WorldWideScience

Sample records for anemone hybrida

  1. Anemone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Gu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Peigen

    2017-03-01

    The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales), comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant "omics" platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  2. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Cheng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales, comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant “omics” platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  3. Survival of sea anemones in Bunder C fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicksten, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Sea anemones (Anthopleura elegantissima) can withstand submersion in Bunker C fuel oil for up to 1 h without visible adverse effects. The wet, mucus-covered tissues of the sea anemones may repel oil. During recovery, the sea anemones expand the column, evert the tentacles and reattach. A dahlia anemone (Tealia lofotensis) withstood immersion in oil for 15 min. The ability to withstand immersion in oil may confer an ecological advantage to sea anemones in contaminated areas. 5 references, 8 figures, 1 tables.

  4. Induced mutations in Petunia hybrida Hort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikar, S.G.; Khalatkar, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The seeds of a white flowering strain of Petunia hybrida hort. were treated with different concentrations of ethyl methane-sulphonate, sodium azide, diethyl sulphate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethylene imine and gamma radiations. A large number of flower colour and morphological mutants superior to the parental variety were obtained. The flower colour mutations took the form of sectors and whole colour changes. The latter included a large spectrum of colours from light to deep magenta, pink, purple and violet coloured petals. The anthocyanin analysis of these mutants showed different patterns of pigments responsible for the various colours. In addition to these, a broad spectrum of morphological mutations of ornamental value included dwarfs, unbranched, cristata, densa, campyloflora and velutiniflora types. The inheritance of horticulturally important characters was investigated in M 3 and M 4 generations. (author)

  5. Unraveling the genetics of Botrytis cinerea resistance in Gerbera hybrida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Yiqian

    2017-01-01

    Gerbera hybrida is one of the top five cut flowers. It is well-known to people for its variation in flower color and patterning. Gerbera breeding at the moment is done using conventional methods which are based on a phenotypic selection. This has drawbacks in breeding speed and

  6. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  7. Sources of nutrition in intertidal sea anemones from the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-03-06

    Mar 6, 1996 ... input of energy (Tytler & Spencer Davies 1984). In nutrient- poor tropical environments these zooxanthellae often supply. 100% or more of the host's daily metabolic carbon require- ments (Tsuchida & Potts 1994). In temperate regions, how- ever, anemones rely more on captured prey. Sea anemones.

  8. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Petunia hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24608923

  9. Phosphorus and nitrogen regulate arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nouri

    Full Text Available Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis, the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  10. Nieuwe standplaatsen van Minuartia hybrida (Vill.) Schischkin (Tengere veldmuur) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Minuartia hybrida is strongly declining in the Netherlands in its natural habitat: steep slopes on limestone. Recently it was discovered in a calcareous grassland and on a railway verge on shingle deposited on calcareous sandy clay.

  11. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnytzer, Yisrael; Giman, Yaniv; Karplus, Ilan; Achituv, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis . In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a "splitting" behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the "theft" of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs "split" their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism) it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  12. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisrael Schnytzer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae. These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a “splitting” behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the “theft” of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs “split” their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  13. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields.

  14. Sea Anemones: Quiet Achievers in the Field of Peptide Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Prentis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones have been understudied as a source of peptide and protein toxins, with relatively few examined as a source of new pharmacological tools or therapeutic leads. This is surprising given the success of some anemone peptides that have been tested, such as the potassium channel blocker from Stichodactyla helianthus known as ShK. An analogue of this peptide, ShK-186, which is now known as dalazatide, has successfully completed Phase 1 clinical trials and is about to enter Phase 2 trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the impediments to the exploitation of sea anemone toxins in the pharmaceutical industry has been the difficulty associated with their high-throughput discovery and isolation. Recent developments in multiple ‘omic’ technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, coupled with advanced bioinformatics, have opened the way for large-scale discovery of novel sea anemone toxins from a range of species. Many of these toxins will be useful pharmacological tools and some will hopefully prove to be valuable therapeutic leads.

  15. First observations of attempted nudibranch predation by sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Reijnen, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    On two separate occasions during fieldwork in Semporna (eastern Sabah, Malaysia), sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae were observed attempting to feed on the nudibranch species Nembrotha lineolata and Phyllidia ocellata. These are the first in situ observations of nudibranch predation by sea

  16. NEC1, a regulator of nectary development and nectar production in Petunia hybrida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, Ya-Xin

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an efficient cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a nectary-specific gene in Petunia hybrida. NEC1, a novel gene, is highly expressed in nectaries. NEC1 is involved in nectar production and nectar secretion. Nectar secreted from floral nectaries is the main

  17. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida : a structural and histochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait

  18. Introduction of ROL genes in Rosa hybrida L. for improved rootstock performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der T.P.M.

    1996-01-01


    In contrast to many other cut flowers, which are harvested completely at the time of flowering, rose plants ( Rosahybrida L.) continuously produce flowering shoots, which are harvested on a regular basis. For the release of axillary buds and

  19. Identification of cut-rose (Rosa hybrida) and rootstock varieties using robust Sequence Tagged Microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esselink, D.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study a DNA fingerprinting protocol was developed for the identification of rose varieties based on the variability of microsatellites. Microsatellites were isolated from Rosa hybrida L. using enriched small insert libraries. In total 24 polymorphic sequenced tagged microsatellite site

  20. In vitro propagation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Al-Taif Rose plant | Attia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a protocol for in vitro propagation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Al-Taif Rose was established using nodal segments harboring axillary buds as explants. In vitro stages of shoot initiation, multiplication and elongation were performed. Explants were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented ...

  1. First Report of Die-Back on Rose (Rosa hybrida Caused by Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-In Wee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, symptoms of die-back on Rosa hybrida were observed in Taean, Korea. The aims of this study were to determine the cause of die-back on Rosa hybrida and characterize the pathogen. The fungal isolates were obtained and used for pathogenicity test, morphological and molecular analyses. The pathogenicity test on healthy branches of Rosa hybrida produced die-back, as the original symptoms. For the morphological study, the isolates were inoculated onto potato dextrose agar and incubated for 7 days at 25°C. The colonies grew up quickly and turned white to gray in color. Conidia were observed under an optical microscope. The features of conidia were ellipsoidal, grayish brown in color, 20-31×11-17 µm in size and had one septum. Molecular analyses of the ITS region, TEF and TUB genes were conducted to confirm the identity of the pathogen. The phylogenetic tree of the multi-gene sequences indicated that the causal agent was Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. This study is the first report of die-back caused by Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae on Rose (Rosa hybrida.

  2. Insight into the evolution of the Solanaceae from the parental genomes of Petunia hybrida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bombarely, Aureliano; Moser, Michel; Amrad, Avichai; Bao, Manzhu; Bapaume, Laure; Barry, Cornelius S.; Bliek, Mattijs; Boersma, Maaike R.; Borghi, Lorenzo; Bruggmann, Rémy; Bucher, Marcel; Agostino, D' Nunzio; Davies, Kevin; Druege, Uwe; Dudareva, Natalia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Delledonne, Massimo; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Franken, Philipp; Grandont, Laurie; Heslop-Harrison, J.S.; Hintzsche, Jennifer; Johns, Mitrick; Koes, Ronald; Lv, Xiaodan; Lyons, Eric; Malla, Diwa; Martinoia, Enrico; Mattson, Neil S.; Morel, Patrice; Mueller, Lukas A.; Muhlemann, Joëlle; Nouri, Eva; Passeri, Valentina; Pezzotti, Mario; Qi, Qinzhou; Reinhardt, Didier; Rich, Melanie; Richert-Pöggeler, Katja R.; Robbins, Tim P.; Schatz, Michael C.; Schranz, Eric; Schuurink, Robert C.; Schwarzacher, Trude; Spelt, Kees; Tang, Haibao; Urbanus, Susan L.; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Vijverberg, Kitty; Villarino, Gonzalo H.; Warner, Ryan M.; Weiss, Julia; Yue, Zhen; Zethof, Jan; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Sims, Thomas L.; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2016-01-01

    Petunia hybrida is a popular bedding plant that has a long history as a genetic model system. We report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of inbred derivatives of its two wild parents, P. axillaris N and P. inflata S6. The assemblies include 91.3% and 90.2% coverage of their diploid

  3. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Nan U. Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1 populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1. We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration. In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  4. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association....... amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones are cleanerfish with an unusual client, in that they appear to clean mucus and, or, necrotic tissue from the sea anemone host....

  5. Sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus--a new source of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnir, V M; Kozlovskaya, E P; Kalinovsky, A I

    1992-11-01

    A very potent non-protein toxin was isolated from the sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus with the use of chromatography on polytetrafluoroethylene, CM-Sephadex C-25 and by cation and anion exchange HPLC. The toxin was identified as palytoxin by u.v.-, i.r.- and 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Its LD50 was 0.74 +/- 0.29 micrograms/kg by i.v. injection into mice. So far, palytoxin has been associated with zoanthids only. The toxin caused the loss of haemoglobin from erythrocytes but only in about 2 hr after the beginning of incubation, which is characteristic for palytoxin from zoanthids. Sea anemone palytoxin was divided into major and minor components by HPLC. The latter proved to be a product of degradation of palytoxin.

  6. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Jen Liu

    Full Text Available Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  7. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria Toxins: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines, but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  8. Parasitic anemone infects the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Møller, Lene Friis; Sundberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    We report of the first finding of parasitic sea anemone larvae infecting the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Parasitic anemone larvae are common in the native habitat of Mnemiopsis, but have not previously been reported from any of the locations where Mnemiopsis...

  9. Predation on transmission stages reduces parasitism: sea anemones consume transmission stages of a barnacle parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-06-01

    While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host. We investigate whether a sea anemone protects an associated barnacle from parasitism by Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasitic castrator. At Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California USA, 29% of barnacles were within 1 cm from an anemone at the surveyed tidal height. Barnacles associated with anemones had reduced parasite prevalence and higher reproductive productivity than those remote from sea anemones. In the laboratory, anemones readily consumed the transmission stage of the parasite. Hence, anemone consumption of parasite transmission stages may provide a mechanism by which community context regulates parasite prevalence at a local scale. Our results suggest predation may be an important process providing parasite transmission control.

  10. First record of the sea anemone Metridium senile from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oral discs fringed by abundant, feathery tentacles - features inconsistent with any previously known anemone from the region. We subsequently photographed and collected several individuals from the Alfred Basin. Fully extended anemones were salmon pink in colour, with a column approximately. 100 mm in height and ...

  11. Reinterpretation of some tentacular structures in actinodendronid and thalassianthid sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardelean, A.

    2003-01-01

    The oral disc of an actinodendronid sea anemone is drawn out into a variable number of highly branched tentacular structures that make the anemone resemble a tree. These tentacular structures have been considered either lobes or branched tentacles. The term lobe has been applied to various

  12. Manipulation of MKS1 gene expression affects Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Gargul, Joanna Maria; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of alternative methods to chemical treatments for growth retardation and pathogen protection in ornamental plant production has become a major goal in recent breeding programmes. This study evaluates the effect of manipulating MAP kinase 4 nuclear substrate 1 (MKS1) expression in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida. The Arabidopsis thaliana MKS1 gene was overexpressed in both species via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in dwarfed phenotypes and delay...

  13. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2013-08-08

    Background:Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.Methodology/Principal Findings:This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.Conclusions/Significance:Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE NATURAL ILLUMINATION LEVEL ON THE INDOOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PETUNIA HYBRIDA

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    B. Lixandru

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a room with a natural illumination index (NII of 4.79, for 70 days, the influence of three illumination levels on the growth and development process of petunias from the Petunia hybrida species was studied. After rising, plants were placed in three zones of the room with different illumination levels: zone A (683 lx – situated on the window’s sill, zone B (113 lx – situated on the floor, at the base of the parapet, and zone C (376 lx – situated in the center of the room, on a table, at 80 cm from the floor. After two weeks from the pricking out, plants were transplanted in glass pots of 200 ml. At 2, 15, 30, 50 and 70 days the maximum length of the stem, branching level and leaf number were determined. At the end of the experiment and 10 days of room temperature drying, root, stem, leaf and flower biomass quantity was determined. Our results evidence the negative effect of the low illumination level (113 lx and 376 lx on the growth and development process of petunias from the Petunia hybrida species. Being a light and warmth loving plant, P. hybrida may be grown only at well-illuminated windows, with a level of minimum 1000 lx.

  15. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

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    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  16. Molecular cloning of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    conserved regions of PHM, we have now cloned a PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica showing 42% amino acid sequence identity with rat PHM. Among the conserved (identical) amino acid residues are five histidine and one methionine residue, which bind two Cu2+ atoms that are essential for PHM...... activity. No cDNA coding for PAL could be identified, suggesting that sea anemone PAL is coded for by a gene that is different from the sea anemone PHM gene, a situation similar to the one found in insects. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a cnidarian PHM. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec-18...

  17. DNA extraction from sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria tissues for molecular analyses

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    Pinto S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific DNA extraction method for sea anemones is described in which extraction of total DNA from eight species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharian was achieved by changing the standard extraction protocols. DNA extraction from sea anemone tissue is made more difficult both by the tissue consistency and the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. The technique described here is an efficient way to avoid problems of DNA contamination and obtain large amounts of purified and integral DNA which can be used in different kinds of molecular analyses.

  18. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

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    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  19. Ring sea anemones, an overview (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria

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    Ocaña, Óscar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present observations represent a new record of species of Actiniaria that are able to attach to a gorgonian branch by surrounding it with a solid piece of tissue junction and a significant reduction of the coelenteron. Ring sea anemones are provisionally placed in the Actinostolidae. They seem to be more common at depths between 85 and 1500 m., and according to our observations they are specialized to exclusively colonize on some species of gorgonians or pennatulaceans. Parasitism best describes the relationship between ring sea anemones and their hosts. We recognize five different species of ring sea anemones, one described by Hiles (1899 as Peronanthus verrucellae, and the others named by us provisionally as Peronanthus sp1, sp2, sp3 & sp4. The strategy displayed by ring sea anemones has several advantages, such as placement economy (see above, a better attachment against any current action, exploitation of food resources inaccessible to most other Actiniarians, and it allows them avoidance of habitat competition. The impossibility to colonize any other substrate but a certain group of gorgonians and a reduction of the gastric cavity are the main disadvantages detected in the ring sea anemones’ way of life. Apparently, this group of sea anemones is widespread through the Pacific Ocean.

    Un nuevo grupo de especies de actiniarios que desarrollan un nuevo sistema para afianzarse alrededor de los ejes de gorgonias y pennatuláceos es estudiado por nosotros en el presente trabajo. Se trata de un anillo de tejido que rodea los ejes y queda perfectamente sellado por medio de uniones del tejido produciendo una reducción del celenterón. Anémonas anillo es como las hemos denominado y provisionalmente han sido incluidas dentro de la familia Actinostolidae. Parece que son comunes en profundidades comprendidas entre los 85 y los 1500 metros, colonizando solamente determinadas especies de gorgonias y de pennatuláceos. El

  20. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu

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    N. G. Ribeiro-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS. Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in

  1. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

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    Ricardo González-Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  2. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-04-07

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones.

  3. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  4. Root temperature effects on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida in relation to cytokinin concentrations in xylem sap.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Kuiper, D.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of three divergent root temperatures (11°C, 20°C and 26°C) on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida were studied. Root morphology was changed considerably with root temperature. Roots at 11°C were white, succulent, short and sparsely branched, whereas at 26°C roots were long, brown, thin

  5. Promoter activity of a putative pollen monosaccharide transporter in Petunia hybrida and characterisation of a transposon insertion mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, D.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Tunen, van A.J.

    2006-01-01

    For the growth of the male reproductive cells of plants, the pollen, the presence of sufficient sucrose or monosaccharides is of vital importance. From Petunia hybrida a pollen-specific putative monosaccharide transporter designated PMT1 (for petunia monosaccharide transporter) has been identified

  6. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

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    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  7. Masquerade, mimicry and crypsis of the polymorphic sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni and its aggregations in South Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.; Crowther, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllodiscus semoni is a morphologically variable sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific with morphotypes ranging from upright and branched to low-lying and rounded. The apparent camouflage strategies of this sea anemone allow it to resemble other species or objects in its environment, such as

  8. An assemblage of the host anemone Heteractis magnifica in the northern Res Sea, and distribution of the resident anemonefish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Tychsen, Anders; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2004-01-01

    correlated with depth. The shallow waters of the anemone assemblage contained few mainly small, solitary actinians. There seemed to be a tendency for solitary actinians to cluster once they reached a certain size-range. The resident anemone¢shes Amphiprion bicinctus and Dascyllus trimaculatus were present...

  9. Micropropagation from cultured nodal explants of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. ‘Perfume Delight’

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    Kamnoon Kanchanapoom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the micropropagation of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. ‘Perfume Delight’ was developed. First to fifth nodal explants from young healthy shoots were excised and cultured on basal medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962, MS containing several concentrations of BA and NAA. Multiple shoot formation of up to 3 shoots was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BA and 0.003 mg/l NAA. Shoot readily rooted on ¼MS medium devoid of growth regulators.Rooted plantlets were hardened and established in pots at 100% survival. In vitro flowering was observed on rose plantscultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BA and 0.003 mg/l NAA.

  10. Rising starlet: the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, John A; Reitzel, Adam R; Burton, Patrick M; Mazza, Maureen E; Ryan, Joseph F; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, a handful of model systems from the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria have emerged to challenge long-held views on the evolution of animal complexity. The most-recent, and in many ways most-promising addition to this group is the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. The remarkable amenability of this species to laboratory manipulation has already made it a productive system for exploring cnidarian development, and a proliferation of molecular and genomic tools, including the currently ongoing Nematostella genome project, further enhances the promise of this species. In addition, the facility with which Nematostella populations can be investigated within their natural ecological context suggests that this model may be profitably expanded to address important questions in molecular and evolutionary ecology. In this review, we explore the traits that make Nematostella exceptionally attractive as a model organism, summarize recent research demonstrating the utility of Nematostella in several different contexts, and highlight a number of developments likely to further increase that utility in the near future.

  11. Pore formation by actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojko, Nejc; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Maček, Peter; Anderluh, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    Actinoporins (APs) from sea anemones are ~20 kDa pore forming toxins with a β-sandwich structure flanked by two α-helices. The molecular mechanism of APs pore formation is composed of several well-defined steps. APs bind to membrane by interfacial binding site composed of several aromatic amino acid residues that allow binding to phosphatidylcholine and specific recognition of sphingomyelin. Subsequently, the N-terminal α-helix from the β-sandwich has to be inserted into the lipid/water interphase in order to form a functional pore. Functional studies and single molecule imaging revealed that only several monomers, 3-4, oligomerise to form a functional pore. In this model the α-helices and surrounding lipid molecules build toroidal pore. In agreement, AP pores are transient and electrically heterogeneous. On the contrary, crystallized oligomers of actinoporin fragaceatoxin C were found to be composed of eight monomers with no lipids present between the adjacent α-helices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Maur Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A morphological and cytological study of Petunia hybrida exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staxén, I.; Bornmann, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytoskeleton, and in particular the microtubular system, is affected by enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm, 9 kJ m −2 day −1 biologically effective UV-B radiation) radiation in epidermal cells of Petunia x hybrida Vilm, isolated from leaves of plants grown under UV-B radiation and visible light. In addition, morphological changes during development were monitored. In a previous study microtubules were depolymerized and delays in the different stages of the cell cycle were found when protoplasts of Petunia were irradiated with UV-B radiation (Staxén et al. 1993. Protoplasma 173: 70–76). Thus it was of interest to ascertain whether the cytoskeleton would be similarly affected in an intact system. Assuming an effect of UV-B radiation on the microtubular system, we wished to determine whether this could be correlated to concomitant changes in leaf morphology. Plants of Petunia hybrida were grown in greenhouse conditions in the presence or absence of UV-B radiation. During the course of the experiment, samples were taken from young, expanding leaves and from older, fully expanded leaves and prepared for localization and analysis of microtubules from the adaxial epidermal cells. Morphology rather than the cytoskeleton was affected by UV radiation, despite the fact that the epidermal cytoskeleton would most likely be affected, since it is located in the cells which form the first intercepting layer for incident radiation. Morphological changes under UV-B radiation, as compared to those under control conditions, were reflected in earlier flowering and an increase in leaf number. Cell division was thus stimulated as was also evidenced from the increased leaf area. Our results indicate that the number of stomata differentiated on a leaf area basis was not altered although the number of stomata per epidermal cell was reduced. (author)

  13. Antifungal activity of saponins originated from Medicago hybrida against some ornamental plant pathogens

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    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of total saponins originated from roots of Medicago hybrida (Pourret Trautv. were evaluated in vitro against six pathogenic fungi and eight individual major saponin glycosides were tested against one of the most susceptible fungi. The total saponins showed fungitoxic effect at all investigated concentrations (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% but their potency was different for individual fungi. The highest saponin concentration (0.1% was the most effective and the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. callistephi, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi was 84.4%, 69.9%, 68.6%, 57.2%, 55.0%, respectively. While Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., a pathogen of Muscari armeniacum, was inhibited by 9.5% only. Eight major saponin glycosides isolated from the total saponins of M. hybrida roots were tested against the mycelium growth of Botrytis tulipae. The mycelium growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited by hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-galactopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed low fungitoxic activity. Medicagenic acid 3-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-[α-L- hamnopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]- 28-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D- lucopyranoside did not limit or only slightly inhibited growth of the tested pathogen. While 2β, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12 ene-23-al-28-oic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside slightly stimulated mycelium growth of B. tulipae.

