlassakov, Igor Kissin Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess progress in the field of anesthesia monitoring over the past 40 years using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indexes were used: popularity indexes (general and specific, representing the proportion of articles on either a topic relative to all articles in the field of anesthetics (general popularity index, GPI or the subfield of anesthesia monitoring (specific popularity index, SPI; index of change (IC, representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic from one period to the next; and index of expectations (IE, representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000 biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on 33 anesthesia-monitoring topics were assessed. Our analysis showed that over the past 40 years, the rate of rise in the number of articles on anesthesia monitoring was exponential, with an increase of more than eleven-fold, from 296 articles over the 5-year period 1974–1978 to 3,394 articles for 2009–2013. This rise profoundly exceeded the rate of rise of the number of articles on general anesthetics. The difference was especially evident with the comparison of the related GPIs: stable growth of the GPI for anesthesia monitoring vs constant decline in the GPI for general anesthetics. By the 2009–2013 period, among specific monitoring topics introduced after 1980, the SPI index had a meaningful magnitude (≥1.5 in 9 of 24 topics: Bispectral Index (7.8, Transesophageal Echocardiography (4.2, Electromyo­graphy (2.8, Pulse Oximetry (2.4, Entropy (2.3, Train-of-four (2.3, Capnography (1.9, Pulse Contour (1.9, and Electrical Nerve Stimulation for neuromuscular monitoring (1.6. Only one of these topics (Pulse

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE STABILITY OF A LOCAL ANESTHETIC BROMOKAIN TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM

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    V. A. Ryzhikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the stability of biocompatible microemulsion composition-based bromokain transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS in order to confi rm the original shelf life and to identify the most appropriate TTS composition for storage.Materials and methods. The stability test using accelerated aging method was performed on the samples of TTS containing 50 and 100 mg of bromokain. Physicochemical properties of TTS were analyzed at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 6th month of storage. The physical confi guration of the dosage form, the content of bromokain in TTS, and drug release were evaluated at each stage of the study. The content of bromokain in the samples was recorded using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. As a control for each method, the newly manufactured TTS forms were used.Results. Unlike the samples containing 50 mg of bromokain, TTS with 100 mg of the anesthetic demonstrated changes in the physical confi guration and deterioration of the functional properties after the 6th month of storage. The quantitative content of the substance in TTS containing 50 and 100 mg of bromokain met the requirements of regulatory documentation (RD at allphases of the experiment and was within 50,0 ± 5,0 mg and 100,0 ± 10,0 mg, respectively. The release profi le of TTS with 50 mg of bromokain has remained unchanged during storage and complies with the RD. TTS with 100 mg of bromokain after the 3rd month of storage had a deviation from the release profi le indicated in the RD.Conclusion. The shelf life of 2 years at t = 25 °C preset by us for samples of TTS containing 50 mg of bromokain has been confi rmed. According to the test results, samples of TTS with the content of bromokain of 100 mg were declared unstable and unfi t for storage under the selected storage conditions.

  1. Anesthetic Implications of Ebola Patient Management: A Review of the Literature and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missair, Andres; Marino, Michael J; Vu, Catherine N; Gutierrez, Juan; Missair, Alfredo; Osman, Brian; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2015-09-01

    As of mid-October 2014, the ongoing Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has affected approximately 10,000 patients, approached a 50% mortality rate, and crossed political and geographic borders without precedent. The disease has spread throughout Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Isolated cases have arrived in urban centers in Europe and North America. The exponential growth, currently unabated, highlights the urgent need for effective and immediate management protocols for the various health care subspecialties that may care for Ebola virus disease patients. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to identify key areas of anesthetic care affected by this disease. The serious potential for "high-risk exposure" and "direct contact" (as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of anesthesiologists caring for Ebola patients prompted this urgent investigation. A search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed, MeSH, Cochrane Review, and Google Scholar. Key words included "anesthesia" and/or "ebola" combined with "surgery," "intubation," "laryngoscopy," "bronchoscopy," "stethoscope," "ventilation," "ventilator," "phlebotomy," "venous cannulation," "operating room," "personal protection," "equipment," "aerosol," "respiratory failure," or "needle stick." No language or date limits were applied. We also included secondary-source data from government organizations and scientific societies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, American Society of Anesthesiologists, and American College of Surgeons. Articles were reviewed for primary-source data related to inpatient management of Ebola cases as well as evidence-based management guidelines and protocols for the care of Ebola patients in the operative room, infection control, and health care worker personal protection. Two hundred thirty-six articles were identified using the aforementioned terminology in the scientific database search engines. Twenty articles

  2. Preoperative testing and risk assessment: perspectives on patient selection in ambulatory anesthetic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stierer TL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracey L Stierer,1,2 Nancy A Collop3,41Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Critical Care Medicine, Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Emory University, Emory Sleep Center, Wesley Woods Center, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: With recent advances in surgical and anesthetic technique, there has been a growing emphasis on the delivery of care to patients undergoing ambulatory procedures of increasing complexity. Appropriate patient selection and meticulous preparation are vital to the provision of a safe, quality perioperative experience. It is not unusual for patients with complex medical histories and substantial systemic disease to be scheduled for discharge on the same day as their surgical procedure. The trend to “push the envelope” by triaging progressively sicker patients to ambulatory surgical facilities has resulted in a number of challenges for the anesthesia provider who will assume their care. It is well known that certain patient diseases are associated with increased perioperative risk. It is therefore important to define clinical factors that warrant more extensive testing of the patient and medical conditions that present a prohibitive risk for an adverse outcome. The preoperative assessment is an opportunity for the anesthesia provider to determine the status and stability of the patient’s health, provide preoperative education and instructions, and offer support and reassurance to the patient and the patient’s family members. Communication between the surgeon/proceduralist and the anesthesia provider is critical in achieving optimal outcome. A multifaceted approach is required when considering whether a specific patient will be best served having their procedure on an outpatient basis. Not only should the patient's comorbidities be stable and optimized, but details regarding the planned procedure and the resources available

  3. Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laura K; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-08-01

    Mirror neurons allow us to covertly simulate the sensation and movement of others. If mirror neurons are sensory and motor neurons, why do we not actually feel this simulation- like "mirror-touch synesthetes"? Might afferent sensation normally inhibit mirror representations from reaching consciousness? We and others have reported heightened sensory referral to phantom limbs and temporarily anesthetized arms. These patients, however, had experienced illness or injury of the deafferented limb. In the current study we observe heightened sensory and motor referral to the face after unilateral nerve block for routine dental procedures. We also obtain double-blind, quantitative evidence of heightened sensory referral in healthy participants completing a mirror-touch confusion task after topical anesthetic cream is applied. We suggest that sensory and motor feedback exist in dynamic equilibrium with mirror representations; as feedback is reduced, the brain draws more upon visual information to determine- perhaps in a Bayesian manner- what to feel.

  4. Modelling the anesthetized brain with ensembles of neuronal and astrocytic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, T.; Hale, A. C.; Stefanovska, A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a minimalistic model of the anesthetized brain in order to study the generation of rhythms observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded from anesthetized humans. We propose that non-neuronal brain cells-astrocytes-play an important role in brain dynamics and that oscillation-based models may provide a simple way to study such dynamics. The model is capable of replicating the main features (i.e. slow and alpha oscillations) observed in EEGs. In addition, this model suggests that astrocytes are integral to the generation of slow EEG (˜0.7 Hz) rhythms. By including astrocytes in the model we take a first step towards investigating the interaction of the brain and cardiovasular system which are primarily connected via astrocytes. The model also illustrates that rich nonlinear dynamics can arise from basic oscillatory "building blocks" and therefore complex systems may be modelled in an uncomplicated way.

  5. [Anesthetic considerations in laparoscopy for removal of a kidney from a live donor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, M; Gómez, G; Vidal, A; Vera, C D; Barberá, M

    2010-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is the main therapeutic alternative for patients with end-stage renal failure. However, the main constraint at present is the lack of available organs. Removal of a kidney from a live donor is a better option than conventional transplantation of a cadaver-donated organ. Among the advantages are a shorter waiting time for the organ recipient and greater assurance of graft quality and survival. The postoperative conditions made possible by laparoscopic surgery have encouraged the donation of tissues by live donors. Anesthetic treatment for patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery must be based on an understanding of the pathophysiologic changes that occur in this type of procedure so that complications can be prevented. This review provides an update of progress in laparoscopic surgery and the repercussions of anesthetic management, particularly with respect to anesthesia for kidney donors. PMID:20527345

  6. Anesthetic management of a child with relapsing polychondritis:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Cun-liang; ZHANG Bing-xi; HU Gui-zhi

    2009-01-01

    @@ Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder of unknown cause.It is characterized by recurrent inflammation of cartilage and connective tissue.Airway complications are the most serious manifestations.1,2 The anesthetic management of patients with RP is challenging.Airway management is of primary importance because of the potential for collapse of supporting airway structures with resulting inability to intubate and ventilate the patient) Although it tends to occur in middle age (>40 years),it has been reported in younger individuals.Herein we report a case of anesthetic management of a child with RP for tracheotomy combined with insertion of T tube stent and review several other cases.

  7. An overview of anesthetic procedures, tools, and techniques in ambulatory care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messieha Z

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zakaria Messieha Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Ambulatory surgical and anesthesia care (ASAC, also known as Same Day Surgery or Day Care in some countries, is the fastest growing segment of ambulatory surgical and anesthesia care. Over 50 million ambulatory surgical procedures are conducted annually comprising over 60% of all anesthesia care with an impressive track record of safety and efficiency. Advances in ambulatory anesthesia care have been due to newer generation of inhalation and intravenous anesthetics as well as airway management technology and techniques. Successful ambulatory anesthesia care relies on patient selection, adequate facilities, highly trained personnel and quality improvement policies and procedures. Favoring one anesthetic technique over the other should be patient and procedure-specific. Effective management of post-operative pain as well as nausea and vomiting are the final pieces in assuring success in ambulatory anesthesia care. Keywords: ambulatory anesthesia, out-patient anesthesia, Day-Care anesthesia

  8. Anesthetic considerations of an emergency decompressive craniotomy complicated with Ebstein's anomaly and atrial septal defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Xin; TANG Shuai; WANG Ling; ZHAO Jing; LI Gui-lin; GUO Li-lin; HUANG Yu-guang

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable published papers regarding Ebstein's anomaly (EA) patients receiving open-heart tricuspid valve replacement, non-cardiac emergency surgeries were rarely reported. We report a case of emergency decormpressive craniotormy in a patient with EA. Anesthesiologists should pay special attention to the complications and anesthetic management during the non-cardiac surgeries performed in EA patients.hile papers regarding Ebstein's anomaly (EA)patients receiving open-heart tricuspid valve replacement are numerous, the reports of non-cardiac emergency surgeries have not been to the same degree.We report a case of emergency decompressive craniotomy in a patient with EA. This case report describes the symptoms and anesthetic management during the surgery.

  9. The temperature dependence of lipid membrane permeability, its quantized nature, and the influence of anesthetics

    CERN Document Server

    Blicher, Andreas; Fidorra, Matthias; Winterhalter, Mathias; Heimburg, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the permeability of lipid membranes for fluorescence dyes and ions. We find that permeability reaches a maximum close to the chain melting transition of the membranes. Close to transitions, fluctuations in area and compressibility are high, leading to an increased likelihood of spontaneous lipid pore formation. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) reveals the permeability for rhodamine dyes across 100 nm vesicles. Using FCS, we find that the permeability of vesicle membranes for fluorescence dyes is within error proportional to the excess heat capacity. To estimate defect size we measure the conductance of solvent-free planar lipid bilayer. Microscopically, we show that permeation events appear as quantized current events. Further, we demonstrate that anesthetics lead to a change in membrane permeability that can be predicted from their effect on heat capacity profiles. Depending on temperature, the permeability can be enhanced or reduced. We demonstrate that anesthetics decrease channel...

  10. The cochlear implantation surgery: A review of anesthetic considerations and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in the technology of the cochlear implants has resulted in increasing trend of cochlear implantation in both the children and elderly population. The anesthesiologist is faced with the task of smoothly conducting the surgery without any interference in the stimulation techniques used. The preoperative evaluation is mainly focused on the presence of any congenital anomalies in these patients which may affect anesthetic technique. The reduction of anxiety of the patient as well as the parents of small children is an important aspect of the preoperative visit. Intraoperatively the anesthetic technique chosen should not interfere with the stimulation of the cochlear implant electrode assembly. The postoperative management is mainly focused at prevention of agitation and good analgesia. A close cooperation between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist is essential for a positive outcome in this surgery. The current review focuses on the important anesthesia aspects related to cochlear implant surgery.

  11. Topical anesthesia with eutetic mixture of local anesthetics cream in vasectomy: 2 randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Krogh, J; Rye, B;

    1992-01-01

    Two paired randomized trials testing topical anesthesia with a eutetic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA cream*) in vasectomy were performed. In 1 trial EMLA cream was applied on 1 side of the scrotum, while infiltration anesthesia into the skin and subcutaneous tissue with mepivacaine was used...... on the contralateral side. All but 1 of the 13 patients (p less than 0.05) preferred infiltration anesthesia because of pain as the incision reached the subcutaneous tissue. In the other trial 29 patients received EMLA cream on 1 side of the scrotum before bilateral mepivacaine infiltration. There was significantly...... less pain on the sides with the anesthetic cream (p less than 0.001). Many patients would pay the price of the cream. In conclusion, EMLA cream cannot replace but it can supplement infiltration anesthesia during vasectomy....

  12. [Intern(euron)al affairs : The role of specific neocortical interneuron classes in the interaction between acetylcholine and GABAergic anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, L; Grasshoff, C; Hentschke, H

    2016-08-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulator which is released throughout the central nervous system and plays an essential role in consciousness and cognitive processes including attention and learning. Due to its 'activating' effect on the neuronal and behavioral level its interaction with anesthetics has long been of interest to anesthesiologists. It is widely held that a reduction of the release of acetylcholine by general anesthetics constitutes part of the anesthetic effect. This notion is backed by numerous human and animal studies, but is also in seeming contradiction to findings that acetylcholine activates specific classes of inhibitory neurons: if acetylcholine excites elements within the neuronal network responsible for the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its withdrawal should diminish, not enhance, the effect of anesthetics.Focusing on cortical circuits, we present an overview of recent advances in cellular neurophysiology, particularly the interactions between inhibitory neuron classes, which provide insights on the interaction between acetylcholine and GABA. PMID:27380048

  13. The Role of Needle Purging in Reducing Transfer of Microorganisms From Local Anesthetic Cartridge Diaphragms

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Barbara A.; Rawson, Raymond D.; Hiatt, Hermi D.

    1985-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to demonstrate the significant amount of contamination on the external surface of the anesthetic cartridge diaphragm. Current methods of cartridge diaphragm decontamination to prevent injection of pathogens are discussed. A series of bacteriologic tests were conducted to determine the probability of transfer of pathogens from the diaphragm surface through the needle lumen of three different sizes to the deposition site. Results of needle purging suggest that a signi...

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure of medical personnel to inhalatory anesthetics in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kucharska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Despite common use of inhalatory anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide (N2O, halothane, sevoflurane, and the like, occupational exposure to these substances in operating theatres was not monitored in Poland until 2006. The situation changed when maximum admissible concentration (MAC values for anesthetics used in Poland were established in 2005 for N2O, and in 2007 for sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane. The aim of this work was to assess occupational exposure in operating rooms on the basis of reliable and uniform analytical procedures. Material and Methods: The method for the determination of all anesthetics used in Poland, i.e. nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, and halothane, was developed and validated. The measurements were performed in 2006-2010 in 31 hospitals countrywide. The study covered 117 operating rooms; air samples were collected from the breathing zone of 146 anesthesiologists, and 154 nurses, mostly anaesthetic. The measurements were carried out during various surgical operations, mostly on adult patients but also in hospitals for children. Results: Time weighted average concentrations of the anesthetics varied considerably, and the greatest differences were noted for N2O (0.1-1438.5 mg/m3; 40% of the results exceeded the MAC value. Only 3% of halothane, and 2% of sevoflurane concentrations exceeded the respective MAC values. Conclusions: Working in operating theatres is dangerous to the health of the operating staff. The coefficient of combined exposure to anesthesiologists under study exceeded the admissible value in 130 cases, which makes over 40% of the whole study population. Most of the excessive exposure values were noted for nitrous oxide. Med Pr 2014;65(1:43–54

  15. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    OpenAIRE

    Parimala Prasanna Simha; Muralidhara Danappa Patel; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC) to the left atrium (LA) is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm...

  16. Vagal-dependent nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, R. R.; Jacono, F. J.; Fishman, M; Loparo, K. A.; Rybak, I. A.; Dick, T E

    2011-01-01

    Physiological rhythms, including respiration, exhibit endogenous variability associated with health, and deviations from this are associated with disease. Specific changes in the linear and nonlinear sources of breathing variability have not been investigated. In this study, we used information theory-based techniques, combined with surrogate data testing, to quantify and characterize the vagal-dependent nonlinear pattern variability in urethane-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rat...

  17. Induction of burst suppression or coma using intravenous anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Shin, Jeong-Won; Moon, Jang Sup; Byun, Jung-Ick; Lim, Jung-Ah; Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2015-05-01

    General anesthetic-induced coma therapy has been recommended for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus (RSE). However, the influence of electroencephalographic (EEG) burst suppression (BS) on outcomes still remains unclear. This study investigated the impact of intravenous anesthetic-induced BS on the prognosis of RSE using a retrospective analysis of all consecutive adult patients who received intravenous anesthetic treatment for RSE at the Seoul National University Hospital between January 2006 and June 2011. Twenty-two of the 111 episodes of RSE were enrolled in this study. Of the 22 RSE patients, 12 (54.5%) were women and 18 (81.4%) exhibited generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Sixteen patients (72.7%) were classified as having acute symptomatic etiology, including three patients with anoxic encephalopathy, and others with remote symptomatic etiology. Only two patients (9.1%) had a favorable Status Epilepticus Severity Score (0-2) at admission. All patients received midazolam (MDZ) as a primary intravenous anesthetic drug for RSE treatment; three (13.6%) received MDZ and propofol, and one (4.5%) received MDZ and pentobarbital. The rates of mortality and poor outcome at discharge were 13.6% (n=3) and 54.5% (n=12), respectively. While BS was achieved in six (27.5%) patients, it was not associated with mortality or poor outcome. Induced BS was associated with prolonged hospital stay in subgroup analysis when excluding anoxic encephalopathy. Our results suggest that induction of BS for treating RSE did not affect mortality or outcome at discharge and may lead to an increased length of hospital stay.

  18. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  19. Anesthetic drug wastage in the operation room: A cause for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The cost of anesthetic technique has three main components, i.e., disposable supplies, equipments, and anesthetic drugs. Drug budgets are an easily identifiable area for short-term savings. Aim: To assess and estimate the amount of anesthetic drug wastage in the general surgical operation room. Also, to analyze the financial implications to the hospital due to drug wastage and suggest appropriate steps to prevent or minimize this wastage. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study conducted in the general surgical operation room of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Drug wastage was considered as the amount of drug left unutilized in the syringes/vials after completion of a case and any ampoule or vial broken while loading. An estimation of the cost of wasted drug was made. Results: Maximal wastage was associated with adrenaline and lignocaine (100% and 93.63%, respectively. The drugs which accounted for maximum wastage due to not being used after loading into a syringe were adrenaline (95.24%, succinylcholine (92.63%, lignocaine (92.51%, mephentermine (83.80%, and atropine (81.82%. The cost of wasted drugs for the study duration was 46.57% (Rs. 16,044.01 of the total cost of drugs issued/loaded (Rs. 34,449.44. Of this, the cost of wastage of propofol was maximum being 56.27% (Rs. 9028.16 of the total wastage cost, followed by rocuronium 17.80% (Rs. 2856, vecuronium 5.23% (Rs. 840, and neostigmine 4.12% (Rs. 661.50. Conclusions: Drug wastage and the ensuing financial loss can be significant during the anesthetic management of surgical cases. Propofol, rocuronium, vecuronium, and neostigmine are the drugs which contribute maximally to the total wastage cost. Judicious use of these and other drugs and appropriate prudent measures as suggested can effectively decrease this cost.

  20. Anesthetic management of a patient with Huntington's chorea -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jong-Man; Chung, Jun-Young; Han, Jin Hee; Kim, Yung-Suk; Lee, Bong Jae; Yi, Jae-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's chorea is a rare hereditary disorder of the nervous system. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and is characterized by progressive chorea, dementia and psychiatric disturbances. The best anesthetic technique is yet to be established for these patients with increased risk of aspiration due to involvement of pharyngeal muscles and an exaggerated response to sodium thiopental and succinylcholine. The primary goal in general anesthesia for these patients is to provide ...

  1. In vivo assessment of arterial stiffness in the isoflurane anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rat

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Eric E.; Casabianca, Andrew B; Khouri, Samer J; Kalinoski, Andrea L. Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Background Rodent models are increasingly used to study the development and progression of arterial stiffness. Both the non-invasive Doppler derived Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and the invasively determined arterial elastance index (EaI) have been used to assess arterial stiffness in rats and mice, but the need for anesthetic agents to make these in vivo estimates may limit their utility. Thus, we sought to determine: 1) if known differences in arterial stiffness in spontaneously hypertensive r...

  2. Brainstem Regions Involved in the Expiration Reflex. A c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Jakus, Jan; Murin, Peter; Barani, Helena; Stransky, Albert; Bolser, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was employed to localize brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to the expiration reflex (ER). Twelve spontaneously breathing, non-decerebrate, pentobarbital anesthetized cats were used. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive ERs mechanically induced from the glottis (296±9 ERs) was compared to FLI in 6 control non-stimulated cats. Respiratory rate, arterial blood pre...

  3. Do Local Anesthetics Containing Epinephrine Affect Blood Pressure in the Elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Arpaci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dental procedures are often performed under local anesthesia. Vasoconstrictors added to local anesthetics might have unwanted effects in the elderly and in patients with comorbid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local anesthetics containing epinephrine on blood pressure in elderly patients undergoing dental procedures. Material and Method: The study included 479 patients (age, 67.37±6.62 who underwent tooth extraction. Patient demographics, current health conditions, and blood pressure values were recorded before local anesthesia and at 5 minutes after anesthesia administration. Patients were divided into 4 groups: Group I (n=272 received 40 mg articaine/0.012 mg epinephrine (Ultracain® D-S Forte; Group II (n=196 received 40 mg articaine/0.01 mg epinephrine (Maxicaine FORT; Group III (n=6 received 40 mg articaine/0.006 mg epinephrine (Ultracain® D-S; and Group IV (n=5 received 40 mg articaine/0.005 mg epinephrine (Maxicaine. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 479 patients were included in the analysis. Hypertension and diabetes were the most frequently reported comorbidities among these patients. Blood pressure values after administration of anesthesia were higher than those recorded before the procedure in all groups. Discussion: Local anesthetics containing epinephrine are not associated with a significant increase in blood pressure in elderly patients undergoing dental procedures. Obtaining a detailed clinical history may reduce the risk of procedure-related morbidity.