  14. Differential accumulation of heavy metals in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima as a function of symbiotic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Alan Verde, E.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Weis, Virginia M

    2003-08-20

    The accumulation of metals by the North American Pacific Coast temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, and its dinoflagellate-algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei was examined following laboratory metal exposures. Both, naturally occurring symbiotic and symbiont-free (aposymbiotic) anemones were used in this study to investigate differences in metal uptake due to the symbiotic state of the animal. The effects of metal exposures on the anemone-algal symbiosis were determined using measures of algal cell density and mitotic index (MI). Anemones were exposed to either cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc chloride (0, 10, 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Cd, Cu and Ni; 0, 100, 1000 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Zn) for 42 days followed by a 42-day recovery period in ambient seawater. Anemones were analyzed for metal content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) at various time points during the study. Symbiotic anemones accumulated Cd, Ni and Zn to a greater extent than aposymbiotic anemones. A dramatically different pattern of Cu accumulation was observed, with aposymbiotic anemones accumulating higher levels than symbiotic anemones. Following recovery in ambient seawater, all tissue metal levels were reduced to near pre-exposure control levels in most cases. No changes in algal cell density or MI were observed in symbiotic anemone tentacle clips at any dose or time point in the Cd and Cu exposures. However, significant reductions in algal cell densities were observed in the Ni-exposed and some Zn-exposed animals, although levels returned to control values following recovery. There were no changes in mitotic index (MI) following Ni or Zn exposures. These results demonstrate that the extent of heavy metal accumulation depends upon cnidarian symbiotic state and the heavy metal in question.

  15. Molecular cloning of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    sequentially, peptidyl-glycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL). In mammals both enzymatic activities are contained within a bifunctional protein that is coded for by a single gene. Using PCR and degenerated oligonucleotides derived from...... conserved regions of PHM, we have now cloned a PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica showing 42% amino acid sequence identity with rat PHM. Among the conserved (identical) amino acid residues are five histidine and one methionine residue, which bind two Cu2+ atoms that are essential for PHM...... activity. No cDNA coding for PAL could be identified, suggesting that sea anemone PAL is coded for by a gene that is different from the sea anemone PHM gene, a situation similar to the one found in insects. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a cnidarian PHM. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec-18...

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among deep-sea and chemosynthetic sea anemones: actinoscyphiidae and actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa.

  17. Defensin-neurotoxin dyad in a basally branching metazoan sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Tae Kwan; Park, Ji Been; Park, Nam Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have evolved from two independent ancestors, and that both defensins could share origins with animal toxins. Here, we purified novel sea anemone neurotoxin (BDS)-like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-Crassicorin-I and its putative homolog (Crassicorin-II)-from the pharynx extract of an anthozoan sea anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Based on structural analyses and cDNA cloning, mature Crassicorin-I represents a cationic AMP likely generated from a precursor and comprising 40 amino acid residues, including six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant Crassicorin-I produced in a heterologous bacterial-expression system displayed antimicrobial activity against both a gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica). The Crassicorin-I transcript was upregulated by immune challenge, suggesting its involvement in defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens in sea anemone. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional molecular modeling revealed that Crassicorin-I exhibits high degrees of structural similarity to sea anemone neurotoxins that share β-defensin fold which is found in vertebrate defensins and invertebrate big-defensins. Consistent with its structural similarity to neurotoxins, Crassicorin-I exhibited paralytic activity toward a crustacean. These findings motivated our investigation and subsequent discovery of antimicrobial activity from other known sea anemone neurotoxins, such as APETx1 and ShK. Collectively, our work signified that Crassicorin-I is the first AMP identified from a sea anemone and provided evidence of a functional linkage between AMPs and neurotoxins in a basally branching metazoan. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Genomic organization of a receptor from sea anemones, structurally and evolutionary related to glycoprotein hormone receptors from mamals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibede, N; Hauser, Frank; Williamson, M

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Cnidarians (e.g., sea anemones and corals) are the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Previously, we cloned a receptor from sea anemones that showed a strong structural similarity to the glycoprotein hormone (TSH, FSH, LH/CG) receptors from mammals. Here, we determine the genomic...... organization of this sea anemone receptor. The receptor gene contains eight introns that are all localized within a region coding for the large extracellular N terminus. These introns occur at the same positions and have the same intron phasing as eight introns in the genes coding for the mammalian...

  19. Prospects of isolated microspore culture for haploid production in Anemone coronaria L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paladines, R.; Jurado, D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Quiñones, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a procedure to obtain haploid plants from microspore cultures of Anemone coronaria L., an important ornamental crop known worldwide due to its commercial value in the cut flower industry. Microspores were isolated from two genotypes of A. coronaria: ‘Blue’

  20. A Taxonomic Note on the Misidentification of Anemone tschernjaewii Regel. in Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Hassan Ganie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Anemone tschernjaewii Regel. previously misidentified as A. biflora DC. in the Kashmir Himalaya, India is reported. In this brief report, a detailed taxonomic description and photo-plates of its diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters are provided to validate this plant record for the region and to facilitate its easier field identification.

  1. The anatomy, terminology, and homology of acrorhagi and pseudoacrorhagi in sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daly, M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of the column margin is an especially important feature in the taxonomy and biology of members of the sea anemone family Actiniidae. Despite the importance of marginal structures, their anatomy and the terminology describing them is poorly delimited. Consequently, homologies of the

  2. The formation of a nanocarbon from lignocellulose with a sea anemone appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabeti, M.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2013-01-01

    A filamentous carbon nanomaterial having morphology, elemental compositions and growth conditions similar to those of a sea anemone was formed during pyrolysis of lignocellulose in the presence of water and sodium. We call the material “carbon nano-anemones” (CNAs). Well known carbon nano

  3. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  4. INFLUENCE OF CULTIVAR AND PLANTING MATERIAL REGARDING PHENOLOGICAL ASPECTS AT DAHLIA HYBRIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ciobanu (Moldovan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dahlia is one of the most important cut flowers and it is used also for garden decor during the summer. Based on the researches conducted on seven cultivars of Dahlia hybrida cactus type: 'Kennemerland', 'Tsuki Yori No Sisha', 'Hayley Jane', 'Purple Gem', 'Star Favourite', 'Park Princess', 'Friquolet', it was analysed the influence of cultivar and planting material (forced and unforced tuberous roots on some phenological aspects. Phenological observations conducted on the plants were the following: debut of growth, appearance of the first flower buds, opening of the first flower buds and decorative period. According to the data collected, it was calculated the duration between phenophases as number of days. After the interpretation of the results using Ducan test, it was found that forcing of the tuberous roots has a positive influence on the duration of decorative period, that took place in an interval of 58.11-112.55 days for the cultivars 'Park Princess' and 'Kennemerland' and by comparison, for the unforced tuberous roots, the decorative period was much shorter for cultivars 'Star Favourite' (29.77 days and 'Kennemerland' (105.55 days. Studies reveal that forcing of the Dahlia tuberous roots is causing the decrease of number of days from planting to sprouting that also helps in extending the decorative period.

  5. Biocontrol of gray mold on Rosa Hybrida cv. Baccara with Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria Bacillus subtilis was investigated for control of gray mold, postharvest quality and antioxidant enzymes of Rosa hybrida cv. Baccara. The results indicated that the treatment of Bacillus subtilis suspension of 1 × 108cfu mL−1 with resulted in a remarkably improved control of Botrytis cinerea infections. CAT activity in treated flower by antagonism were significantly more than those control (P ≤ 0.05 at 25◦C, RH 60-70%. POD activity cut flowers increased during the flower bud development with the lowest activity present at water-sprayed control. Enhanced by antagonism could be due to either induced resistance or direct effects of these chemicals on Botrytis. The proper concentration of Bacillus subtilis can thus provide an effective strategy to increase postharvest vase life of Rosa. Postharvest antagonism application prolonged vase-life in cut rose flowers by improving the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging capacity related to CAT and POD activity

  6. Investigation of callogenesis and indirect regeneration of Freesia × hybrida Bailey ‘Argenta’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourkhaloee Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the effects of explant sources, plant growth regulators, carbohydrates and light conditions on indirect cormlet regeneration and the induction of embryogenic callus of freesia (Freesia × hybrida Bailey ‘Argenta’. Sections of two different types of explants, corms and pupae (cold storage-produced corms, were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS media containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus induction (100%, the highest callus growth (15 mm diameter and the best type of calli were achieved for pupa explants grown on the medium that contained 4 mg L−1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 2 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in the dark. Increasing BAP up to 3 to 4.5 mg L−1 resulted in the maximum number of regenerated cormlets from 1 cm2 calli (2 cormlets under light conditions. Overall, the best rooting of regenerated cormlets was achieved on MS media supplemented with 1 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In the next stage, high quality calli were subcultured on MS media containing sorbitol, sucrose, maltose and mannitol (0, 5, 10 and 15 g L−1. The results indicated that 15 g L−1 maltose was able to induce the highest percentage of embryogenic callus, with an average of 88.9% on media containing 2 mg L−1 BAP and 1 mg L−1 NAA.

  7. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosa hybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Khan, M.A.; Riaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic cultivars of hybrid roses respond uncertainly to new habitat. It is necessary to explore the potential of the introduced cultivars to judge the suitability in a new habitat. In the present study, nine Rosa hybrida cultivars including Autumn Sunset, Ice Berg, Paradise, Angel Face, Louise Odier, Casino, Grand Margina, Handel and Gruss-an-Teplitz were evaluated for growth and yield attributed under the climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Results indicated that there was decreasing trend in the growth and flowering of the bushes as the temperature increased above 32 degree C and humidity decreased to 29 %. Number of flowers per bush and diameter of flower decreased as the temperature increased and humidity decreased in contrast to increment in height of the plant and num ber of primary branches per plant in succeeding months. Interaction between yield traits and months was also significant. Overall, significant variations were observed in each cultivar for length and number of petals per flower, number of prickles, fragrance, flower persistence life and color, bush shape and overall performance with respect to climatic conditions of Faisalabad. It is concluded that the cultivars 'Autumn Sunset' and Gruss-an-Teplitz performed better in climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  8. An effective homologous cloning method for isolating novel miR172s from Phalaenopsis hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ying Han

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MiR172 is an important microRNA that regulates floral development in various plants and downregulates AP2 family members to relieve the stress on floral determinacy, leading to phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. In this work, PCR with primers designed based on the rice miR172 sequence was used to isolate two miR172-like transcripts from Phalaenopsis hybrida (PhmiR172-1 and PhmiR172-2 that were very similar to Oryza miR172d and Arabidopsis miR172b. RT-PCR indicated that the levels of these two transcripts were negatively correlated with the level of the Phalaenopsis AP2 (PhAP2 gene in stem, root, pedicel and sepal, and that both were co-expressed with PhAP2 in young buds. Overproduction of PhmiR172-2 in Arabidopsis led to early flowering. The homologous cloning method used to isolate the Phalaenopsis miR172-like transcripts can be used to isolate miRNAs from other species. These PhmiR172 transcripts may be used to accelerate the flowering of orchids.

  9. Occurrence of Stolbur Phytoplasma Disease in Spreading Type Petunia hybrida Cultivars in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Nam Chung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2012, spreading type petunia cv. Wave Pink plants showing an abnormal growth habit of sprouting unusual multiple plantlets from the lateral buds were collected from a greenhouse in Gwacheon, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. The presence of phytoplasma was investigated using PCR with the primer pairs P1/P6, and R16F1/R1 for nested-PCR. In the nested PCR, 1,096 bp PCR products were obtained, and through sequencing 12 Pet-Stol isolates were identified. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene of the 12 Pet-Stol isolates with other phytoplasmas belonging to aster yellows or Stolbur showed that Pet-Stol isolates were members of Stolbur. The presence of phytoplasma in petunia was also confirmed by microscopic observation of the pathogens. In this study, Stolbur phytoplasma was identified from spreading type petunia cultivars by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of phytoplasma and microscopic observation of phytoplasma bodies. This is the first report of Stolbur phytoplasma in commercial Petunia hybrida cultivars.

  10. The effect of Medicago arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa saponins on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. tulipae apt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it was shown that total saponins originated from M. hybrida and M. sativa substantially limited mycelium growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. tulipae and symptoms of fusariosis on tulip bulbs. Out of 15 individual tested saponins originated from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa, four compounds: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2α-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin, hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, medicagenic acid, medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had the strongest inhibitory effect on mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae on PDA medium. The total saponins from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa inhibited the number of colony forming units of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in artificially infested substrate. The use of saponins originated from Medicago as a fungicide is suggested.

  11. Regression models describing Rosa hybrida response to day/night temperature and photosynthetic photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, D.A.; Hammer, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    A central composite rotatable design was used to estimate quadratic equations describing the relationship of irradiance, as measured by photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and day (DT) and night (NT) temperatures to the growth and development of Rosa hybrida L. in controlled environments. Plants were subjected to 15 treatment combinations of the PPF, DT, and NT according to the coding of the design matrix. Day and night length were each 12 hours. Environmental factor ranges were chosen to include conditions representative of winter and spring commercial greenhouse production environments in the midwestern United States. After an initial hard pinch, 11 plant growth characteristics were measured every 10 days and at flowering. Four plant characteristics were recorded to describe flower bud development. Response surface equations were displayed as three-dimensional plots, with DT and NT as the base axes and the plant character on the z-axis while PPF was held constant. Response surfaces illustrated the plant response to interactions of DT and NT, while comparisons between plots at different PPF showed the overall effect of PPF. Canonical analysis of all regression models revealed the stationary point and general shape of the response surface. All stationary points of the significant models were located outside the original design space, and all but one surface was a saddle shape. Both the plots and analysis showed greater stem diameter, as well as higher fresh and dry weights of stems, leaves, and flower buds to occur at flowering under combinations of low DT (less than or equal to 17C) and low NT (less than or equal to 14C). However, low DT and NT delayed both visible bud formation and development to flowering. Increased PPF increased overall flower stem quality by increasing stem diameter and the fresh and dry weights of all plant parts at flowering, as well as decreased time until visible bud formation and flowering. These results summarize measured development at

  12. Manipulation of MKS1 gene expression affects Kalanchoë blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargul, Joanna Maria; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of alternative methods to chemical treatments for growth retardation and pathogen protection in ornamental plant production has become a major goal in recent breeding programmes. This study evaluates the effect of manipulating MAP kinase 4 nuclear substrate 1 (MKS1) expression in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida. The Arabidopsis thaliana MKS1 gene was overexpressed in both species via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in dwarfed phenotypes and delayed flowering in both species and increased tolerance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in transgenic Petunia plants. The lengths of the stems and internodes were decreased, while the number of nodes in the transgenic plants was similar to that of the control plants in both species. The transgenic Kalanchoë flowers had an increased anthocyanin concentration, and the length of the inflorescence stem was decreased. The morphology of transgenic Petunia flowers was not altered. The results of the Pseudomonas syringae tolerance test showed that Petunia plants with one copy of the transgene reacted similarly to the nontransgenic control plants; however, plants with four copies of the transgene exhibited considerably higher tolerance to bacterial attack. Transgene integration and expression was determined by Southern blot hybridization and RT-PCR analyses. MKS1 in wild-type Petunia plants was down-regulated through a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method using tobacco rattle virus vectors. There were no significant phenotypic differences between the plants with silenced MKS1 genes and the controls. The relative concentration of the MKS1 transcript in VIGS-treated plants was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability in Petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability and heterosis were estimated for ornamental and vegetative traits of four petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort. inbred lines viz. L5 (P1, L8 (P2, L11 (P3 and L17 (P4 and their diallel hybrids in horticultural research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2011. The measured traits were plant height at first flower, number of leaf to first flower, flower diameter, flower tube length, internode length, stem diameter, plant height at flowering stage, plant spreading, number of branches per plant, leaf length and width. The results of combining ability for all studied traits revealed that both additive and non-additive gene effects contributed to the inheritance of the traits. Estimates of general combining ability effects showed that parent P3 was a good general combiner for most of the studied traits. For flower diameter, hybrid combination P1 � P2 had the highest significant positive specific combining ability effects. Reciprocal effects were significant for all traits and hybrid combination P1 � P2 had the highest significant positive reciprocal effects for flower tube length and plant height. Heterosis was found significant relative to both the mid parent and batter parent for all traits. For flower diameter, the highest positive values of heterotic effects were recorded in hybrid combination P2 � P3 both relative to the parental mean (37.3% and relative to the better parent (33.9%. It is obvious that heterotic effects represent an important resource in hybrid breeding of petunia.

  14. Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability in Petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability and heterosis were estimated for ornamental and vegetative traits of four petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort. inbred lines viz. L5 (P1, L8 (P2, L11 (P3 and L17 (P4 and their diallel hybrids in horticultural research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2011. The measured traits were plant height at first flower, number of leaf to first flower, flower diameter, flower tube length, internode length, stem diameter, plant height at flowering stage, plant spreading, number of branches per plant, leaf length and width. The results of combining ability for all studied traits revealed that both additive and non-additive gene effects contributed to the inheritance of the traits. Estimates of general combining ability effects showed that parent P3 was a good general combiner for most of the studied traits. For flower diameter, hybrid combination P1 P2 had the highest significant positive specific combining ability effects. Reciprocal effects were significant for all traits and hybrid combination P1 P2 had the highest significant positive reciprocal effects for flower tube length and plant height. Heterosis was found significant relative to both the mid parent and batter parent for all traits. For flower diameter, the highest positive values of heterotic effects were recorded in hybrid combination P2 P3 both relative to the parental mean (37.3% and relative to the better parent (33.9%. It is obvious that heterotic effects represent an important resource in hybrid breeding of petunia.

  15. Evolution of the Cytolytic Pore-Forming Proteins (Actinoporins) in Sea Anemones

    OpenAIRE

    Macrander, Jason; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach...

  16. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae.

  17. Digestion rates of prey eaten by intertidal sea anemones from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portunid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) . .I. Erp. At/ar. B",/, &01 52: IOl113. lAMER. W.E. 1986. Physiologicanemone Antltoplellnl elf!gantissillw 1. Prey capture_ absorption efficiency and grO\\\\'th. ,\\1or BioI. 92: 299 314. IAR. 1.1 r. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall.

  18. Fisiology Adaptation of Sandy Anemone (Heteractis Malu) Exposed to Elevated Temperatures: Laboratory Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Neviaty Putri

    2012-01-01

    Sandy anemone (Heteractis malu), belongs to Phylum Cnidaria, physiologically is very close to coral stone, which was a major component of coral reef ecosystems. As coral stone, Heteractis malu also has symbiotic algae (Zooxanthella). Physiologically, the alga symbiotic relationship of coral stone is almost similar with Heteractis malu. Maintaining Heteractis malu in the laboratory is relativly easier compared to that of coral stone. Advantages of the Heteractis malu vs. stone coral, its body ...

  19. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  20. Evolution of the Cytolytic Pore-Forming Proteins (Actinoporins in Sea Anemones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Macrander

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea. Our analysis identified 90 candidate actinoporins across 20 species. We also found clusters of six actinoporin-like genes in five species of sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Stomphia coccinea, Epiactis japonica, Heteractis crispa, and Diadumene leucolena; these actinoporin-like sequences resembled actinoporins but have a higher sequence similarity with toxins from fungi, cone snails, and Hydra. Comparative analysis of the candidate actinoporins highlighted variable and conserved regions within actinoporins that may pertain to functional variation. Although multiple residues are involved in initiating sphingomyelin recognition and membrane binding, there is a high rate of replacement for a specific tryptophan with leucine (W112L and other hydrophobic residues. Residues thought to be involved with oligomerization were variable, while those forming the phosphocholine (POC binding site and the N-terminal region involved with cell membrane penetration were highly conserved.

  1. Evolution of the Cytolytic Pore-Forming Proteins (Actinoporins) in Sea Anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrander, Jason; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-12-08

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea). Our analysis identified 90 candidate actinoporins across 20 species. We also found clusters of six actinoporin-like genes in five species of sea anemone ( Nematostella vectensis , Stomphia coccinea , Epiactis japonica , Heteractis crispa , and Diadumene leucolena ); these actinoporin-like sequences resembled actinoporins but have a higher sequence similarity with toxins from fungi, cone snails, and Hydra . Comparative analysis of the candidate actinoporins highlighted variable and conserved regions within actinoporins that may pertain to functional variation. Although multiple residues are involved in initiating sphingomyelin recognition and membrane binding, there is a high rate of replacement for a specific tryptophan with leucine (W112L) and other hydrophobic residues. Residues thought to be involved with oligomerization were variable, while those forming the phosphocholine (POC) binding site and the N-terminal region involved with cell membrane penetration were highly conserved.

  2. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  3. STUDIES CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADABLE SLOW-RELEASE FERTILIZER USE IN DEVELOPING THE CULTURE OF PETUNIA HYBRIDA SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research on the use of slow-release biodegradable fertilizers were applied to Petunia hybrida seedlings of the variety “White Surfinia”. Thus after 10 days subculturing procedure was to apply fertilizers containing NKP24 biodegradable and made in the form of sticks and granules with six concentrations of starch (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 50% quantaties (4-5 grams/ 1 pot. For each pot with of 8 cm diameter, we prepared a mixture of peat and garden soil in a rate of 1:1. During the vegetation periods, morphological analyses were made regarding the development of Petunia hybrida, cv. “White Surfinia”plants: the length of shoots and number of shoot. Average values recorded from morphological determinations after 1 month of starting experiments on biofertilizers influence on growth and development the seedlings of Petunia was demonstrated that the optimal variant was the fertilizer V5 with -25% WF (wood flour to 50% concentration of biofertilizers NKP24 (for both form of sticks A-big and B-medium and for fertilizer form C- granular the V6 variant with -50% concentration of biofertilizers NKP24, the petunia stem was recorded maximum of 58.92 cm length .The research is part of an international project FP7/2008 with the title "Forest Resource Sustainability through Bio-Based-Composite Development" – FORBIOPLAST. Multiple aims of FORBIOPLAST project are the valorization of forest resources for the production of bio-based products.

  4. Screening of volatile composition of Lavandula hybrida Reverchon II honey using headspace solid-phase microextraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir

    2009-03-01

    The volatiles of unifloral Lavandula hybrida Reverchon II honey were isolated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC/MS). A total of 23 compounds were identified in the headspace with hexan-1-ol, hexanal, acetic acid, hotrienol, and 2-phenylacetaldehyde as the principal components. Three solvents of different polarity were used for USE, and a total of 53 compounds were identified. The extracts with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2 (v/v) were the most representative for USE method containing the majority of the honey floral origin compounds and potential biomarkers (hexanol, acetic acid, butane-1,3-diol, butane-2,3-diol, benzoic acid, coumarin, and 2-phenylacetic acid). The total number of identified compounds (USE and HS-SPME) was 59. In general, the comparison with volatiles of other lavandin honeys of different geographic origins indicated several similarities, while acetic and formic acids were identified with high percentages in L. hybrida Reverchon II honey.

  5. Management of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by growing petunia hybrida (l.) mill. as an ornamental plant in saudi arabia - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qarawi, A.A.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Alghamdi, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)

  6. Two potential Petunia hybrida mitochondrial DNA replication origins show structural and in vitro functional homology with the animal mitochondrial DNA heavy and light strand replication origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Jan M. de; Hille, Jacques; Kors, Frank; Meer, Bert van der; Kool, Ad J.; Folkerts, Otto; Nijkamp, H. John J.

    1991-01-01

    Four Petunia hybrida mitochondrial (mt) DNA fragments have been isolated, sequenced, localized on the physical map and analyzed for their ability to initiate specific DNA synthesis. When all four mtDNA fragments were tested as templates in an in vitro DNA synthesizing lysate system, developed from

  7. Microwave-assisted extraction and rapid isolation of ursolic acid from the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida Maiden and its quantification using HPLC-diode array technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subash C; Jain, Chhoten L; Kumari, Amita; Padhi, Madan M; Devalla, Ramesh B

    2013-04-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is the most important bioactive phytoconstituent of Eucalyptus × hybrida Maiden leaves and exhibits anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed for rapid isolation of UA from the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida and simultaneously HPLC-diode array method was developed for the quantification of UA. Effects of several experimental parameters on the extraction efficiencies of UA, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power and extraction time, were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be 20 mL of a mixture of chloroform/methanol, 60:40; liquid-to-material ratio, 4:1; preleaching time, 10 min; microwave power, 600 W; temperature, 50°C; and microwave irradiation time, 5 min. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of UA was found to be 1.95 ± 0.08% in the dry leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida. The results showed that microwave-assisted extraction is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than the conventional method. It is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method and it may be used for rapid isolation and quantification of UA and other important phytoconstituents present in the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Flowering induction of Hemerocallis hybrida cv. Graziela Barroso by gibberellic acid aplication / Indução do florescimento de Hemerocallis hybrida cv. Graziela Barroso pela aplicação de ácido giberélico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Nazareno da Fonte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemerocallis spp. production is important in Santa Catarina State. The flowers have a great use in landscaping, and bloom in spring. This work had the aim of studying the flower induction in Hemerocallis hybrida cv Graziela Barroso by different applications of gibberellic acid (0 mgL-1 control; 15 mgL-1; 30 mgL-1 GA3 during summer, autumn and winter. A completely randomized design was used. Treatments represented a factorial arrangement of three GA3 concentrations and ten application occasions in each season. Interaction between the factors was evaluated by the following variables: dry matter (summer - the best value found was 13,81 g (in 30 mgL-1 GA3 in the April, 16 application, and foliar area (autumn - 436,3 cm2 (in 30 mgL-1 GA3 the July, 1st application. The gibberellic acid cannot be indicated to increase the commercial qualities (blooming and growing of Hemerocallis hybrida cv Graziela Barroso. A produção de Hemerocallis spp., planta muito utilizada no paisagismo, que floresce naturalmente na primavera, tem destaque em Santa Catarina. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a indução do florescimento em Hemerocallis hybrida cultivar Graziela Barroso, pela aplicação ácido giberélico (0 mgL-1 controle; 15 mgL-1; 30 mgL-1 de GA3, no verão (janeiro-abril, outono (abril-julho e inverno (julho-outubro, de forma a aprimorar seus atributos comerciais. Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com fatorial 3x10 (três doses de GA3 e dez datas de aplicação para cada estação. Houve interação entre os fatores estudados apenas para acúmulo de massa seca (verão, sendo o melhor valor encontrado 13,81 g (30 mgL-1 de GA3, na aplicação de 16 de abril; e área foliar (outono, 436,3 cm2 (30 mg L-1 de GA3 na aplicação de 1 de julho. Não se pode indicar o GA3 nas concentrações estudadas para aprimorar atributos comerciais (florescimento e crescimento na espécie em questão.

  9. Nitrogen remobilisation facilitates adventitious root formation on reversible dark-induced carbohydrate depletion in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerche, Siegfried; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-10-10

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (N t ), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how elevated N t contents with a combined dark exposure of cuttings influence their internal N-pools including free amino acids and considered early anatomic events of AR formation as well as further root development in Petunia hybrida cuttings. Enhanced N t contents of unrooted cuttings resulted in elevated total free amino acid levels and in particular glutamate (glu) and glutamine (gln) in leaf and basal stem. N-allocation to mobile N-pools increased whereas the allocation to insoluble protein-N declined. A dark exposure of cuttings conserved initial N t and nitrate-N, while it reduced insoluble protein-N and increased soluble protein, amino- and amide-N. The increase of amino acids mainly comprised asparagine (asn), aspartate (asp) and arginine (arg) in the leaves, with distinct tissue specific responses to an elevated N supply. Dark exposure induced an early transient rise of asp followed by a temporary increase of glu. A strong positive N effect of high N t contents of cuttings on AR formation after 384 h was observed. Root meristematic cells developed at 72 h with a negligible difference for two N t levels. After 168 h, an enhanced N t accelerated AR formation and gave rise to first obvious fully developed roots while only meristems were formed with a low N t . However, dark exposure for 168 h promoted AR formation particularly in cuttings with a low N t to such an extent so that the benefit of the enhanced N t was almost compensated. Combined dark exposure and low N t of

  10. Isolation of pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Antho-RFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for peptides containing the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide). Using this radioimmunoassay and applying cation-exchange chromatography and HPLC, we have isolated an RFamide peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura...... elegantissima. Three different methods established that the structure of the Anthopleura RFamide peptide (Antho-RFamide) is pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. Comparison of synthetic and natural Antho-RFamide and their enzymatic breakdown products on six different HPLC columns confirmed the structure of the sea anemone...... peptide. Using synthetic Antho-RFamide as a standard in our radioimmunoassay, we measured high concentrations (3.2 nmol/g wet weight) of this peptide in extracts of Anthopleura. It is proposed that Antho-RFamide is a transmitter at neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones....

  11. Isolation of pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Antho-RFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for peptides containing the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide). Using this radioimmunoassay and applying cation-exchange chromatography and HPLC, we have isolated an RFamide peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegan...... peptide. Using synthetic Antho-RFamide as a standard in our radioimmunoassay, we measured high concentrations (3.2 nmol/g wet weight) of this peptide in extracts of Anthopleura. It is proposed that Antho-RFamide is a transmitter at neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones....

  12. Increased cell proliferation and mucocyte density in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida recovering from bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fransolet

    Full Text Available Recovery of coral after bleaching episodes is a critical period for the health of the reef ecosystem. While events such as symbiont (genus Symbiodinium shifting/shuffling or tissue apoptosis have been demonstrated to occur following bleaching, little is known concerning tissue recovery or cell proliferation. Here, we studied the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exposed to a transient elevation of water temperature combined with high illumination (33°C and 1900 µmol photons x m(-2 x s(-1 for 30 h. Following such treatment bleached anemones showed a significant reduction of their Symbiodinium density. Cell proliferation in the ectodermis and gastrodermis was determined by assessing the densities of cells labeled with a thymidine analogue (EdU. Cell proliferation significantly increased during the first day following stress in both tissue types. This increased cell proliferation returned to pre-stress values after one week. Although cell proliferation was higher in the ectodermis in absence of stress, it was relatively more pronounced in the gastrodermis of stressed anemones. In addition, the ratio of ectodermal mucocytes significantly increased three weeks after induced stress. These results suggest that thermal/photic stress coupled with the loss of the symbionts is able to enhance cell proliferation in both gastrodermis and ectodermis of cnidarians. While new cells formed in the gastrodermis are likely to host new Symbiodinium, the fate of new cells in the ectodermis was only partially revealed. Some new ectodermal cells may, in part, contribute to the increased number of mucocytes which could eventually help strengthen the heterotrophic state until restoration of the symbiosis.

  13. Extraction of Anticoagulant Compound from Persian Gulf sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdeah Tahmasebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The marine environment is anexceptional reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of them exhibit structural/chemical features that not found in terrestrial natural products.Glycosaminoglycans are one of this various bioactive compounds. Heparin, as a well known glycosaminoglycan, is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that has natural anticoagulant properties. Heparin and heparin-like compounds are used as anticoagulants in many aspects of medicine. However, for two main reasons: 1. Contamination in heparin samples obtained from pig intestine or bovine lung pathogens and other pathogens, 2 .resource for use of heparin is limited and there are a lot of requirements for new compounds from natural resources. According to GAGs importance and widespread using of heparin in medicine, in the present study, GAGs compounds extracted from sea anemones and anticoagulant properties of the human blood is investigated. Materials and Methods: GAGs compound was extracted by using cetylpyridinium chloride. Anticoagulation activity of extracted GAGs (the extracted tentacle was tested in human blood plasma, using manual procedures, and assay system, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. Results: In this study the amount of the crude GAGs was 24 mg per gram of tentacle dry weight. The results ofanticoagulant activity extracted on human blood plasma showed that these compounds prolonged clotting time compared to the control. In APTT and PT assay of the extracted GAGs from the sea anemone also clotting time prolonged in compared to the control. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that anticoagulant compounds existed in the tentacle of the sea anemone, and although their effects is weaker than the heparin, but they can be substituted for heparin, at least in laboratory conditions.

  14. The isolation of a toxin from the dahlia sea anemone, Tealia felina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R C; Konya, R S; Vickneshwara, K

    1986-01-01

    Gel chromatography with Dyematrex blue B gel and ion exchange chromatography with a methylcellulose cation exchange column have been used to isolate a toxin present in partially purified saline extracts of the dahlia sea anemone Tealia felina. Toxin activity was assessed by its histaminolytic activity. A ten-fold increase in activity per mg protein was achieved in these two steps. Final purification on a Sephacryl column yielded an apparently pure protein with a molecular weight of 7800. The amino acid composition of this compound was determined.

  15. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail: gkbielmyer@valdosta.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  16. A taxonomic review of the dry-fruited species of Anemone (Ranunculaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three dry-fruited species of Anemone sect. Pulsatilloides subsect. Alchemillifoliae (Ranunculaceae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, including complete synonomy, taxonomic history with nomenclatural corrections, ecological notes, and distribution. A. tenuifolia (L.f. DC. from the Cape Floristic Region is segregated as ser. Pinnatifoliae from the two summer rainfall species, A. caffra (Eckl. & Zeyh. Harv. and A. fanninnii Harv. ex Masters, which remain in ser. Alchemillifoliae, emphasising the strong vegetative differences between the two series.

  17. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Three New Indole Diterpenoids from the Sea-Anemone-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Yi; Meng, Ling-Hong; Li, Xin; Yang, Sui-Qun; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-05-12

    Three new indolediterpenoids, namely, 22-hydroxylshearinine F ( 1 ), 6-hydroxylpaspalinine ( 2 ), and 7- O -acetylemindole SB ( 3 ), along with eight related known analogs ( 4 - 11 ), were isolated from the sea-anemone-derived fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by a detailed interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD calculations ( 1 and 2 ) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction ( 3 ). Some of these compounds exhibited prominent activity against aquatic and human pathogenic microbes.

  19. In vitro mutagenesis for development of novel variants in Rose (Rosa X Hybrida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namita, B.; Raju, D.V.S.; Prasad, K.V.; Singh, Kanwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Rose (Rosa x hybrida) is the top ranking cut flower in international market due to its attractive flowers with longer stem and fragrance. Modern roses are the result of hybridization, selection and spontaneous mutations. In floriculture industry, the demand of the novel varieties of rose is increasing day by day due to change in trends and taste. Mutation breeding is an already established method for improvement of flower crops. It offers several advantages over conventional methods for the improvement of one or more traits within a short span of time. Induced mutation is one of the potent methods to induce variability in existing rose genotypes. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture i.e. in vitro mutagenesis has proven more effective in rose due to controlled environment that provides ideal conditions for survival of mutated tissues or cells. Keeping these aspects in view, the present investigation was carried out to induce variability in rose cv. Grand Gala under in vitro conditions using gamma (γ) rays. Single node cuttings were excised from the field grown plants and were irradiated with different doses of γ rays (0,10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy) using a 60 Co source. The γ-irradiated explants were then pretreated, surface sterilized and cultured aseptically on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 2.5 mg 5-benzylaminopurine (BAP) plus 5.0 mg kinetin plus 0.1 mg a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 0.5 mg gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) plus 40 mg adenine sulphate plus 0.8% (w/v) agar-agar to induce sprouting and shoot proliferation. Explants treated at higher dose of γ-rays (70 and 80 Gy) showed deleterious effects of ionising radiation. The 30 Gy treatment was found to be the LD 50 dose. It was observed that few explants treated with γ-rays sprouted, showed slow growth and failed to survive after the first sub culture. The explants irradiated with 50 Gy γ-rays exhibited minimum explant survival, bud sprouting, number of shoots

  20. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O'Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-10-10

    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate change in the wild. Here, we report hormonal and fitness responses of individual wild fish to a recent large-scale sea warming event that caused widespread bleaching on coral reefs. This 14-month monitoring study shows a strong correlation between anemone bleaching (zooxanthellae loss), anemonefish stress response, and reproductive hormones that decreased fecundity by 73%. These findings suggest that hormone stress responses play a crucial role in changes to population demography following climate change and plasticity in hormonal responsiveness may be a key mechanism enabling individual acclimation to climate change.Elevated temperatures can cause anemones to bleach, with unknown effects on their associated symbiotic fish. Here, Beldade and colleagues show that climate-induced bleaching alters anemonefish hormonal stress response, resulting in decreased reproductive hormones and severely impacted reproduction.

  1. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and zinc or nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Christina G; Picariello, Codie R; Thomason, Rachel K; Patel, Krina S; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO 2 , as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni). After exposure to four concentrations (nominal values=control, 10, 50, 100μg/L) of Zn or Ni over 7days, both metals accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. Anemones exposed to elevated CO 2 (1000ppm) accumulated significant tissue burdens of Zn or Ni faster (by 48h) than those exposed to the same metal concentrations at ambient CO 2 . No differences were observed in catalase activity due to Zn exposure; however, 50μg/L Ni caused a significant increase in catalase activity at ambient CO 2 . No significant effect on catalase activity from CO 2 exposure alone was observed. Glutathione reductase activity was affected by increased Zn or Ni exposure and those effects were influenced by increased CO 2 . Results of this study provide insight into the toxic mechanisms and environmental implications of CO 2 and Zn or Ni exposure to the cnidarian E. pallida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gladkikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI. These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO generation.

  3. Sphingolipid Metabolism of a Sea Anemone Is Altered by the Presence of Dinoflagellate Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Poole, Angela Z; Weis, Virginia M

    2017-12-01

    In host-microbe interactions, signaling lipids function in interpartner communication during both the establishment and maintenance of associations. Previous evidence suggests that sphingolipids play a role in the mutualistic cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Exogenously applied sphingolipids have been shown to alter this partnership, though endogenous host regulation of sphingolipids by the sphingosine rheostat under different symbiotic conditions has not been characterized. The rheostat regulates levels of pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and pro-apoptotic sphingosine (Sph) through catalytic activities of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and S1P phosphatase (SGPP). The role of the rheostat in recognition and establishment of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis was investigated in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida by measuring gene expression, protein levels, and sphingolipid metabolites in symbiotic, aposymbiotic, and newly recolonized anemones. Comparison of two host populations showed that symbiotic animals from one population had lower SGPP gene expression and Sph lipid concentrations compared to aposymbiotic animals, while the other population had higher S1P concentrations than their aposymbiotic counterparts. In both populations, the host rheostat trended toward host cell survival in the presence of symbionts. Furthermore, upregulation of both rheostat enzymes on the first day of host recolonization by symbionts suggests a role for the rheostat in host-symbiont recognition during symbiosis onset. Collectively, these data suggest a regulatory role of sphingolipid signaling in cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis and symbiont uptake.

  4. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  5. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-09-24

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation.

  6. Decapod crustaceans associated with the snakelock anemone Anemonia sulcata. Living there or just passing by?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies the decapod crustaceans that associate with Anemonia sulcata on the southwestern Atlantic coast of Portugal and characterises their host use pattern. It determines whether the anemone is monopolised by any species, resulting in the exclusion of conspecifics or other decapods and, under laboratory conditions, it evaluates the degree of association between each species and A. sulcata. From all sampled anemones, 79% harboured at least 1 decapod crustacean, with the majority displaying either one or two specimens (32 and 24%, respectively. The most abundant species were the shrimp Periclimenes sagittifer and the crab Inachus phalangium (representing 36 and 31% of collected specimens, respectively, which displayed lasting associations and were commonly recorded among the tentacles of the host. The species Eualus occultus, E. complex cranchii, Clibanarius erythropus, Maja brachydactyla, Pilumnus hirtellus and Polybius (Necora puber displayed short-term associations, were mainly present on the substratum near the base, and avoided the tentacles of A. sulcata. Periclimenes sagittifer and I. phalangium were only recorded alone or in heterosexual pairs, appearing to efficiently defend their host against conspecifics. The majority of recorded species only seem to temporarily associate with A. sulcata, in order to seek protection from predators when other shelters are unavailable.

  7. Bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke; Grathoff, Annette; Gedde, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This paper provides first information on organ-like bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile. The specimens were collected from waters near Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) and the Orkney Islands. Tentacles were prepared for morphological inspection by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as for the phylogenetic analysis of endocytic bacteria. Bacterial aggregates are located in caverns of the tentacles’ epidermis. The aggregates are enwrapped in thin envelopes, which contain coccoid and/or rod-shaped tightly packed bacteria of different division states. Most of the bacterial cells are connected by fine filamentous structures. The phylogenetic determination is based on the sequence data of the 16S rDNA derived from tentacle material. Sequence analysis revealed three different subgroups of intratentacular proteobacteria. The dominant band, detected in all of the samples tested, showed a close relationship (98%) to a gram-negative Endozoicimonas elysicola. Two bands, only detected in tentacles of M. senile from Helgoland were assigned to Pseudomonas saccherophilia (99%), a knallgas bacterium, and to Ralstonia pickettii (100%). The bacteria represent a specific bacterial community. Their DGGE profiles do not correspond to the profiles of the planktonic bacteria generated from seawater close to the habitats of the anemones. The allocation of DNA sequences to the different morphotypes, their isolation, culturing and the elucidation of the physiological functions of intratentacular bacteria are in progress.

  8. INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE CORALLIMORPHARIAN CORYNACTIS CALIFORNICA (CNIDARIA: ANTHOZOA): EFFECTS ON SYMPATRIC CORALS AND SEA ANEMONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Nanette E

    1987-08-01

    Corallimorpharians are sessile cnidarians that are morphologically similar to the actiniarian sea anemones and scleractinian corals. This study describes for the first time the behavioral mechanism and effects of aggression by a corallimorpharian. Polyps of the temperate clonal corallimorpharian Corynactis californica extruded their mesenteries and associated filaments onto members of certain species of sea anemones and corals. They did not exhibit this behavior intraspecifically, and members of different clones of C. californica remained expanded upon contact. In contrast, members of four species of corals and zoanthids responded to contact with C. californica by contracting their tentacles, and members of three sea anemone species bent or moved away, detached from the substrate, or attacked using their aggressive structures. When interspecific contact was prolonged, individuals of C. californica extruded filaments onto, and killed polyps of, the sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Metridium senile within 3 weeks, and the corals Astrangia lajollaensis and Balanophyllia elegans within 4-10 months under laboratory conditions. The use of extruded mesenterial filaments by C. californica to attack members of other anthozoan species is similar to the aggressive behavior exhibited by many scleractinian reef corals. Field observations suggest that C. californica may use this agonistic behavior during interspecific competition for space on hard marine substrate.