  4. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  5. Effect of four-alpha-helix bundle cavity size on volatile anesthetic binding energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, Gavin A; Michalsky, Stuart J; Johansson, Jonas S

    2003-09-30

    Currently, it is thought that inhalational anesthetics cause anesthesia by binding to ligand-gated ion channels. This is being investigated using four-alpha-helix bundles, small water-soluble analogues of the transmembrane domains of the "natural" receptor proteins. The study presented here specifically investigates how multiple alanine-to-valine substitutions (which each decrease the volume of the internal binding cavity by 38 A(3)) affect structure, stability, and anesthetic binding affinity of the four-alpha-helix bundles. Structure remains essentially unchanged when up to four alanine residues are changed to valine. However, stability increases as the number of these substitutions is increased. Anesthetic binding affinities are also affected. Halothane binds to the four-alpha-helix bundle variants with 0, 1, and 2 substitutions with equivalent affinities but binds to the variants with 3 and 4 more tightly. The same order of binding affinities was observed for chloroform, although for a particular variant, chloroform was bound less tightly. The observed differences in binding affinities may be explained in terms of a modulation of van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions between ligand and receptor. These, in turn, could result from increased four-alpha-helix bundle binding cavity hydrophobicity, a decrease in cavity size, or improved ligand/receptor shape complementarity.

  6. Sevoflurane Induces DNA Damage Whereas Isoflurane Leads to Higher Antioxidative Status in Anesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita L. A. Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6 and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6 or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6 for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05. Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02. In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT than control group (P = 0.019. There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats.

  7. Temporal changes in ventricular function assessed echocardiographically in conscious and anesthetized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Ni, Gemin; Khoo, Michelle; Wang, Zhizhang; Zhang, Wei; Anderson, Mark E; Madu, Ernest C

    2003-11-01

    The mouse is an important model system for cardiovascular biology, with echocardiography a critical tool for noninvasive measurement of cardiac morphology and function. The feasibility and short-term temporal consistency of repeated echocardiographic measurements in conscious mice has not been previously evaluated. We performed serial 2-dimensional guided M-mode transthoracic echocardiographic measurements at 5- to 10-minute intervals over 60 minutes in conscious mice and in mice treated with 1 of 3 anesthetic regimens: ketamine and acepromazine (n = 14); pentobarbital (n = 14); and ketamine and xylazine (n = 13). Unanesthetized mice received intraperitoneal saline (n = 6) or no injection (n = 7). In sequentially repeated measurements over 1 hour in conscious mice, none of the measured or derived echocardiographic parameters differed from baseline, whereas all 3 anesthetic regimens produced significant, prolonged, and temporally variable decreases in heart rate and fractional shortening. The relationship between heart rate and fractional shortening was not altered by anesthetic choice. Serial echocardiographic assessments of cardiac function, dimension, and mass can be performed with high reproducibility in conscious mice.

  8. Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

    2012-11-01

    Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice.

  9. Cardioprotective effects of anesthetic preconditioning in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury: propofol versus isoflurane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing TAO; Ling-qiao LU; Qing XU; Shu-ren LI; Mao-tsun LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We compare the cardioprotective effects of anesthetic preconditioning by propofol and/or isoflurane in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male adult Wistar rats were subjected to 60 min of anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Before the long ischemia, anesthetics were administered twice for 10 min followed by 5 min washout. Isoflurane was inhaled at I MAC (0.016) in I group, whereas propofol was inhaled intravenously at 37.5 mg/(kg.h) in P group. A combination ofisoflurane and propofol was administered simultaneously in I+P group. Results: In control (without anesthetic preconditioning, C group), remarkable myocardial infarction and apoptosis accompanied by an increased level of cardiac troponin T were noted 120 rain after ischemia-reperfusion. As compared to those of control group, I and P groups had comparable cardioprotection. In addition, I+P group shares with I and P groups the comparable cardioprotective effects in terms of myocardial infarction and cardiac troponin T elevation. Conclusion: A combination of isoflurane and propofol produced no ad-ditional cardioprotection.

  10. Cleft lip and palate: recommendations for dental anesthetic procedure based on anatomic evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cleft lip and palate usually present dental anomalies of number, shape, structure and position in the cleft area and the general dentist is frequently asked to restore or extract those teeth. Considering that several anatomic variations are expected in teeth adjacent to cleft areas and that knowledge of these variations by general dentists is required for optimal treatment, the objectives of this paper are: 1 to describe changes in the innervation pattern of anterior teeth and soft tissue caused by the presence of a cleft, 2 to describe a local anesthetic procedure in unilateral and bilateral clefts, and 3 to provide recommendations to improve anesthetic procedures in patients with cleft lip and palate. The cases of 2 patients are presented: one with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, and the other with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. The patients underwent local anesthesia in the cleft area in order to extract teeth with poor bone support. The modified anesthetic procedure, respecting the altered course of nerves in the cleft maxilla and soft tissue alterations at the cleft site, was accomplished successfully and the tooth extraction was performed with no pain to the patients. General dentists should be aware of the anatomic variations in nerve courses in the cleft area to offer high quality treatment to patients with cleft lip and palate.

  11. Effect of needle design on pain from dental local anesthetic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Joanna Saenz; Dixon, Sara A; Townsend, Richard; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a larger-bore compared with a standard-bore dental local anesthetic needle of the same gauge in reducing pain during inferior alveolar (IA) and long buccal (LB) nerve block injections. Twenty active duty military or Department of Defense beneficiaries undergoing dental treatment were anesthetized using a split-mouth design with 4 anesthetic dental injections. Both sides of the mouth received IA nerve block and LB nerve injections, one using the 27-gauge large-bore Septoject XL needle and other using a 27-gauge standard-bore Septoject needle. Patients rated the pain experienced with each method using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The IA injection mean VAS score and standard deviation were 38.9 ± 22.7 mm and 37.1 ± 22.4 mm, respectively, for the larger and standard-bore needles. The LB injection mean VAS score and standard deviation were 33.5 ± 22.8 mm and 35.1 ± 19.6 mm, respectively, for the larger and standard-bore needles. The data were analyzed with a paired t test (α = .05). No significant difference was found between the IA (P = .70) or LB injections (P = .73). The use of a larger-bore 27-gauge needle did not reduce pain on injection compared with the standard-bore 27-gauge needle.

  12. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

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    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  13. Does chronic occupational exposure to volatile anesthetic agents influence the rate of neutrophil apoptosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goto, Y

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine whether the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in health care workers is influenced by exposure to volatile anesthetic agents. METHODS: Percentage neutrophil apoptosis (Annexin-V FITC assay) was measured in health care workers (n = 20) and unexposed volunteers (n = 10). For the health care workers, time weighted personal exposure monitoring to N2O, sevoflurane and isoflurane was carried out. RESULTS: The sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations to which health care workers were exposed were less than recommended levels in all 20 cases. Percent apoptosis was less at 24 (but not at one and 12) hr culture in health care workers [50.5 (9.7)%; P = 0.008] than in unexposed volunteers [57.3 (5.1)%]. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis at 24 hr culture was demonstrated in health care workers chronically exposed to volatile anesthetic agents. Exposure was well below recommended levels in the both scavenged and unscavenged work areas in which the study was carried out. Further study is required to assess the effect of greater degrees of chronic exposure to volatile anesthetic agents on neutrophil apoptosis.

  14. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.

    1986-02-01

    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques.

  15. Thrombotic stroke in the anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta): characterization by MRI - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of a relevant stroke model in large nonhuman primates hinders the development of innovative diagnostic/therapeutic approaches concerned with this cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to develop a novel and clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized monkey that incorporates readily available clinical imaging techniques and that would allow the possibility of drug delivery including strategies of reperfusion. Thrombin was injected into the lumen of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 12 anesthetized (sevoflurane) male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sequential MRI studies (including angiography, FLAIR, PWI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced T1W imaging) were performed in a 3 T clinical MRI. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the investigations. Once standardized, the surgical procedure induced transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in all operated animals. All animals studied showed spontaneous reperfusion, which occurred some time between 2 h and 7 days post-ictus. Eighty percent of the studied animals showed diffusion/perfusion mismatch. The ischemic lesions at 24 h spared both superficial and profound territories of the MCA. Some animals presented hemorrhagic transformation at 7 days post-ictus. In this study, we developed a pre-clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized nonhuman primate. (authors)

  16. Effects of topical anesthetic and flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy on professional sopranos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Margaret A; Kenny, Dianna T

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the acoustic and perceptual effects of topical anesthetic and flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) against a control condition on the singing voices of ten professional sopranos. Recordings of a section of an aria, various scales, and a messa di voce exercise were obtained in the three experimental conditions. Acoustic analyses of the same aria section recorded during the three conditions were similar with respect to the distribution of energy across the spectrum (LTAS) and vibrato rate and extent. The ability of the participants to achieve their highest and lowest notes or to complete the messa di voce was also not affected by the anesthetic or FFL. Perceptual ratings of a variety of parameters by experienced singing teachers also revealed little difference across conditions with only "appropriate velopharyngeal closure" found to differ in one comparison. These results indicate that highly experienced operatic sopranos are either not affected by or appear to have the ability to compensate for the presence of anesthetic and the FFL. The most likely explanation is that this group of singers relied on a solid vocal technique. Results will need to be replicated on less accomplished singers before concluding that this medical procedure does not affect the operatic singing voice. PMID:16301108

  17. Efficacy of epidural local anesthetic and dexamethasone in providing postoperative analgesia: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebaraj, B; Khanna, P; Baidya, DK; Maitra, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dexamethasone is a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiemetic drug. Individual randomized controlled trials found a possible benefit of epidural dexamethasone. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the benefit of epidural dexamethasone on postoperative pain and opioid consumption and to formulate a recommendation for evidence-based practice. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing the analgesic efficacy of epidural local anesthetic and dexamethasone combination, with local anesthetic alone for postoperative pain management after abdominal surgery, were planned to be included in this meta-analysis. PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, and Central Register of Clinical Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL) databases were searched for eligible controlled trials using the following search words: “Epidural”, “dexamethasone”, and “postoperative pain”, until February 20, 2015. Results: Data from five randomized control trials have been included in this meta-analysis. Epidural dexamethasone significantly decreased postoperative morphine consumption (mean difference −7.89 mg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −11.66 to −3.71) and number of patients required postoperative rescue analgesic boluses (risk ratio: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.41-0.63). Conclusion: The present data shows that the addition of dexamethasone to local anesthetic in epidural is beneficial for postoperative pain management. PMID:27375389

  18. Brainstem node for loss of consciousness due to GABA(A) receptor-active anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minert, Anne; Devor, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    The molecular agents that induce loss of consciousness during anesthesia are classically believed to act by binding to cognate transmembrane receptors widely distributed in the CNS and critically suppressing local processing and network connectivity. However, previous work has shown that microinjection of anesthetics into a localized region of the brainstem mesopontine tegmentum (MPTA) rapidly and reversibly induces anesthesia in the absence of global spread. This implies that functional extinction is determined by neural pathways rather than vascular distribution of the anesthetic agent. But does clinical (systemic-induced) anesthesia employ MPTA-linked circuitry? Here we show that cell-selective lesioning of the MPTA in rats does not, in itself, induce anesthesia or coma. However, it increases the systemic dose of pentobarbital required to induce anesthesia, in a manner proportional to the extent of the lesion. Such lesions also affect emergence, extending the duration of anesthesia. Off-target and sham lesions were ineffective. Combined with the prior microinjection data, we conclude that drug delivery to the MPTA is sufficient to induce loss-of-consciousness and that neurons in this locus are necessary for anesthetic induction at clinically relevant doses. Together, the results support an architecture for anesthesia with the MPTA serving as a key node in an endogenous network of dedicated pathways that switch between wake and unconsciousness. As such, the MPTA might also play a role in syncope, concussion and sleep.

  19. Esmolol reduces anesthetic requirements thereby facilitating early extubation; a prospective controlled study in patients undergoing intracranial surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Asouhidou, Irene; Trikoupi, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate cerebral perfusion pressure with quick and smooth emergence from anesthesia is a major concern of the neuroanesthesiologist. Anesthesia techniques that minimize anesthetic requirements and their effects may be beneficial. Esmolol, a short acting hyperselective β-adrenergic blocker is effective in blunting adrenergic response to several perioperative stimuli and so it might interfere in the effect of the anesthetic drugs on the brain. This study was designed to investigate ...

  20. Local Anesthetics Induce Apoptosis in Human Thyroid Cancer Cells through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Ching Chang; Yi-Chiung Hsu; Chien-Liang Liu; Shih-Yuan Huang; Meng-Chun Hu; Shih-Ping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 c...

  1. In-vitro rescue and recovery studies of human melanoma (BLM) cell growth, adhesion and migration functions after treatment with progesterone

    OpenAIRE

    Leder, Douglas C; Brown, Jason R; Ramaraj, Pandurangan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of human melanoma (BLM) cells for 48 hrs with progesterone resulted in a significant inhibition of cell growth. The mechanism of growth inhibition was due to autophagy and this action of progesterone was not mediated through progesterone receptor. As cells were floating during treatment, adhesion assay was performed, which showed complete loss of adhesion. When cells were allowed to recover after treatment by culturing in growth medium without progesterone, there was recovery in cel...

  2. Assessment Fargas and BLM Models for Identification of Erosion Degree and Critical Sediment Sources (Case Study: Aghbolagh Drainage Basin, Hashtrood City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Abdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the different areas in drainage basin (as a natural planning unit for occurring the sedimentation and its severity in different phases of basic studies has been always one of the most important purposes of the natural resources experts. For achieving to this purpose some experimental models has been presented that Some of them have high efficiency and others have weaknesses. Fargas and BLM models are used in this research and they are run in Aghbolagh drainage basin in Hashtrood town, East Azarbayjan province with 7.8 km2 area. Fargas model includes only two factors, the rock type erosivity and drainage density in the every rock unit, whereas BLM model includes seven factors; the surface erosion, the litter cover, the rock cover on the surface, the affection of destruction on the surface, the surface rill erosion, the affection of the sedimentation due to the water flow and the amplification of gully erosion. The objective of this research is the handling of these two models for different phases of basic studies in the study area. The results of two models showed, in Fargas model 3.67% area of the basin has high erosion, 14.26% area of the basin has severe erosion and 81.04% has very severe erosion and in BLM model 42.97% area of the basin has moderate erosion and 24.93% has high erosion, therefore 52.85% of the study area in Fargas and BLM models has concurrence in the erosion severity.

  3. Analyses of hydrocarbons in BLM sediment intercalibration sample from Santa Barbara basin and spiked with API South Louisiana crude oil. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, J W; Tripp, B W; Sass, J

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report is made of a BLM intercalibration sediment sample from the Santa Barbara basin spiked with South Louisiana crude oil. The two subsamples reported were analyzed by a procedure described in the appendix for which a separate abstract was written. Because of the high oil content of the sediment the usual thin layer chromatography procedure resulted in an overloaded plate. An appendix was indexed separately. (JSR)

  4. A comparative study of embedded and anesthetized zebrafish in vivo on myocardiac calcium oscillation and heart muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMuntean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embedded zebrafish. In anesthetized fish, dopamine increases the amplitude of cytosolic calcium oscillation with a subsequent increase in heart contraction, whereas verapamil decreases the frequency of calcium oscillation and heart rate. Interestingly, verapamil also increases myocardial contraction. Our data further indicate that verapamil can increase myocardial calcium sensitivity in anesthetized fish. Taken together, our data reinforce in vivo cardiac responses to dopamine and verapamil. Furthermore, effects of dopamine and verapamil on myocardial calcium and contraction are greater in anesthetized than embedded fish. We suggest that while the zebrafish is an excellent model for a cardiovascular imaging study, the cardio-pharmacological profiles are very different between anesthetized and embedded fish.

  5. A quest to increase safety of anesthetics by advancements in anesthesia monitoring: scientometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassakov, Kamen V; Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess progress in the field of anesthesia monitoring over the past 40 years using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indexes were used: popularity indexes (general and specific), representing the proportion of articles on either a topic relative to all articles in the field of anesthetics (general popularity index, GPI) or the subfield of anesthesia monitoring (specific popularity index, SPI); index of change (IC), representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic from one period to the next; and index of expectations (IE), representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on 33 anesthesia-monitoring topics were assessed. Our analysis showed that over the past 40 years, the rate of rise in the number of articles on anesthesia monitoring was exponential, with an increase of more than eleven-fold, from 296 articles over the 5-year period 1974-1978 to 3,394 articles for 2009-2013. This rise profoundly exceeded the rate of rise of the number of articles on general anesthetics. The difference was especially evident with the comparison of the related GPIs: stable growth of the GPI for anesthesia monitoring vs constant decline in the GPI for general anesthetics. By the 2009-2013 period, among specific monitoring topics introduced after 1980, the SPI index had a meaningful magnitude (≥1.5) in 9 of 24 topics: Bispectral Index (7.8), Transesophageal Echocardiography (4.2), Electromyography (2.8), Pulse Oximetry (2.4), Entropy (2.3), Train-of-four (2.3), Capnography (1.9), Pulse Contour (1.9), and Electrical Nerve Stimulation for neuromuscular monitoring (1.6). Only one of these topics (Pulse Contour) demonstrated (in 2009-2013) high values for both IC and IE indexes (76 and 16.9, respectively), indicating significant recent progress. We suggest that rapid growth in the field of

  6. Total Glucosides of Danggui Buxue Tang Attenuate BLM-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulating Oxidative Stress by Inhibiting NOX4

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    Ping Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis (PF is a serious chronic lung disease with unknown pathogenesis. Researches have confirmed that oxidative stress which is regulated by NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4, a main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS, is an important molecular mechanism underlying PF. Previous studies showed that total glucosides of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBTG, an extract from a classical traditional Chinese herbal formula, Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, attenuated bleomycin-induced PF in rats. However, the mechanisms of DBTG are still not clear. We hypothesize that DBTG attenuates PF through regulating the level of oxidative stress by inhibiting NOX4. And we found that fibrosis indexes hydroxyproline (HYP and type I collagen (Col-I were lower in DBTG groups compared with the model group. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were also much more decreased than the model group. For oxidative stress indicators, DBTG blunted the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-iso-prostaglandin in lung homogenates. Treatment with DBTG restrained the expression of NOX4 compared to the model group. Present study confirms that DBTG inhibits BLM-induced PF by modulating the level of oxidative stress via suppressing NOX4.

  7. Genetic variation in the NBS1, MRE11, RAD50 and BLM genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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    Gascoyne Randy D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translocations are hallmarks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL genomes. Because lymphoid cell development processes require the creation and repair of double stranded breaks, it is not surprising that disruption of this type of DNA repair can cause cancer. The members of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN complex and BLM have central roles in maintenance of DNA integrity. Severe mutations in any of these genes cause genetic disorders, some of which are characterized by increased risk of lymphoma. Methods We surveyed the genetic variation in these genes in constitutional DNA of NHL patients by means of gene re-sequencing, then conducted genetic association tests for susceptibility to NHL in a population-based collection of 797 NHL cases and 793 controls. Results 114 SNPs were discovered in our sequenced samples, 61% of which were novel and not previously reported in dbSNP. Although four variants, two in RAD50 and two in NBS1, showed association results suggestive of an effect on NHL, they were not significant after correction for multiple tests. Conclusion These results suggest an influence of RAD50 and NBS1 on susceptibility to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Larger association and functional studies could confirm such a role.

  8. Local anesthetic failure associated with inflammation: verification of the acidosis mechanism and the hypothetic participation of inflammatory peroxynitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ueno

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Ueno1, Hironori Tsuchiya2, Maki Mizogami1, Ko Takakura11Department of Anesthesiology, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Mizuho, Gifu, Japan; 2Department of Dental Basic Education, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Mizuho, Gifu, JapanAbstract: The presence of inflammation decreases local anesthetic efficacy, especially in dental anesthesia. Although inflammatory acidosis is most frequently cited as the cause of such clinical phenomena, this has not been experimentally proved. We verified the acidosis mechanism by studying the drug and membrane lipid interaction under acidic conditions together with proposing an alternative hypothesis. Liposomes and nerve cell model membranes consisting of phospholipids and cholesterol were treated at different pH with lidocaine, prilocaine and bupivacaine (0.05%–0.2%, w/v. Their membrane-interactive potencies were compared by the induced-changes in membrane fluidity. Local anesthetics fluidized phosphatidylcholine membranes with the potency being significantly lower at pH 6.4 than at pH 7.4 (p < 0.01, supporting the acidosis theory. However, they greatly fluidized nerve cell model membranes even at pH 6.4 corresponding to inflamed tissues, challenging the conventional mechanism. Local anesthetics acted on phosphatidylserine liposomes, as well as nerve cell model membranes, at pH 6.4 with almost the same potency as that at pH 7.4, but not on phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin liposomes. Since the positively charged anesthetic molecules are able to interact with nerve cell membranes by ion-paring with anionic components like phosphatidylserine, tissue acidosis is not essentially responsible for the local anesthetic failure associated with inflammation. The effects of local anesthetics on nerve cell model membranes were inhibited by treating with peroxynitrite (50 μM, suggesting that inflammatory cells producing peroxynitrite may affect local anesthesia

  9. A neuro-inspired model-based closed-loop neuroprosthesis for the substitution of a cerebellar learning function in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogri, Roni; Bamford, Simeon A.; Taub, Aryeh H.; Magal, Ari; Giudice, Paolo Del; Mintz, Matti

    2015-02-01

    Neuroprostheses could potentially recover functions lost due to neural damage. Typical neuroprostheses connect an intact brain with the external environment, thus replacing damaged sensory or motor pathways. Recently, closed-loop neuroprostheses, bidirectionally interfaced with the brain, have begun to emerge, offering an opportunity to substitute malfunctioning brain structures. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate a neuro-inspired model-based approach to neuroprostheses. A VLSI chip was designed to implement essential cerebellar synaptic plasticity rules, and was interfaced with cerebellar input and output nuclei in real time, thus reproducing cerebellum-dependent learning in anesthetized rats. Such a model-based approach does not require prior system identification, allowing for de novo experience-based learning in the brain-chip hybrid, with potential clinical advantages and limitations when compared to existing parametric ``black box'' models.