  9. An assemblage of the host anemone Heteractis magnifica in the northern Red Sea, and distribution of the resident anemonefish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Tychsen, Anders; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2004-01-01

    correlated with depth. The shallow waters of the anemone assemblage contained few mainly small, solitary actinians. There seemed to be a tendency for solitary actinians to cluster once they reached a certain size-range. The resident anemonefishes Amphiprion bicinctus and Dascyllus trimaculatus were present...

  10. Study the antimicrobial activity of six marine sponges and three parts of sea anemone on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hamayeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of six different species of marine sponges and one species of sea anemone that were collected from the Persian Gulf on the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans. Methods: Sea anemone and six different sponges were gathered from the Persian Gulf and extracted by methanol macerated with dichloromethane solvents. The activity of each extracts against C. albicans was determined by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Also, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of each extract were determined. Results: The finding of current research confirmed that all sponge extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of sponge type 2 and 5 had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans and their zones of inhibition were 45 mm and 38 mm, respectively. The tentacle of sea anemone had the best inhibitory effect against C. albicans compared to other part of the body and its zone of inhibition was 41 mm. Besides, the sponge type 5 extracts had the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values with 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the crude extracts of six different sponges and sea anemone have high potential to produce broad spectral antifungal activity with minimal concentration against different pathogenic fungi.

  11. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  12. The duplicated B-class heterodimer model: whorl-specific effects and complex genetic interactions in Petunia hybrida flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Michiel; Zethof, Jan; Royaert, Stefan; Weterings, Koen; Gerats, Tom

    2004-03-01

    In both Antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the floral B-function, which specifies petal and stamen development, is embedded in a heterodimer consisting of one DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3)-like and one GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI)-like MADS box protein. Here, we demonstrate that gene duplications in both the DEF/AP3 and GLO/PI lineages in Petunia hybrida (petunia) have led to a functional diversification of their respective members, which is reflected by partner specificity and whorl-specific functions among these proteins. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in PhDEF (formerly known as GREEN PETALS) only affect petal development. We have isolated insertion alleles for PhGLO1 (FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN1) and PhGLO2 (PETUNIA MADS BOX GENE2) and demonstrate unique and redundant properties of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2. Besides a full homeotic conversion of petals to sepals and of stamens to carpels as observed in phglo1 phglo2 and phdef phglo2 flowers, we found that gene dosage effects for several mutant combinations cause qualitative and quantitative changes in whorl 2 and 3 meristem fate, and we show that the PHDEF/PHGLO1 heterodimer controls the fusion of the stamen filaments with the petal tube. Nevertheless, when the activity of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2 are considered jointly, they basically appear to function as DEF/GLO does in Antirrhinum and to a lesser extent as AP3/PI in Arabidopsis. By contrast, our data suggest that the function of the fourth B-class MADS box member, the paleoAP3-type PETUNIA HYBRIDA TM6 (PhTM6) gene, differs significantly from the known euAP3-type DEF/AP3-like proteins; PhTM6 is mainly expressed in the developing stamens and ovary of wild-type flowers, whereas its expression level is upregulated in whorls 1 and 2 of an A-function floral mutant; PhTM6 is most likely not involved in petal development. The latter is consistent with the hypothesis that the evolutionary origin of the higher eudicot

  13. Development and characterization of new polymorphic microsatellite markers in four sea anemones: Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla gigantea, and Stichodactyla mertensii

    KAUST Repository

    Gatins, Remy

    2016-10-08

    Relatively few studies have investigated the genetic population structure of sea anemones. This is particularly true for sea anemones that host some of the most iconic fishes on coral reefs, the anemonefishes. One of the main reasons for this knowledge gap is the lack of appropriate genetic markers. We developed and characterized a total of 47 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for four host sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific: Entacmaea quadricolor (n = 16 microsatellite markers), Heteractis magnifica (n = 8), Stichodactyla mertensii (n = 13), and Stichodactyla gigantea (n = 10). Here, we report genetic diversity statistics from two different sampling locations for each anemone species. Overall, we found that most markers were highly polymorphic. On average, we found a mean of seven alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities displayed high variation among loci, ranging from 0.033 to 0.980 and from 0.038 to 0.927, respectively. Only four loci showed deviations of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in both populations and were identified as having null alleles. Additionally, two pairs of loci were identified to be in linkage disequilibrium in only one population. Host anemones are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade and are susceptible to thermal bleaching. Although most studies focus on their obligate symbionts (the anemonefish), genetic analyses of host sea anemones can expand our understanding of the biology, connectivity, and population structure of these organisms and potentially help develop conservation strategies that will aid both the host and its symbionts.

  14. Analgesic and CNS Depressant Activities of Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora Nematocyst Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, Sengapillai; Bragadeeswaran, Subramanian; Srikumaran, Natarajah; Suguna, Anbukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms are the excellent sources for biologically active compounds. Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable materials used for biomedical research and drug development. The present work was carried out to analyse haemolytic, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of sea anemone Heteractis aurora. In haemolytic assay, among the five different RBC blood cells, the chicken blood exhibited maximum hemolytic activity of 64 Hemolytic Unit (HU). The maximum Analgesic Ratio (AR) of 5 recorded at 15 and 30 min interval and minimum was recorded after 45, 60 and 120 min time intervals. In jumping response activity, the maximum of 5 AR recorded at 15, 30 & 45 min and minimum was recorded at 90 & 120 min time intervals. The maximum decrease of depressant activity of 45.07% was determined in CNS depressant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity showed significant inhibition by crude extract of Heteractis aurora.

  15. Dangerous reef aquaristics: Palytoxin of a brown encrusting anemone causes toxic corneal reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Yasmin; Fuchs, Joan; Beuschel, Ralf; Tschopp, Markus; Goldblum, David

    2015-11-01

    Although frequently observed in domestic saltwater aquariums, literature on exposure to palytoxin (PTX) of encrusting anemones (Zoanthidea) kept in aquariums is rare. Handling these animals for propagation purposes or during cleaning work can lead to dermal, ocular or respiratory contact with the PTX generated by some Zoanthids. The present study describes a case of ocular exposure to liquid from a Zoanthid, which led to corneal ulcers. The patient also suffered from systemic symptoms of dyspnea and shivering and a suspected rhabdomyolysis, which required monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit. After symptomatic treatment provided insufficient results, the corneal ulcers improved with an amniotic membrane transplantation. A review of the literature regarding ocular exposures to this diverse order of Hexacorallia reveals that severe and systemic symptoms can develop with minimal contact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Edwardsiella andrillae, a New Species of Sea Anemone from Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Marymegan; Rack, Frank; Zook, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI) remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project’s geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing) program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat. PMID:24349517

  17. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2017-05-02

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  18. Edwardsiella andrillae, a new species of sea anemone from Antarctic ice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marymegan Daly

    Full Text Available Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project's geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat.

  19. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Maas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species.

  20. Characterization of circadian behavior in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Hendricks

    Full Text Available Although much is known about how circadian systems control daily cycles in the physiology and behavior of Drosophila and several vertebrate models, marine invertebrates have often been overlooked in circadian rhythms research. This study focuses on the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, a species that has received increasing attention within the scientific community for its potential as a model research organism. The recently sequenced genome of N. vectensis makes it an especially attractive model for exploring the molecular evolution of circadian behavior. Critical behavioral data needed to correlate gene expression patterns to specific behaviors are currently lacking in N. vectensis.To detect the presence of behavioral oscillations in N. vectensis, locomotor activity was evaluated using an automated system in an environmentally controlled chamber. Animals exposed to a 24 hr photoperiod (12 hr light: 12 hr dark exhibited locomotor behavior that was both rhythmic and predominantly nocturnal. The activity peak occurred in the early half of the night with a 2-fold increase in locomotion. Upon transfer to constant lighting conditions (constant light or constant dark, an approximately 24 hr rhythm persisted in most animals, suggesting that the rhythm is controlled by an endogenous circadian mechanism. Fourier analysis revealed the presence of multiple peaks in some animals suggesting additional rhythmic components could be present. In particular, an approximately 12 hr oscillation was often observed. The nocturnal increase in generalized locomotion corresponded to a 24 hr oscillation in animal elongation.These data confirm the presence of a light-entrainable circadian clock in Nematostella vectensis. Additional components observed in some individuals indicate that an endogenous clock of approximately 12 hr frequency may also be present. By describing rhythmic locomotor behavior in N. vectensis, we have made important progress in developing

  1. Evidence for two populations of hair bundles in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Shelcie S; Watson, Glen M

    2017-06-01

    Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length. Immediately after CD treatment, when only CD-resistant hair bundles are present, nematocyst discharge is normal into targets touched to tentacles in the absence of vibrations (i.e., baseline) but fails to increase normally in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz, a key frequency. After CD treatment, the abundance of hair bundles recovers to control levels within three hours. At 2h after CD treatment, when CD-resistant and CD-sensitive hair bundles are both present, but a full-recovery is not yet complete, somewhat enhanced discharge of nematocysts occurs into targets touched to tentacles in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz (at least as compared to the response of CD-treated animals to contact with test probes in the absence of vibrations). Additionally, at 2h after CD-treatment, prey capture recovers to normal. Thus, two populations of hair bundles may be present on tentacles of sea anemones: those that are CD-resistant and those that are CD-sensitive. The functions of these hair bundles may be distinct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth of the Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae and predation by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lloyd S.; Brockington, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Growth rates in Antarctic marine ectotherms have been demonstrated to be slowed by two to five times compared to shallow-water temperate species, with no previous reports for octocorals. Here growth rates were estimated in the single axis, non-branching Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae using repeated in situ length measures covering both summer and winter periods, for tagged colonies from three sites at Signy Island over a two year period. Mean rates of length increase at the different sites ranged from 0.96 mm yr-1 to 55.3 mm yr-1. The fastest individual colony growth rate at any site ranged from 2.55 mm yr-1 to 175.6 mm yr-1. The mean of the fastest growth rates across all sites was 33.0 mm yr-1±14.7 (s.e.). Growth was significantly different between sites, and also between seasons and years. The mean overall increase in diameter of the average sized colony in the study (222.5 mm in axis length) was 0.053 mm yr-1. This is the slowest reported growth rate of any octocoral to date, and is five times slower than growth in most cold water octocorals. During the study it was noted that colonies were being attacked and consumed by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus. At one of the sites studied, between 5% and 8% of colonies surveyed were attacked each month. Anemone dispersal was via whole body inflation and drifting to new prey colonies that were attached to using tentacle-like column protuberances.

  3. Effect of nano-silver and boric acid on extending the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrida L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Liavali, Mahbanoo Hoseinzadeh; Kaviani, Behzad; Mousavi, Meysam; Keyghobadi, Saghi; Zahiri, Samaneh

    2014-09-01

    Silver nano-particles (2-5 nm diam.), as antimicrobial agent and boric acid, as ethylene production inhibitor are used for enhancing the quality and vase life of cut flowers. In the present study the effects of a preservative solution containing nano-silver and boric acid on some traits of cut rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Yellow Island) including vase life, ethylene production, dry weight percentage, chlorophyll content, flower opening index, beta-carotene of petals and the number of basal stem end bacteria were investigated. The results showed that the effect of nano-silver and boric acid as either solitary or in combination with each other were significant (p cut flower longevity (9.69 day) was obtained in pulse-treated flowers with 100 mg l(-1) boric acid. The least ethylene production (0.59 nl(-1) g(-1) h(-1)) was observed in cut rose treated with 100 mg l(-1) boric acid along with 5 mg l(-1) nano-silver. The lowest number of bacteria in the end of stem was calculated in cut flowers treated with the highest concentrations of boric acid (300 mg l(-1)) and nano-silver (20 mg l(-1)).

  4. Effects of BAP and TIBA on Shoot Proliferation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Full House in in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.

  5. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.

  6. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae from eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crowther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 680-960 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911. The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-west Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia.

  7. Reproductive biology of the sea anemone shrimp Periclimenes rathbunae (Caridea, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae, from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Azofeifa-Solano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps are a highly diverse group and many species form symbiotic relationships with different marine invertebrates. Periclimenes rathbunae is a brightly colored shrimp that lives predominantly in association with sea anemones. Information about the reproductive ecology of the species is scarce. Therefore, we collected 70 ovigerous females inhabiting the sun sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in coral reefs from the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Females produced on average 289 ± 120 embryos. The volume of recently-produced embryos was on average 0.038 mm3, and embryo volume increased by 192% during the incubation period. The average embryo mortality during embryogenesis was 24%. The reproductive output was 0.24 ± 0.094, considerably higher than in many other pontoniine shrimps. Females carrying embryos close to hatching showed fully developed ovaries, suggesting consecutive spawning. We assume that the sheltered habitat, living on sea anemones, allows P. rathbunae to allocate more energy in embryo production than most other free-living caridean shrimps. This is the first record of P. rathbunae for Costa Rica.

  8. Abundance of anemone fishes in North Bay Island and mass culture of live food organisms for their larval rearing

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    Rajaram Rajendran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transect survey for abundance of anemone fishes and other living organisms is important to asses reef associated fish diversity in North Bay island. The percentage distribution of 10 different substratum from the disturbed, semi-disturbed and undisturbed areas was recorded during the survey in North Bay islands during November 2009 to April 2010. The survey observations reveal that the fishes were the dominant groups followed by mollusks, lobsters and octopus. There are 5 different anemone fishes were collected during the transect survey and their distribution is more in undisturbed area. We are standardizing the different mass culture techniques for production of phytoplankton and zooplankton for the nutritional source for the anemone fish larvae. Monitoring the water quality parameters and culture the phytoplankton and zooplankton used in different culture media with 2 adjustment studies like with and without salinity adjustment. The results of this experiment indicate that zooplankton was rich in protein and fat content and it will be used as high nutritional source for feeding fish larvae.

  9. Fine-scale population structure of two anemones (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea

    KAUST Repository

    Gatins, Remy

    2014-12-01

    Anemonefish are one of the main groups that have been used over the last decade to empirically measure larval dispersal and connectivity in coral reef populations. A few species of anemones are integral to the life history of these fish, as well as other obligate symbionts, yet the biology and population structure of these anemones remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure the genetic structure of these anemones within and between two reefs in order to assess their reproductive mode and dispersal potential. To do this, we sampled almost exhaustively two anemones species (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) at two small islands in Kimbe Bay (Papua New Guinea) separated by approximately 25 km. Both the host anemones and the anemonefish are heavily targeted for the aquarium trade, in addition to the populations being affected by bleaching pressures (Hill and Scott 2012; Hobbs et al. 2013; Saenz- Agudelo et al. 2011; Thomas et al. 2014), therefore understanding their biology is crucial for better management strategies. Panels of microsatellite markers were developed for each species using next generation sequencing tools. Clonality analyses confirm six pairs of identical genotypes for S. gigantea (n=350) and zero for H. magnifica (n=128), indicating presence/absence of asexual reproduction in this region. S. gigantea showed low structure between islands (FST= 0.003, p-value= 0.000), however, even if the majority of the individuals were unrelated (r~0), 81 families that shared 50% of their genetic material formed from two to four members were found. Out of these families, 45% were found with individuals only within Tuare Island, 11% only in Kimbe Island, and 44% were sharing individuals among islands. In comparison, H. magnifica showed no structure (FST= 0.002, p-value= 0.278), mean relatedness indicated the majority of individuals were unrelated, and 31 families were identified. Families again consisted from two to four members and

  10. A RhABF2/Ferritin module affects rose (Rosa hybrida) petal dehydration tolerance and senescence by modulating iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jitao; Fan, Youwei; Zou, Jing; Fang, Yiqun; Wang, Linghao; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Xinqiang; Liu, Yiqing; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-12-01

    Plants often develop the capacity to tolerate moderate and reversible environmental stresses, such as drought, and to re-establish normal development once the stress has been removed. An example of this phenomenon is provided by cut rose (Rosa hybrida) flowers, which experience typical reversible dehydration stresses during post-harvest handling after harvesting at the bud stages. The molecular mechanisms involved in rose flower dehydration tolerance are not known, however. Here, we characterized a dehydration- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced ferritin gene (RhFer1). Dehydration-induced free ferrous iron (Fe 2+ ) is preferentially sequestered by RhFer1 and not transported outside of the petal cells, to restrict oxidative stresses during dehydration. Free Fe 2+ accumulation resulted in more serious oxidative stresses and the induction of genes encoding antioxidant enzyme in RhFer1-silenced petals, and poorer dehydration tolerance was observed compared with tobacco rattle virus (TRV) controls. We also determined that RhABF2, an AREB/ABF transcription factor involved in the ABA signaling pathway, can activate RhFer1 expression by directly binding to its promoter. The silencing of RhABF2 decreased dehydration tolerance and disrupted Fe homeostasis in rose petals during dehydration, as did the silencing of RhFer1. Although both RhFer1 and Fe transporter genes are induced during flower natural senescence in plants, the silencing of RhABF2 or RhFer1 accelerates the petal senescence processes. These results suggest that the regulatory module RhABF2/RhFer1 contributes to the maintenance of Fe levels and enhances dehydration tolerance through the action of RhFer1 locally sequestering free Fe 2+ under dehydration conditions, and plays synergistic roles with transporter genes during flower senescence. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Ko, Chung Ho; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2017-08-14

    Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed. Scorching of leaf edges and stomatal damages occurred due to salt stress was ameliorated under Si supplementation. Similarly, reduction of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, higher lipid peroxidation rate, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salinity stress were mitigated in Si treatment. Lesser oxidative stress observed was correlated with the enhanced activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in Si+NaCl treatment. Importantly, sodium transportation was synergistically restricted with the stimulated counter-uptake of potassium in Si+NaCl treatment. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results showed that out of 40 identified proteins, on comparison with control 34 proteins were down-accumulated and six proteins were up-accumulated due to salinity stress. Meanwhile, addition of Si with NaCl treatment enhanced the abundance of 30 proteins and downregulated five proteins. Differentially-expressed proteins were functionally classified into six groups, such as photosynthesis (22%), carbohydrate/energy metabolism (20%), transcription/translation (20%), stress/redox homeostasis (12%), ion binding (13%), and ubiquitination (8%). Hence, the findings reported in this work could facilitate a deeper

  12. Isolation and functional analysis of a homolog of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene from Pericallis × hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Huang, He; Meng, Li; Hu, Ke; Dai, Si-Lan

    2013-10-01

    As the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of blue flower color pigments, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) can catalyze the conversion of its major substrates, 2-S naringenin and dihydrokaempferol, into 3',4',5'-hydroxylated pentahydroxyflavanone and dihydromyricetin, respectively. Unlike other F3'5'Hs belonging to the CYP75A subfamily, Asteraceae-specific F3'5'Hs belong to the CYP75B subfamily. Furthermore, cineraria F3'5'H expressed in yeast exhibited not only F3'H (flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase) activity but also F3'5'H activity in vitro. In this study, Southern blotting showed that there was only one copy of a homolog of the F3'5'H gene PCFH in the Pericallis × hybrida genome. This gene could be detected by Northern blot in the primary developmental stages of ligulate florets of the purple- and blue-flowered cultivars, and its transcripts also accumulated in the leaves. Heterologous expression of PCFH could produce new delphinidin derivatives in the corollas of transgenic tobacco plants, increased the content of cyanidin derivatives and lead to the blue- and red-shifting of flower color in T₀ generation plants. These results indicate that cineraria F3'5'H exhibited both F3'5'H- and F3'H-activity in vivo. The types and contents of anthocyanins and flower color phenotypes of the T₁ generation were similar to those of T₀ generation plants. PCFH exhibited stable inheritance and normal functions between generations. This study supplies new evidence to understand Asteraceae-specific F3'5'Hs and provides important references for the further study of molecular breeding of blue-flowered chrysanthemums using the PCFH gene. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis unravels the existence of crucial genes regulating primary metabolism during adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Ahkami

    Full Text Available To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR, a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115 was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase.

  14. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-08-08

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots. We have carried out a transcript profiling experiment by RNAseq of mycorrhizal plants vs. non-mycorrhizal controls in wild type and ram1 mutants. The results show that the expression of early genes required for AM, such as the strigolactone biosynthetic genes and the common symbiosis signalling genes, is independent of RAM1. In contrast, genes that are involved at later stages of symbiosis, for example for nutrient exchange in cortex cells, require RAM1 for induction. RAM1 itself is highly induced in mycorrhizal roots together with many other transcription factors, in particular GRAS proteins. Since RAM1 has previously been shown to be directly activated by the common symbiosis signalling pathway through CYCLOPS, we conclude that it acts as an early transcriptional switch that induces many AM-related genes, among them genes that are essential for the development of arbuscules, such as STR, STR2, RAM2, and PT4, besides hundreds of additional RAM1-dependent genes the role of which in symbiosis remains to be explored. Taken together, these results indicate that the defect in the morphogenesis of the fungal arbuscules in ram1 mutants may be an indirect consequence of functional defects in the host, which interfere with nutrient exchange and possibly other functions on which the fungus depends.