  10. Mechanisms of pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression and antinociception in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoko; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Haji, Akira

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to clarify mechanisms underlying pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression and antinociception. Spontaneous ventilation and hind leg withdrawal response against nociceptive thermal stimulation were simultaneously recorded in anesthetized rats. Pentazocine decreased minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow, and prolonged the latency of withdrawal response. Pre-treatment of β-funaltorexamine, but not nor-binaltorphimine, significantly attenuated pentazocine-induced ventilatory depression, while either antagonist weakened its analgesic potency. Comparing with effects of fentanyl and U50488, the present results suggest that ventilatory depression induced by pentazocine is mediated by mainly μ receptors and analgesia by both μ and κ receptors. PMID:27021234

  11. Can children undergoing ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia be safely anesthetized without using an IV line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigoda M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael M Vigoda, Azeema Latiff, Timothy G Murray, Jacqueline L Tutiven, Audina M Berrocal, Steven GayerBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To document that with proper patient and procedure selection, children undergoing general inhalational anesthesia for ophthalmologic exams (with or without photos, ultrasound, laser treatment, peri-ocular injection of chemotherapy, suture removal, and/or replacement of ocular prosthesis can be safely anesthetized without the use of an intravenous (IV line. Children are rarely anesthetized without IV access placement. We performed a retrospective study to determine our incidence of IV access placement during examinations under anesthesia (EUA and the incidence of adverse events that required intraoperative IV access placement.Methods: Data collected from our operating room (OR information system includes but is not limited to diagnosis, anesthesiologist, surgeon, and location of IV catheter (if applicable, patient’s date of birth, actual procedure, and anesthesia/procedure times. We reviewed the OR and anesthetic records of children (>1 month and <10 years who underwent EUAs between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2009. We determined the percentage of children who were anesthetized without IV access placement, as well as the incidence of any adverse events that required IV access placement, intraoperatively.Results: We analyzed data from 3196 procedures performed during a 77-month period. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 month to 9 years. Overall, 92% of procedures were performed without IV access placement. Procedure duration ranged from 1–39 minutes. Reasons for IV access placement included parental preference for antinausea medication and/or attending preference for IV access placement. No child who underwent anesthesia without an IV line had an intraoperative adverse event requiring insertion of an IV line.Conclusion: Our data suggest that for

  12. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

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    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  13. Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, R W

    1976-04-14

    Cats with one normal eye and one eye with experimental glaucoma were trained to tolerate tonometry while conscious. They were then given the general anesthetic agents pentobarbital, ketamine, and CI-744 in the lowest and twice the lowest dosages which permitted tonometry in untrained cats. Pentobarbital lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 20-50%. Ketamine raised IOP by about 10%. CI-744 had essentially no effect on IOP. The two conpoments of CI-744, tiletamine (CI-634) and zolazepam (CI-716) were given individually in the doses in which they had been given as part of CI-744. Tiletamine had no effect on IOP, while zolazepam lowered IOP by about 10%. PMID:1083696

  14. Peripartum Anesthetic Management and Genomic Analysis of Rare Variants in a Patient with Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Shigekazu; Bortz, Brandon J; Vaida, Sonia; Karamchandani, Kunal; Janicki, Piotr K

    2015-11-15

    A 29-year-old patient, 32 weeks' pregnant, with a history of familial interstitial fibrosis, was treated for acute hypoxemia after admission to the intensive care unit. Within 48 hours, this was followed by an emergent cesarean delivery, under general anesthesia, due to acute respiratory failure. Successful perinatal obstetric and anesthetic management resulted in the delivery of a baby and recovery of the mother. Subsequent genomic analysis using next-generation sequencing of the patient's entire exome revealed that she was a carrier of a deleterious mutation in the TERT gene, previously associated with the hereditary forms of interstitial fibrosis. PMID:26576048

  15. Differential Effects of Anesthetics on Cocaine’s Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects in Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Congwu; Tully, Melissa; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffer, Wynne K; Yu, Mei; Luo, Zhongchi; Koretsky, Alan P.; Benveniste, Helene

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of cocaine’s effects on brain activity in laboratory animals are preformed under anesthesia, which could potentially affect the physiological responses to cocaine. Here we assessed the effects of two commonly used anesthetics (α-chloralose and isofluorane) on the effects of acute cocaine (1 mg/kg iv) on cerebral-blood-flow (CBF), cerebral-blood-volume (CBV), and tissue-hemoglobin-oxygenation (StO2) using optical techniques and cocaine’s pharmacokinetics and binding in the rat bra...

  16. Adverse reactions following administration of an ionic iodinated contrast media in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Amanda; Nelson, Matthew; Hofmeister, Erik H

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to identify hemodynamic alterations associated with the administration of an ionic iodinated contrast media in dogs. Case records of 49 dogs that were anesthetized for computed tomography scanning were reviewed. Values for heart rate (HR) and direct arterial pressure were obtained. Overall, 37% of dogs had a ≥20% change in either HR or systolic arterial pressure from baseline values. Four dogs (8%) became tachycardic and two dogs (4%) became bradycardic. Eight dogs (16%) became hypertensive and two dogs (4%) became hypotensive. A significant proportion of dogs experienced changes in HR and blood pressure following IV administration of an ionic iodinated contrast media under general anesthesia.

  17. Utility of CT scanning in anesthetic management for the patients with stenosis of the trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anesthetic management of six cases with tracheal stenosis due to goiter or mediastinal tumor was discussed in this paper. After evaluating not only the size and the transient shape of the trachea but also the quality and quantity of the tumor around the trachea by CT scanning, we could choose the optimal way of introduction and the size of endotracheal tube. If extreme stenosis of the trachea was revealed by CT scanning, awake intubation is preferred to prevent complications, which tended to occur during and after the induction of anesthesia with thiopental and succinylcholine chloride. (author)

  18. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula

    2016-01-01

    Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the

  19. Evaluation of the anesthetic effects of MS222 in the adult Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zullian,1 Aurore Dodelet-Devillers,1 Stéphane Roy,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2Département de Stomatologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is a unique research model in several fields of medicine, where surgical and invasive procedures may be required. As yet, little is known about the efficacy of MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, which is the most commonly used anesthetic agent in amphibians. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anesthetic effects and physiological changes in adult axolotls following a 20-minute immersion bath, containing progressive MS222 concentrations starting at 0.1%. Depth of anesthesia and physiological changes were evaluated every 15 minutes post-MS222 exposure with the following parameters: righting behavior, withdrawal reflex, acetic acid test response, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as cloacal and body surface temperatures. A 20-minute exposure in a 0.1% MS222 immersion bath (n=6 animals had no anesthetic effects on adult axolotls after 20 minutes of exposure. With a 0.2% MS222 solution, all axolotls (n=9 were deeply anesthetized at 15 minutes, and 80% were still unresponsive at 30 minutes postexposure. Blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were slightly, but significantly, increased when compared with the baseline value and remained stable up to recovery. There was no significant increase in surface and cloaca temperatures, compared with baseline. With the 0.4% MS222 solution, the duration of anesthesia lasted for 90 minutes to at least 120 minutes (n=3 animals and this concentration was deemed too high. In conclusion, a 20-minute immersion bath with 0.2% MS222 may be used for short procedures (15–30 minutes requiring anesthesia of adult axolotls. Keywords: Ambystoma mexicanum

  20. General anesthetic and the risk of dementia in elderly patients: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Hussain,1 Miles Berger,2 Roderic G Eckenhoff,3 Dallas P Seitz1 1Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s University; 2Anesthesiology Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: In this review, we aim to provide clinical insights into the relationship between surgery, general anesthesia (GA, and dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The pathogenesis of AD is complex, involving specific disease-linked proteins (amyloid-beta [Aß] and tau, inflammation, and neurotransmitter dysregulation. Many points in this complex pathogenesis can potentially be influenced by both surgery and anesthetics. It has been demonstrated in some in vitro, animal, and human studies that some anesthetics are associated with increased aggregation and oligomerization of Aß peptide and enhanced accumulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Two neurocognitive syndromes that have been studied in relation to surgery and anesthesia are postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction, both of which occur more commonly in older adults after surgery and anesthesia. Neither the route of anesthesia nor the type of anesthetic appears to be significantly associated with the development of postoperative delirium or postoperative cognitive dysfunction. A meta-analysis of case-control studies found no association between prior exposure to surgery utilizing GA and incident AD (pooled odds ratio =1.05, P=0.43. The few cohort studies on this topic have shown varying associations between surgery, GA, and AD, with one showing an increased risk, and another demonstrating a decreased risk. A recent randomized trial has shown that patients who received sevoflurane during spinal surgery were more likely to have progression of preexisting mild cognitive impairment compared to

  1. Effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grome, J.J.; McCulloch, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine effected significant increases in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS, and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS. In rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate, the effects of apomorphine upon local glucose utilization were less widespread and less marked than in conscious animals. The profound effects of chloral hydrate anesthesia upon local cerebral glucose use, and the modification by this anesthetic regime of the local metabolic responses to apomorphine, emphasize the difficulties which exists in the extrapolation of data from anesthetized animals to the conditions which prevail in the conscious animal.

  2. 全身麻醉药在脊髓内的作用机制%Subcortical mechanisms of general anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 张宏

    2008-01-01

    The spinal cord plays an important role in two general anesthetic end-points: analgesia and immobility in response to a noxious stimulus. The spinal components that may contribute to anesthetic actions include the central termination of sensory primary afferent neurons, interneurones and the cell bodies and initial axon segments of motor neurons, which are contained in dorsal horn and ventral horn respectively. Different general anesthetics have both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects to produce analgesia and immobility via multitude of cellular and subcellular sites identified as potential targets of anaesthetic action, such as diverse ligand-gated ion channels etc. This review will focus on anesthetic targets and molecular mechanisms mediated analgesia and immobility of general anesthetics in spinal cord.%脊髓是全身麻醉药抑制伤害性刺激体动反应和抗伤害效应的重要作用部位,含有不同配体门控离子受体等多个可能介导麻醉效应的靶点.不同药物在脊髓内经各自特异靶点通过多种分子机制发挥作用.现就全身麻醉药制动和镇痛效应在脊髓内的作用位点和分子机制作一综述.

  3. Influence of general anesthetics on brain development%全身麻醉药对脑发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕; 陈萍

    2008-01-01

    The mortality of neonatal anesthesia is decreasing with the development of anestheisia. Pharmacological blockade of Nmethyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors or over stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors has been reported to induce neuron apoptosis in the period of brain peak development. In view of the mechanisms of general anesthetics on central nervous system, the influence of anesthetic agents on brain development becomes the researching focus. Clarifying the mechanisms of anesthetics affecting brain development is very important for the rational use of anesthetics in neonates, as well as for the exploitation of new anesthetics.%随着麻醉领域的不断发展,新生儿麻醉的死亡率明显下降.一系列的研究表明,在脑发育高峰期,药物性阻断N-甲基-D-天(门)冬氨酸受体或过度激动γ-氨基丁酸A型受体会诱发神经细胞凋亡.鉴于全麻药在中枢神经系统的作用机制,麻醉药物对脑发育的影响成为人们研究的热点,其机制的阐明可能对新生儿麻醉用药的合理选用及新药的开发具有指导意义.

  4. Research Progress in Safety of Fish Anesthetics%鱼用麻醉剂安全性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕书为; 雷红涛; 孙远明

    2012-01-01

    鱼用麻醉剂能有效降低鱼类长途运输过程中的伤亡率,已在某些国家渔业生产中广泛应用,但其残留及安全性问题一直受到关注。目前有关鱼用麻醉剂的综述很少,为此本文对鱼用麻醉剂的类别、毒理学研究结果、麻醉剂在鱼体中积累与净化的影响因素等进行了综述,并对我国鱼用麻醉剂的使用和管理提出了部分建议。%Fish anesthetics can efficiently reduce the casualty rate of fish during long-distance transportation.Therefore,fish anesthetics have been widely used in fishery production in some countries.However,the residues of such anesthetics and the safety of fish have gained public concerns.In the present paper,the toxicology and the factors affecting accumulation and elimination of anesthetic residues are reviewed.Several prospects and suggestions are also provided for the future application and administration of fish anesthetics in China.

  5. The forced walking test: a novel test for pinpointing the anesthetic-induced transition in consciousness in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Shin, Hee-Sup; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2010-04-30

    In consciousness or anesthesia studies, pinpointing the precise moment of consciousness or anesthetic transition has been challenging because of the variable lag time between a treatment and its induced response. Here, we describe a novel behavioral method, a forced walking test, which pinpoints the moment of the anesthetic-induced loss of motion (LOM) without handling the animals manually. The mouse is forced to walk on a treadmill, and an anesthetic drug is administered into the peritoneum via a previously secured injection route. The physical activity and the angle of head posture are tracked using a motion sensor preinstalled on the animal's head. The moments of LOM and recovery of motion (ROM) are identified from the physical activity parameters obtained by the sensor. Comparison of our method with the conventional loss-of-righting-reflex assay showed that the time point of LOM was not significantly different between the two methods when examined with two different types of anesthetic agents, propofol and ketamine/xylazine cocktail. In addition, the electrophysiological signals simultaneously acquired in the cortex and the thalamus of the mouse during the forced walking test showed that the brain rhythms induced by ketamine/xylazine anesthesia were generated and terminated in a time-locked manner with respect to LOM and ROM, respectively. In conclusion, the forced walking test allows an objective and precise detection of anesthetic-induced LOM, as well as ROM during awakening from anesthesia, in test animals.

  6. Mentol e eugenol como substitutos da benzocaína na indução anestésica de juvenis de pacu = Menthol and eugenol as benzocaine substitutes in anesthetic induction of pacu juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fernando Nascimento Gonçalves

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a eficiência de anestésicos naturais na indução à anestesia de juvenis de pacu. Foram avaliadas quatro concentrações de mentol (50, 100, 150 e 200 mg L-1, quatro de eugenol (10, 25, 50 e 100 mg L-1 e uma de benzocaína (100 mg L-1. Durante o procedimento de anestesia, foram monitorados e avaliados quatro estágios de sedação, da redução dos movimentos operculares até a perda total de reação à manipulação. Após o procedimento de biometria, foram avaliados o tempo de recuperação e a mortalidade até48h após anestesia. As concentrações de 100, 150 e 200 mg L-1 de mentol e as concentrações de 50 e 100 mg L-1 de eugenol apresentaram tempos de indução à anestesia e recuperação similares aos da benzocaína. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o mentol e o eugenol são anestésicos eficientes para pacus em substituição à benzocaína, sugerindo a concentração de 100 mg L-1 de mentol e 50 mg L-1 de eugenol.This study aimed to verify the efficacy of natural anestheticinduction of pacu juveniles. Were evaluated four menthol (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1, four eugenol (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1 and one benzocaine (100 mg L-1 concentrations. During the anesthetic procedure, four sedative stages were monitored and evaluated until no reaction of the fish to handling was registered. After performingbiometric evaluation on the anesthetized fish, were recorded the recovery time and mortality rate up to 48 hours after the anesthetic experiments. Concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1 of menthol, 50 and 100 mg L-1 of eugenol showed anesthetic induction timeand recovery time similar to that of benzocaine. The obtained results showed that menthol and eugenol are efficient anesthetics for pacu juveniles in substitution of benzocaine, suggesting the concentration of 100 mg L-1 of menthol and 50 mg L-1 of eugenol.

  7. Topical amethocaine (Ametop) is superior to EMLA for intravenous cannulation. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) is commonly used to provide topical anesthesia for intravenous (i.v.) cannulation. One of its side effects is vasoconstriction, which may render cannulation more difficult. A gel formulation of amethocaine (Ametop) is now commercially available. The aim of this study was to compare EMLA and Ametop with regard to the degree of topical anesthesia afforded, the incidence of vasoconstriction and the ease of i.v. cannulation. METHODS: Thirty two ASA I adult volunteers had a #16 gauge i.v. cannula inserted on two separate occasions using EMLA and Ametop applied in a double blind fashion for topical anesthesia. Parameters that were recorded after each cannulation included visual analogue pain scores (VAPS), the presence of vasoconstriction and the ease of cannulation, graded as: 1 = easy, 2 = moderately difficult, 3 = difficult and 4 = failed. RESULTS: The mean VAPS +\\/- SD after cannulation with Ametop M was 12+\\/-9.9 and with EMLA was 25.3+\\/-16.6 (P = 0.002). Vasoconstriction occurred after EMLA application on 17 occasions and twice after Ametop (P = 0.001). The grade of difficulty of cannulation was 1.44+\\/-0.88 following EMLA and 1.06+\\/-0.25 with Ametop (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous cannulation was less painful following application of Ametop than EMLA. In addition, Ametop caused less vasoconstriction and facilitated easier cannulation. Its use as a topical anesthetic agent is recommended, especially when i.v. access may be problematic.

  8. Calcium and protons affect the interaction of neurotransmitters and anesthetics with anionic lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2016-09-01

    We study how zwitterionic and anionic biomembrane models interact with neurotransmitters (NTs) and anesthetics (ATs) in the presence of Ca(2+) and different pH conditions. As NTs we used acetylcholine (ACh), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and l-glutamic acid (LGlu). As ATs, tetracaine (TC), and pentobarbital (PB) were employed. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we analyzed the changes such molecules produce in the thermal properties of the membranes. We found that calcium and pH play important roles in the interactions of NTs and ATs with the anionic lipid membranes. Changes in pH promote deprotonation of the phosphate groups in anionic phospholipids inducing electrostatic interactions between them and NTs; but if Ca(2+) ions are in the system, these act as bridges. Such interactions impact the physical properties of the membranes in a similar manner that anesthetics do. Beyond the usual biochemical approach, we claim that these effects should be taken into account to understand the excitatory-inhibitory orchestrated balance in the nervous system. PMID:27362370

  9. A Survey of Perioperative and Postoperative Anesthetic Practices for Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leinani Aiono-Le Tagaloa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to review cesarean delivery anesthetic practices. An online survey was sent to members of the Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP. The mode of anesthesia, preferred neuraxial local anesthetic and opioid agents, postoperative analgesic regimens, and monitoring modalities were assessed. 384 responses from 1,081 online survey requests were received (response rate = 36%. Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for elective cesarean delivery (85% respondents, with 90% of these respondents preferring hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.75%. 79% used intrathecal fentanyl and 77% used morphine (median [range] dose 200 mcg [50–400]. 91% use respiratory rate, 61% use sedation scores, and 30% use pulse oximetry to monitor for postoperative respiratory depression after administration of neuraxial opioids. Postoperative analgesic regimens include: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetaminophen, oxycodone, and hydrocodone by 81%, 45%, 25%, and 27% respondents respectively. The majority of respondents use spinal anesthesia and neuraxial opioids for cesarean delivery anesthesia. There is marked variability in practices for monitoring respiratory depression postdelivery and for providing postoperative analgesia. These results may not be indicative of overall practice in the United States due to the select group of anesthesiologists surveyed and the low response rate.

  10. Effect of Lidocaine-Ketamine Infusions Combined with Morphine or Fentanyl in Sevoflurane-Anesthetized Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Michela; Canfrán, Susana; Largo, Carlota; Gómez de Segura, Ignacioa A

    2016-01-01

    Providing lidocaine, ketamine, and an opioid greatly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetics in dogs. However, the efficacy of this combination shows marked interspecies variation, and opioids are likely to be less effective in pigs than in other species. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of constant-rate infusion of lidocaine and ketamine combined with either morphine or fentanyl on the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs. In a prospective, randomized, crossover design, 8 healthy crossbred pigs were premedicated with ketamine and midazolam, and anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Pigs then received ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/h) and lidocaine (3 mg/kg/h) combined with either morphine (0.24 mg/kg/h; MLK) or fentanyl (0.0045 mg/kg/h; FLK) after a loading dose; the control group received Ringers lactate solution. The anesthetic-sparing action of the 2 infusion protocols was calculated according to the MAC, by using dewclaw clamping as the standard noxious stimulus. The sevoflurane MAC (mean ± 1 SD) was 2.0% ± 0.2%, 1.9% ± 0.4%, and 1.8% ± 0.2% in the control, MLK, and FLK groups, respectively. No differences among groups or treatments were found. In conclusion, the administration of MLK or FLK at the studied doses did not reduce the MAC of sevoflurane in pigs. PMID:27177566

  11. The anesthetic effect of alcohols and alkanes in caenorhabditis elegans (C. E. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A.H.; Berk, A.I.; Nicholls, C.H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors colleagues reported that the non-parasitic roundworm, C.E., was reversibly immobilized by volatile anesthetics, whose potencies were directly related to their lipid solubilities as in other animals. In further studies on this phenomenon, they tested a homologous series of organic solvents, to determine whether they also had a reversible anesthetic effect in C.E. as in other animals. Synchronized 3-1/2 day-old cultures of about 100 worms each were exposed to increasing concentrations of the alcohols (C{sub 1} - C{sub 14}) and alkanes (C{sub 5} -C{sub 10}) in 15 ml sealed bottles in a volume of 0.5 ml. The dose that reversibly immobilized 50% of the worms was determined and a straight line was plotted against the octanol/water partition coefficient (K) of each series. As with other animals, potency was directly related to the lipid solubility of these agents so that, for example, the ID{sub 50} for methanol was 1,000 mmol (K=0.12) whereas it was 0.17 mmol for heptanol (K=3,000). The alcohols were about 20 times more potent than the alkanes even though the latter were about 10 times more lipid soluble than the alcohols. In spite of these differences, the cut-off point was at C{sub 9} in the two series.

  12. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40% had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%, except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  13. Clinical features and anesthetic management of multiple endocrine neoplasia as sociated with pheochromocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗爱伦; 郭向阳; 任洪智; 黄宇光; 叶铁虎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical features and anesthetic management of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) associated with pheochromocytoma.Methods Medical records of patients who were diagnosed as multiple endocrine neoplasia a ssociated with pheochromocytoma in our hospital from April 1977 to April 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic data, clinical presentations, fami ly history, biochemical examinations, type of MEN, sequence of different surgica l procedures, anesthetic methods and hemodynamics during surgery were analyzed. Results Thirteen cases of MEN associated with pheochromocytoma were investigated, accounting for 6% (13/213) of the pheochromocytoma patients admitted into our hospital. Nine of the 13 patients presented as type Ⅱa MEN (Sipple syndrome), on e as type Ⅱb MEN, and three as mixed MEN. Four patients with typeⅡa MEN had a family history of similar disease. Five patients with other coexisting endocri ne disorders first underwent excision of the pheochromocytomas, although only tw o had hypertensive symptoms at the time of admittance. Seven patients without h istories of hypertension received surgical treatment for pheochromocytoma second ly. The excision of pheochromocytoma was performed under general anesthesia in 8 patients and epidural block in 4 patients. Marked hemodynamic fluctuation was recorded in 8 patients. No perioperative death was recorded. Conclusion Pheochromocytoma may be linked to other endocrine disorders during MEN, either as the main clinical presentation or most frequently as an occult tumor. Recognition of this feature of pheochromocytoma is of importance to the improvement of diagnosis and treatment both for pheochromocytoma and MEN.

  14. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A PATIENT WITH SITUS INVERSUS POSTED FOR LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

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    Sudhir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus totalis is a congenital visceral malrotation anomaly that results from disturbances in establishment of left-right asymmetry and it is characterized by total transposition of thoracic and abdominal viscera, and the predicted incidence is one in 10, 000 among the general population. In a patient with situs inversus totalis, not just the diagnosis of any acute abdomen pathology is difficult but equally challenging is the anesthetic management during the respective surgical procedure. We are reporting a patient who had situs inversus totalis and was operated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia with I-gel, a new supraglottic airway device as an airway conduit. Though the problems related to such patients are mainly of surgical feasibility, an anesthesiologist must be aware of the associated problems of both, situs inversus and the laparoscopy. The present case report lays an emphasis on the potential difficulties during anesthetic management and its various implications. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case in India of a successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis with use of I-gel.

  15. New Updates Pertaining to Drug Delivery of Local Anesthetics in Particular Bupivacaine Using Lipid Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Eatemadi, Ali; Karimi, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (liposomes) were first described in 1965, and several work have led to development of important technical advances like triggered release liposomes and drug-loaded liposomes. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas such as the delivery of anti-cancer, antifungal, and antibiotic drugs; the delivery of gene medicines; and most importantly the delivery of anesthesia drugs. Quite a number of liposomes are on the market, and many more are still in developmental stage. Lipid nanoparticles are the first nano-medicine delivery system to be advanced from laboratory concept to clinical application with high considerable clinical acceptance. Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics (LAs) have caught the interest of many researchers because there are many biomedical advantages connected to their application. There have been several formulation techniques to systemically deliver LA that include encapsulation in liposomes and complexation in cyclodextrins, nanoparticles, and to a little extent gold nanoparticles. The proposed formulations help to decrease the LA concentration utilized, increase its permeability, and most importantly increase the localization of the LA for a long period of time thereby leading to increase in the duration of the LA effect and finally to reduce any local and systemic toxicity. In this review, we will highlight on new updates pertaining to drug delivery of local anesthetics in particular bupivacaine using lipid nanoparticles.

  16. HEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED CAPTIVE TASMANIAN DEVILS (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Katharine L; Peck, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population has decreased by estimates of 80% in the past 20 yr due to the effects of devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). In the process of creating a DFTD-free insurance population, the captive population and the number of institutions housing devils worldwide has increased tremendously. In order to provide the best husbandry and veterinary care for these captive animals, it is essential to know normal hematology and biochemistry values for the species. Baseline reference intervals (RIs) were determined for hematology and biochemistry variables for 170 healthy anesthetized captive Tasmanian devils and significant sex and age differences were determined. Higher relative neutrophil counts, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and cholesterol were seen in males compared to females, whereas higher white cell counts (WBC) and lymphocyte counts (absolute and relative) were seen in females. Subadults have higher red blood cell counts, WBC, lymphocytes (absolute and relative), calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose, and albumin than adults; whereas, adults have higher relative neutrophils, relative eosinophils, mean corpuscular volume, MCH, platelets, total solids, total plasma proteins, globulins, and chloride than subadults. This study provides a comprehensive report of hematology and serum biochemistry RIs for healthy captive anesthetized Tasmanian devils and offers invaluable diagnostic information to care for the growing captive population of this endangered marsupial. PMID:27468030

  17. [Anesthesia for geriatric patients : Part 2: anesthetics, patient age and anesthesia management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, A; Löser, S; Wilhelm, W

    2012-04-01

    Part 2 of this review on geriatric anesthesia primarily describes the multiple influences of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different anesthetic agents and their impact on clinical practice. In the elderly the demand for opioids is reduced by almost 50% and with total intravenous anesthesia the dosages of propofol and remifentanil as well as recovery times are more determined by patient age than by body weight. As a result depth of anesthesia monitoring is recommended for geriatric patients to individually adjust the dosing to patients needs. With muscle relaxants both delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of drug effects must be considered with increasing age and as this may lead to respiratory complications, neuromuscular monitoring is highly recommended. The following measures appear to be beneficial for geriatric patients: thorough preoperative assessment, extended hemodynamic monitoring, use of short-acting anesthetics in individually adjusted doses best tailored by depth of anesthesia monitoring, intraoperative normotension, normothermia and normocapnia, complete neuromuscular recovery at the end of the procedure and well-planned postoperative pain management in order to reduce or avoid the use of opioids.

  18. New Updates Pertaining to Drug Delivery of Local Anesthetics in Particular Bupivacaine Using Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Eatemadi, Ali; Karimi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (liposomes) were first described in 1965, and several work have led to development of important technical advances like triggered release liposomes and drug-loaded liposomes. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas such as the delivery of anti-cancer, antifungal, and antibiotic drugs; the delivery of gene medicines; and most importantly the delivery of anesthesia drugs. Quite a number of liposomes are on the market, and many more are still in developmental stage. Lipid nanoparticles are the first nano-medicine delivery system to be advanced from laboratory concept to clinical application with high considerable clinical acceptance. Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics (LAs) have caught the interest of many researchers because there are many biomedical advantages connected to their application. There have been several formulation techniques to systemically deliver LA that include encapsulation in liposomes and complexation in cyclodextrins, nanoparticles, and to a little extent gold nanoparticles. The proposed formulations help to decrease the LA concentration utilized, increase its permeability, and most importantly increase the localization of the LA for a long period of time thereby leading to increase in the duration of the LA effect and finally to reduce any local and systemic toxicity. In this review, we will highlight on new updates pertaining to drug delivery of local anesthetics in particular bupivacaine using lipid nanoparticles. PMID:27342601

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Pain Scores during Periodontal Probing with or without Anesthetic Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashank Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. The initial periodontal examination which includes full-mouth periodontal probing is one of the discomforting procedures for a patient. Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of two local anesthetic gels in the reduction of pain during periodontal probing using Florida probe in CGP patients in comparison with manual probing. Materials and Methods. Ninety systemically healthy patients with moderate to severe CGP patients were recruited. In each patient, the quadrants were randomly assigned to manual probing with UNC-15 probe, probing with Florida probe, and Florida probing with lidocaine 10% gel and with benzocaine 20% gel. In the quadrants undergoing probing with anesthetic gels, the sites were isolated and the gel was injected using syringe and a blunt-end cannula. Pain was measured using 10 mm horizontal VAS. Statistical Analysis. The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. The comparison of mean VAS scores was done using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. Mean VAS for manual probing was significantly more than Florida probing. Further, the mean VAS score for Florida probing was higher than the two gels. Conclusion. It is suggested that the gels might be useful in reducing pain experienced during full-mouth periodontal probing in patients with CGP.

  20. A survey to access knowledge and practice among dentists regarding local anesthetic dosage in three cities of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in routine dentistry. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Many dentists use these drugs routinely but are unaware of the dose calculations required and the maximum safe and effective dose of the drug. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge that general dental practitioners and dental specialists, in three different cities in India, have regarding dose calculations and the maximum-dose required of the most commonly used local anesthetics. A one page survey questionnaire was used in this study and data were analyzed using standard SPSS statistical program version 11, software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The respondents comprised 71.4% general dental practitioners and 28.5% dental specialists, with ages ranging from 26 to 50 years; Nearly 75% of the total respondent was males and 25% females. Nearly 69% of the respondents were unaware of the maximum recommended dose for use on adult, healthy patients and 81% were still confused about the maximum numbers of syringes containing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline that can be given to a patient. A total of 49% of general dental practitioners and specialists do not perform aspiration when injecting local anesthetics, whereas only 38% performed the aspiration in inferior nerve block technique, while only 12% performed aspiration in all types of injection techniques. A high percentage of the dentists (84% who responded are unaware of how to calculate the local anesthetic dose and 31% of them encountered complications during, or after, local anesthetic administration. Conclusion: General practitioners and dental specialists appear to have an inadequate knowledge about local anesthetics maximum-dose and dose calculations; further educational courses are recommended to update them regarding such

  1. Use of continuous local anesthetic infusion in the management of postoperative split-thickness skin graft donor site pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jorge L Reguero; Savetamal, Alisa; Crombie, Roselle E; Cholewczynski, Walter; Atweh, Nabil; Possenti, Paul; Schulz, John T

    2013-01-01

    Donor sites from split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) impose significant pain on patients in the early postoperative period. We report the use of continuous local anesthetic infusion as a method for the management of postoperative STSG donor site pain. Patients undergoing single or dual, adjacent STSG harvest from the thigh (eight patients) or back (one patient) were included in this study. Immediately after STSG harvest, subcutaneous catheters were placed for continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Daily donor site-specific pain severity scores were prospectively recorded in nine patients receiving local anesthetic infusion. Patient characteristics, technical aspects, and postoperative complications were identified in the study. The thigh was the anatomic location chosen for most donor sites. A single catheter was placed for donor sites limited to 4 inches in width or less. A dual catheter system was used for those wider than 4 inches. An elastomeric pump delivered continuously a total of 4 ml/hr of a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine. The average anesthetic infusion duration was 3.1 days. A substantial decrease in worst, least, and average donor site pain scores was found from the first 24 hours to the second postoperative day in our patients, a treatment trend that continued through postoperative day 3. One patient developed minor anesthetic leakage from the catheter insertion site; and in three cases, accidental dislodgement of the catheters occurred. There were no cases of donor site secondary infection. All donor sites were completely epithelialized at 1-month follow-up. Continuous local anesthetic infusion is technically feasible and may represent an option for postoperative donor site pain control after STSG harvesting. Relative cost-benefit of the technique remains to be determined. PMID:23271060

  2. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  3. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, F Aura; Wells, Grace I; Langdale, Christopher L; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  4. Effects of Corocalm (Shuguan Capsule,疏冠胶囊) on Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Anesthetized Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Corocalm (Shuguan Capsule, 疏冠胶囊) on acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs and its possible therapeutic mechanism. Methods: The acute ischemia model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Twentyfive dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups (5 dogs in each group): the control group (treated with normal saline 3 mL/kg), the refined Guanxin Capsule group (精制冠心胶囊, GXC 200 mg/kg), high and Iow dose Corocalm groups (48.5 mg/kg for low dose group and 194.0 mg/kg for high dose group) and the Diltiazem group (5 mg/kg). The animals were treated via a single duodenal administration after the model was established. The experiments used epicardial electrocardiogram (EECG) to measure the scope and degree of myocardial ischemia. Simultaneously, the coronary blood flow (CBF) and serum activity levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured by electromagnetic flow meter and automatic biochemical analyzer respectively. The plasma endothelin (ET) content was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Results: Corocalm (48.5 mg/kg and 194.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased the degree and scope of myocardial ischemia, reduced the infarct area, markedly increased the CBF, and inhibited the increase of CK and LDH activities and ET levels induced by myocardial ischemia/infarction. Conclusion: Corocalm could improve the state of acute myocardial ischemia and infarction in dogs. The mechanism of action might be correlated to increasing CBF,inhibiting CK and LDH activities and preventing ET release.

  5. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ketamine in dogs anesthetized with enflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, I M; Szlam, F; Hug, C C

    1991-04-01

    The plasma concentration vs. anesthetic effect relationships for ketamine are not well known. It is desirable to establish stable and predictable drug concentrations in plasma (and brain) in order to define such relationships. As a prelude to pharmacodynamic studies, we investigated ketamine pharmacokinetics in eight dogs anesthetized with enflurane and correlated ketamine concentration in plasma (KET) with its ability to reduce the enflurane concentration required for anesthesia (enflurane EC50: MAC--the end-tidal concentration at which half the dogs moved in response to clamping of the tail and half did not move). Four dogs (Group 1) received ketamine 10 mg/kg iv over 30 sec. Blood for determination of KET was collected repeatedly over the 5-h period following injection. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters determined for Group 1, four dogs in Group 2 received ketamine as a continuous infusion of 300 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 5 hr accompanied by an initial loading dose (26 mg/kg administered over 20 min) designed to produce a stable KET of 20 micrograms/ml of plasma. Enflurane MAC and KET were determined regularly during the infusion and for 5 hr after discontinuation of the infusion. There were no significant differences in the following pharmacokinetic parameters determined for Group 1 vs. Group 2: t1/2 beta = 122 +/- 9 vs. 141 +/- 40 min (mean +/- SD) and CL = 18.1 +/- 5.9 vs. 13.9 +/- 2.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. When administered as a continuous infusion (Group 2), KET remained relatively stable at 22.1 +/- 4.6 micrograms/ml for 5 hr. The degree of MAC reduction remained relatively stable at 73% during the continuous infusion. Finally, the enflurane MAC reduction vs. KET was established over a wide range of plasma concentrations in 4 additional dogs (Group 3). This study determined that the pharmacokinetics of ketamine were consistent under two different experimental conditions and demonstrated the relationship between plasma concentration and

  6. Volatile anesthetics inhibit the activity of calmodulin by interacting with its hydrophobic site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Miao-miao; XIA Hui-min; LIU Jiao; XU You-nian; XIN Nai-xin; ZHANG Shi-hai

    2012-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics (VAs) may affect varied and complex physiology processes by manipulating Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM).However,the detailed mechanism about the action of VAs on CaM has not been elucidated.This study was undertaken to examine the effects of VAs on the conformational change,hydrophobic site,and downstream signaling pathway of CaM,to explore the possible mechanism of anesthetic action of VAs.Methods Real-time second-harmonic generation (SHG) was performed to monitor the conformational change of CaM in the presence of VAs, each plus 100 μmol/L Ca2+. A hydrophobic fluorescence indicator,8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS),was utilized to define whether the VAs would interact with CaM at the hydrophobic site or not.High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was carried out to analyze the activity of CaM-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE1) in the presence of VAs.The VAs studied were ether,enflurane,isoflurane,and sevoflurane,with their aqueous concentrations 7.6,9.5,11.4 mmol/L; 0.42,0.52,0.62 mmol/L; 0.25,0.31,0.37 mmol/L and 0.47,0.59,0.71 mmol/L respectively,each were equivalent to their 0.8,1.0 and 1.2 concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) for general anesthesia.Results The second-harmonic radiation of CaM in the presence of Ca2+ was largely inhibited by the VAs.The fluorescence intensity of ANS,generated by binding of Ca2+ to CaM,was reversed by the VAs.HPLC results also showed that AMP,the product of the hydrolysis of cAMP by CaM-dependent PDE1,was reduced by the VAs.Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the above VAs interact with the hydrophobic core of Ca2+-CaM and the interaction results in the inhibition of the conformational change and activity of CaM.This in vitro study may provide us insight into the possible mechanism of anesthetic action of VAs in vivo.

  7. Anesthetic complications including two cases of postoperative respiratory depression in living liver donor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beebe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living liver donation is becoming a more common means to treat patients with liver failure because of a shortage of cadaveric organs and tissues. There is a potential for morbidity and mortality, however, in patients who donate a portion of their liver. The purpose of this study is to identify anesthetic complications and morbidity resulting from living liver donor surgery. Patients and Methods: The anesthetic records of all patients who donated a segment of their liver between January 1997 and January 2006 at University of Minnesota Medical Center-Fairview were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical and anesthesia time, blood loss, hospitalization length, complications, morbidity, and mortality were recorded. Data were reported as absolute values, mean ± SD, or percentage. Significance (P < 0.05 was determined using Student′s paired t tests. Results: Seventy-four patients (34 male, 40 female, mean age = 35.5 ± 9.8 years donated a portion of their liver and were reviewed in the study. Fifty-seven patients (77% donated the right hepatic lobe, while 17 (23% donated a left hepatic segment. The average surgical time for all patients was 7.8 ± 1.5 hours, the anesthesia time was 9.0 ± 1.3 hours, and the blood loss was 423 ± 253 ml. Forty-six patients (62.2% received autologous blood either from a cell saver or at the end of surgery following acute, normovolemic hemodilution, but none required an allogenic transfusion. Two patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory depression. Both patients donated their right hepatic lobe. One required reintubation in the recovery room and remained intubated overnight. The other was extubated but required observation in the intensive care unit for a low respiratory rate. Twelve patients (16.2% had complaints of nausea, and two reported nausea with vomiting during their hospital stay. There were four patients who developed complications related to positioning during the

  8. 比较亚麻醉剂量氯胺酮和七氟醚用于麻醉的临床效果%Comparison of Clinical Anesthetic Effects between Sub-anesthetic Ketamine and Sevoflurane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪宇

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比七氟醚与亚麻醉剂量氯胺酮用于临床麻醉效果。方法对2013年4月-2014年9月入诊该院的100例需实施麻醉的患者按照50例为一组分成两组,观察组使用亚麻醉剂量氯胺酮,对照组使用七氟醚,观察并记录两组麻醉效果及不良反应发生情况,同时进行组间对比。结果观察组总体麻醉效果优于对照组,其总体用药量较少、起效时间较短,完全阻滞时间同样短于对照组(P<0.01);观察组患者治疗后均未出现任何不良反应,对照组中有9例出现恶心症状(P<0.01)。结论临床使用亚麻醉剂量氯胺酮的麻醉效果显著优于七氟醚,且不会引起不良反应症状发生,临床可推广应用。%Objective To compared the clinical anesthetic effects of sub-anesthetic ketamine and sevoflurane. Methods 100 pa-tients to be narcotized were divided into the observation group and the control group, with 50 patients in each group. The observa-tion group was given sub-anesthetic ketamine and the control group was given sevoflurane. The anesthetic effect and adverse reac-tion of both groups were observed, recorded and compared. Results The anesthetic effect of the observation group was better than that of the control group, with less dosage, efficacy time, and complete retardant time (P<0.01). The patients of the observation group had no adverse reaction after treatment, while 9 patients of the control group had nausea symptom (P<0.01). Conclusion The clinical anesthetic effect of sub-anesthetic ketamine is significantly better than that of sevoflurane. Ketamine will not cause any adverse reaction, and thus is worth clinical promotion.

  9. Anesthetic protocol for videolaparoscopic surgery in rabbits Protocolo anestésico para cirurgia videolaparoscópica em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Pereira Balbinotto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the anesthetic protocol and the intubation technique without visualizing the trachea in rabbits, in order to enable the videolaparoscopic surgical procedure. METHODS: The experiment was performed on 33 female rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, aged from 5 to 7 months. It consisted of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation by manual palpation of the trachea of the rabbits, without using the laryngoscope, orally, for later videolaparoscopic surgical access to the abdominal cavity. RESULTS: The mean values and standard deviation of vital parameters of the animals were 223.8±15.61 beats per minute for heart rate; 35±9 movements per minute for respiratory rate; 96.94±0.99% of oxymetry and 42.82±4.02 mmHg for capnometry; 16.7±4.3 minutes for pneumoperitoneum (duration of surgery and 1 hour and 14±8.52 minutes for time of observation (from induction to recovery from anesthesia. All animals were intubated in at most three attempts. No animals were lost after the introduction of this anesthetic technique. CONCLUSION: This protocol proved adequate, safe and easy to perform, on rabbits submitted to videolaparoscopic surgery.OBJETIVO: Descrever o protocolo anestésico e a técnica de intubação sem visualização da traqueia em coelhos, para viabilização de procedimento cirúrgico videolaparoscópico. MÉTODOS: O experimento foi realizado em 33 coelhas (Oryctolagus cuniculus, com idade entre 5 e 7 meses. Consistiu de anestesia geral e intubação endotraqueal por meio de palpação manual da traquéia das coelhas, sem o uso de laringoscópio, pela via oral, para posterior acesso cirúrgico videolaparoscópico da cavidade abdominal. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios e desvio padrão dos parâmetros vitais dos animais foram de 223,8±15,61 batimentos por minuto para freqüência cardíaca; 35±9 movimentos por minuto para frequência respiratória; 96,94±0,99% de oximetria e 42,82±4,02 mmHg para capnometria; 16,7±4,3 minutos

  10. Effect of fedotozine on the cardiovascular pain reflex induced by distension of the irritated colon in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A; Diop, L; Rivière, P J; Pascaud, X; Junien, J L

    1994-12-27

    The effect of fedotozine was evaluated in a model of colonic hypersensibility to balloon distension in anesthetized rats. Acetic acid (0.6%, intracolonically) significantly enhanced the hypotension reflex response to colonic distension (P hypersensibility to painful mechanical stimuli and that some but not all kappa-opioid receptor ligands can have enhanced efficacy in this pathological situation. PMID:7705424

  11. Guidelines for the use of local anesthetics in the dental treatment of patients who are susceptible to malignant hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, J; Adragna, M G

    1988-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the safe use of local anesthetics in patients who are susceptible to malignant hyperthermia undergoing dental treatment. This article reviews the literature for reports of malignant hyperthermia reactions under local and general anesthesia, and suggests a protocol for the management of these patients in the dental office. PMID:2978768

  12. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 is important for the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous glucagon in anesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Klarskov, Letty; Olesen, Mette;

    2004-01-01

    , a selective NEP inhibitor, on plasma levels of endogenous and exogenous glucagon was examined in anesthetized pigs. Candoxatril increased endogenous glucagon concentrations, from 6.3 +/- 2.5 to 20.7 +/- 6.3 pmol/l [COOH-terminal (C)-RIA, P

  13. Opposing effects of the anesthetic propofol at pentameric ligand-gated ion channels mediated by a common site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Laube, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is an intravenous general anesthetic that alters neuronal excitability by modulating agonist responses of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). Evidence suggests that propofol enhancement of anion-selective pLGICs is mediated by a binding site between adjacent subunits, whereas ...

  14. Synthesis of Two Local Anesthetics from Toluene: An Organic Multistep Synthesis in a Project-Oriented Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demare, Patricia; Regla, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one of the projects in the advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course concerning the synthesis of two local anesthetic drugs, prilocaine and benzocaine, with a common three-step sequence starting from toluene. Students undertake, in a several-week independent project, the multistep synthesis of a…

  15. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block (ACB) is predominantly a sensory nerve block, but excess volume may spread to the femoral triangle and reduce quadriceps strength. We hypothesized that reducing the local anesthetic volume from 30 to 10 mL may lead to fewer subjects with quadriceps...

  16. Analgesic and Sensory Effects of the Pecs Local Anesthetic Block in Patients with Persistent Pain after Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) develops in 15% to 25% of patients, sometimes years after surgery. Approximately 50% of PPBCS patients have neuropathic pain in the breast, which may be due to dysfunction of the pectoral nerves. The Pecs local anesthetic block...

  17. A placebo-controlled trial to evaluate an anesthetic gel when probing in patients with advanced periodontitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Winning, Lewis

    2012-12-01

    The baseline periodontal examination is reported to be a painful dental procedure, but currently there are limited practical techniques to reduce this pain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an intrapocket anesthetic gel in the reduction of pain on periodontal probing in a group of untreated patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP).

  18. Addition of local anesthetics to contrast media. Pt. 1. Effects on patient discomfort and hemodynamics in aortofemoral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, P.; Almen, T.; Golman, K.; Jonsson, K.; Nyman, U.

    Effects of equiosmolar solutions (osmolality 1.35 mol/kg) of the ratio 1.5 contrast medium metrizoate (250 mg I/ml) containing either the local anesthetic mepivacaine or saline were evaluated on subjective discomfort, aortic blood pressure and heart rate in 17 patients referred for aortofemoral angiography due to intermittent claudication. Each patient was injected with 30 ml (15 ml/s) of each solution in random double-blind order. Each patient was then injected with 45 ml (12 ml/s) of the raio 3 medium ioxaglate (320 mg I/ml, osmolality 0.58 ml/kg). Ioxaglate caused significantly less total discomfort, pain, heat, vocal reaction, involuntary movements and hemodynamic effects than mitrizoate-mepivacaine and metrizoate-saline. The effects of the two metrizoate solutions did not differ significantly. Previous contradictory reports on the effects of anesthetics in contrast media were reviewed with regard to experimental design, different osmolality of the test and control solutions, premedication, and pH dependence of local anesthetics. Ratio 3 media are recommended because they produce a more reliable relief of patient discomfort and fewer hemodynamic changes than the addition of local anesthetics to ratio 1.5 media.