  15. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  16. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Towanda

    2012-05-01

    Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO2 on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO2 and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO2, pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO2, pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O2 g−1 h−1. Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2% than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6% but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%. The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO2. Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO2.

  17. Nomenclator Actinologicus seu Indices Ptychodactiariarum, Corallimorphariarum et Actiniarianum comprising indexes of the taxa, synonyms, authors and geographical distributions of the sea anemones of the world included in Professor Oskar Carlgren's 1949 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1949, the late Professor Oskar Carlgren of Lund, Sweden, published a bibliographical survey of the sea anemones of the world, comprising 42 families, 201 genera and 848 species. The survey is an essential starting point for any taxonomic or zoogeographical work on sea anemones. However, the

  18. The coronary vasoconstrictor action of extract IV from the dahlia sea anemone Tealia felina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, R S; Elliott, R C

    1996-02-01

    Extract IV, a partially purified preparation of the toxin from the sea anemone Tealia felina, produced marked bradycardia and arrhythmias in the rat in vivo. In the Langendorff rat heart preparation perfused at constant pressure extract IV (0.0224 AU/ml) reduced the force of contraction by 81.3 +/- 7.2%, n = 6, and the coronary flow by 82.0 +/- 4.7%, n = 5. When the preparation was perfused at constant flow rate, extract IV (0.072 AU/ml) increased the coronary circulation resistance from 3.76 +/- 1.09 (control) to 36.94 +/- 12.26 mmHg/ml/min. The force of contraction was also markedly reduced. The extract produced bradycardia in preparations perfused at constant pressure but not in those perfused at constant flow rate. The extract did not affect isolated atria preparations. It was concluded that the bradycardia produced in vivo and in preparations perfused in vitro at constant pressure was probably secondary to the coronary vasospasm produced, which could contribute to the cardiotoxicity of the extract.

  19. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  20. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Amy E; Jones, Ian T; Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-01-15

    In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  2. Diffusion Limitation and Hyperoxic Enhancement of Oxygen Consumption in Zooxanthellate Sea Anemones, Zoanthids, and Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, J M

    1990-08-01

    Depending on their size and morphology, anthozoan polyps and colonies may be diffusion-limited in their oxygen consumption, even under well-stirred, air-saturated conditions. This is indicated by an enhancement of oxygen consumption under steady-state hyperoxic conditions that simulate the levels of O2 produced photosynthetically by zooxanthellae in the hosts' tissues. Such hyperoxia in the tissues of zooxanthellate species negates the effect of the diffusive boundary layer, and increases the rate of oxygen consumption; thus, in many cases, the rate of respiration measured under normoxia in the dark may not be representative of the rate during the day when the zooxanthellae are photosynthesizing and when the supply of oxygen for respiration is in the tissues themselves, not from the environment. These results have implications in respirometric methodology and in calculating the rate of gross photosynthesis in energetic studies. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase is higher in aposymbiotic than in zooxanthellate specimens of the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, and this may indicate a compensation for the relative hypoxia in the tissues of the former, enhancing the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria from the environment.

  3. Germ-layer commitment and axis formation in sea anemone embryonic cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Anastasia; Genikhovich, Grigory; Pukhlyakova, Ekaterina; Demilly, Adrien; Kraus, Yulia; Technau, Ulrich

    2018-02-20

    Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a combination of microsurgery and transgenic reporter gene expression, we show that, facing a new developmental context, the aggregates of dissociated embryonic cells of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis take an alternative developmental trajectory. The self-organizing aggregates rely on Wnt signals produced by the cells of the original blastopore lip organizer to form body axes but employ morphogenetic events typical for normal development of distantly related cnidarians to re-establish the germ layers. The reaggregated cells show enormous plasticity including the capacity of the ectodermal cells to convert into endoderm. Our results suggest that new developmental trajectories may evolve relatively easily when highly plastic embryonic cells face new constraints. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2015-08-31

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal–algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal–algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome.

  5. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer.

  6. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S. marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A. pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The sea anemone Bunodactis octoradiata (Anthozoa: Actiniaria from southern Patagonia: morphological study and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Garese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunodactis Verril, 1899 comprises at present 19 nominal species of sea anemones. The validity of the genus is under discussion. The description of the species, Bunodactis octoradiata Carlgren, 1899, is insufficient for reliable identification, and although subsequent works have provided additional information on the species, its description still needs to be complemented. Herein we describe B. octoradiata based on histological sections of the internal anatomy, and give a complete and detailed description of the external anatomy. The cnidom is composed of spirocysts, basitrichs and microbasic p-mastigophores; their distribution in the organism, sizes and relative abundances are provided. The presence of zooxanthellae is reported for the first time. Bunodactis octoradiata is distributed in groups that vary from 5.6 to 45 ind./m² in the field. Additionally, our data extends the distribution of the species along the coast of southern Patagonia (47°44'36"-49°15'13"S and 65°50'26"-67°39'45"W.

  8. Genomic organization and splicing variants of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Hauser, F; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    the structure of its gene (CP1). CP1 is >12 kb in size and contains 15 exons and 14 introns. The last coding exon (exon 15) contains a stop codon, leaving no room for PAL and, thereby, for a bifunctional PAM enzyme as in mammals. Furthermore, we found a CP1 splicing variant (CP1-B) that contains exon-9 instead...... of PHM are conserved between CP1-A, -B and the PHM part of rat PAM. Furthermore, eight introns in CP1 occur in the same positions and have the same intron phasing as eight introns in the rat PAM gene, showing that the sea anemone PHM is not only structurally, but also evolutionarily related to the PHM......Cnidarians are primitive animals that use neuropeptides as their transmitters. All the numerous cnidarian neuropeptides isolated, so far, have a carboxy-terminal amide group that is essential for their actions. This strongly suggests that alpha-amidating enzymes are essential for the functioning...

  9. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldine R. Amiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  10. Visible-light-assisted SLCs template synthesis of sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites with high electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li

    2018-03-01

    Sea anemone-like palladium (Pd)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via visible-light-assisted swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) template method. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The electrocatalytic properties of Pd/PANI nanocomposites modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) for methane oxidation were investigated by cycle voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Those dispersed sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites had an average diameter of 320 nm. The obtained Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 45 nm were uniformly distributed in PANI matrix. Sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxidation of methane (CH4).

  11. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    the precursor protein for this metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones. The precursor protein is 514-amino acid residues long and contains 10 copies of the immature, authentic neuropeptide (Gln-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-Gly). All neuropeptide copies are preceded by Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequences...... a polyp, a medusa, and a planula larva stage. Recently, a neuropeptide, sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a hydropolyp [Leitz, T., Morand, K. & Mann, M. (1994) Dev. Biol. 163, 440-446]. Here, we have cloned...

  12. A new cytolytic protein from the sea anemone Urticina crassicornis that binds to cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razpotnik, Andrej; Krizaj, Igor; Kem, William R; Macek, Peter; Turk, Tom

    2009-06-01

    A new pore-forming cytolytic protein was isolated from the Northern red sea anemone, Urticina crassicornis. Its biochemical properties were characterized and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. The cytolysin, named UcI, has a molecular mass of around 30kDa and lacks phospholipase A(2) activity. UcI lyses bovine erythrocytes at nanomolar concentrations. Hemolysis is a result of a colloid-osmotic shock caused by the opening of toxin-induced ionic pores and can be prevented by osmotic protectants of size >600Da. The functional radius of an average pore was estimated to be about 0.66nm. A more detailed study of the cytolytic activity of UcI was performed with lipid vesicles and monolayers. The toxin binds to monolayers and efficiently permeabilizes small lipid vesicles composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. However, the cytolytic activity is not prevented by preincubation with either pure cholesterol or sphingomyelin dispersions. We conclude that the presence of both sphingomyelin and cholesterol, key components of lipid rafts, greatly enhances toxin binding to membranes and probably facilitates pore formation. Alignment of the toxin partial amino acid sequence with sequences of cytolysins belonging to the actinoporin family reveals no sequence homology. We conclude that partial sequence of UcI resembles only the N-terminal part of UpI, a cytolytic protein isolated from a related sea anemone species, Urticina piscivora. The two proteins most probably belong to a separate family of sea anemone cytolysins that are worthy of further characterization.

  13. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  14. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, II: further studies of differences amongst sample means and their taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Lengths of cnidae, sampled from fresh tissue (tentacles, acontia or column from the sea anemones Metridium senile (Linnaeus, Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant, Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, Sagartia troglodytes (Price, Anthopleura thallia (Gosse and Urticina eques (Gosse, were measured. The mean, mode, median, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum and range of each sample were calculated. Lengths of nematocysts (basitrichs and microbasic p-mastigophores and spirocysts had normal (Gaussian frequency distributions, and there was no important within-sample variability. A between-sample (same specimen difference was detected between mean lengths of microbasic p-mastigophores from acontia in Sagartia elegans. Intraspecific (between-specimen differences amongst mean lengths of basitrichs from column ectoderm were detected amongst four specimens of Urticina eques, and a difference occurred between the mean lengths of microbasic p-mastigophores from the acontia of two specimens of Sagartia elegans. However, for each of the species U. eques and S. elegans, there was no direct correlation between the sizes of the anemones examined and the mean lengths of their nematocysts. Overall, the results confirm that cnida size, when taken in isolation, is not a reliable taxonomic character for sea anemones. For other purposes, mean cnida measurements may be useful and a rapid sample range test is suggested for analysing differences between them. Methods are also presented for estimating means and standard deviations from data in publications that provide only ranges of cnida sizes and the number of cnidae measured. The present results and conclusions supplement those of Williams (1996, Scientia Marina, 60: 339-351.

  15. Intraspecific competition, stealing and placement of the symbiotic sea anemone Calliactis tricolor by the hermit crab Dardanus pedunculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The hermit crab Dardanus pedunculatus and the sea anemone Calliactis tricolor engage in a mutualistic relationship in the tropical reef ecosystem of Mo’orea, French Polynesia. This mutualism is shaped by the pressures on D. pedunculatus individuals to acquire actively and compete for C. tricolor in the wild. D. pedunculatus exhibits a consistent trend in behavior when competing for and placing C. tricolor on its gastropod shell. Since C. tricolor seems to be a valuable resource to D. peduncul...

  16. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Expansion of tandem repeats in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis proteome: A source for gene novelty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linial Michal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete proteome of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, provides insights into gene invention dating back to the Cnidarian-Bilaterian ancestor. With the addition of the complete proteomes of Hydra magnipapillata and Monosiga brevicollis, the investigation of proteins having unique features in early metazoan life has become practical. We focused on the properties and the evolutionary trends of tandem repeat (TR sequences in Cnidaria proteomes. Results We found that 11-16% of N. vectensis proteins contain tandem repeats. Most TRs cover 150 amino acid segments that are comprised of basic units of 5-20 amino acids. In total, the N. Vectensis proteome has about 3300 unique TR-units, but only a small fraction of them are shared with H. magnipapillata, M. brevicollis, or mammalian proteomes. The overall abundance of these TRs stands out relative to that of 14 proteomes representing the diversity among eukaryotes and within the metazoan world. TR-units are characterized by a unique composition of amino acids, with cysteine and histidine being over-represented. Structurally, most TR-segments are associated with coiled and disordered regions. Interestingly, 80% of the TR-segments can be read in more than one open reading frame. For over 100 of them, translation of the alternative frames would result in long proteins. Most domain families that are characterized as repeats in eukaryotes are found in the TR-proteomes from Nematostella and Hydra. Conclusions While most TR-proteins have originated from prediction tools and are still awaiting experimental validations, supportive evidence exists for hundreds of TR-units in Nematostella. The existence of TR-proteins in early metazoan life may have served as a robust mode for novel genes with previously overlooked structural and functional characteristics.

  18. Biology of a deep-water sea anemone (Anthozoa: Actiniidae) from eastern Canada: Spawning, development, and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Daly, Marymegan; Macrander, Jason; Hamel, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the general biology and reproductive ecology of deep-water species can help predict their resilience to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. The present study centers on live specimens of a deep-water sea anemone which were collected at bathyal depths between 1100 and 1400 m and kept in a mesocosm for over 6 years. Morphology and DNA sequencing confirmed that the species belongs to the genus Urticina. Male and female (9-10 cm pedal disk diameter, 90 tentacles) spawned 4 years post collection, in early spring (March). Both sexes released gametes through the mouth. The negatively buoyant oocytes (550-600 μm in diameter) quickly settled on the rocks and soft sediments surrounding the female. Lecithotrophic embryonic and larval development occurred on the substratum. Fully developed planula larvae were detected after 17-21 days. Planulae started to crawl and swim around but remained demersal. Metamorphosis and settlement occurred after 30-35 days, exclusively on hard substrata and preferentially on undersurfaces. Offspring grew slowly, developing 8 tentacles after 5 months and 24 tentacles after 12 months (3-4 mm pedal disk diameter). After 2.6 years of growth, the captive-born sea anemones reached 12-16 mm in pedal disk diameter and possessed 48-54 tentacles.

  19. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis. These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP (AvTCTP after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  20. Experimentally Induced Bleaching in the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Supports Glucose as a Main Metabolite Associated with Its Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of carbon exchange between partners in the Symbiodinium-cnidarian symbioses is still limited, even though studies employing carbon isotopes have made us aware of the metabolic complexity of this exchange. We examined glycerol and glucose metabolism to better understand how photosynthates are exchanged between host and symbiont. The levels of these metabolites were compared between symbiotic and bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones, assaying enzymes directly involved in their metabolism. We measured a significant decrease of glucose levels in bleached animals but a significant increase in glycerol and G3P pools, suggesting that bleached animals degrade lipids to compensate for the loss of symbionts and seem to rely on symbiotic glucose. The lower glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase but higher glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase specific activities measured in bleached animals agree with a metabolic deficit mainly due to the loss of glucose from the ruptured symbiosis. These results corroborate previous observations on carbon translocation from symbiont to host in the sea anemone Exaiptasia, where glucose was proposed as a main translocated metabolite. To better understand photosynthate translocation and its regulation, additional research with other symbiotic cnidarians is needed, in particular, those with calcium carbonate skeletons.

  1. Staining protocol for the histological study of sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria with recommendations for anesthesia and fixation of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the characteristics used in sea anemone taxonomy can only be examined through histological sections. Since there is no standardized procedure for this purpose, various anesthesia and fixation techniques applied to specimens of the intertidal species Anthopleura hermaphroditica and Bunodactis hermafroditica are discussed. Additionally, further modifications are proposed to the Masson's trichrome method according to the results obtained on these species. The combined effect of the short application of menthol crystals, together with small doses of MgCl2 were the most satisfactory anesthetics for maintaining the specimens expanded. The best preparations were obtained from samples fixed for several months in 8% seawater formalin; however, in order to achieve a good differentiation of the tissue, mordanting the samples with Bouin's fixative was necessary. Besides being a fast method, the modified Masson's trichrome gives very good contrasts between the epithelia and the mesoglea, and allows controlling the timing of differentiation during staining. The present paper includes suggestions and precautions and thus offers practical help for the histological study of sea anemones.

  2. Meandrina meandrites and Emblemariopsis diaphana, first record of an association between a stony coral and a fish, similar to anemone/fish relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Wapstra, Marlies; Dijk, van Eric

    1980-01-01

    An association is described between a Caribbean stony coral, Meandrina meandrites, and a chaenopsid fish, Emblemariopsis diaphana. Like in anemone/fish associations the coral tentacles provide shelter for the fish. Some observations were made, both in the field and in the laboratory, of the

  3. Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of English populations of a small (<2 cm long), burrowing athenarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935 (= N. pellucida Crowell, 1946), which lives in soft mud in salt marshes and creeks, are described. Objectives were to ascertain

  4. An unusual sea anemone from slope depths of the tropical west Pacific: range extension and redescription of Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918 (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Actinernidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fautin, D.G.; Hartog, den J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The sea anemone species Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918, and Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, which were described in new monotypic genera from few specimens collected in southern Japan, are synonymized, based on many more specimens from the South Pacific. As well as the geographic

  5. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Arnold (Institute for Advanced Study)

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  6. For she that hath, to her shall be given…Implications of flowering in Anemone nemorosa L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Peter Milan; Philipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We looked for life-history trade-offs between flowering, vegetative growth and somatic maintenance in the common woodland herb Anemone nemorosa. A. nemorosa forms a horizontal rhizome system consisting of previously formed annual segments and terminated by a flowering or non-flowering shoot....... Resources acquired by the aboveground parts are used for flowering, seed production, storage and growth of the annual segments. Resources stored in the rhizome during the growing period are used for preformation of buds, somatic maintenance between two growing periods and development of aboveground parts...... in the following spring. We hypothesised that the decision to invest in flower buds depends on the amount of resources stored in the recently formed annual segment. We also hypothesised a trade-off between flowering and segment growth and, finally, as a consequence, we expected individual rhizomes to alternate...

  7. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  8. Genetic tools link long-term demographic and life-history traits of anemonefish to their anemone hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Salles, Océane C.

    2016-07-26

    The life-history traits and population dynamics of species are increasingly being attributed to the characteristics of their preferred habitats. While coral reef fish are often strongly associated with particular habitats, long-term studies establishing the demographic and life-history consequences of occupying different reef substrata are rare and no studies have monitored individuals in situ over their lifetime and determined the fate of their offspring. Here, we documented a quasi-turnover and local reproductive success for an entire population of orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, by taking bi-annual samples of DNA over a 10-yr period (2003–2013). We compared demographic and life-history traits of individuals living on two host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica and Stichodactyla gigantea, including female size, adult continued presence (a proxy for relative longevity range), early post-settlement growth, the number of eggs per clutch and ‘local’ reproductive success (defined for each adult as the number of offspring returning to the natal population). Our results indicate that while the relative longevity of adults was similar on both host anemone species, females living in H. magnifica were larger than females in S. gigantea. However, despite females growing larger and producing more eggs on H. magnifica, we found that local reproductive success was significantly higher for clownfish living in S. gigantea. Life-history traits also exhibited local spatial variation, with higher local reproductive success recorded for adults living on S. gigantea on the eastern side of the island. Our findings support a ‘silver-spoon’ hypothesis that predicts individuals that are fortunate enough to recruit into good habitat and location will be rewarded with higher long-term reproductive success and will make a disproportionate contribution to population renewal. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  9. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.La fauna de anémonas de mar es prácticamente desconocida para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (Costa Rica. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la especie Telmatactis panamensis. Individuos de esta anémona de mar fueron colectados en el intermareal de Bahía Chatham y a 15m de profundidad en Punta Ulloa, en ambos casos adheridas a rocas; durante la expedición UCR-UNA-COCO-I en Abril de 2010. Se proveen fotografías de ejemplares vivos, datos de su anatomía externa y un inventario del cnidae de los especímenes estudiados. Posiblemente esta especie se extienda a mayor profundidad, tal como fue observado por otros autores para ejemplares de las Islas Galápagos.

  10. The Effect of Medium Cultures on Water Use and Charactristic of Gazania Flowers (Gazania hybrida in Green Roof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Bahrami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green roof is one of the newest phenomenons in architecture and urbanism that refers to the sustainable development concepts and it will be usable for increasing landscape design, improving quality of the environment and reduction in energy consumption. Ensure of existing adequate green landscape in urban areas and improving access to natural areas surrounding the cities can help to offset negative effects of urban life. The use of green roof technology in cities is one of advanced techniques of green landscape. A green or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium on top view of buildings. Green roof layers that considered for roof side consist of protection layer, drainage layer, growing medium and plant layer. Medium layer is the medium culture of green roof that plants are begins to grow in it. This space should enable to save enough minerals and water for conserve of green-roof plants. All kinds of plants can growth on the green roof, but there are some constraints in creative of design because of roots dimension, plant canopy, necessary volume of soil, suitable direction to light, good weather, weight of designed structures, budget of repairing and keeping. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of some culture medium on water consumption, vegetative and reproductive traits of Gazania (Gazania hybrida in condition of green roof a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with nine treatments and three replications in 2014. Treatments were three levels of vermicompost (zero, 5%, and 10% and rice hull (zero, 7, and 14%. Seedlings of plants cultivated in the media mixture of coco peat 15%, perlite 15%, leaf 10%, manure 10%, and filed soil 50%. The container had 60 × 60 ×25 cm dimensions that placed on the roof of greenhouse building with four meters height. The measured traits was number, average, and diameter of

  11. SCFSLF-mediated cytosolic degradation of S-RNase is required for cross-pollen compatibility in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbiao eXue

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many flowering plants adopt self-incompatibility (SI to maintain their genetic diversity. In species of Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae, SI is genetically controlled by a single S-locus with multiple haplotypes. The S-locus has been shown to encode S-RNases expressed in pistil and multiple SLF (S-locus F-box proteins in pollen controlling the female and male specificity of SI, respectively. S-RNases appear to function as a cytotoxin to reject self-pollen. In addition, SLFs have been shown to form SCF (SKP1/Cullin1/F-box complexes to serve as putative E3 ubiquitin ligase to interact with S-RNases. Previously, two different mechanisms, the S-RNase degradation and the S-RNase compartmentalization, have been proposed as the restriction mechanisms of S-RNase cytotoxicity allowing compatible pollination. In this study, we have provided several lines of evidence in support of the S-RNase degradation mechanism by a combination of cellular, biochemical and molecular biology approaches. First, both immunogold labeling and subcellular fractionation assays showed that two key pollen SI factors, PhSLF-S3L and PhSSK1 (SLF-interacting SKP1-like1 from Petunia hybrida, a Solanaceous species, are co-localized in cytosols of both pollen grains and tubes. Second, PhS3L-RNases are mainly detected in the cytosols of both self and non-self pollen tubes after pollination. Third, we found that both PhS3-RNases and PhS3L-RNases directly interact with PhSLF-S3L by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Fourth, S-RNases are specifically degraded in compatible pollen tubes by non-self SLF action. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SCFSLF-mediated non-self S-RNase degradation occurs in the cytosol of pollen tube through the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system serving as the major mechanism to neutralize S-RNase cytotoxicity during compatible pollination in P. hybrida.