  19. Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanoğlu, Kemal Varım; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Er, Duygu TatlıEbubekir

    2014-01-01

    Background Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic effects of tramadol have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine both the systemic analgesic and the local anesthetic effects of tramadol and to determine how it differs from bupivacaine when administered preincisionally. Methods Fifty-two healthy children, aged 2–7 years, who were scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy were randomly allocated to receive either preincisional infiltration at the surgical site with 2 mg/kg tramadol (Group T, n=26) or 0.25 mL/kg 0.5% bupivacaine (Group B, n=26). At the time of anesthetic administration, perioperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded. The pain assessments were performed 10 minutes after the end of anesthesia and during the first 6-hour period, using pain scores. The time of first dose of analgesia and need for additional analgesia were recorded. Results Between T and B groups, the anesthesia time, perioperative hemodynamic changes, and pain scores were not statistically different. However, in group B, the postoperative analgesic requirement was higher than in group T. Conclusion Tramadol shows equal analgesic effect to bupivacaine and decreases additional analgesic requirement, when used for preincisional infiltration anesthesia in children undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy. PMID:25285011

  20. Anesthetic management of patient with hemophilia a undergoing emergency ventriculoperitoneal shunting: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Saeed Khokhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a hemorrhagic trend almost exclusively affecting males (X-related recessive disease. In 85% of cases, it is caused by factor VIII deficiency, called hemophilia A or classic hemophilia. Successful anesthetic management depends on the special care and a multidisciplinary team of health professionals informed about the disease, including qualified hematologist, surgeon, and anesthesiologist.

  1. A simple intervention to reduce the anesthetic pharmacy budget; the effect of price list stickers placed on vaporizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, M.J.L.; Landman, J.J.; Onzenoort, H.A.W. van; Kox, M.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study objective is to investigate the effects of a simple price list sticker placed on vaporizers on anesthetic use and costs. The price list only showed the cost per hour of the annually most expensive drugs, which had a low-cost alternative. DESIGN: The design is a prospective

  2. Long-term optical imaging of intrinsic signals in anesthetized and awake monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Anna W.

    2007-04-01

    Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

  3. Volatile Anesthetics. Is a New Player Emerging in Critical Care Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerath, Angela; Parotto, Matteo; Wasowicz, Marcin; Ferguson, Niall D

    2016-06-01

    Volatile anesthetic agent use in the intensive care unit, aided by technological advances, has become more accessible to critical care physicians. With increasing concern over adverse patient consequences associated with our current sedation practice, there is growing interest to find non-benzodiazepine-based alternative sedatives. Research has demonstrated that volatile-based sedation may provide superior awakening and extubation times in comparison with current intravenous sedation agents (propofol and benzodiazepines). Volatile agents may possess important end-organ protective properties mediated via cytoprotective and antiinflammatory mechanisms. However, like all sedatives, volatile agents are capable of deeply sedating patients, which can have respiratory depressant effects and reduce patient mobility. This review seeks to critically appraise current volatile use in critical care medicine including current research, technical consideration of their use, contraindications, areas of controversy, and proposed future research topics. PMID:27002466

  4. Volatile Anesthetics. Is a New Player Emerging in Critical Care Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerath, Angela; Parotto, Matteo; Wasowicz, Marcin; Ferguson, Niall D

    2016-06-01

    Volatile anesthetic agent use in the intensive care unit, aided by technological advances, has become more accessible to critical care physicians. With increasing concern over adverse patient consequences associated with our current sedation practice, there is growing interest to find non-benzodiazepine-based alternative sedatives. Research has demonstrated that volatile-based sedation may provide superior awakening and extubation times in comparison with current intravenous sedation agents (propofol and benzodiazepines). Volatile agents may possess important end-organ protective properties mediated via cytoprotective and antiinflammatory mechanisms. However, like all sedatives, volatile agents are capable of deeply sedating patients, which can have respiratory depressant effects and reduce patient mobility. This review seeks to critically appraise current volatile use in critical care medicine including current research, technical consideration of their use, contraindications, areas of controversy, and proposed future research topics.

  5. The use of epinephrine-containing anesthetic solutions in cardiac patients: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERLACH Raquel Fernanda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey of 150 last term dental students from four dental schools was performed to delineate their current opinion with regard to the use of epinephrine-containing anesthetic solutions for dental procedures in cardiac patients. The students provided their opinion as "contraindicated" or "not contraindicated" regarding the use of these solutions in eight cardiac patients with either stable or unstable heart diseases including ischemic heart disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, and heart failure. We found an overall 77% rate of right answers among all students. Mistakes occurred more frequently when treating patients with ischemic heart disease (68% of right answers. Although vasoconstrictors may offer many advantages and are not contraindicated to the majority of cardiac patients, graduating dental students sometimes do not comply with current guidelines.

  6. DESENSITIZATION OF ACETYLCHOLINE ON THE INHIBITION EFFECTS OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN ANESTHETIZED CANINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉娜; 吕军; 臧伟进; 于晓江; 孙晓东; 高小利

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the desensitization of acetylcholine (Ach) on the inhibition effects of blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized canine and build a model for studying desensitization in vivo. Methods Through changing the intervals (120, 100, 80, 60, 40, 20 seconds) of twice Ach administration (each was 15μg*kg-1,I.v.), the desensitization on the effect of systemic blood pressure of the first Ach injection towards the subsequent Ach administration was observed. Results When Ach administration intervals were 40, 60, 80, 100 seconds, the percentages of desensitization of Ach on systemic blood pressure were significantly increased (P0.05). Conclusion The results indicated that Ach contents in blood might influence the action of next Ach administration. To some extent, the higher the concentration of Ach in blood, the bigger the ratio of desensitization of exogenous Ach is. In addition, this method of twice drug administration could be used as a model of studying desensitization in vivo.

  7. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.

  8. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF AN ANEMIC PARTURIENT WITH SEVERE KYPHOSCOLIOSIS AND BILATERAL POLIOMYELITIS FOR EMERGENCY CAESAREAN SECTION

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    Sujay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesia for emergency caesarean section for a pregnant patient with severe dorsolumbar kyphoscoliosis and severe anemia is associated with potential risks for both mother and the fetus due to alterations in maternal physiology and the pathological changes associated with kyphoscoliosis. In an emergency situation, the anesthesiologist has to quickly choose the anesthetic technique depending on the cardiopulmonary status of the patient and feasibility. We present a case of a 20 year old parturient in labour with severe kyphoscoliosis and severe anemia who was posted for emergency caesarean section. In view of severe anemia, anticipated technical difficulties with central neuraxial blocks and emergency situation, she was administered general anesthesia (GA with uneventful recovery.

  9. Direct Determination of the Blood Concentration of Halogenated Anesthetic Agents by Gas Chromatography

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    Yamada,Teruo

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct determination by gas chromatography of blood levels of anesthetic agents has been difficult because of the water content of blood. In the present study, the method of Yokota et al. (1967 was modified by improving the packing materials of the column, the blood sample vaporizer and the flow-path during analysis. As a result, accurate and reproducible determination of halothane, enflurane and isoflurane dissolved in blood was achieved. With this system, blood in which halothane, enflurane and isoflurane had been dissolved could be analyzed without changing the column between samples. Moreover, each sample was prepared in less than 10 min, and more than 100 consecutive determinations could be made with excellent reproducibility. The coefficient of variation was less than 3.8%.

  10. [Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Central Core Disease for Scoliosis Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimi, Nobuo; Izumi, Kaoru; Sumiyoshi, Rieko; Mizuno, Keiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is a dominantly inherited congenital myopathy. CCD is also associated with muscular and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), hip dislocation, and joint deformities. CCD and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are both associated with mutations in the ryanodine receptor on chromosome 19q13.1. An 11-year-old boy with CCD complicated with severe scoliosis was scheduled for spinal fusion surgery under general anesthesia. Furthermore, he had trismus caused by temporomandibular contracture. He was considered as MH susceptible. Anesthesia was managed with remifentanil and propofol without using muscle relaxtants and volatile anesthetics. We could intubate the trachea with Airtraq laryngoscope without any complications. The perioperative course was uneventful. PMID:27483668

  11. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO2 (PaO2) and PCO2 (PaCO2), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO2 consistently decreased, and PaCO2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p0.2)

  12. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. PMID:24924217

  13. The influence of anesthetics, neurotransmitters and antibiotics on the relaxation processes in lipid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, H M; Heimburg, T; Gudmundsson, Marie L.; Heimburg, Thomas; Seeger, Heiko M.

    2007-01-01

    In the proximity of melting transitions of artificial and biological membranes fluctuations in enthalpy, area, volume and concentration are enhanced. This results in domain formation, changes of the elastic constants, changes in permeability and slowing down of relaxation processes. In this study we used pressure perturbation calorimetry to investigate the relaxation time scale after a jump into the melting transition regime of artificial lipid membranes. This time corresponds to the characteristic rate of domain growth. The studies were performed on single-component large unilamellar and multilamellar vesicle systems with and without the addition of small molecules such as general anesthetics, neurotransmitters and antibiotics. These drugs interact with membranes and affect melting points and profiles. In all systems we found that heat capacity and relaxation times are related to each other in a simple manner. The maximum relaxation time depends on the cooperativity of the heat capacity profile and decreases...

  14. Characterization of the hypotensive effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Takashi; Kaneko, Maki; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-08-29

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and α-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The maximum change of MAP (maximum ΔMAP) was reduced by vagotomy or prazosin, but not propranolol. The effects of the central but not peripheral administration of GLP-2 were reduced by atropine. These results suggest that GLP-2 modulates vagal afferent inputs and inhibits the sympathetic nervous system in the brain to induce hypotension. PMID:23867714

  15. Anesthetic management of primary hyperparathyroidism: A role rarely noticed and appreciated so far

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    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine surgeries have been on the rise for the last few years. During surgery, endocrine disorders present unique challenges to the endocrinologist and to the attending anesthesiologist. The endocrine, electrolyte and metabolic disturbances resulting from such disorders can have a profound effect on the normal human physiological milieu. Surgery of parathyroid glands is no exception and is associated with a multiple challenges during pre-, intra-, and post-operative period. Pre-op examination and optimization is essential so as to prevent any intra-op or post-op complications. The most striking electrolyte disturbance during parathyroid surgery is the imbalance of calcium levels in the body and the main emphasis during the entire peri-operative period revolves around the maintenance of normal serum calcium levels. The present article review in depth the various anesthetic considerations and implications during parathyroid surgery with an emphasis on pre-op preparation for elective and emergency surgery.

  16. [Optimization of anesthetic service during abdominal delivery of pregnant women with gestosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiukov, V L; Pyregov, A V; Shepetovskaia, N L; Pivovarova, G M; Gur'ianov, V A

    2007-01-01

    Differential preoperative preparation of pregnant women with gestosis, by using calcium antagonists is an effective preventive measure against a circulatory hyperdynamic response to transportation to the operating suite. In pregnant women who had all hemodynamic types at baseline, the eukinetic type achieved during the preparation is retained. The patients with gestosis who did not receive calcium antagonists were found to have a circulatory hyperdynamic response with increased myocardial oxygen uptake (during surgery in particular). The use of calcium antagonists, ketonal, tranexamic acid, and hydroxyethyl starch-130/04 solution in the anesthetic appliance promoted the preservation of eukinetic hemodynamics in all those operated on, without increasing myocardial oxygen demands. The better reaction of the circulatory system and myocardial oxygen demands to surgical injury (the second mediatory wave of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome) correlated with higher neonatal Apgar scores in this category of puerperas with gestosis.

  17. Plasma concentration and cardiovascular effects of lidocaine during continuous epidural administration in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakonju, Iwao; Maeda, Kenichi; Karasawa, Koichi; Tadokoro, Toshiyuki; Kakuta, Tomoko; Takase, Katsuaki

    2011-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of continuous epidural administration (CEA) of lidocaine were investigated in anesthetized dogs. Loading epidural injections of 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg of lidocaine were followed by CEA with 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg/hr lidocaine, respectively, for 2 hr under 2.0% isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, direct blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke volume decreased dose-dependently during CEA, whereas systemic vascular resistance did not significantly differ with dose, and no characteristic changes were observed in any groups. Plasma lidocaine concentration reached a steady state during CEA and increased in a dose-dependent manner. Circulatory suppression caused by lidocaine CEA was not attributable to peripheral vasodilation, but rather to the direct cardiac action of systemic lidocaine absorption from the peridural space. PMID:21048393

  18. Comparison of O2 saturation, heart and respiratory rate following injection of vasoconstrictor containing anesthetic (lidocaine 2% and without vasoconstrictor anesthetic (Mepivacaine

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    Bayat M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Along with higher usage of dental local anesthesia with risks to people health together with their positive role, the important goal of dentistry, patients’ health, has been stressed repeatedly nowadays. This study was conducted to compare O2 saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate of patients following injection of anesthetic containing vasoconstrictor (lidocaine 2% and without vasoconstrictor (Mepivacaine. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 32 healthy humans (16 females and 16 males with 25-50 years age range and no history of drug usage. Cases were classified into two matched groups. O2 saturation, heart and respiratory rate were recorded before extraction of a mandibular posterior tooth. In the first group, 3.6 ml lidocaine 2% with 1:80,000 epinephrine and in the second group Mepivacaine 3% was injected, using inferior alveolar dental nerve block with aspiration. Variables were measured and recorded. Tooth extraction was performed and the mentioned variables were recorded again. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t and Paired t-test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: After injection of lidocaine, the heart rate was increased (12.25±1.75 bpm, and the time to reach the maximum rate was 64.75±11.26 seconds. After extraction of tooth, heart rate in both groups was increased not considering the type of injection. Conclusion: The study showed that the injection of lidocaine (containing epinephrine in patients without contraindication has no risk. Also, possible increase in heart rate is not risky and is not associated with O2 saturation decrease and respiratory interruption.

  19. Reversal of morphine-induced respiratory depression by doxapram in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Akira; Kimura, Satoko; Ohi, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether doxapram, a blocker of tandem pore K(+) (TASK-1/-3) channels, is a useful tool for recovery from morphine-induced ventilatory disturbances. Spontaneous ventilation and the hind leg withdrawal response against noxious thermal stimulation were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized rats. Morphine (1.0mg/kg, i.v.) decreased the minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow. Concomitantly, it prolonged the latency of withdrawal response against the thermal stimulation. Subsequent intravenous injection of doxapram recovered the morphine-induced ventilatory depression. This effect of doxapram declined rapidly after a single injection (1.0-3.0mg/kg, i.v.) but persisted with a continuous infusion (0.33mg/kg/min). Neither single injection nor continuous infusion of doxapram had any detectable effect on the analgesic potency of morphine. The central respiratory activity was recorded from the phrenic nerve in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats. Morphine (3.0mg/kg, i.v.) induced respiratory depression, characterized by a prolonged plateau-like inspiratory discharge (apneustic discharge) in the phrenic nerve. Doxapram (10mg/kg, i.v.) restored the morphine-induced apneustic discharge to an augmenting inspiratory discharge. This study demonstrated that doxapram counteracted morphine-induced respiratory depression by stimulating the central respiratory network without compromising morphine antinociception. These results support the clinical use of doxapram for amelioration of ventilatory disturbances in patients treated with opioids. PMID:27038521

  20. Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine alters hemodynamic actions of intravenous anesthetic agents in chronically instrumented dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, L T; Schmeling, W T; Warltier, D C

    1992-09-01

    Dexmedetomidine (the D-stereoisomer of medetomidine), a highly selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been demonstrated to produce analgesia and sedation and attenuate hemodynamic responses to emergence from inhalational anesthetics, which suggests a potential use for this drug as a premedicant for general anesthesia. The authors examined hemodynamic interactions between dexmedetomidine and three commonly used intravenous anesthetic agents with markedly different hemodynamic effects. Conscious, chronically instrumented dogs received intravenous induction doses of ketamine, propofol, or etomidate, followed by continuous infusions of each drug at four different doses for 15-min intervals on different days. Studies in six separate groups (range, 9-12 dogs/group) with and without pretreatment with oral dexmedetomidine (20 micrograms/kg) were completed. Heart rate, arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure, rate of increase of left ventricular pressure at 50 mmHg (dP/dt50), and cardiac output were continuously recorded. Dexmedetomidine administration caused a significant (P less than 0.05) decrease in heart rate, rate-pressure product, left ventricular dP/dt50, and cardiac output. Dexmedetomidine abolished or attenuated the increase in heart rate, rate-pressure product, cardiac output, and arterial pressure produced during induction of anesthesia with ketamine. After the dexmedetomidine pretreatment, continuous infusion of ketamine caused no increase in heart rate or rate-pressure product. However, ketamine significantly reduced left ventricular dP/dt50 compared to control in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine. Except for a significant reduction in systemic vascular resistance, dexmedetomidine did not significantly affect the hemodynamic response to induction of anesthesia with propofol. Similarly, dexmedetomidine did little to alter the hemodynamic response to induction of anesthesia with etomidate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1355639

  1. Laser safety in otolaryngology--head and neck surgery: anesthetic and educational considerations for laryngeal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossoff, R H

    1989-08-01

    Two investigations concerning anesthetic and educational considerations for laser safety in microlaryngeal carbon dioxide laser surgery have been performed. The first study demonstrated that attendance at a "hands-on" laser surgery course that stressed safety precautions was associated with a reduced rate of laser-related complications in the selected group of otolaryngologists who participated in the course, when compared to another selected group of otolaryngologists who were members of a senior otolaryngology society, and surveyed solely on the basis of their society membership. The second series of studies compared the incendiary characteristics of three endotracheal tubes in various mixtures of oxygen, diluted with either helium or nitrogen. It was determined that the polyvinyl chloride tube should not be used for laser surgery, even when wrapped with reflective, metallic tape. The safest anesthetic gas mixture was found to be 30% oxygen in helium; the addition of 2% halothane did not have an adverse effect, as had been previously reported. Both the Xomed Laser-Shield and Rusch red rubber endotracheal tubes were found to be safe, when used with the laser in the pulsed mode in an atmosphere of 100% oxygen. When the laser was used in the continuous mode, both tubes ignited in an atmosphere of 30% oxygen in helium. These findings challenged the previously reported levels of safety associated with the use of an unwrapped Xomed tube. Based on the results of this investigation, it has been concluded that both the Rusch red rubber tube and the Xomed Laser-Shield tube should be wrapped with reflective, metallic tape, when used for cases of microlaryngeal surgery with the carbon dioxide laser.

  2. INTRATHECAL PETHIDINE AS A SOLE ANESTHETIC AGENT FOR LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The discovery of opioid receptors and ligand in the brain and spinal cord lead to the feasibility of their intrathecal use. Pethidine is the only narcotic that has been shown to be effective intrathecally for surgery. This is because it as a phenyl - piperidine derivative and has a structure and action similar to that of local anesthetic. METHODS : It is a prospective study of 50 patients belonging to ASA grade I and II physical status were administered intra thecal Pethidine (preservative free 1mg/kg body weight for lower limb surgeries. The time of onset and level of sensory blockade, onset and degree of motor blockade, hemodynamic parameters, time for regression of sensory and motor blockade, duration of po stoperative analgesia and side effects were assessed in the patients. RESULTS : Majority of the procedures performed were below knee amputation or external fixation. The mean duration of onset of sensory block was 6.55 mins (SD: ± 0.79 and onset of motor blo ck was 8.39mins (SD: ± 0.83. Peak level of sensory block was attained at L1 level in majority of patients (82%. Degree of motor block was II degree in 66% of patients. Mean time required for motor recovery was 62.2 mins (SD: ±5.0. This was followed by sen sory regression at 94.6mins (SD:±7.3. Mean duration of postoperative analgesia was 333 minutes (SD: ±29.9. Side effects observed were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, sedation, and pruritus. CONCLUSION : Pethidine (preservative free 1mg/kg body weight can b e used intrathecally as a sole anesthetic agent to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia associated with hemodynamic stability and early ambulation in patients undergoing lower limb surgeries.

  3. Application of a three-microneedle device for the delivery of local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayoko Ishikawa,1 Hidekazu Fukamizu,1 Tetsuya Takiguchi,1 Yusuke Ohta,1 Yoshiki Tokura2 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: We investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed device for the delivery of local anesthetics in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis and hyperhidrosis. We developed a device with three fine, stainless steel needles fabricated with a bevel angle facing outside (“three-microneedle device” [TMD] to release a drug broadly and homogeneously into tissue in the horizontal plane. Use of this device could reduce the risk of complications when transcutaneous injections are undertaken.Patients and methods: Sixteen Japanese patients were enrolled. The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area needed to elicit anesthesia when using a TMD was compared with that the volume required when using a conventional 27-gauge needle. The visual analog scale (VAS score of needlestick pain and injection-associated pain was also compared.Results: The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area to elicit anesthesia using the TMD was significantly lower than that the volume required when using the conventional 27-gauge needle. The VAS score of needlestick pain for the TMD was significantly lower than that the VAS score for the 27-gauge needle.Conclusion: These data suggest that the TMD could be useful for the delivery of local anesthetics in terms of clinical efficacy and avoidance of adverse effects. Keywords: three-microneedle device, transcutaneous drug delivery, local anesthesia, lidocaine, pain

  4. α1A-adrenergic receptor mediated pressor response to phenylephrine in anesthetized rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qi; ZHU Weizhong; L(U) Zhizhen; ZHANG Youyi; HAN Qide

    2004-01-01

    To determine which subtype of α1A-adrenergic receptors plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, with α1A-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in perfused hindlimb as a control, we compared the inhibitory effects of various α1A-adrenergic receptor selective antagonists on the vasopressure responses to phenylephrine between the mean arterial pressure and hindlimb perfusion pressure in anesthetized rats. In Normotensive Wistar rats, the results showed that the inhibitory effects (dose ratios of ED50, Dr) of α1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonist (prazosin, Dr 13.5 ± 3.6 vs.15.1 ± 4.3, n = 11), α1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonist (5- methyl-urapidil, Dr 2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 3.7 ± 2.3, n = 12; RS-17053, Dr 3.2 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 3.3, n =12) and α1D- adrenoceptor selective antagonist (BMY7378, Dr 1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 2.2 ± 0.8, n = 8) on phenylephrine- induced increases of perfusion pressure in the autoperfused femoral beds were the same as that in the mean arterial blood pressure in normotensive Wistar rats. The inhibitory effects of antagonists (RS-17053, Dr 3.4 ± 0.6 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9, n = 5; BMY7378, Dr 1.7±0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5, n = 8) in spontaneous hypertensive rats were similar with the Wistar rats. These results suggest that the mean arterial pressure induced by phenylephrine was mainly mediated by α1A-adrenergic receptor in both the anesthetized Wistar rats and spontaneous hypertensive rats.

  5. Reduction of the ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine by ketamine administration in halothane-anesthetized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, R M; Sams, R A; Majors, L J; Ashcraft, S

    1988-03-01

    The effect of ketamine administration on the ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (VADE) was studied in 4 halothane-anesthetized cats. Each cat was anesthetized 4 times, 1 week apart, with halothane (end-tidal concentration, 1.5%) and with halothane (end-tidal concentration, 1.5%) combined with ketamine infusion (50, 100, and 200 micrograms/kg of body weight/min). Epinephrine was infused in progressively increasing doses. The VADE (micrograms/kg) was calculated as the product of infusion rate of epinephrine and time of infusion necessary to induce 4 or more ventricular premature depolarizations within 15 s. The mean (+/- SD) VADE during halothane anesthesia was 1.1 (+/- 0.30) micrograms/kg. Ketamine infusion significantly (P less than 0.01) lowered the VADE independently of dose. The dose of epinephrine (micrograms/kg) that induced an ECG change in P-wave configuration was calculated similarly. Less epinephrine was necessary to induce a change in P-wave configuration than was necessary to induce 4 or more ventricular premature depolarizations within 15 s. Blood samples were collected after 4 hours of ketamine infusion and again immediately after determination of the VADE for analysis of plasma ketamine and norketamine concentrations by use of gas chromatography. Plasma ketamine and norketamine concentrations after a 4-hour infusion and immediately after determination of the VADE were similar for any given ketamine infusion rate, indicating that steady-state plasma concentrations had been reached for each infusion rate. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured immediately before (base line) and immediately after infusion of the VADE. Ketamine infusion significantly (P less than 005) lowered base-line blood pressure, but not heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358546

  6. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are involved in the defense system against anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mofei; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kuda, Yuhichi; Sun, Lingling; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2014-05-15

    Anaphylactic shock is sometimes life-threatening, but the defense system against this circulatory failure was not fully understood. Ameliorating roles of angiotensin (ANG) II and vasopressin in anaphylactic hypotension were investigated in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. The sensitized rats were randomly allocated to the following pretreatment groups (n=7/group): (1) control (non-pretreatment), (2) ANG II synthesis inhibitor captopril, (3) ANG II receptor antagonist losartan, and (4) V1a vasopressin receptor antagonist. Anaphylactic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of the antigen. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP) and portal venous blood flow (PBF) were measured, and splanchnic vascular resistance (Rspl: (SAP-PVP)/PBF) was determined. In the control group, SAP markedly decreased, followed by a gradual recovery toward baseline. Rspl transiently decreased immediately after antigen, and then increased 1.5-fold at 15 min and thereafter. The pretreatment with either losartan, captopril or V1a receptor antagonist augmented the initial fall of SAP and attenuated the SAP recovery along with augmentation of the late increase in Rspl. The 2-h survival rate was significantly smaller in either pretreatment group than in the control group (100%). Plasma levels of ANG II and vasopressin increased to 3.8- and 9.8-fold, respectively, at 30 min after antigen in the control group, whereas captopril pretreatment inhibited the increase in ANG II. In conclusion, inhibition of ANG II or vasopressin exacerbates anaphylaxis-induced hypotension in anesthetized rats. PMID:24650734

  7. Effects of Repeated Injection of Local Anesthetic on Sciatic Nerve Blocks Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忱; 刘怀萍

    2004-01-01

    In order to examine whether repeated sciatic nerve blocks showed tachyphylaxis and continuity of sciatic nerve with spinal cord affected development of tachyphylaxis when assayed in vivo by duration of depression compound action potentials (CAP), rats were anesthetized with halothane, ventilated, monitored and supported with stable hemodynamics and temperature. Posterior tibial nerve distally and sciatic nerve in thigh were exposed, placed on bipolar silver electrodes for stimulation and recording respectively. Three sequential sciatic nerve blocks were performed between these electrodes using 0.15 ml of 3 % chloroprocaine. Nine rats were chosen to observe the effects of repeated sciatic nerve blocks on CAP. In another 18 rats, a second investigator exposed the sciatic nerve near its origin at spinal cord and randomly performed nerve cut and sham (n= 9),and closed the incision blinding the electrophysiologic investigator. The results showed that electrical stimulated tibial nerve induced sciatic nerve Aα/β, Aδ, C fiber mediated CAP waves. CAP amplitudes were remained stable during whole experimental procedure. CAP amplitudes were decreased completely with 3% chloroprocaine blocked sciatic nerve and recovered fully. The duration of CAP depression were reduced with repeated blocks. There were no selective blocked effects on Aα/β, Aδ, C fiber mediated CAP. With sciatic nerve cut proximally, there was no statistical significant tachyphylaxis with 3 % chloroprocaine repeated blocked sciatic nerve, and the duration of first and third blocked Aδ fiber mediated CAP was 108±20 and 92±14 min respectively (P>0.05). In normal rats the duration of first and third blocked Aδ fiber mediated CAP was 110±20 and 75±16min respectively (P<0.05). It was suggested that tachyphylaxis to local anesthetics can occur in rats repeated blocked sciatic nerve when assayed in vivo by duration of depression CAP. The continuity of sciatic nerve with spinal cord is one of the

  8. Anesthetic management of patients undergoing extra-anatomic renal bypass surgery for renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bhupesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal artery disease is the most common cause for surgically curable form of hypertension. In a small subset of patients with severe aortic disease where the aorta is not suitable for endovascular technique and to provide an arterial inflow, an extra-anatomic renal bypass surgery (EARBS is an option. Anesthetic management of such procedures has not been described so far in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed the anesthetic techniques used in all patients who underwent EARBS between February 1998 and June 2008 at this institute. We also further analyzed data concerning blood pressure (BP control and renal function response following surgery as outcome variable measures. A total of 11 patients underwent EARBS during this period. Five received oral clonidine with premedication. During laryngoscopy, esmolol was used in 4 patients, while lignocaine was used in remaining 7 patients. Of 11 patients, 7 showed significant hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation; among these, one had oral clonidine with premedicant, and 6 received lignocaine just before laryngoscopy. Intravenous vasodilators were used to maintain target BP within 20% of baseline during perioperative period. All patients received renal protective measures. During follow-up, 10% were considered cured, 70% had improved BP response, while 20% failed to show improvement in BP response. Renal functions improved in 54.5%, remain unchanged in 36.5%, and worsened in 9% of patients. Use of clonidine during premedication and esmolol before laryngoscopy were beneficial in attenuating hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, while use of vasodilators to maintain target BP within 20% of baseline, and routine use of renal protective measures appear to be promising in patients undergoing EARBS.

  9. Micturition in rats: a chronic model for study of bladder function and effect of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, T L; Durant, P A; Brent, C R

    1986-12-01

    The volume-evoked micturition reflex (VEMR) and the effects of anesthetics on the VEMR were studied in a chronic unanesthetized rat model. The bladder catheter was implanted chronically through a laparotomy and externalized percutaneously. An intrathecal (IT) catheter was implanted chronically in animals scheduled for an IT injection. By 2 days after implantation, infusion of saline (200 microliter/min) in the bladder reliably resulted in a low base-line pressure (BP) followed by a transient increase in bladder pressure, an opening of the sphincter (bladder opening pressure, BOP) corresponding to expression of urine (volume of urination, V), then a further rise in pressure (peak pressure, PP) and a subsequent return to base line. Seven days after implantation, values (means +/- SE) for BP, BOP, PP, and V were 10 +/- 0.3, 30 +/- 2, 67 +/- 6 cmH2O, and 1.0 +/- 0.1 ml, respectively. Residual volumes were reliably less than 2-4% of the expressed volume. The VEMR was reliably evoked up to 28 days after implantation. V values in unimplanted and implanted animals were not different. In implanted animals, VEMR parameters were not different during infusion or during spontaneous urination after oral fluid load. Administration of pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg ip), alpha-chloralose (130 mg/kg ip), ketamine (100 mg/kg im), halothane (in air 2%), and local anesthetics (2-chloroprocaine 3% or bupivacaine 0.75%, 10 microliter IT) produced a complete blockade of the VEMR and overflow incontinence at pressures significantly higher than BOP values. To compare overflow pressures and passive compliance of the bladder, unanesthetized animals were decapitated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3789199

  10. Bisphenol A binds to the local anesthetic receptor site to block the human cardiac sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias O O'Reilly

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA has attracted considerable public attention as it leaches from plastic used in food containers, is detectable in human fluids and recent epidemiologic studies link BPA exposure with diseases including cardiovascular disorders. As heart-toxicity may derive from modified cardiac electrophysiology, we investigated the interaction between BPA and hNav1.5, the predominant voltage-gated sodium channel subtype expressed in the human heart. Electrophysiology studies of heterologously-expressed hNav1.5 determined that BPA blocks the channel with a K(d of 25.4±1.3 µM. By comparing the effects of BPA and the local anesthetic mexiletine on wild type hNav1.5 and the F1760A mutant, we demonstrate that both compounds share an overlapping binding site. With a key binding determinant thus identified, an homology model of hNav1.5 was generated based on the recently-reported crystal structure of the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel NavAb. Docking predictions position both ligands in a cavity delimited by F1760 and contiguous with the DIII-IV pore fenestration. Steered molecular dynamics simulations used to assess routes of ligand ingress indicate that the DIII-IV pore fenestration is a viable access pathway. Therefore BPA block of the human heart sodium channel involves the local anesthetic receptor and both BPA and mexiletine may enter the closed-state pore via membrane-located side fenestrations.

  11. Dexmedetomidine as an Anesthetic Adjuvant in Cardiac Surgery: a Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Paulo Gabriel Melo; Lobo, Francisco Ricardo; Ramin, Serginando Laudenir; Sakr, Yasser; Machado, Mauricio Nassau; Lobo, Suzana Margareth

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: α-2-agonists cause sympathetic inhibition combined with parasympathetic activation and have other properties that could be beneficial during cardiac anesthesia. We evaluated the effects of dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjuvant compared to a control group during cardiac surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from all adult patients (> 18 years old) undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were divided into two groups, regarding the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant intraoperatively (DEX group) and a control group who did not receive α-2-agonist (CON group). RESULTS: A total of 1302 patients who underwent cardiac surgery, either coronary artery bypass graft or valve surgery, were included; 796 in the DEX group and 506 in the CON group. Need for reoperation (2% vs. 2.8%, P=0.001), type 1 neurological injury (2% vs. 4.7%, P=0.005) and prolonged hospitalization (3.1% vs. 7.3%, P=0.001) were significantly less frequent in the DEX group than in the CON group. Thirty-day mortality rates were 3.4% in the DEX group and 9.7% in the CON group (P<0.001). Using multivariable Cox regression analysis with in hospital death as the dependent variable, dexmedetomidine was independently associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]=0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.65, P≤0.001). The Logistic EuroSCORE (OR=1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10, P=0.004) and age (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, P=0.003) were independently associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine used as an anesthetic adjuvant was associated with better outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgery. Randomized prospective controlled trials are warranted to confirm our results. PMID:27737403

  12. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  13. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

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    Charton A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antoine Charton,1 François Péronnet,2 Stephane Doutreleau,3 Evelyne Lonsdorfer,3 Alexis Klein,4 Liliana Jimenez,4 Bernard Geny,3 Pierre Diemunsch,1 Ruddy Richard5 1Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, and EA 3072, Hôpital de Hautepierre; University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; 2Department of Kinesiology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, New Civil Hospital, Strasbourg, France and University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, France; 4Danone Research, Palaiseau, France; 5Department of Sport Medicine and Functional Explorations, CHU Clermont-Ferrand and INRA UMR 1019, CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2 supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods: Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach. Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2, skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2 were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results: Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in

  14. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  15. 非甾体抗炎药与麻醉药的相互作用%Interaction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘陆陆; 吕黄伟

    2012-01-01

    非甾体抗炎镇痛药(Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,NSAIDs)主要用于围手术期超前镇痛.本文对NSAIDs与常用的麻醉药如阿片类药、吸入麻醉药、静脉麻醉药和苯二氮艹卓类药物的相互作用加以综述.%Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs )is mainly used for perioperative preemptive analgesia. This article summarizes the interaction between NSAIDs and anesthetics such as opioids, inhalation anesthetics, intravenous anesthetics and benzodiazepines.

  16. Anesthetic effect on mandibular permanent molar by periodontal ligament injection using single tooth anesthetic delivery system%牙周韧带注射对下颌磨牙牙髓麻醉效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勤; 杨素真; 张国金; 郑晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the anesthetic effect on mandibular permanent molar by periodontal ligament (PDL) injection using single tooth anesthetic (STA) delivery system. Methods 120 mandibular permanent molars diagnosised as deep caries, chronic pulpitis and acute pulpitis were randomly divided into two groups. Using STA system, 60 teeth received PDL injection by standard technique, 60 teeth received PDL injection by improved technique. After anesthetic injection, cavity filling treatment or root canal therapy was performed. Anesthetic effectiveness according to pain sense during treatment period was recorded. Results The anesthetic effect rate on mandibular permanet molars was 92.5%. In deep caries group, the anesthetic effect rate was 100. 0%. In chronic pulpitis group, the anesthetic effective rate was 90%. In acute pulpitis group, the anesthetic effect rate was 85% injected by standard technique and 90% injected by improved technique respectively. There was no significant statistic difference between standard and improved technique (χ2 = 9.445, P = 0.49 ). Conclusion It is a satisfied approach to use either standard or improved technique in PDL injection with STA system in mandibular permanent molar anesthesia.%目的 观察单颗牙麻醉(single tooth anesthesia,STA)系统对下颌磨牙进行牙周韧带(periodontal ligament,PDL)注射后的牙髓麻醉效果.方法 120颗患牙分为深龋、慢性牙髓炎、急性牙髓炎3组,每组各40颗.每组再按照随机原则平均分为2个亚组,分别采用STA系统标准法和改良法麻醉,其中标准法注射点为舌侧PDL,改良法注射点为颊侧PDL.观察记录患者治疗中的疼痛反应,评价牙髓麻醉效果.结果 STA系统对下颌磨牙进行PDL注射后牙髓麻醉的总有效率为92.5%.深龋组标准法和改良法的牙髓麻醉有效率均为100%;慢性牙髓炎组标准法和改良法的牙髓麻醉有效率均为90%;急性牙髓炎组标准法的牙髓麻醉有效率为85

  17. FaceTime(®) for teaching ultrasound-guided anesthetic procedures in remote place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuya; Iketani, Yasuhiro; Nagamine, Yusuke; Goto, Takahisa

    2014-04-01

    In isolated area in Japan, only one anesthesiologist must often do new anesthetic techniques such as ultrasound-guided procedures without receiving any teaching. One solution to this problem may involve teleanesthesia, by which experienced anesthesiologists teach novices in remote places, by utilizing information communication technologies. FaceTime™ (Apple, USA), which provides 120p of the resolution and 30 frames per second (fps) is an application of free visual communications using iPod Touch™, iPhone™ or iPad™ (Apple, USA). We investigated the delay time, the loss of the frames and the picture quality of iPad (as the device in the teaching site) in combination with iPod Touch, iPhone4 or iPhone5 (as the device in the isolated site) during FaceTime. At the operating rooms in Sado General Hospital (SGH) located in Sado Island (population; approximately 60,000), Japan, an anesthesiologist prepared 3 mobile devices (iPod Touch, iPhone4 or iPhone5). He called the other anesthesiologist at Yokohama City University Hospital (YCUH; approximately 300 km apart) by FaceTime using 1 of 3 mobile devices. The anesthesiologist at YCUH received the FaceTime call using iPad. After the connection was established, the display of the same cervical ultrasound image at SGH was sent to YCUH to evaluate the distinctness visually. Then we measured the delay time of every second (n = 60) and the loss of the frames (total frames = 30 fps × 60 s = 1,800) in each device for a minute. P iPhone5 was distinctly the best visually. The delay time of iPhone5 was significantly longer than the others (iPod Touch; 0.14 ± 0.02 s, iPhone4; 0.13 ± 0.02 s, iPhone5; 0.19 ± 0.03 s), but clinically acceptable. The loss of the frames of iPhone5 (20; 1.1%) was significantly less than the others (iPhone4; 900, 50.0%, iPod Touch; 902, 50.1%). To teach anesthetic techniques in remote place by FaceTime, iPhone5 as the devise in isolate site was optimum compared with iPod Touch and iPhone4. PMID

  18. Anesthetic management of adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy assisted by low-temperature plasma technology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-meng LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the anesthetic management strategy in children undergoing adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy using low-temperature plasma technology. Methods Sixty ASA status I children scheduled for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with plasma technology in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA from September to December of 2013 were enrolled in this study. After induction with propofol, sufentanil and cisatracurium, the children were randomly divided into combined inhalation and intravenous anesthesia group (CIIA group, n=30 and total intravenous anesthesia group (TIVA group, n=30. In CIIA group, anesthesia was maintained with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil combined with sevoflurane inhalation during the surgery. In TIVA group, anesthesia was maintained only with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil. The hemodynamic changes and time for extubation and leaving operating room were recorded, and the emergence agitation was assessed using Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scale. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamic changes between the two groups (P>0.05. The total dosages of propofol and remifentanil in TIVA group [10.5±3.4 mg/(kg.h and 16.1±5.3μg/(kg.h, respectively] were significantly higher than those of CIIA group [6.6±2.8 mg/(kg.h, 10.4±4.2 μg/(kg.h, P<0.05]. The times for extubation and leaving operating room were significantly shorter in TIVA group (8.8±3.7min, 6.2±2.9min than in CIIA group (19.8±4.3 min, 13.7±5.2 min, P<0.05, and the rate of emergence agitation during the recovery period in TIVA group (1/30 was significantly less than that in CIIA group (9/30, P<0.05. Conclusion  Total intravenous anesthesia with tracheal intubation could shorten the recovery time and lessen the emergence agitation during the recovery period, and it may be used as a safe, feasible and convenient anesthetic strategy for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with

  19. Do anesthetics and sampling strategies affect transcription analysis of fish tissues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hevrøy Ernst M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current examination was to evaluate if sedation and anesthetic treatment techniques affect the quality of RNA extracted from liver, gill, head kidney and brain tissues in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Blood parameters were measured and tissue specimens sampled in six groups of fish; one control group (0 minutes, two groups kept in pure seawater in 90 liter tanks for 30 and 120 minutes, two groups treated with the anesthetic isoeugenol for 30 and 120 minutes, and one group kept in pure seawater for 105 minutes and then anaesthetized with metacaine for 15 minutes. RNA quality was assessed with the NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (260/280 and 260/230 nm ratios and with the Agilent Bioanalyzer (28S/18S ratio and RIN data in samples either preserved in liquefied nitrogen (N2 or in RNAlater. In addition, the transcriptional levels of two fast-responding genes were quantified in gill and brain tissues. Results The results show that physiological stress during sampling does not affect the quality of RNA extracted from fish specimens. However, prolonged sedation (2 hours resulted in a metabolic alkalosis that again affected the transcriptional levels of genes involved in ionoregulation and respiration. In gills, Na+-K+-ATPase α1b was significantly downregulated and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1 significantly upregulated after two hours of treatment with isoeugenol, suggesting that this commonly used sedative affects osmo-regulation and respiration in the fish. The results also suggest that for tissue preservation in general it is better to flash-freeze fish specimens in liquefied N2 than to use RNAlater. Conclusion Prolonged sedation may affect the transcription of fast-responding genes in tissues of fish. Two hours of sedation with isoeugenol resulted in downregulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase α1b gene and upregulation of the HIF1 gene in gills of Atlantic salmon. The quality of RNA extracted from tissue specimens

  20. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  1. pH modulates transport rates of manganese and cadmium in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through non-competitive interactions: Implications for an algal BLM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pH on short-term uptake of manganese and cadmium by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied to better understand the nature of proton interactions with metal membrane transporters. Manganese and cadmium internalization fluxes (Jint) were measured over a wide range of free metal ion concentrations from 1 x 10-10 to 4 x 10-4 M at several pH values (Mn: 5.0, 6.5 and 8.0; Cd: 5.0 and 6.5). For both metals, first-order biological internalization kinetics were observed but the maximum transport flux (Jmax) decreased when pH decreased, in contradiction with the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). This result suggested a non-competitive inhibition of metal uptake by the H+-ion. A Michaelis-Menten type inhibition model considering proton and calcium competition was tested. The metal biotic ligand stability constants and the stability constants for competitive binding of Ca2+ and H+ with the metal transporters were calculated: for manganese, KMn = 104.20 and KCa = 103.71; for cadmium, KCd = 104.19 and KCa = 104.76; for both metal transport systems, KH was not a significant parameter. Furthermore, metal uptake was not significantly influenced by the pH of the antecedent growth medium, suggesting that increases in metal fluxes as the pH is raised are caused by conformational changes of the surface transport proteins rather than by the synthesis of additional transport sites. Our results demonstrate that the BLM in its present state does not properly describe the true influence of pH on manganese and cadmium uptake by algae and that a non-competitive inhibition component must be integrated

  2. Embryonic skeleton development and neonatal learning and memory ability of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium: Differences of administration occasion and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling Peng; Yuhua Zhu; Ankang Hu; Xiaorong Zhu

    2006-01-01

    through electric mare method. Determine their study ability according to their correct rate of 90% or above of arrival at the safe area in 20 s. After they finally learned to arrive at the safe area correctly, test them once more in 24 hours and record the correct rate of 15 times.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of malformation in fetus and ability of learning and memory in one-month rats.RESULTS: A total of 80 female rats were anesthetized in this experiment. Totally 490 immature rats were tested with maze testing machine and 196 fetuses were stained with alizarin red S to observe the development of their skeleton. However, one of the 80 female rats was led to death because of overdose. ① Malformation experiment: Learning ability of second anesthesia group was evidently different from the control group while the other two groups were not in the electric mare method. The fetal skeleton malformation rate of three experimental groups was 87.0%, 60.9% and 17.9%, respectively, while it was 5.6% in the control group. ②Electric mare method: Times of rats which arrived at the safe regions were respectively 49.0±31.0, 68.0±35.0,47.0±31.0 and 44.0±21.0 in early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group; and then, there was significant difference between the second anesthesia group and the control group (P < 0.05). Exact rates of memory of rats were respectively (64.36±14.35)%, (62.15±18.33)%, (54.19±12.28)% and (68.24±15.91)% in early anesthesia group, second anesthesia group, late anesthesia group and control group; and then, there were no significant differences as compared with the control group (P> 0.05).CONCLUSION: The influence of anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium is obvious in fetal skeleton development and learning and memory ability.

  3. Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement in healthy anesthetized cats using a device that combines oscillometry with photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the basic characteristics of indirect arterial blood pressure (ABP) measurement using a device that combines oscillometry and photoplethysmography in cats. Dobutamine was infused intravenously in four anesthetized cats. Direct ABP was measured by a catheter. Indirect ABP was measured from the left forelimb. Dobutamine significantly elevated both systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner. The indirect SAP, MAP and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) values were closely correlated with the direct ABP values (r=0.88, 0.89 and 0.83, respectively). The mean bias for SAP, MAP and DAP was 3.4, 0.2 and -2.4 mmHg, respectively. The indirect ABP measured by this device may be used to reliably monitor ABP changes in anesthetized cats. PMID:27003226

  4. Anesthetic Experience for Heart Transplantation%心脏移植手术麻醉处理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维强

    2012-01-01

    目前,心脏移植是终末期心脏病的有效治疗方法.现综述旨在从麻醉诱导和维持、术中维护血流动力学的稳定、免疫抑制治疗这几方面介绍麻醉处理进展.%At present .heart transplantation has become a definitive therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. This article reviews recent research about steady induction and maintaining of anaesthesia, maintaining stable hemodynamies.immunosuppression during perioperative period.