  12. Identification of a new 6-bromo-5,9-eicosadienoic acid from the anemone Condylactis gigantea and the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, N M; Reyes, M

    1995-11-01

    A new brominated fatty acid, 6-bromo-5,9-eicosadienoic acid [1] was identified in the phospholipids (mainly phosphatidylethanolamine) of the anemone Condylactis gigantea and the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum. The delta 5,9 fatty acids, 5,9-octadecadienoic acid, 5,9-eicosadienoic acid, 5,9-docosadienoic acid, and 5,9-tetracosadienoic acid, were also identified in both organisms. Structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic and chemical means. Our results further corroborate that delta 5,9 phospholipid fatty acids are not unique to sponges, as recognized previously, but can be found in other marine invertebrates such as anemones and zoanthids. An improved procedure for the synthesis of picolinyl esters is also described.

  13. New records of the deep-sea anemone Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973 (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Hormathiidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, M E; Hinojosa-Corona, A; Ayón-Parente, M

    2016-10-20

    Specimens of a deep-sea anemone were observed in photographs and video footage taken with the Remotely Operated Vehicle JASON (WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in May 2008. Comparison of our material with photographs and description of this species available in literature indicate that the sea anemones filmed during the JASON survey are most likely to represent Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973. This species has previously been reported from a locality in the Gulf of California near the present record. During the JASON survey, 28 specimens of P. callicyclus were spotted in 27 locations during six dives. The specimens occurred on angular rock outcrops along the escarpments of the transform faults of the Gulf of California, between depths of 993-2543 m and at temperatures ranging from 2.3 to 4.5°C. Based on these new records, Phelliactis callicyclus appears to be widely spread in the Gulf of California.

  14. The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria.

  15. Developmental patterns of emission of scent compounds and related gene expression in roses of the cultivar Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Baldermann, Susanne; Cao, Shuyan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Caixia; Hirata, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2015-02-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2PE) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT) are characteristic scent compounds in specific roses such as Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'. We analyzed the endogenous concentrations and emission of 2PE and DMT during the unfurling process in different floral organs, as well as changes in transcript levels of the two key genes, PAR and OOMT2. The emission of both 2PE and DMT increased during floral development to reach peaks at the fully unfurled stage. The relative transcripts of PAR and OOMT2 also increased during floral development. Whereas the maximum for OOMT2 was found at the fully unfurled stage (stage 4), similar expression levels of PAR were detected at stage 4 and the senescence stage (stage 6). The results demonstrate a positive correlation between the expression levels of PAR and OOMT2 and the emission of 2PE and DMT. In addition, endogenous volatiles and relative transcripts showed tissue- and development-specific patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular cloning of CYP76B9, a cytochrome P450 from Petunia hybrida, catalyzing the omega-hydroxylation of capric acid and lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaishi, Hiromasa; Petkova-Andonova, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP76B9) was isolated from Petunia hybrida. Northern blot analysis revealed preferential expression of the gene in flowers and leaves. The recombinant yeast microsomes expressing CYP76B9 was allowed to react with capric acid and lauric acid as substrates. One major metabolite was produced from each fatty acid after incubation with yeast microsomes expressing CYP76B9. The metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as omega-hydroxy capric acid and omega-hydroxy lauric acid. The kinetic parameters of the reactions were Km=9.4 microM and Vmax=13.6 mol min(-1) per mol of P450 for capric acid, and Km=5.7 microM and Vmax=19.1 mol min(-1) per mol of P450 for lauric acid. We found that the omega-hydroxy metabolites of capric acid and lauric acid can affect the plant growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants grown in the presence of omega-hydroxy fatty acids exhibited shorter root length than control plants with the corresponding non-hydroxylated fatty acids.

  17. Avaliação de plantas transgênicas de Petunia x hybrida contendo o gene Psag12 - ipt cultivadas sob deficiência nutricional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Deficiência nutricional em plantas pode causar clorose, necrose, desfolha, redução do crescimento e da produtividade e senescência prematura. Aplicações xógenas de citocinina podem aliviar tais sintomas. Este estudo foi efetuado para avaliar os efeitos da produção auto-regulada de citocinina na tolerância de plantas de petúnia (Petunia x hybrida à deficiência nutricional. Um gene quimérico contendo o promotor SAG12 unido ao gene ipt, o qual codifica a produção de isopentenyl transferase, uma enzima da rota metabólica da biossíntese de citocinina, foi introduzido em petúnia através de transformação mediada por Agrobacterium. Duas plantas contendo o gene ipt foram selecionadas e autopolinizadas para obtenção das linhas a serem submetidas à deficiência nutricional. Ambas as linhas PSAG12–ipt avaliadas foram mais tolerantes à deficiência nutricional que as plantas do tipo selvagem. Os resultados indicam que a produção endógena de citocinina pode aumentar a tolerância das plantas à deficiência nutricional.

  18. Sterile mutant of Verbena hybrida induced by heavy ion beam irradiation and wild species V. peruviana exhibit self-incompatible phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Abe, T.; Kanaya, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Garden verbenas (Verbena hybrida) belonging to the Verbenaceae family are originated from interspecific hybridization among several species, many cultivars frequently produce seeds. Recently, a sterile mutant has been isolated in the verbena cultivar 'Coral Pink' of Temari series (Suntory Flowers Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) by mutation induction using heavy-ion beams at RIKEN Accelarator Research Facility (RARF, Saitama, Japan). We investigated pollen and ovule fertility assessed by acetocarmin staining, seed-set following controlled-pollination tests and behavior of pollen tubes in pistils with the sterile mutant of 'Coral Pink' (SC) and its original fertile one (FC). As the results, although SC has functional male and female gametes, few self-pollinated flowers carry out seed-set, leading to sterile phenotype. Additionally, the sterile mechanism of SC was compared with the wild species V. peruviana (VP) which is one of origin of Temari series and exhibits sterility. Interestingly, similar phenotype was observed in PV. We further investigated, therefore, whether there are differences on self-incompatible reaction between SC and VP. (author)

  19. COMPORTAMIENTO FISIOLÓGICO POSTCOSECHA DE TALLOS FLORALES DE ROSA (Rosa hybrida L. EN RESPUESTA AL FÓSFORO APLICADO EN PRECOSECHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colinas-León MT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el crecimiento y desarro- llo de las flores, la nutrición fosforada es un factor que puede influir en la vida en flore- ro. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de cinco niveles de fósforo (P: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 y 2.0 me·L-1 de P aplicados en precosecha, mediante un sistema hidropóni- co abierto, en el comportamiento fisiológico postcosecha de tallos florales de rosa (Rosa hybrida L. ‘Classy’ y ‘Vega’. Las variables evaluadas durante la vida de florero de los tallos florales fueron: transpiración foliar y floral, potencial de turgencia foliar y de pétalos. Además, se evaluó la concentración de antocianinas en pétalos al momento de la cosecha. Las aplicaciones de P en precose- cha tuvieron efecto significativo únicamente en la transpiración foliar; sin embargo, se demostró que la mayor vida en florero (15.8 días de ‘Classy’ en comparación con ‘Vega’ (11.7 días estuvo directamente asociada con mayores potenciales de turgencia foliar y de pétalos, mayor tasa transpiratoria floral y menor tasa transpiratoria foliar en ‘Classy’.

  20. Pollination increases ethylene production in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi flowers but does not affect the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Silvia; Prisa, Domenico; Burchi, Gianluca; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-01-15

    In many species, pollination induces a rapid increase in ethylene production, which induces early petal senescence, petal abscission, or flower closure. Cross-pollination in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi resulted in a small increase in flower ethylene production. In intact plants and in isolated flowers, pollination had no effect on the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission. When applied to closed buds of unpollinated flowers, exogenous ethylene slightly hastened the time to tepal senescence and abscission. However, exogenous ethylene had no effect when the flowers had just opened, i.e. at the time of pollination. Experiments with silver thiosulphate, which blocks the ethylene receptor, indicated that endogenous ethylene had a slight effect on the regulation of tepal senescence and tepal abscission, although only at the time the tepals were still inside buds and not in open flowers. Low ethylene-sensitivity after anthesis therefore explains why pollination had no effect on the processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Localisation of Abundant and Organ-Specific Genes Expressed in Rosa hybrida Leaves and Flower Buds by Direct In Situ RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jedrzejuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ PCR is a technique that allows specific nucleic acid sequences to be detected in individual cells and tissues. In situ PCR and IS-RT-PCR are elegant techniques that can increase both sensitivity and throughput, but they are, at best, only semiquantitative; therefore, it is desirable first to ascertain the expression pattern by conventional means to establish the suitable conditions for each probe. In plants, in situ RT-PCR is widely used in the expression localisation of specific genes, including MADS-box and other function-specific genes or housekeeping genes in floral buds and other organs. This method is especially useful in small organs or during early developmental stages when the separation of particular parts is impossible. In this paper, we compared three different labelling and immunodetection methods by using in situ RT-PCR in Rosa hybrida flower buds and leaves. As target genes, we used the abundant β-actin and RhFUL gene, which is expressed only in the leaves and petals/sepals of flower buds. We used digoxygenin-11-dUTP, biotin-11-dUTP, and fluorescein-12-dUTP-labelled nucleotides and antidig-AP/ streptavidin-fluorescein-labelled antibodies. All of the used methods gave strong, specific signal and all of them may be used in localization of gene expression on tissue level in rose organs.

  2. Electrostatic potentials of the S-locus F-box proteins contribute to the pollen S specificity in self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Zhang, Yue; Song, Yanzhai; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Jiangbo; Li, Qun; Zhang, Dongfen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a self/non-self discrimination system found widely in angiosperms and, in many species, is controlled by a single polymorphic S-locus. In the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, the S-locus encodes a single S-RNase and a cluster of S-locus F-box (SLF) proteins to control the pistil and pollen expression of SI, respectively. Previous studies have shown that their cytosolic interactions determine their recognition specificity, but the physical force between their interactions remains unclear. In this study, we show that the electrostatic potentials of SLF contribute to the pollen S specificity through a physical mechanism of 'like charges repel and unlike charges attract' between SLFs and S-RNases in Petunia hybrida. Strikingly, the alteration of a single C-terminal amino acid of SLF reversed its surface electrostatic potentials and subsequently the pollen S specificity. Collectively, our results reveal that the electrostatic potentials act as a major physical force between cytosolic SLFs and S-RNases, providing a mechanistic insight into the self/non-self discrimination between cytosolic proteins in angiosperms. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transformation of miniature potted rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Linda) with PSAG12-ipt gene delays leaf senescence and enhances resistance to exogenous ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakizadeh, Hedayatollah; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic plants of Rosa hybrida ‘Linda’ were obtained via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the binary vector pSG529(+) containing the PSAG12-ipt construct. A. tumefaciens strains AGL1, GV3850 and LBA4404 (containing P35S-INTGUS gene) were used for transformation...... of embryogenic callus, but transgenic shoots were obtained only when AGL1 was applied. The highest transformation frequency was 10 % and it was achieved when half MS medium was used for the dilution of overnight culture of Agrobacterium. Southern blot confirmed integration of 1–6 copies of the nptII gene...

  4. PhcrTx2, a New Crab-Paralyzing Peptide Toxin from the Sea Anemone Phymanthus crucifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alexei Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones produce proteinaceous toxins for predation and defense, including peptide toxins that act on a large variety of ion channels of pharmacological and biomedical interest. Phymanthus crucifer is commonly found in the Caribbean Sea; however, the chemical structure and biological activity of its toxins remain unknown, with the exception of PhcrTx1, an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC inhibitor. Therefore, in the present work, we focused on the isolation and characterization of new P. crucifer toxins by chromatographic fractionation, followed by a toxicity screening on crabs, an evaluation of ion channels, and sequence analysis. Five groups of toxic chromatographic fractions were found, and a new paralyzing toxin was purified and named PhcrTx2. The toxin inhibited glutamate-gated currents in snail neurons (maximum inhibition of 35%, IC50 4.7 µM, and displayed little or no influence on voltage-sensitive sodium/potassium channels in snail and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, nor on a variety of cloned voltage-gated ion channels. The toxin sequence was fully elucidated by Edman degradation. PhcrTx2 is a new β-defensin-fold peptide that shares a sequence similarity to type 3 potassium channels toxins. However, its low activity on the evaluated ion channels suggests that its molecular target remains unknown. PhcrTx2 is the first known paralyzing toxin in the family Phymanthidae.

  5. How does environment influence fighting? The effects of tidal flow on resource value and fighting costs in sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Alexandre V; Velasque, Mariana; Santos, Sandro; Briffa, Mark

    2017-05-01

    An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina , exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles would alter decisions in fighting A. equina We exposed some individuals to still water and others to simulated tidal cycles. To gain insights into V, we measured their startle responses before and after exposure to the treatments, before staging dyadic fights. Individuals exposed to flow present shorter startle responses, suggesting that flowing water indicates high V compared with still water. A higher probability of winning against no-flow individuals and longer contests between flow individuals suggests that increased V increases persistence. However, encounters between flow individuals were less likely to escalate, suggesting that C is not directly related to V. Therefore, predictable environmental cycles alter V and C, but in complex ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Comparative analysis and culturing of the microbial community of Aiptasia pallida, A Sea Anemone Model for Coral Biology

    KAUST Repository

    Binsarhan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Recent works has highlighted the contribution of microbes to animal function. In this regard, the microbial community associated with corals has become a growing field of research in order to understand how microbes contribute to the host organisms’ response to environmental changes. It has been shown that microbes associated with corals have important functions in the coral holobiont such as immunity and nutrient assimilation. However, corals are notoriously difficult to work with. To this end, the sea anemone Aiptasia is becoming a model organism for coral symbiosis. Given the importance of host-­microbiome interactions, the topic of this thesis is to assess microbial structure of Aiptasia, culture prominent bacterial members, and compare bacterial community structure to corals. Different molecular methods have been applied using 16S rRNA bacterial gene fragments to characterize the microbial composition of Aiptasia. 16S rRNA gene sequence derived from cultured bacteria was compared to 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from native Red Sea Aiptasia. Inter-­individual as well as methodological differences were found to account for variance in microbiome composition. However, all approaches showed a highly abundant microbial taxon belonging to the genus Alteromonas in all samples. The Alteromonas species was successfully isolated for further research targeting microbiome selection mechanisms in Aiptasia. Future investigations by using different molecular tools will help to define the functions and relationship between the Aiptasia and its complex microbiome.

  7. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) structure and function: Insights from spider, snake and sea anemone venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Rash, Lachlan D

    2017-12-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that are expressed in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. As proton-gated channels, they have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions where pH is perturbed. Venom derived compounds represent the most potent and selective modulators of ASICs described to date, and thus have been invaluable as pharmacological tools to study ASIC structure, function, and biological roles. There are now ten ASIC modulators described from animal venoms, with those from snakes and spiders favouring ASIC1, while the sea anemones preferentially target ASIC3. Some modulators, such as the prototypical ASIC1 modulator PcTx1 have been studied in great detail, while some of the newer members of the club remain largely unstudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge on venom derived ASIC modulators, with a particular focus on their molecular interaction with ASICs, what they have taught us about channel structure, and what they might still reveal about ASIC function and pathophysiological roles. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequence-specific H NMR assignments and secondary structure in the sea anemone polypeptide Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogh, R.H.; Mabbutt, B.C.; Kem, W.R.; Norton, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Sequence-specific assignments are reported for the 500-MHz H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the 48-residue polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I). Spin systems were first identified by using two-dimensional relayed or multiple quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy, double quantum spectroscopy, and spin lock experiments. Specific resonance assignments were then obtained from nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivities between protons from residues adjacent in the amino acid sequence. Of a total of 265 potentially observable resonances, 248 (i.e., 94%) were assigned, arising from 39 completely and 9 partially assigned amino acid spin systems. The secondary structure of Sh I was defined on the basis of the pattern of sequential NOE connectivities. NOEs between protons on separate strands of the polypeptide backbone, and backbone amide exchange rates. Sh I contains a four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet encompassing residues 1-5, 16-24, 30-33, and 40-46, with a β-bulge at residues 17 and 18 and a reverse turn, probably a type II β-turn, involving residues 27-30. No evidence of α-helical structure was found

  9. The making of an embryo in a basal metazoan: Proteomic analysis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Shimrit; Sher, Noa; Brekhman, Vera; Ziv, Tamar; Lubzens, Esther; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are widely distributed basal metazoans that play an important role in the marine ecosystem. Their genetic diversity and dispersal depends on successful oogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis. To understand the processes that lead to successful embryogenesis in these basal organisms, we conducted comparative proteomics on the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We examined four developmental stages from oocyte maturation through early embryogenesis, as well as the oocyte jelly sac in which fertilization and embryogenesis take place. Our analysis revealed 37 stage-specifically expressed proteins, including cell cycle, cellular energy related and DNA replication proteins and transcription regulators. Using in situ hybridization, we show that within the mesenteria, two cell types support successful oocyte development and embryogenesis. Large somatic supporting cells synthesize vitellogenin, the most abundant egg yolk protein within the oocyte, whereas mesenteria gland cells synthesize mucin 5B, which was found to be the main component of the jelly sac. These findings shed light on the sexual reproduction program in cnidarians and suggest a high conservation with proteins governing oogenesis in Bilateria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Studies on the comparison of pollen morphology and viability of four naturally distributed and commercial varieties of anemone coronaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candan, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study presents a comparison of the pollen morphology and viability of naturally distributed four varieties of Anemone coronaria L. These are A. coronaria var. coccinea (Jord.) Burn, A. coronaria var. rosea (Hanry) Batt, A. coronaria var. cyanea, A. coronaria var. alba Goaty and Pens) and its commercial cultivars. The four varieties were collected from areas near the road side along the Kirkagac-Soma highway in the State of Manisa. The commercial cultivars were obtained from the commercial flower growers in the Urla region of zmir. Pollen viability levels decreased in all commercial cultivars of A. coronaria. The highest reduction in pollen viability was recorded in A. coronaria pink cultivars of de Caen group. The general pollen type is prolate spheroidal in all pure forms, but there are some pollen morphological features which were not observed in the natural ones, although encountered in all commercial cultivars. On the other hand, various non-viable pollen types like wrinkled pollens, with abnormally shaped pollens or pollinia were found in the commercial cultivars. It was concluded that pesticides used to produce more flowers with rapid growth are the major cause for his reduction. Another reason could be the use of tetraploid F1 hybrids of A. coronaria cultivars of de Caen group as commercial samples. (author)

  11. Natural Variation in Responses to Acute Heat and Cold Stress in a Sea Anemone Model System for Coral Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Emily S; Denver, Dee R

    2017-10-01

    Rising ocean temperatures disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their microalgae, accelerating global decline of coral reef ecosystems. Because of the difficulty of performing laboratory experiments with corals, the sea anemone Aiptasia has emerged as an important model system for molecular studies of coral bleaching and symbiosis. Here, we investigate natural variation in bleaching responses among different genetic lineages of Aiptasia. Both heat- and cold-induced paths to symbiosis breakdown were analyzed. Significant genetic variation in response to acute heat stress was observed, with severe bleaching of two Aiptasia strains from Hawaii but minimal bleaching of strains from the U.S. South Atlantic, including the strain used to generate the Aiptasia reference genome. Both strains from Hawaii hosted Symbiodinium type B1, whereas strains from the U.S. South Atlantic hosted type A4 or B2. In contrast to the results from exposures to acute heat stress, negligible variation was observed in response to a pulsed cold shock despite moderate bleaching across all strains. These results support our hypothesis that bleaching responses to distinct stressors are independent. Our findings emphasize the role of stress regime when predicting adaptive responses of symbiotic cnidarians to changing climates, because genetic variation may exist for some forms of stress-induced bleaching but not others.

  12. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in `Petunia hybrida Hat`. Pt. 3. Localization of Ca{sup 2+} ions and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase in pollinated pistil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R. [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Studies were carried out of Ca{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase localization in pollinated (6 and 48 h after pollination) pistils of `Petunia hybrida`. The results were confronted with Ca{sup 2+} localization in mature pollen grain and in unpollinated pistil. It has been found that after pollination the number of Ca{sup 2+} sequestered in the stigmal exudate and in the sporoderm of the pollen grain gets lower. That phenomenon was associated with the appearance of a large number of Sb/Ca precipitates in the submembrane cytoplasm of the germinating pollen. In the vacuolized pollen grain, i.e. grown into a pollen tube, there were only a few precipitates. In the pollen tube, Ca{sup 2+} were found in the organelles of the tip cytoplasm and in the external pectin cell wall. Studies with the use of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} have revealed that the source of calcium ions incorporated into the pollen tube tip and its pectin wall is the transmitting tract of the style. In the transmitting tract overgrown with pollen tubes, Ca{sup 2+} were localized in the intercellular matrix and in the transmitting cell. Sb/Ca precipitates occurred in the nuclei, around the secretary vesicles and on the plasmalemma in the transverse walls region. Elevated Ca{sup 2+} level was found in degenerating cells (inhibited pollen tubes, transmitting cells, nucellar cells). The progressing degeneration process of the cells of the transmitting tract of the pollinated pistil was associated with a decrease in the activity of plasmalemma Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase. (author). 30 refs, 19 figs.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene receptor and CTR genes involved in ethylene-induced flower opening in cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Tan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohui; Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Gao, Junping

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effect of ethylene on flower opening of cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha was studied. However, although ethylene hastened the process of flower opening, 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), an ethylene action inhibitor, impeded it. Ethylene promoted ethylene production in petals, but 1-MCP did not inhibit this process. Of the four ethylene biosynthetic genes tested, Rh-ACS1 and Rh-ACS2 were undetectable; Rh-ACS3 and Rh-ACO1 expression was enhanced by ethylene slightly and greatly, respectively. However, their mRNA amounts were not inhibited by 1-MCP compared with controls. Expression of seven signalling component genes was also studied, including three ethylene receptors (Rh-ETR1, Rh-ETR3, and Rh-ETR5), two CTRs (Rh-CTR1 and Rh-CTR2), and two transcription factors (Rh-EIN3-1 and Rh-EIN3-2). Transcripts of Rh-ETR5, Rh-EIN3-1, and Rh-EIN3-2 were accumulated in a constitutive manner and had no or little response to ethylene or 1-MCP, while transcript levels of Rh-ETR1 and Rh-CTR1 were substantially elevated by ethylene, and those of Rh-ETR3 and Rh-CTR2 were greatly enhanced by ethylene; 1-MCP reduced all the four genes to levels much less than those in control flowers. These results show that ethylene triggers physiological responses related to flower opening in cut rose cv. Samantha, and that continued ethylene perception results in flower opening. Ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through expression of two ethylene receptor genes (Rh-ETR1 and Rh-ETR3) and two CTR (Rh-CTR1 and Rh-CTR2) genes.

  14. Transformation of miniature potted rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Linda) with P( SAG12 )-ipt gene delays leaf senescence and enhances resistance to exogenous ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakizadeh, Hedayat; Lütken, Henrik; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Serek, Margrethe; Müller, Renate

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The P ( SAG12 ) -ipt gene was transferred to miniature rose, as the first woody species, resulting in increased ethylene resistance due to specific up-regulation of the ipt gene under senescence promoting conditions. Transgenic plants of Rosa hybrida 'Linda' were obtained via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the binary vector pSG529(+) containing the P( SAG12 )-ipt construct. A. tumefaciens strains AGL1, GV3850 and LBA4404 (containing P(35S)-INTGUS gene) were used for transformation of embryogenic callus, but transgenic shoots were obtained only when AGL1 was applied. The highest transformation frequency was 10 % and it was achieved when half MS medium was used for the dilution of overnight culture of Agrobacterium. Southern blot confirmed integration of 1-6 copies of the nptII gene into the rose genome in the tested lines. Four transgenic lines were obtained which were morphologically true-to-type and indistinguishable from Wt shoots while they were in in vitro cultures. Adventitious root induction was more difficult in transgenic shoots compared to the Wt shoots, however, one of the transgenic lines (line 6) was rooted and subsequently analyzed phenotypically. The ipt expression levels were determined in this line after exposure to exogenous ethylene (3.5 μl l(-1)) and/or darkness. Darkness resulted in twofold up-regulation of ipt expression, whereas darkness combined with ethylene caused eightfold up-regulation in line 6 compared to Wt plants. The transgenic line had significantly higher content of chlorophyll at the end of the treatment period compared to Wt plants.

  15. Enhanced formation of aromatic amino acids increases fragrance without affecting flower longevity or pigmentation in Petunia × hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Perl, Avichai; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Galili, Gad; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Purple Petunia × hybrida V26 plants accumulate fragrant benzenoid-phenylpropanoid molecules and anthocyanin pigments in their petals. These specialized metabolites are synthesized mainly from the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine. Here, we studied the profile of secondary metabolites of petunia plants, expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy-di-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway, as a tool to stimulate the conversion of primary to secondary metabolism via the aromatic amino acids. We focused on specialized metabolites contributing to flower showy traits. The presence of AroG* protein led to increased aromatic amino acid levels in the leaves and high phenylalanine levels in the petals. In addition, the AroG* petals accumulated significantly higher levels of fragrant benzenoid-phenylpropanoid volatiles, without affecting the flowers' lifetime. In contrast, AroG* abundance had no effect on flavonoids and anthocyanins levels. The metabolic profile of all five AroG* lines was comparable, even though two lines produced the transgene in the leaves, but not in the petals. This implies that phenylalanine produced in leaves can be transported through the stem to the flowers and serve as a precursor for formation of fragrant metabolites. Dipping cut petunia stems in labelled phenylalanine solution resulted in production of labelled fragrant volatiles in the flowers. This study emphasizes further the potential of this metabolic engineering approach to stimulate the production of specialized metabolites and enhance the quality of various plant organs. Furthermore, transformation of vegetative tissues with AroG* is sufficient for induced production of specialized metabolites in organs such as the flowers. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Rinehart, K L; Jacob, E

    1990-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH2, we have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3......-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH2 showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neurons of sea...

  17. Different visible colors and green fluorescence were obtained from the mutated purple chromoprotein isolated from sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins have been studied with the aim of developing fluorescent proteins. Since the property of color variation is understudied, we isolated a novel GFP-like chromoprotein from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla haddoni, termed shCP. Its maximum absorption wavelength peak (λ(max)) is located at 574 nm, resulting in a purple color. The shCP protein consists of 227 amino acids (aa), sharing 96 % identity with the GFP-like chromoprotein of Heteractis crispa. We mutated aa residues to examine any alteration in color. When E63, the first aa of the chromophore, was replaced by serine (E63S), the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-E63S was shifted to 560 nm and exhibited a pink color. When Q39, T194, and I196, which reside in the surrounding 5 Å of the chromophore's microenvironment, were mutated, we found that (1) the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-Q39S was shifted to 518 nm and exhibited a red color, (2) shCP-T194I exhibited a purple-blue color, and (3) an additional mutation at I196H of the mutated protein shCP-E63L exhibited green fluorescence. In contrast, when the aa located neither at the chromophore nor within its microenvironment were mutated, the resultant proteins shCP-L122H, -E138G, -S137D, -T95I, -D129N, -T194V, -E138Q, -G75E, -I183V, and -I70V never altered their purple color, suggesting that mutations at the shCP chromophore and the surrounding 5 Å microenvironment mostly control changes in color expression or cause fluorescence to develop. Additionally, we found that the cDNAs of shCP and its mutated varieties are faithfully and stably expressed both in Escherichia coli and zebrafish embryos.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, R.S.; Cossins, A.I.; Kem, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I) have been investigated by high-resolution H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at 300 MHz. The pH dependence of the spectra has been examined over the range 1.1-12.2 at 27 degree C. Individual pK a values have been obtained for the α-ammonium group of Ala-1 (8.6) and the side chains of Glu-8 (3.7), Tyr-36 (10.9), and Tyr-37 (10.8). For the remaining seven carboxyl groups in the molecule, four pK a values can be clearly identified. The five Lys residues titrate in the range 10.5-11, but individual pK a values could not be obtained because of peak overlap. Conformational changes associated with the protonation of carboxylates occur below pH 4, while in the alkaline pH range major unfolding occurs above pH 10. The molecule also unfolds at elevated temperatures. Exchange of the backbone amide protons has been monitored at various values of pH and temperature in the ranges pH 4-5 and 12-27 degree C. Comparison of these properties of Sh I in solution with those of the related polypeptides anthopleurin A and Anemonia sulcata toxins I and II indicates that Sh I is less stable thermally and that there are some significant differences in the ionic interactions that maintain the tertiary structure. The solvent accessibility of aromatic residues has been probed with photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization NMR at 360 MHz

  19. Spatial gene expression quantification: a tool for analysis of in situ hybridizations in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

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    Botman Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial gene expression quantification is required for modeling gene regulation in developing organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is the model system most widely applied for spatial gene expression analysis due to its unique embryonic properties: the shape does not change significantly during its early cleavage cycles and most genes are differentially expressed along a straight axis. This system of development is quite exceptional in the animal kingdom. In the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis the embryo changes its shape during early development; there are cell divisions and cell movement, like in most other metazoans. Nematostella is an attractive case study for spatial gene expression since its transparent body wall makes it accessible to various imaging techniques. Findings Our new quantification method produces standardized gene expression profiles from raw or annotated Nematostella in situ hybridizations by measuring the expression intensity along its cell layer. The procedure is based on digital morphologies derived from high-resolution fluorescence pictures. Additionally, complete descriptions of nonsymmetric expression patterns have been constructed by transforming the gene expression images into a three-dimensional representation. Conclusions We created a standard format for gene expression data, which enables quantitative analysis of in situ hybridizations from embryos with various shapes in different developmental stages. The obtained expression profiles are suitable as input for optimization of gene regulatory network models, and for correlation analysis of genes from dissimilar Nematostella morphologies. This approach is potentially applicable to many other metazoan model organisms and may also be suitable for processing data from three-dimensional imaging techniques.

  20. Biophysical and biochemical strategies to understand membrane binding and pore formation by sticholysins, pore-forming proteins from a sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos; Ros, Uris; Valle, Aisel; Pedrera, Lohans; Soto, Carmen; Hervis, Yadira P; Cabezas, Sheila; Valiente, Pedro A; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, Maria E

    2017-10-01

    Actinoporins constitute a unique class of pore-forming toxins found in sea anemones that are able to bind and oligomerize in membranes, leading to cell swelling, impairment of ionic gradients and, eventually, to cell death. In this review we summarize the knowledge generated from the combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to the study of sticholysins I and II (Sts, StI/II), two actinoporins largely characterized by the Center of Protein Studies at the University of Havana during the last 20 years. These approaches include strategies for understanding the toxin structure-function relationship, the protein-membrane association process leading to pore formation and the interaction of toxin with cells. The rational combination of experimental and theoretical tools have allowed unraveling, at least partially, of the complex mechanisms involved in toxin-membrane interaction and of the molecular pathways triggered upon this interaction. The study of actinoporins is important not only to gain an understanding of their biological roles in anemone venom but also to investigate basic molecular mechanisms of protein insertion into membranes, protein-lipid interactions and the modulation of protein conformation by lipid binding. A deeper knowledge of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in Sts-cell interaction, as described in this review, will support the current investigations conducted by our group which focus on the design of immunotoxins against tumor cells and antigen-releasing systems to cell cytosol as Sts-based vaccine platforms.

  1. Ultrastructural evidence for two-cell and three-cell neural pathways in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Jane A; Elliott, Carol F; Carlin, Ryan W

    2002-01-01

    Sensory and ganglion cells in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were traced in serial transmission electron micrographs to their synaptic contacts on other cells. Sensory cell synapses were found on spirocytes, muscle cells, and ganglion cells. Ganglion cells, in turn, synapsed on sensory cells, spirocytes, muscle cells, and other neurons and formed en passant axo-axonal synapses. Axonal synapses on nematocytes and gland cells were not traced to their cells of origin, i.e., identified sensory or ganglion cells. Direct synaptic contacts of sensory cells with spirocytes and sensory cells with muscle cells suggest a local two-cell pathway for spirocyst discharge and muscle cell contraction, whereas interjection of a ganglion cell between the sensory and effector cells creates a local three-cell pathway. The network of ganglion cells and their processes allows for a through-conduction system that is interconnected by chemical synapses. Although the sea anemone nervous system is more complex than that of Hydra, it has similar two-cell and three-cell effector pathways that may function in local responses to tentacle contact with food. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis

  3. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...

  4. The role of complement in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ePoole

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1 characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone A. pallida, (2 investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3 examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggests that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together these results indicate functional divergence between Ap

  5. Quantification of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the sea anemone Aiptasia sp. to simulate the sea-to-air flux from coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Filippo; Steinke, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is poorly quantified in tropical reef environments but forms an essential process that couples marine and terrestrial sulfur cycles and affects climate. Here we quantified net aqueous DMS production and the concentration of its cellular precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the sea anemone Aiptasia sp., a model organism to study coral-related processes. Bleached anemones did not show net DMS production whereas symbiotic anemones produced DMS concentrations (mean ± standard error) of 160.7 ± 44.22 nmol g-1 dry weight (DW) after 48 h incubation. Symbiotic and bleached individuals showed DMSP concentrations of 32.7 ± 6.00 and 0.6 ± 0.19 µmol g-1 DW, respectively. We applied these findings to a Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate that net aqueous DMS production accounts for only 20 % of gross aqueous DMS production. Monte Carlo-based estimations of sea-to-air fluxes of gaseous DMS showed that reefs may release 0.1 to 26.3 µmol DMS m-2 coral surface area (CSA) d-1 into the atmosphere with 40 % probability for rates between 0.5 and 1.5 µmol m-2 CSA d-1. These predictions were in agreement with directly quantified fluxes in previous studies. Conversion to a flux normalised to sea surface area (SSA) (range 0.1 to 17.4, with the highest probability for 0.3 to 1.0 µmol DMS m-2 SSA d-1) suggests that coral reefs emit gaseous DMS at lower rates than the average global oceanic DMS flux of 4.6 µmol m-2 SSA d-1 (19.6 Tg sulfur per year). The large difference between simulated gross and quantified net aqueous DMS production in corals suggests that the current and future potential for its production in tropical reefs is critically governed by DMS consumption processes. Hence, more research is required to assess the sensitivity of DMS-consumption pathways to ongoing environmental change in order to address the impact of predicted degradation of coral reefs on DMS production in tropical coastal ecosystems and its impact on

  6. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    cleavage sites, and therefore, are also likely to be produced from the precursor. Thus, there are at least 37 closely related neuropeptides localized on the precursor protein, making this precursor one of the most productive preprohormones known so far. This report also shows that unusual processing sites......Neuropeptides are an important group of hormones mediating or modulating neuronal communication. Neuropeptides are especially abundant in evolutionarily "old" nervous systems, such as those of cnidarians, the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Cnidarians often have a life cycle including...... the precursor protein for this metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones. The precursor protein is 514-amino acid residues long and contains 10 copies of the immature, authentic neuropeptide (Gln-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-Gly). All neuropeptide copies are preceded by Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequences...

  7. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (order Actiniaria are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae. Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein. We also erect subgroups within these two newly

  8. Structure, folding and stability of a minimal homologue from Anemonia sulcata of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnarjuna, Bankala; MacRaild, Christopher A; Sunanda, Punnepalli; Morales, Rodrigo A V; Peigneur, Steve; Macrander, Jason; Yu, Heidi H; Daly, Marymegan; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Tytgat, Jan; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S

    2018-01-01

    Peptide toxins elaborated by sea anemones target various ion-channel sub-types. Recent transcriptomic studies of sea anemones have identified several novel candidate peptides, some of which have cysteine frameworks identical to those of previously reported sequences. One such peptide is AsK132958, which was identified in a transcriptomic study of Anemonia sulcata and has a cysteine framework similar to that of ShK from Stichodactyla helianthus, but is six amino acid residues shorter. We have determined the solution structure of this novel peptide using NMR spectroscopy. The disulfide connectivities and structural scaffold of AsK132958 are very similar to those of ShK but the structure is more constrained. Toxicity assays were performed using grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp) and Artemia nauplii, and patch-clamp electrophysiology assays were performed to assess the activity of AsK132958 against a range of voltage-gated potassium (K V ) channels. AsK132958 showed no activity against grass shrimp, Artemia nauplii, or any of the K V channels tested, owing partly to the absence of a functional Lys-Tyr dyad. Three AsK132958 analogues, each containing a Tyr in the vicinity of Lys19, were therefore generated in an effort to restore binding, but none showed activity against any of K V channels tested. However, AsK132958 and its analogues are less susceptible to proteolysis than that of ShK. Our structure suggests that Lys19, which might be expected to occupy the pore of the channel, is not sufficiently accessible for binding, and therefore that AsK132958 must have a distinct functional role that does not involve K V channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Brugler, Mercer R.; Crowley, Louise M.; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders

  10. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, III: ranges and other measures of statistical dispersion, their interrelations and taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a series of papers examining the taxonomic relevance of some statistical treatments of measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Actiniaria. Some cnida lengths from fresh tissue samples (column ectoderm, tentacles or acontia from Nematostella vectensis, Haliplanella lineata, Sagartia elegans, Metridium senile, Cereus pedunculatus, Sagartia troglodytes, Anthopleura thallia, Urticina eques and Sagartiogeton lacerates were measured. Five measures of statistical dispersion (sample standard deviation, coefficient of variation, observed sample range, standard range, and 99% probable maximum value of the standard range were calculated, and their interrelations and potential applications were appraised. It has long been the convention to use the largest and smallest cnida sizes (observed sample range from tissue samples in attempts to establish differences between actiniarian taxa. However, such data do not reflect the true extremes of a population range. In the present study, the 99% probable maximum value of the standard range for a standard abundance of 1,000 gave the greatest and, therefore, the most cautious estimate of a population range of cnida sizes for a species. This maximum standard range is the only measure of dispersion of cnida sizes that may be used validly to demonstrate that anemone specimens are of different species, and then only if there is no overlap between the extreme cnida sizes being compared. However, partial or complete overlaps of cnida size extremes do not necessarily indicate that specimens are conspecific; other taxonomic characters must also be considered. Coefficients of variation may provide valuable clues as to the homogeneity or heterogeneity of samples of cnida measurements. This paper should be read in conjunction with the first two in this series, which address the taxonomic relevance of differences between mean cnida sizes (Williams, 1996, Sci. Mar., 60: 339-351; 1998, Sci. Mar., 62: 361-372.

  11. A sea anemone of many names: a review of the taxonomy and distribution of the invasive actiniarian Diadumene lineata (Diadumenidae, with records of its reappearance on the Texas coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Hancock

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diadumene lineata (Actiniaria: Diadumenidae is a prolific invader of coastal environments around the world. First described from Asia, this sea anemone has only been reported once from the western Gulf of Mexico at Port Aransas, Texas. No subsequent sampling has located this species at this locality. The first record of the reappearance of D. lineata on the Texas coast from three locations in the Galveston Bay area is provided, and its geographic distribution and taxonomic history reviewed.

  12. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  13. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.T.; Douglas, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  14. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  15. Primary structure of the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (less than Glu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Schmutzler, C; Diekhoff, D

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptides containing the carboxylterminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 are found throughout the animal kingdom and are important substances mediating neuronal communication. Here, we have cloned the cDNA coding for the precursor protein of the sea anemone neuropeptide (Antho-RFamide) less than Glu......-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. This precursor is 334 amino acids in length and contains 19 copies of unprocessed Antho-RFamide (Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-Gly), which are tandemly arranged in the C-terminal part of the protein. Paired basic residues (Lys-Arg) or single basic residues (Arg) occur at the C-terminal side of each Antho...... or glutamic acid residues. Such processing is, to our knowledge, hitherto unknown for peptidergic neurons. The Antho-RFamide precursor also contains two copies of the putative Antho-RFamide-related peptide Phe-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 and one copy of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Arg-Tyr-NH2. In addition, the precursor protein...

  16. The Effect of Cholesterol on the Long-Range Network of Interactions Established among Sea Anemone Sticholysin II Residues at the Water-Membrane Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara García-Linares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinoporins are α-pore forming proteins with therapeutic potential, produced by sea anemones. Sticholysin II (StnII from Stichodactyla helianthus is one of its most extensively characterized members. These proteins remain stably folded in water, but upon interaction with lipid bilayers, they oligomerize to form a pore. This event is triggered by the presence of sphingomyelin (SM, but cholesterol (Chol facilitates pore formation. Membrane attachment and pore formation require changes involving long-distance rearrangements of residues located at the protein-membrane interface. The influence of Chol on membrane recognition, oligomerization, and/or pore formation is now studied using StnII variants, which are characterized in terms of their ability to interact with model membranes in the presence or absence of Chol. The results obtained frame Chol not only as an important partner for SM for functional membrane recognition but also as a molecule which significantly reduces the structural requirements for the mentioned conformational rearrangements to occur. However, given that the DOPC:SM:Chol vesicles employed display phase coexistence and have domain boundaries, the observed effects could be also due to the presence of these different phases on the membrane. In addition, it is also shown that the Arg51 guanidinium group is strictly required for membrane recognition, independently of the presence of Chol.