  5. Comparison of propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized, blinded comparison of seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To compare propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with respect to seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects. METHODS:: Randomized, blinded study of 62 depressed patients treated with bilateral ECT. Algorithm...

  6. Inhibition of Nav1.7 channels by methyl eugenol as a mechanism underlying its antinociceptive and anesthetic actions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ze-Jun; Tabakoff, Boris; Levinson, Simon R.; Heinbockel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Methyl eugenol is a major active component extracted from the Chinese herb Asari Radix et Rhizoma, which has been used to treat toothache and other pain. Previous in vivo studies have shown that methyl eugenol has anesthetic and antinociceptive effects. The aim of this study was to determine the possible mechanism underlying its effect on nervous system disorders. Methods: The direct interaction of methyl eugenol with Na+ channels was explored and characterized using electrophysiological...

  7. Identification of a GABAA receptor anesthetic binding site at subunit interfaces by photolabeling with an etomidate analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Dong; Chiara, David C; Sawyer, Gregory W; Husain, S Shaukat; Olsen, Richard W; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2006-11-01

    General anesthetics, including etomidate, act by binding to and enhancing the function of GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs), which mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Here, we used a radiolabeled, photoreactive etomidate analog ([(3)H]azietomidate), which retains anesthetic potency in vivo and enhances GABA(A)R function in vitro, to identify directly, for the first time, amino acids that contribute to a GABA(A)R anesthetic binding site. For GABA(A)Rs purified by affinity chromatography from detergent extracts of bovine cortex, [(3)H]azietomidate photoincorporation was increased by GABA and inhibited by etomidate in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 30 microm). Protein microsequencing of fragments isolated from proteolytic digests established photolabeling of two residues: one within the alphaM1 transmembrane helix at alpha1Met-236 (and/or the homologous methionines in alpha2,3,5), not previously implicated in etomidate function, and one within the betaM3 transmembrane helix at beta3Met-286 (and/or the homologous methionines in beta1,2), an etomidate sensitivity determinant. The pharmacological specificity of labeling indicates that these methionines contribute to a single binding pocket for etomidate located in the transmembrane domain at the interface between beta and alpha subunits, in what is predicted by structural models based on homology with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to be a water-filled pocket approximately 50 A below the GABA binding site. The localization of the etomidate binding site to an intersubunit, not an intrasubunit, binding pocket is a novel conclusion that suggests more generally that the localization of drug binding sites to subunit interfaces may be a feature not only for GABA and benzodiazepines but also for etomidate and other intravenous and volatile anesthetics. PMID:17093081

  8. Pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of brain tissue extracts from rats anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is routinely used as a surgical procedure and its safety has been endorsed by clinical outcomes; however, its effects at the molecular level have not been elucidated. General anesthetics influence glucose metabolism in the brain. However, the effects of anesthetics on brain metabolites other than those related to glucose have not been well characterized. We used a pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to visualize the changes in holistic brain metabolic phenotypes in response to the widely used intravenous anesthetic propofol and the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7 each group. Propofol and isoflurane were administered to two groups each, for 2 or 6 h. The control group received no anesthesia. Brains were removed directly after anesthesia. Hydrophilic compounds were extracted from excised whole brains and measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All spectral data were processed and analyzed by principal component analysis for comparison of the metabolite profiles. Data were visualized by plotting principal component (PC scores. In the plots, each point represents an individual sample. The propofol and isoflurane groups were clustered separately on the plots, and this separation was especially pronounced when comparing the 6-h groups. The PC scores of the propofol group were clearly distinct from those of the control group, particularly in the 6-h group, whereas the difference in PC scores was more subtle in the isoflurane group and control groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study showed that propofol and isoflurane exerted differential effects on holistic brain metabolism under anesthesia.

  9. Case Report: Genetic analysis and anesthetic management of a child with Niemann-Pick disease Type A

    OpenAIRE

    Priti G. Dalal; Melissa Coleman; Meagan Horst; Dorothy Rocourt; Ladda, Roger L.; Piotr K. Janicki

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old child, recently diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A, presented for a laparoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube under general anesthesia. The disease was confirmed and further characterized by genetic testing, which revealed evidence of the presence of two known pathogenic mutations in the SMPD1 gene, and enzyme studies showed a corresponding very low level of enzymatic activity of acidic sphingomyelinase. The anesthetic management involved strategies to manage an anti...

  10. Anesthetic management of super-morbidly obese parturients for cesarean delivery with a double neuraxial catheter technique: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, C M; Hale, B; Mauritz, A A; Habib, A S; Jones, C A; Strouch, Z Y; Dominguez, J E

    2015-08-01

    Parturients with super-morbid obesity, defined as body mass index greater than 50kg/m(2), represent a growing segment of patients who require anesthetic care for labor and delivery. Severe obesity and its comorbid conditions place the parturient and fetus at greater risk for pregnancy complications and cesarean delivery, as well as surgical and anesthetic complications. The surgical approach for cesarean delivery in these patients may require a supra-umbilical vertical midline incision due to a large pannus. The dense T4-level of spinal anesthesia can cause difficulties with ventilation for the obese patient during the procedure, which can be prolonged. Patients also may have respiratory complications in the postoperative period due to pain from the incision. We describe the anesthetic management of three parturients with body mass index ranging from 73 to 95kg/m(2) who had a cesarean delivery via a supra-umbilical vertical midline incision. Continuous lumbar spinal and low thoracic epidural catheters were placed in each patient for intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, respectively. Continuous spinal catheters were dosed with incremental bupivacaine boluses to achieve surgical anesthesia. In one case, the patient required respiratory support with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Two cases were complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage. All patients had satisfactory postoperative analgesia with a thoracic epidural infusion. None suffered postoperative respiratory complications or postdural puncture headache. The use of a continuous lumbar spinal catheter and a low thoracic epidural provides several advantages in the anesthetic management of super-morbidly obese parturients for cesarean delivery.

  11. Clinical Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture Combined with Different Anesthetics on Auditory-evoked Potential Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on auto regressive with exogenous input model (ARX-model) auditory evoked index (AAI) in patients anesthetized with different anesthetics. Methods: Forty-eight adult patients undergoing scheduled surgical operation were enrolled and divided into two groups (24 in each group) according to the anesthetics applied, Group A was anesthetized with propofol sedation and Group B with Isoflurane-epidural anesthesia. Group A was subdivided into three groups of low, middle and high concentration of target effect-site of 1.0 μg/ml, 1.5 μg/ml and 2.0 μg/ml through target controlled infusion (TCI) and Group B into 3 subgroups of minimum alveolar effective concentration of isoflurane (0.4 MAC, 0.6 MAC and 0.8 MAC for B1, B2 and B3 subgroups) respectively, with 8 patients in every subgroup. EA on acupoints of Hegu (LI4) and Neiguan (P6) was applied on all the patients during anesthesia, and the change of AAI at various time points was recorded. Results: In the three subgroups of Group A, levels of AAI were significantly elevated in the first few minutes after EA, and significantly lowered 20 min after EA in subgroup A2. While in the subgroups of Group B, except the elevating in Group B1 1 -2 min after EA, levels of AAI remained unchanged at other time points. Conclusion: Pain response could be reflected by AAI during EA. EA could enhance the sedative effect of propofol in middle concentration, but its effect on isoflurane epidural anesthesia is insignificant.

  12. Anesthetic Propofol Reduces Endotoxic Inflammation by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Lin, Ming-Chung; Choi, Pui-Ching; Huang, Wei-Ching; Kai, Jui-In; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-hong; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by...

  13. ANESTHETICS EFFECTS OF INTRANASAL OR INTRAMUSCULAR ASSOCIATION OF MIDAZOLAM AND RACEMIC OR S+ KETAMINE IN BUDGERIGARS (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Aléssio Trevisan; Everton Leonardi da Silva; Anderson Luiz de Carvalho; Rafael Messias Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal anesthesia in birds is considered a safe, simple and efficient technique. The aim of this study was compare the anesthetic effects of midazolam (5 mg.kg-1) with racemic (R) or S+ (S) ketamine (15 mg.kg-1), administered intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Eight budgerigars were used in a crossover design with four treatments: INR, INS, IMR and IMS. Onset time, dorsal recumbency time duration, total anesthesia time, total recovery time,...

  14. Endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor opposes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and supports blood flow to hypoxic alveoli in anesthetized rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, R. S.; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1992-01-01

    Agents that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis augment hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. In an animal model of unilateral alveolar hypoxia, we investigated the hypothesis that endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide opposes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and supports blood flow to hypoxic alveoli, resulting in a reduction in arterial oxygen tension (PO2). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, unilateral alveolar hypoxia was produced by ventilation of one lung with 100% ...

  15. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  16. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:24586874

  17. Massive postoperative pulmonary embolism in a young woman using oral contraceptives: the value of a preoperative anesthetic consult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, S; Van Boven, M; Rooijakkers, H; Momeni, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a woman with a history of active tabagism and on the oral contraceptive Yasmin, presenting in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) with a cardiac arrest due to massive pulmonary embolism following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery. The patient had preoperatively several risk factors for deep venous thrombosis. This case-report emphasizes the value of a preoperative anesthetic visit and eventual temporary cessation of certain oral contraceptives in specific cases. PMID:25223166

  18. Effects of inhaled anesthetic isoflurane on long-term potentiation of CA3 pyramidal cell afferents in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros KA; Sikorski A; Orfila JE; Martinez Jr JL

    2012-01-01

    Kristen A Ballesteros,1 Angela Sikorski,2 James E Orfila,3 Joe L Martinez Jr41Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Texas A&M University Texarkana, Texarkana, TX, USA; 3University of Colorado in Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 4University of Illinois in Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Isoflurane is a preferred anesthetic, due to its properties that allow a precise concentration to be delivered continually during in vivo experimentation. The ...

  19. Anesthetic management for magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient addicted to palm wine: An alcoholic beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Ram, A. Anand; Srikanth, I.; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of drug and alcohol abuse is on rise despite increasing awareness and education about health hazards related to it. Anesthesiologist may come across patients with alcohol abuse in elective as well as emergency situations. We report a rare case of excessive requirement of anesthetics in a pediatric patient of only six years for MRI, addicted to palm wine, an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree. PMID:26957706

  20. Interference of anesthetics in blood alcohol analysis by HS-GC-FID: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Proença, P; Tavares, C; Castañera, A; Corte Real, F

    2016-08-01

    One of the techniques most widely used in ethanol analysis in forensic laboratories is undoubtedly the headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) since the determination of this substance is carried out directly, without the need for additional purification procedures, which leads to increased productivity. This is a very important factor due to the high number of alcohol analysis requested to these laboratories. The presence of other volatile substances can cause a problem given the fact that they can be interferents in ethanol analysis by HS-GC-FID, which can have legal consequences related with driving under the influence of alcohol. The authors report a case of a routine analysis by HS-GC-FID for the determination of ethanol of a driver who has suffered an accident in which the use of two chromatographic columns with different polarities was essential to obtain an unequivocally identification of this substance in presence of an interfering volatile anesthetic administered in the hospital. The method was validated according to international recommendations before being introduced into routine laboratory in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and carryover. PMID:26829337

  1. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, E.; Hasenkam, John Michael; Secher, Niels H.;

    2009-01-01

    in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0...... veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head.......7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained...

  2. Thermal responses to 5. 6-GHz radiofrequency radiation in anesthetized rats. Effect of chlorpromazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

    1988-01-01

    Anesthetized rats were exposed to 5.6-GHz continuous-wave radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at an average power density of 60 mW/Sq. cm (average specific absorption rate 12 W/kg). Exposure was performed to raise colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5C. Following acute administration of chlorpromazine, body temperature exhibited a faster return to baseline temperature when exposure was discontinued. When exposure was initiated at 38.5C and continued until lethal temperature resulted, chlorpromazine-treated animals exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Thus, although chlorpromazine enhanced thermoregulatory efficiency at colonic temperature below 39.5 deg C, the drug caused increased susceptibility to terminal RFR. The present results, when compared with previous studies of irradiation at 2.8 GHz, indicate that the effects of chlorpromazine on thermal response to RFR during intermittent and terminal exposure are similar at both 2.8 and 5.6 GHz.

  3. Local anesthetic and antiepileptic drug access and binding to a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteux, Céline; Vorobyov, Igor; French, Robert J; French, Christopher; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Allen, Toby W

    2014-09-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are important targets in the treatment of a range of pathologies. Bacterial channels, for which crystal structures have been solved, exhibit modulation by local anesthetic and anti-epileptic agents, allowing molecular-level investigations into sodium channel-drug interactions. These structures reveal no basis for the "hinged lid"-based fast inactivation, seen in eukaryotic Nav channels. Thus, they enable examination of potential mechanisms of use- or state-dependent drug action based on activation gating, or slower pore-based inactivation processes. Multimicrosecond simulations of NavAb reveal high-affinity binding of benzocaine to F203 that is a surrogate for FS6, conserved in helix S6 of Domain IV of mammalian sodium channels, as well as low-affinity sites suggested to stabilize different states of the channel. Phenytoin exhibits a different binding distribution owing to preferential interactions at the membrane and water-protein interfaces. Two drug-access pathways into the pore are observed: via lateral fenestrations connecting to the membrane lipid phase, as well as via an aqueous pathway through the intracellular activation gate, despite being closed. These observations provide insight into drug modulation that will guide further developments of Nav inhibitors. PMID:25136136

  4. Faster onset time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using local anesthetic diluted with dextrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5 min for 60 min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Results: Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6 ± 12.9 min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2 ± 13.9 min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

  5. Is conformation a fundamental descriptor in QSAR? A case for halogenated anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria C; Duarte, Mariene H; Silla, Josué M

    2016-01-01

    Summary An intriguing question in 3D-QSAR lies on which conformation(s) to use when generating molecular descriptors (MD) for correlation with bioactivity values. This is not a simple task because the bioactive conformation in molecule data sets is usually unknown and, therefore, optimized structures in a receptor-free environment are often used to generate the MD´s. In this case, a wrong conformational choice can cause misinterpretation of the QSAR model. The present computational work reports the conformational analysis of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane (2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) in the gas phase and also in polar and nonpolar implicit and explicit solvents to show that stable minima (ruled by intramolecular interactions) do not necessarily coincide with the bioconformation (ruled by enzyme induced fit). Consequently, a QSAR model based on two-dimensional chemical structures was built and exhibited satisfactory modeling/prediction capability and interpretability, then suggesting that these 2D MD´s can be advantageous over some three-dimensional descriptors. PMID:27340468

  6. [Anesthetic Induction in a Patient with Giant Ovarian Tumor Who Developed Severe Hemodynamic Instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Ryota; Ishihara, Mariko; Soh, Mirei; Kohno, Michihiko; Soga, Mayumi; Kohata, Hisakazu; Takahashi, Kan

    2015-08-01

    A 45 year-old woman underwent a laparotomy for a giant ovarian tumor under general anesthesia. Preoperative CT scan revealed a 30 cm-diameter tumor compressing IVC. She had slight respiratory discomfort on supine position, but respiratory function test showed no abnormalities. In the operating room, after oxygenation for 3 minutes, general anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 100 μg, propofol 90 mg and rocuronium 40 mg on supine position. Immediately after the induction, her systolic blood pressure and heart rate fell to 45 mmHg and 40 beats per minute, respectively. We considered that her hemodynamic instability was supine hypotensive syndrome due to giant ovarian tumor. Therefore we placed her 30 degree right side up and pushed her tumor to the left so as not to compress the IVC. We rapidly injected acetated Ringer's solution 500 ml, ephedrine 12 mg and phenylephrine 0.1 mg, and her hemodynamic status soon recovered to normal ranges. The anesthetic induction of a patient with a giant ovarian tumor is challenging. Some reports recommend strategies such as induction on lateral position or suctioning tumor contents before induction. Careful induction of general anesthesia is required for these patients. PMID:26442415

  7. Electrocardiographic Parameters in Healthy Dogs Anesthetized with Ketamine-propofol Combination and four Different Premedications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Moezzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating electrocardiographic parameters in healthy dogs anesthetized with ketamine-propofol combination (ketofol and medetomidine, acepromazine and acepromazine-morphine as preanesthetic agents. Six healthy adult mix dogs (3 male, 3 female weighing 17.8±4.8 were include the study. Normal saline, medetomidine 20 µg/kg, acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg or acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg plus morphine 0.5 mg/kg were administered intramuscularly as premedication. Thirty minutes after premedication, rapid bolus intravenous injections of 0.4 mL/kg, 1:1 single syringe ketamine-propofol combination, was administrated for induction. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane for 1 h. Electrocardiographic examinations were made before premedication and others at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min after induction. Heart rate, electrical axis of the heart, duration of P, QRS and T waves, length of PR-QT and ST segments, active potential of P, R and T waves studied for any possibility of changes. Evaluation of heart rate in this study showed a significant increase in saline and a significant decrease in medetomidine groups. There were some significant differences in P wave duration and QRS complexes but irregular figure or deviated cardiac axis were not seen in recorded ECGs. The study results revealed prolonged atrial depolarization in all study groups especially in medetomidine and acepromazine-morphine groups. The other parameters were not shown any discussable significant differences.

  8. Anesthetic management for surgery of esophagus atresia in a newborn with Goldenhar's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Guerrero-Domínguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Goldenhar's syndrome is a polymalformative condition consisting of a craniofacial dysostosis that determines difficult airway in up to 40% of cases. We described a case of a newborn with Goldenhar's syndrome with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula who underwent repair surgery.CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 24-h-old newborn with Goldenhar's syndrome. He had esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula. It was decided that an emergency surgery would be performed for repairing it. It was carried out under sedation, intubation with fibrobronchoscope distal to the fistula, to limit the air flow into the esophagus, and possible abdominal distension. Following complete repair of the esophageal atresia and fistula ligation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and intubated under sedation and analgesia.CONCLUSIONS: The finding of a patient with Goldenhar's syndrome and esophageal atresia assumes an exceptional situation and a challenge for anesthesiologists, since the anesthetic management depends on the patient comorbidity, the type of tracheoesophageal fistula, the usual hospital practice and the skills of the anesthesiologist in charge, with the main peculiarity being maintenance of adequate pulmonary ventilation in the presence of a communication between the airway and the esophagus. Intubation with fibrobronchoscope distal to the fistula deals with the management of a probably difficult airway and limits the passage of air to the esophagus through the fistula.

  9. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  10. Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana Ferreira LEITE; Renato Santiago GOMEZ; Matheus de Castro FONSECA; Marcus Vinicius GOMEZ; Cristina GUATIMOSIM

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the presynaptic effects of propofol, a short-acting intravenous anesthetic, in the frog neuromuscular junction. Methods: Frog cutaneous pectoris nerve muscle preparations were prepared. A fluorescent tool (FM1-43) was used to visualize the effect of propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosos in the frog neuromuscular junction. Results: Low concentrations of propofol, ranging from 10 to 25 μmol/L, enhanced spontaneous vesicle exocytosis monitored by FM1-43 in a Ca2+-dependent and Na+-independent fashion. Higher concentrations of propofol (50, 100, and 200 μmol/L) had no effect on spontaneous exocytosis. By contrast, higher concentrations of propofol inhibited the Na+-dependent exocytosis evoked by 4-aminopyri-dine but did not affect the Na+-independent exocytosis evoked by KCI. This action was similar and non-additive with that observed by tetrodotoxin, a Na+ channel blocker.Conclusion: Our data suggest that propofol has a dose-dependent presynaptic effect at the neuromuscular transmission which mayhelp to understand some of the clinical effects of this agent on neuromuscular function.

  11. The local anesthetic tetracaine destabilizes membrane structure by interaction with polar headgroups of phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimooka, T; Shibata, A; Terada, H

    1992-03-01

    The effect of the local anesthetic tetracaine at less than 10 mM on the water permeability of the phospholipid membrane was examined using liposomes composed of various molar ratios of negatively charged cardiolipin to electrically neutral phosphatidylcholine by monitoring their osmotic shrinkage in hypertonic glucose solution at 30 degrees C. The concentration of tetracaine causing the maximum velocity of shrinkage of liposomes increased with increase in the molar ratio of cardiolipin. Tetracaine increased the zeta-potential of the negatively charged liposomal membrane toward the positive side due to the binding of its cationic form to the negatively charged polar headgroups in the membrane. The maximum velocity of water permeation induced by osmotic shock was observed at essentially the same tetracaine concentration giving a zeta-potential of the liposomal membrane of 0 mV. These concentrations were not affected by change in the sort of acyl-chain of phospholipids in the liposomes when their negative charges were the same. These results suggests that the membrane integrity is governed mainly by the electrical charge of phospholipid polar headgroups when phospholipid bilayers are in the highly fluid state, and that positively charged tetracaine molecules neutralize the negative surface charge, lowering the barrier for water permeation through phospholipid bilayers. PMID:1547263

  12. High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

  13. Genistein inhibits carotid sinus baroreceptor activity in anesthetized male rats1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-juan MA; Yi-xian LIU; Fu-wei WANG; Li-xuan WANG; Rui-rong HE; Yu-ming WU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of genistein (GST) on carotid baroreceptor activity (CBA).Methods: The functional curve of carotid baroreceptor (FCCB) was constructed and the functional parameters of carotid baroreceptor were measured by recording sinus nerve afferent discharge in anesthetized male rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus.Results: GST at 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L inhibited the CBA, which shifted FCCB to the right and downward, with a marked decrease in peak slope and peak integral value of carotid sinus nerve discharge in a concentration-dependent manner.Pretreatment with 100 μmol/L NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, did not affect the effect of GST on CBA.Pretreatment with 500 nmol/L Bay K8644, an agonist of calcium channels,could completely abolish the effect of GST on CBA.A potent inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase, sodium orthovanadate (1 mmol/L), could attenuate the inhibitory effect of GST.Conclusion: GST inhibits CBA, and the effect may be mediated by protein tyrosine kinase inhibition and a decrease in Ca2+ influx through the stretchactivated channels.

  14. A novel technique to insert nasogastric tube for the anesthetized patients during cervical esophageal reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie Zhang; Yu Deng; Shengling Fu; Yixin Cai; Ni Zhang; Xiangning Fu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We are describing a novel technique to insert nasogastric tube (NGT) in the anesthetized patients dur-ing cervical esophageal reconstruction. Methods:Forty patients with mid and upper esophageal tumor enrol ed into this study were randomly al ocated into two groups (the control group, group C and the novel method group, group N). Al the patients were applied mechanical anastomosis to finish the cervical esophageal reconstruction. The procedure of NGT insertion for group C use the conventional method;wel , the group N use the novel technique. Results:Al the patients in group N had been finished the NGT insertion in the first attempt, and the total time for insertion was (5.05 ± 1.15) mins;on the contrary, for the group C, duration of insertion (min) was (24.45 ± 5.23) mins, and the successful rate of NGT insertion in the first attempt was 40%(P<0.05);no one in group N had coiling/kinking, and 6/20 (30%) in group C had it (P=0.020). The complication rate of bleeding between the two group had no significant dif erence. Conclusion:For the patient with mid and upper esophageal tumor who need cervical esophageal reconstruction, this novel method can save the NGT insertion time, and make it easier with higher successful rate.

  15. Genetic and anatomical basis of the barrier separating wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Joiner

    Full Text Available A robust, bistable switch regulates the fluctuations between wakefulness and natural sleep as well as those between wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness. We previously provided experimental evidence for the existence of a behavioral barrier to transitions between these states of arousal, which we call neural inertia. Here we show that neural inertia is controlled by processes that contribute to sleep homeostasis and requires four genes involved in electrical excitability: Sh, sss, na and unc79. Although loss of function mutations in these genes can increase or decrease sensitivity to anesthesia induction, surprisingly, they all collapse neural inertia. These effects are genetically selective: neural inertia is not perturbed by loss-of-function mutations in all genes required for the sleep/wake cycle. These effects are also anatomically selective: sss acts in different neurons to influence arousal-promoting and arousal-suppressing processes underlying neural inertia. Supporting the idea that anesthesia and sleep share some, but not all, genetic and anatomical arousal-regulating pathways, we demonstrate that increasing homeostatic sleep drive widens the neural inertial barrier. We propose that processes selectively contributing to sleep homeostasis and neural inertia may be impaired in pathophysiological conditions such as coma and persistent vegetative states.

  16. A case of bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for cerebello pontine angle tumor excision: Anesthetic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, C; Kurian, G P; Mariappan, R

    2016-01-01

    The main goals of neuroanesthesia are the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, avoidance of hypercarbia, hypoxemia, and to provide better brain relaxation. Providing anesthesia for a patient with bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for craniotomy can be challenging. A 56-year-old male patient, case of right lung bronchiectasis with a right cerebello pontine angle tumor underwent excision in the left lateral position. Since he had severe bronchiectasis of the right lung, we had isolated the right lung using right-sided double lumen tube to avoid spillage. Intraoperative split lung test was performed to assess the right lung contribution on carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination and found that there was a significant contribution from the right lung. Hence, both lungs were ventilated to control CO2. The importance of lung isolation to prevent spillage and avoidance of one lung ventilation to control the arterial CO2 are highlighted in this case report. By providing a balanced anesthetic keeping both, the neurosurgical and thoracic concerns are important for better postoperative outcome. PMID:27375400

  17. Evaluation of propofol as a general anesthetic agent for minor oral surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Nitin; Kalra, Amit; Baghla, Gunpreet Kaur; Medsinge, Sonali V; Purohit, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting following anesthesia is a distressing problem for the patient as it increases the recovery time, intensity of nursing care and delays discharge. The aim of randomized controlled single blind study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subhypnotic doses of propofol for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in day care management of cases in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. Twenty-five patient of ASA-1 with age ranging from 12 to 40 years were scheduled for various maxillofacial surgical cases like fracture, cyst enucleation, surgical removal of 3rd molar, etc. were given propofol at the dose of 2 to 2.5 mg/kg as induction dose and sedation was maintained with the dose 5 to 10 mg/min. There was no significant effect on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation intraoperatively. In conclusion, a subhypnotic dose of propofol is fast acting, safe and easily controllable, short acting general anesthetic agent with rapid recovery. The study found that the PONV was significantly reduced in the patient with propofol, no hemodynamic derangements were noted in the postoperative period. PMID:24309336

  18. Hemodynamic effects of python neuropeptide gamma in the anesthetized python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Galli, Gina; Taylor, Edwin W; Conlon, J Michael; Wang, Tobias

    2005-05-15

    The effects of python neuropeptide gamma (NPgamma) on hemodynamic parameters have been investigated in the anesthetized ball python (Python regius). Bolus intra-arterial injections of synthetic python NPgamma (1-300 pmol kg-1) produced a dose-dependent decrease in systemic arterial blood pressure (Psys) concomitant with increases in systemic vascular conductance (Gsys), total cardiac output and stroke volume, but only minor effects on heart rate. The peptide had no significant effect on pulmonary arterial blood pressure (Ppul) and caused only a small increase in pulmonary conductance (Gpul) at the highest dose. In the systemic circulation, the potency of the NK1 receptor-selective agonist [Sar9,Met(0(2))11] substance P was >100-fold greater than the NK2 receptor-selective agonist [betaAla8] neurokinin A-(4-10)-peptide suggesting that the python cardiovascular system is associated with a receptor that resembles the mammalian NK1 receptor more closely than the NK2 receptor. Administration of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 150 mg kg-1), resulted in a significant (Ppython, but neither nitric oxide nor prostaglandins mediate the vasodilatory action of NPgamma.

  19. [Anesthetic Management of Peritonectomy and Extended Operation for Peritoneal Pseudomyxoma Combined with Massive Ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tomoki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    We report successful anesthetic management of extended operation for peritoneal pseudomyxoma combined with massive ascites (16.5 l). A 66-year-old man (weight 76 kg) who could not keep a supine position due to massive ascites associated with peritoneal pseudomyxoma was scheduled for elective peritonectomy and extended surgery. With the patient in the semisitting position, we administered 3% sevoflurane to induce loss of consciousness while preserving spontaneous ventilation. We then performed crush induction with propofol and rocuronium after topical anesthesia to the tongue base. Tracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope was successful. During the operation, we aspirated about 16.5 l of ascites over 20 l normal saline irrigation. To maintain the body temperature, we performed both active and passive extracorporeal warming. The operation included not only total peritonectomy but also distal gastrectomy, right colon resection, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy. To perform effective postoperative analgesia, we placed two epidural catheters from the upper and lower thoracic epidural spaces. The patient was extubated 3 days after operation, and discharged uneventfully on the 18th postoperative day. PMID:27483656

  20. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  1. Diaphragmatic pacing stimulation in spinal cord injury: anesthetic and perioperative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Tedde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The standard therapy for patients with high-level spinal cord injury is long-term mechanical ventilation through a tracheostomy. However, in some cases, this approach results in death or disability. The aim of this study is to highlight the anesthetics and perioperative aspects of patients undergoing insertion of a diaphragmatic pacemaker. METHODS: Five patients with quadriplegia following high cervical traumatic spinal cord injury and ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure were implanted with a laparoscopic diaphragmatic pacemaker after preoperative assessments of their phrenic nerve function and diaphragm contractility through transcutaneous nerve stimulation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01385384. RESULTS: The diaphragmatic pacemaker placement was successful in all of the patients. Two patients presented with capnothorax during the perioperative period, which resolved without consequences. After six months, three patients achieved continuous use of the diaphragm pacing system, and one patient could be removed from mechanical ventilation for more than 4 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: The implantation of a diaphragmatic phrenic system is a new and safe technique with potential to improve the quality of life of patients who are dependent on mechanical ventilation because of spinal cord injuries. Appropriate indication and adequate perioperative care are fundamental to achieving better results.

  2. Amylase and chymotrypsinogen synthesis and secretion by the anesthetized rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the origin of nonparallel secretion, pancreatic juice was collected in the anesthetized rat, during infusion of [3H]phenylalanine. In the basal state, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratios of activities and of [3H] incorporations were 3.5 and 2.5 times higher than in the homogenate, respectively. Both ratios decreased to the value in the homogenate upon caerulein stimulation (600 ng/kg). Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (15 ng/kg) did not alter enzyme secretion ratios, and depressed basal protein output only partly, suggesting similar secretory pathways for basal and stimulated secretion. Finally, when [3H]phenylalanine was given before anesthesia, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratio of incorporations was again higher in basal secretion than in homogenate, even when further protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide before urethane injection. Hence, basal secretion comes from a pancreatic compartment which is functional, although minor, in the conscious animal, and shows a higher rate of amylase synthesis, compared to chymotrypsinogen, than the rest of the gland. It could consist of a subpopulation of acinar cells

  3. From Drug-Induced Developmental Neuroapoptosis to Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity-Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeley, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    The fetal and neonatal periods are critical and sensitive periods for neurodevelopment, and involve rapid brain growth in addition to natural programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) and synaptic pruning. Apoptosis is an important process for neurodevelopment, preventing redundant, faulty, or unused neurons from cluttering the developing brain. However, animal studies have shown massive neuronal cell death by apoptosis can also be caused by exposure to several classes of drugs, namely gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists that are commonly used in pediatric anesthesia. This form of neurotoxic insult could cause a major disruption in brain development with the potential to permanently shape behavior and cognitive ability. Evidence does suggest that psychoactive drugs alter neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity in the animal brain, which, in the human brain, may translate to permanent neurodevelopmental changes associated with long-term intellectual disability. This paper reviews the seminal animal research on drug-induced developmental apoptosis and the subsequent clinical studies that have been conducted thus far. In humans, there is growing evidence that suggests anesthetics have the potential to harm the developing brain, but the long-term outcome is not definitive and causality has not been determined. The consensus is that there is more work to be done using both animal models and human clinical studies. PMID:27537919

  4. A case of bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for cerebello pontine angle tumor excision: Anesthetic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of neuroanesthesia are the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, avoidance of hypercarbia, hypoxemia, and to provide better brain relaxation. Providing anesthesia for a patient with bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for craniotomy can be challenging. A 56-year-old male patient, case of right lung bronchiectasis with a right cerebello pontine angle tumor underwent excision in the left lateral position. Since he had severe bronchiectasis of the right lung, we had isolated the right lung using right-sided double lumen tube to avoid spillage. Intraoperative split lung test was performed to assess the right lung contribution on carbon dioxide (CO 2 elimination and found that there was a significant contribution from the right lung. Hence, both lungs were ventilated to control CO 2 . The importance of lung isolation to prevent spillage and avoidance of one lung ventilation to control the arterial CO 2 are highlighted in this case report. By providing a balanced anesthetic keeping both, the neurosurgical and thoracic concerns are important for better postoperative outcome.

  5. Anesthetic considerations in a child with unrepaired D-transposition of great arteries undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Pooja; Khare, Arvind; Jain, Neena; Verma, Priya; Mathur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease diagnosed at birth. There is ventriculoarterial discordance leading to parallel circulation. The postnatal survival depends on intercirculatory mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at various levels through atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. The anesthesiologist must have an understanding of concepts of shunting and other long-term consequences of transposition of great arteries (TGA) in order to tailor the anesthetic technique to optimize the hemodynamic variables and oxygenation in the perioperative period. The preoperative evaluation includes echocardiography to delineate the type of TGA, associated lesions and extent and direction of shunts. Oxygen saturation is influenced by the ratio of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to systemic vascular resistance. Thus, care should be taken to avoid an increase in PVR which can lead to decreased pulmonary blood flow leading to hypoxia. We report a case of an 8-year-old child with unrepaired D-TGA, who presented to us for craniotomy for drainage of brain abscess.

  6. A national survey into perioperative anesthetic management of patients with a fractured neck of femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soinikoski Mirka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We made a survey among Finnish anesthesiologists concerning the current perioperative anesthetic practice of hip fracture patients for further development in patient care. Methods All members of the Finnish Society of Anesthesiologists with a known e-mail address (786 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey. Results The overall response rate was 55% (423 responses; 298 respondents participated in the care of hip fracture patients. Preoperative analgesia was mostly managed with oxycodone and paracetamol; every fifth respondent applied an epidural infusion. Most respondents (98% employed a spinal block with or without an epidural catheter for intraoperative anesthesia. Midazolam, propofol and/or fentanyl were used for additional sedation. General anesthesia was used rarely. Postoperatively, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and occasionally peroral oxycodone, were prescribed in addition to epidural analgesia. Conclusions The survey suggests that the impact of more individualised analgesia regimens, both preoperatively and postoperatively, should be investigated in further studies.

  7. The challenge of evaluating pain and a pre-incisional local anesthetic block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. McKune

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a local anesthetic line block administered before surgery in reducing postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVHX. Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial involving 59 healthy female dogs. An algometric pressure-measuring device was used to determine nociceptive threshold, and compared to three subjective pain scales. Group L/B received a line block of lidocaine (4 mg/kg and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg subcutaneously in the area of the incision site and saline subcutaneously as premedication; group L/BM (positive control received a similar block and morphine (0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously for premedication; and group SS (negative control received a saline line block and saline premedication. Criteria for rescue analgesia were defined before the study. Dogs were assessed prior to surgery, at extubation (time 0 and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-recovery. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, and a Split Plot Repeated Measures ANOVA with one grouping factor and one repeat factor (time. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Approximately 33% of dogs required rescue analgesia at some point during the study, with no significant difference between groups. There was no significant difference between treatment groups with any assessment method. Conclusions. As there were no statistically significant differences between positive and negative controls, the outcome of this technique cannot be proven.

  8. Spontaneous sleep-like brain state alternations and breathing characteristics in urethane anesthetized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pagliardini

    Full Text Available Brain state alternations resembling those of sleep spontaneously occur in rats under urethane anesthesia and they are closely linked with sleep-like respiratory changes. Although rats are a common model for both sleep and respiratory physiology, we sought to determine if similar brain state and respiratory changes occur in mice under urethane. We made local field potential recordings from the hippocampus and measured respiratory activity by means of EMG recordings in intercostal, genioglossus, and abdominal muscles. Similar to results in adult rats, urethane anesthetized mice displayed quasi-periodic spontaneous forebrain state alternations between deactivated patterns resembling slow wave sleep (SWS and activated patterns resembling rapid eye movement (REM sleep. These alternations were associated with an increase in breathing rate, respiratory variability, a depression of inspiratory related activity in genioglossus muscle and an increase in expiratory-related abdominal muscle activity when comparing deactivated (SWS-like to activated (REM-like states. These results demonstrate that urethane anesthesia consistently induces sleep-like brain state alternations and correlated changes in respiratory activity across different rodent species. They open up the powerful possibility of utilizing transgenic mouse technology for the advancement and translation of knowledge regarding sleep cycle alternations and their impact on respiration.

  9. 全身麻醉药的安全性研究%The Security Study of General Anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖延锦

    2012-01-01

      全身麻醉药是抑制中枢系统的药物,分为吸入和静脉麻醉药,能使患者意识、感觉和反射暂时消失,有利于外科手术的进行,其临床使用安全性越来越受到人们的关注。本文对几种常见全麻药的安全性进行探讨,确保广大医务人员能合理有效使用该类药品,保证人民的生命健康。%  General anesthetics is the inhibition of central nervous system drugs, it is divided into the inhalation anesthesia and intravenous anesthetics, it can make the patient consciousness, sensation and a reflex disappear temporarily, and it is advantageous to make surgical operation ,people pay more and more attention to the clinical use of security. This paper discusses several common general anesthetics security, it ensures that the medical staff can effectively use the drugs and keep the people healthy.

  10. 浅谈麻醉机的应用管理%Brief Talk on Anesthetic Equipment Application Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣

    2012-01-01

    随着科学技术的发展,高新技术的应用,麻醉机在功能上亦趋于多样化,精密化及智能化.麻醉机的应用管理是临床麻醉工作及设备管理过程中不可缺少的重要环节.本文阐述了麻醉机应用管理的具体做法,以达到麻醉机更好地为临床服务的目的.%The anesthetic is one kind of the life support medical device. With the development of science technology and the introduction of hi-tech, the anesthetic become more variable, precision and intelligentized. The application management of anesthetic is very important in anesthesia and medical device management. This paper expatiate the application management which will be benefit to the clinical practice.

  11. The Role of Lumbar Sympathetic Nerves in Regulation of Blood Flow to Skeletal Muscle during Anaphylactic Hypotension in Anesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    Full Text Available During hypovolemic shock, skeletal muscle blood flow could be redistributed to vital organs via vasoconstriction in part evoked by activation of the innervating sympathetic nerve activity. However, it is not well known whether this mechanism operates during anaphylactic shock. We determined the femoral artery blood flow (FBF and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA mainly regulating the hindquater muscle blood flow during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups (n = 7/group: (1 non-sensitized, (2 anaphylaxis, (3 anaphylaxis-lumbar sympathectomy (LS and (4 anaphylaxis-sinoaortic denervation (SAD groups. Anaphylaxis was induced by an intravenous injection of the ovalbumin antigen to the sensitized rats. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, FBF and LSNA were continuously measured. In the anaphylaxis group, LSNA and HR increased, while SAP and FBF decreased after antigen injection. In the anaphylaxis-SAD group, LSNA did not significantly change during the early phase, but the responses of SAP and FBF were similar to those in the anaphylaxis group. In the anaphylaxis-LS group, both FBF and SAP decreased similarly to the anaphylaxis group during anaphylactic hypotension. These results indicated that LSNA increased via baroreceptor reflex, but this sympathoexcitation or LS did not affect antigen-induced decreases in FBF or SAP. Lumbar sympathetic nerves are not involved in regulation of the blood flow to the hindlimb or systemic blood pressure during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  12. Sutureless Adult Voluntary Male Circumcision with Topical Anesthetic: A Randomized Field Trial of Unicirc, a Single-Use Surgical Instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shenje

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC.Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio.75 adult male volunteers.Outpatient primary care clinic.Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.Intraoperative duration.Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result.The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p < 0.001. Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups.VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.

  13. Optical imaging of the propagation patterns of neural responses in the rat sensory cortex: comparison under two different anesthetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, N; Ito, S-I; Hirota, A

    2015-01-22

    Although many studies have reported the influence of anesthetics on the shape of somatic evoked potential, none has evaluated the influence on the spatio-temporal pattern of neural activity in detail. It is practically impossible to analyze neural activities spatially, using conventional electrophysiological methods. Applying our multiple-site optical recording technique for measuring membrane potential from multiple-sites with a high time resolution, we compared the spatio-temporal pattern of the evoked activity under two different anesthetic conditions induced by urethane or α-chloralose. The somatic cortical response was evoked by electrical stimulation of the hindlimb, and the optical signals were recorded from the rat sensorimotor cortex stained with a voltage-sensitive dye (RH414). The evoked activity emerged in a restricted area and propagated in a concentric manner. The spatio-temporal pattern of the evoked activity was analyzed using isochrone maps. There were significant differences in the latency and propagation velocity of the evoked activity, as well as the full width at half maximum of optical signal between the two anesthetic conditions. Differences in the amplitude and the slope of the rising phase were not significant. PMID:25301752

  14. Anesthetic agents modulate ECoG potentiation after spreading depression, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia does not modify this effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-04-10

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is characterized by reversible reduction of spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. Experimental evidence suggests that CSD may modulate neural excitability and synaptic activity, with possible implications for long-term potentiation. Systemic factors like anesthetics and insulin-induced hypoglycemia can influence CSD propagation. In this study, we examined whether the post-CSD ECoG potentiation can be modulated by anesthetics and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. We found that awake adult rats displayed increased ECoG potentiation after CSD, as compared with rats under urethane+chloralose anesthesia or tribromoethanol anesthesia. In anesthetized rats, insulin-induced hypoglycemia did not modulate ECoG potentiation. Comparison of two cortical recording regions in awake rats revealed a similarly significant (pchloralose and tribromoethanol anesthesia modulate the post-CSD potentiation of spontaneous electrical activity in the adult rat cortex, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia does not modify this effect. Data may help to gain a better understanding of excitability-dependent mechanisms underlying CSD-related neurological diseases. PMID:25681772

  15. Cytotoxicity of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers containing the local anesthetic dibucaine designed for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, R. M.; da Silva, C. M. G.; Bella, T. S.; de Araújo, D. R.; Marcato, P. D.; Durán, N.; de Paula, E.

    2013-04-01

    Dibucaine (DBC) is powerful long-lasting local anesthetic, but it is also considered fairly toxic to the CNS. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have attracted attention as carriers for drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of DBC-loaded SLN and NLC against 3T3 fibroblast and HaCat keratinocyte cells. The SLN and NLC had myristyl myristate and Liponate®GC as their lipid matrices, respectively, plus a surfactant. SLN and NLC were characterized in terms in their diameter, size distribution, surface charge and DBC encapsulation efficiency. The particle size of SLN and NLC were around 234.33 and 166.62 nm, respectively. The polydispersity index was kept below 0.2 for both nanomaterials. Negative surface charges were observed for both nanoparticles, which decreased in the presence of the anesthetic. Encapsulation efficiency reached 76% and 90%, respectively, in SLN and NLC. DBC alone was found to be toxic to 3T3 and HaCat cells in culture. However, NLC and SLN loaded DBC decreased its intrinsic cytotoxic effect against 3T3 and HaCat cells. In conclusion, encapsulation of DBC in SLN and NLC decreased the in vitro toxicity of the local anesthetic, indicating the potential of these nanocarriers for clinical applications.

  16. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of inclusion complexes between local anesthetics and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao e caracterizacao fisico-quimica de complexos de inclusao entre anestesicos locais e hidroxipropil-{beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Carolina Morales; Abrami, Priscila; Goncalves, Marcos Moises; Andreo Filho, Newton [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br

    2007-07-15

    S(-) Bupivacaine (S(-)BVC) and Lidocaine (LDC) are widely used local anesthetics (LA). Hydroxypropyl {beta}-cyclodextrin (HP-{beta}-CD) is used as a drug-carrier system. The aim of this work was to characterize inclusion complexes between LA and HP-{beta}-CD. The affinity constants determined at different pHs show favourable complexation. The release kinetics experiments showed that S(-)BVC and LDC changed the released profiles in the presence of HP-{beta}-CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments gave information about the interaction between LA and the cyclodextrin cavity. This study focused on the physicochemical characterization of drug-delivery formulations that come out as potentially new therapeutic options for pain treatment. (author)

  17. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Makiko, E-mail: shibu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiraoki, Toshifumi [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University (Japan); Kimura, Kunie; Fukushima, Kazuaki [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Suzuki, Kuniaki [Department of Molecular Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effects of general anesthetics on liposome using ESR spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two spin labels, 5-DSA and 16-DSA, were located in different position in liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics did not change the environment around the spin labels in the liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics remained on the surface of the lipid bilayer of liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteins in the liposome did not change the effects of anesthetics on liposome. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and {tau} values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  18. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  19. Acid-base and biochemical stabilization and quality of recovery in male cats with urethral obstruction and anesthetized with propofol or a combination of ketamine and diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Gabrielle C.; Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, Marina G.; Gomes, Kleber; Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, João P.; Togni, Monique; Pippi, Ney L.; Carregaro, Adriano B

    2012-01-01

    This study compared acid-base and biochemical changes and quality of recovery in male cats with experimentally induced urethral obstruction and anesthetized with either propofol or a combination of ketamine and diazepam for urethral catheterization. Ten male cats with urethral obstruction were enrolled for urethral catheterization and anesthetized with either ketamine-diazepam (KD) or propofol (P). Lactated Ringer’s solution was administered by intravenous (IV) beginning 15 min before and con...

  20. Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Dereli; Zehra Baykal Tutal; Munire Babayigit; Aysun Kurtay; Mehmet Sahap; Eyup Horasanli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV) are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. METHODS: Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows;...