  17. Individual marking of soft-bodied subtidal invertebrates in situ - A novel staining technique applied to the giant plumose anemone Metridium farcimen (Tilesius, 1809.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Wells

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize individuals and track growth over time is crucial to population dynamics research as well as studies of animal behavior. Invertebrates are particularly difficult to track as they often molt, have regenerative capabilities, or lack hard parts to attach markers. We tested, in laboratory and field studies, a new way of marking sea anemones (order Actiniaria by injection of three vital stains (i.e., neutral red, methylene blue, and fluorescein. Neutral red and methylene blue did not affect growth or survival, but fluorescein was lethal at high concentrations. Marked individuals could be identified up to seven months after injection with neutral red, six weeks with methylene blue, and three days with low concentrations of fluorescein. Neutral red could be used for long-term monitoring of growth and survival in the field, and in combination with methylene blue could be used to mark individuals in distinguishable patterns for short-term studies such as examining predator-prey interactions, movement of individuals, and recruitment survival.

  18. Anthopleura radians, a new species of sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Actiniidae from northern Chile, with comments on other species of the genus from the South Pacific Ocean

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    Carlos Spano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sea anemone, Anthopleura radians n. sp., is described from the intertidal zone of northern Chile and the taxonomic status of the other Anthopleura species from the South Pacific are discussed. A. radians n. sp. is characterized by a yellow-whitish and brown checkerboard-like pattern on the oral disc, adhesive verrucae along the entire column and a series of marginal projections, each bearing a brightly-colored acrorhagus on the oral surface. This is the seventh species of Anthopleura described from the South Pacific Ocean; each one distinguished by a particular combination of differences related to their coloration pattern, presence of zooxanthellae, cnidae, and mode of reproduction. Some of these species have not been reported since their original description and thus require to be taxonomically validated. A. hermaphroditica and A. aureoradiata are synonyms considering the lack of differences seen between live specimens, museum collections and published records. A. radians could also be a junior synonym of A. minima, however, no type material was found for testing this hypothesis. Furthermore, it is crucial to designate neotypes for A. inconspicua, A. rosea and A. minima since there are no name-bearing types reported for these species.

  19. Evidence for participation of GCS1 in fertilization of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: Implication of a common mechanism of sperm–egg fusion in plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebchuqin, Eerdundagula; Yokota, Naoto; Yamada, Lixy [Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Sugashima, Toba 517-0004 (Japan); Yasuoka, Yuuri [Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Akasaka, Mari [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Arakawa, Mio; Deguchi, Ryusaku [Department of Biology, Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845 (Japan); Mori, Toshiyuki [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Sawada, Hitoshi, E-mail: hsawada@bio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Sugashima, Toba 517-0004 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • GCS1 is a sperm transmembrane protein that is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. • The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals. • NvGCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and GCS1 protein exists in sperm of a sea anemone. • Anti-GCS1 antibodies inhibited the fertilization, showing the participation in fertilization. - Abstract: It has been reported that GCS1 (Generative Cell Specific 1) is a transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed in sperm cells and is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals, implying the occurrence of a common or ancestral mechanism of GCS1-mediated gamete fusion. In order to elucidate the common mechanism, we investigated the role of GCS1 in animal fertilization using a sea anemone (Cnidaria), Nematostella vectensis. Although the existence of the GCS1 gene in N. vectensis has been reported, the expression of GCS1 in sperm and the role of GCS1 in fertilization are not known. In this study, we showed that the GCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and that GCS1 protein exists in sperm by in situ hybridization and proteomic analysis, respectively. Then we made four peptide antibodies against the N-terminal extracellular region of NvGCS1. These antibodies specifically reacted to NvGCS1 among sperm proteins on the basis of Western analysis and potently inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that sperm GCS1 plays a pivotal role in fertilization, most probably in sperm–egg fusion, in a starlet sea anemone, suggesting a common gamete-fusion mechanism shared by eukaryotic organisms.

  20. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  1. Kunitz-Type Peptide HCRG21 from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is a Full Antagonist of the TRPV1 Receptor

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    Margarita Monastyrnaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemone venoms comprise multifarious peptides modulating biological targets such as ion channels or receptors. The sequence of a new Kunitz-type peptide, HCRG21, belonging to the Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG peptide subfamily was deduced on the basis of the gene sequence obtained from the Heteractis crispa cDNA. HCRG21 shares high structural homology with Kunitz-type peptides APHC1–APHC3 from H. crispa, and clusters with the peptides from so named “analgesic cluster” of the HCGS peptide subfamily but forms a separate branch on the NJ-phylogenetic tree. Three unique point substitutions at the N-terminus of the molecule, Arg1, Gly2, and Ser5, distinguish HCRG21 from other peptides of this cluster. The trypsin inhibitory activity of recombinant HCRG21 (rHCRG21 was comparable with the activity of peptides from the same cluster. Inhibition constants for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin were 1.0 × 10−7 and 7.0 × 10−7 M, respectively. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that rHCRG21 inhibits 95% of the capsaicin-induced current through transient receptor potential family member vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 and has a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 6.9 ± 0.4 μM. Moreover, rHCRG21 is the first full peptide TRPV1 inhibitor, although displaying lower affinity for its receptor in comparison with other known ligands. Macromolecular docking and full atom Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the rHCRG21–TRPV1 complex allow hypothesizing the existence of two feasible, intra- and extracellular, molecular mechanisms of blocking. These data provide valuable insights in the structural and functional relationships and pharmacological potential of bifunctional Kunitz-type peptides.

  2. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

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    Adam G Marsh

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis. Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to

  3. Who knows not where an anemone does wear his sting? Could polypeptides released from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum induce apoptosis in the ZF-L cell line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Claudio L Q; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Ferreira, Shana Pires; Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Boyle, Robert Tew

    2016-12-15

    We provide ultrastructural and cytological evidence that the tentacles of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum does not contain cytotoxic venom. However, we show that the stimulated secretion of an apparent mixture of biomolecules containing polypeptides from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum is apparently a potent inducer of apoptosis in the zebrafish cell line, ZF-L. Microscopic fluorescence, cell morphology and flow cytometric assays confirm the apoptotic activity. Crude vesicle venom was partially purified by size exclusion chromatography. PAGE analysis shows that this venom contains low weight polypeptides but no measurable protein. The apoptotic activity is heat labile, and the observed peptides concurrent with this activity have a molecular weight of approximately 2000 Da. This manuscript is the first report of biologically active molecules and peptides associated with columnar vesicles of anemones, and the first to confirm that the tentacles of B. cangicum do not contain cytotoxic venom, and express spirocytes exclusively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A diverse array of creatine kinase and arginine kinase isoform genes is present in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model system for studying developmental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kouji; Ellington, W Ross; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2012-04-15

    Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases (PK) constitute a family of homologous phosphotransferases catalyzing the reversible transfer of the high-energy phosphoryl group of ATP to naturally occurring guanidine compounds. Prior work has shown that PKs can be phylogenetically separated into two distinct groups- an arginine kinase (AK) subfamily and a creatine kinase (CK) subfamily. The latter includes three CK isoforms- cytoplasmic CK (CyCK), mitochondrial CK (MiCK) and three-domain flagellar CK (fCK). In the present study we identified six unique PK genes from the draft genome sequence of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a well-known model organism for understanding metazoan developmental evolution. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) methods, full length cDNAs were amplified for all of these PKs. These cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as 6x His-tagged fusion proteins. The six PKs were identified as the three typical CK isoforms (CyCK, MiCK and fCK), two unusual AKs (a two-domain AK (2DAK) and a three-domain AK (3DAK)) and a PK which phosphorylated arginine. The latter enzyme had a very low AK activity (its apparent V(max) value being less than 0.2% that of 3DAK), lacks several key residues necessary for AK enzyme activity, and was tentatively designated as AK1. As far as we know, this constitutes the first report of an AK with the three fused AK domains. The Bayesian tree suggested that the third domain of 3DAK likely evolved from the gene for domain 2 of typical two-domain AK found widely in cnidarians. Construction of phylogenetic trees and comparison of exon-intron organizations of their respective genes indicated that the N. vectensis three-domain fCK and 3DAK evolved independently, and both enzymes are likely to be targeted to cell membranes since they have a myristoylation signal at their respective N-termini. These results complement prior work on other basal invertebrates showing that multiple CK and AK

  5. Different Principles of ADP-Ribose-Mediated Activation and Opposite Roles of the NUDT9 Homology Domain in the TRPM2 Orthologs of Man and Sea Anemone

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    Frank Kühn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A decisive element in the human cation channel TRPM2 is a region in its cytosolic C-terminus named NUDT9H because of its homology to the NUDT9 enzyme, a pyrophosphatase degrading ADP-ribose (ADPR. In hTRPM2, however, the NUDT9H domain has lost its enzymatic activity but serves as a binding domain for ADPR. As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated. Since ADPR is produced after oxidative DNA damage, hTRPM2 mediates Ca2+ influx in response to oxidative stress which may lead to cell death. In the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (nv, a preferred model organism for the evolution of key bilaterian features, a TRPM2 ortholog has been identified that contains a NUDT9H domain as well. Heterologous expression of nvTRPM2 in HEK-293 cells reveals a cation channel with many close similarities to the human counterpart. Most notably, nvTRPM2 is activated by ADPR, and Ca2+ is a co-agonist. However, the intramolecular mechanisms of ADPR gating as well as the role of NUDT9H are strikingly different in the two species. Whereas already subtle changes of NUDT9H abolish ADPR gating in hTRPM2, the region can be completely removed from nvTRPM2 without loss of responses to ADPR. An alternative ADPR binding site seems to be present but has not yet been characterized. The ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase (ADPRase function of nvNUDT9H has been preserved but can be abolished by numerous genetic manipulations. All these manipulations create channels that are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide which fails to induce channel activity in wild-type nvTRPM2. Therefore, the function of NUDT9H in nvTRPM2 is the degradation of ADPR, thereby reducing agonist concentration in the presence of oxidative stress. Thus, the two TRPM2 orthologs have evolved divergently but nevertheless gained analogous functional properties, i.e., gating by ADPR with Ca2+ as co-factor. Opposite roles are played by the respective NUDT9H domains, either binding of ADPR and mediating

  6. Vitamin B1 thiazole derivative reduces transmembrane current through ionic channels formed by toxins from black widow spider venom and sea anemone in planar phospholipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatursky, Oleg Ya; Volkova, Tatyana M; Romanenko, Olexander V; Himmelreich, Nina H; Grishin, Eugene V

    2007-02-01

    The vitamin B1 (thiamine) structural analogue 3-decyloxycarbonylmethyl-4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl) thiazole chloride (DMHT) (0.1 mM) reversibly reduced transmembrane currents in CaCl2 and KCl solutions via ionic channels produced by latrotoxins (alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LT) and alpha-latroinsectotoxin (alpha-LIT)) from black widow spider venom and sea anemone toxin (RTX) in the bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). Introduction of DMHT from the cis-side of BLM bathed in 10 mM CaCl2 inhibited transmembrane current by 31.6+/-3% and by 61.8+/-3% from the trans-side of BLM for alpha-LT channels. Application of DMHT in the solution of 10 mM CaCl2 to the cis-side of BLM decreased the current through the alpha-LIT and RTX channels by 52+/-4% and 50+/-5%, respectively. Addition of Cd2+ (1 mM) to the cis- or trans-side of the membrane after the DMHT-induced depression of Ca2+-current across the alpha-LT channels caused its further decrease by 85+/-5% that coincides favorably with the intensity of Cd2+ blocking in control experiments without DMHT. These data suggest that DMHT inhibiting is not specific for latrotoxin channels only and DMHT may exert its action on alpha-LT channels without considerable influence on the ionogenic groups of Ca2+-selective site inside the channel cavity. The binding kinetics of DMHT with the alpha-LT channel shows no cooperativity and allows to expect that the DMHT binding site of the toxin is formed by one ionogenic group as the slopes of inhibition rate determined in log-log coordinates are 1.25 on the trans-side and 0.68 on the cis-side. Similar pK of binding (5.4 on the trans-side and 5.7 on the cis-side) also suggest that DMHT may interact with the same high affinity site of alpha-LT channel on either side of the BLM. The comparative analysis of effective radii measured for alpha-LT, alpha-LIT and RTX channels on the cis-side (0.9 nm, 0.53 nm and 0.55 nm, correspondingly) and for alpha-LT channel on the trans-side (0.28+/-0.18 nm) with the

  7. Distribution patterns of Chilean shallow-water sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia; with a discussion of the taxonomic and zoogeographic relationships between the actinofauna of the South East Pacific, the South West Atlantic and the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Häussermann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete zoogeographical analysis of Chilean shallow water sea anemones (Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia and their taxonomic relations with neighbouring faunas is provided, based on extensive recent sampling in combination with a literature review. Between 1994 and 2004, we collected more than 1000 specimens of 32 distinct species of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia at more than 100 sites along the Chilean coast between Arica (18°30’S; 70°19’W and the Straits of Magellan (53°36’S 70°56’W. Sampling was done in the intertidal during low tides and in the subtidal by means of SCUBA diving down to depths of 40 m. The northern part of the Chilean fjord region showed the highest number of species (23. Our results contradict an abrupt general change in the marine faunal composition at 42°S, instead showing the continuation of species of the exposed coast and the joining of fjord species due to the availability of additional habitats in the richly structured fjord region south of 42°S, and also to eurybathy. The southern distribution limits of the species we found in northern and central Chile show only one significant concentration around the Peninsula Taitao (approx. 48°S. This either indicates a zoogeographic barrier for shallow water species at the Peninsula Taitao, or is a sampling artifact caused by poor data from the region between the Peninsula Taitao and the Straits of Magellan. According to the literature, 18 of the 63 described Chilean sea anemones (Pacific Ocean can also be found in Argentina (Atlantic Ocean and 13 in the Antarctic. However, many records and statuses of the common species of the South East Pacific and the South West Atlantic/Antarctic are uncertain or doubtful and need revision or confirmation.

  8. Actiniarian Sea anemone fauna of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  9. Functional characterization of MADS box transcription factors in Petunia hybrida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrario, S.I.T.

    2004-01-01

    Transcription factors play a central role in the regulation and integration of several developmental pathways in all organisms. MADS box proteins are, among transcription factors, key players in the regulation of flower induction, flower architecture and vegetative development and have been isolated

  10. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Petunia hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms Florence; Feller Urs; Reinhardt Didier

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phos...

  11. Changes in gene expression during male meiosis in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnudde, Filip; Hedatale, Veena; de Jong, Hans; Pierson, Elisabeth S; Rainey, Daphne Y; Zabeau, Marc; Weterings, Koen; Gerats, Tom; Peters, Janny L

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed changes in gene expression during male meiosis in Petunia by combining the meiotic staging of pollen mother cells from a single anther with cDNA-AFLP transcript profiling of mRNA from the synchronously developing sister anthers. The transcript profiling experiments focused on the identification of genes with a modulated expression profile during meiosis, while premeiotic archesporial cells and postmeiotic microspores served as a reference. About 8000 transcript tags, estimated at 30% of the total transcriptome, were generated, of which around 6% exhibited a modulated gene expression pattern at meiosis. Cluster analysis revealed a transcriptional cascade that coincides with the initiation and progression through all stages of the two meiotic divisions. Fragments that exhibited high expression specifically during meiosis I were characterized further by sequencing; 90 out of the 293 sequenced fragments showed homology with known genes, belonging to a wide range of gene classes, including previously characterized meiotic genes. In-situ hybridization experiments were performed to determine the spatial expression pattern for five selected transcript tags. Its concurrence with cDNA-AFLP transcript profiles indicates that this is an excellent approach to study genes involved in specialized processes such as meiosis. Our data set provides the potential to unravel unique meiotic genes that are as yet elusive to reverse genetics approaches.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of anemone fishes of the Persian Gulf using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... 1Department of Marine Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Hesarak, Tehran, Iran. 2Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pajouhesh BLV, Tehran,. Iran. ³Aquatic Animals Health and Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ...

  13. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  14. Blocking actions of the sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also found to block acetylcholine (ACh) – induced contractions of the ileum of grass cutter (90 + 6.2% inhibition + SEM) and the contractile action induced by ACh (0.2mg and 0.4mg) (89 + 5.8% inhibition + SEM) and histamine (0.075mg and 0.15mg) on the rabbit ileum (80 + 4.6% inhibition + SEM) . The antagonism ...

  15. Tiny sea anemone from the Lower Cambrian of China.

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    Jian Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abundant fossils from the Ediacaran and Cambrian showing cnidarian grade grossly suggest that cnidarian diversification occurred earlier than that of other eumetazoans. However, fossils of possible soft-bodied polyps are scanty and modern corals are dated back only to the Middle Triassic, although molecular phylogenetic results support the idea that anthozoans represent the first major branch of the Cnidaria. Because of difficulties in taxonomic assignments owing to imperfect preservation of fossil cnidarian candidates, little is known about forms ancestral to those of living groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have analyzed the soft-bodied polypoid microfossils Eolympia pediculata gen. et sp. nov. from the lowest Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation in southern China by scanning electron microscopy and computer-aided microtomography after isolating fossils from sedimentary rocks by acetic acid maceration. The fossils, about a half mm in body size, are preserved with 18 mesenteries including directives bilaterally arranged, 18 tentacles and a stalk-like pedicle. The pedicle suggests a sexual life cycle, while asexual reproduction by transverse fission also is inferred by circumferential grooves on the body column. CONCLUSIONS: The features found in the present fossils fall within the morphological spectrum of modern Hexacorallia excluding Ceriantharia, and thus Eolympia pediculata could be a stem member for this group. The fossils also demonstrate that basic features characterizing modern hexacorallians such as bilateral symmetry and the reproductive system have deep roots in the Early Cambrian.

  16. Mechanisms of tentacle morphogenesis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ashleigh E; Ikmi, Aissam; Seidel, Christopher; Paulson, Ariel; Gibson, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Evolution of the capacity to form secondary outgrowths from the principal embryonic axes was a crucial innovation that potentiated the diversification of animal body plans. Precisely how such outgrowths develop in early-branching metazoan species remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that three fundamental processes contribute to embryonic tentacle development in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. First, a pseudostratified ectodermal placode forms at the oral pole of developing larvae and is transcriptionally patterned into four tentacle buds. Subsequently, Notch signaling-dependent changes in apicobasal epithelial thickness drive elongation of these primordia. In parallel, oriented cell rearrangements revealed by clonal analysis correlate with shaping of the elongating tentacles. Taken together, our results define the mechanism of embryonic appendage development in an early-branching metazoan, and thereby provide a novel foundation for understanding the diversification of body plans during animal evolution.

  17. Functional and evolutionary studies of type I MADS box genes in Petunia hybrida and arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian

    2008-01-01

    MADS-box genes are very important for plant development and especially for the formation of the flower. The MADS box family of transcription factors in plants can be subdivided into two classes: the MIKC-type genes, which play essential roles in flower formation, and the type I genes, which are

  18. Flavonols and fertilization in Petunia hybrida: localization and mode of action during pollen tube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylstra, B.; Busscher, J.; Franken, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Mol, J.N.M.; Tunen, van A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonols form an important class of flavonoids which serve an essential function during plant reproduction. Flavonoid biosynthesis is initiated by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). A high abundance of flavonols and chs mRNA was demonstrated in male and female reproductive organs of Petunia

  19. In vitro mutagenesis in Rosa hybrida using oryzalin as a mutagen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... and genetic similarity among anther-derived monoploid regenera determined by RAPD analysis. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 53: 49-. 58. Vijaya N, Satyanarayan G, Prakash J, Pierk RLM (1991). Effect of culture media and growth regulators on in vitro Propagation of rose. Plant Sci. Biotechnol. Agric.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Aster Yellows Subgroup 16SrI-B Phytoplasma in Verbena x hybrida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Petrzik, Karel; Fránová, Jana; Špak, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 7 (2015), s. 664-669 ISSN 0931-1785 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 16-23S rDNA gene * PCR * rp genes * tuf gene Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2015

  1. Kajian Sistem Pengemasan Bunga Mawar Potong (Rosa hybrida selama Penyimpanan untuk Memperpanjang Masa Pajangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment and packaging or rose cut flowers during stroage and transportation should be designed in order to keep its quality during vase life of the flowers. The objective of this study was to find out the pulsing solution and the design of packaging to prolong the vase life of the rose cut flowers. The flowers were harvested from Loji, Cipanas, when the flower was at two bud open stages. Before storage, the flowers were pulsed in the chemical solution of sucrose, glyserin, Na-benzoat and citric acid at different concentrations. Each 20 cuts of flower were placed in the boxes of 60  15  7 cm3with different ventilation system. The result showed that the pulsing solution with 3 % sucrose, 25% glyserin, 300 ppm Na-benzoat and 375 ppm citrit acid caused a signioficant decrease in the respiration rate and prolonged the vase life of the flowers. The packaging model gave an effect of modified atmospheric environment inside the packaging and significantly affected the flower quality during stronge. The result suggested that the use of the packaging with the ventilation of 3.5 cm in diameter using polypropilene film would be suitable for rose cut flowers packaging during storage. The packaging model prolonged the vase lilfe of the flowers until 6 days after 5 days of storage and decreased the flowers senescene up to 20-25%.

  2. Kajian Sistem Pengemasan Bunga Mawar Potong (Rosa hybrida) selama Penyimpanan untuk Memperpanjang Masa Pajangan

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhani Hasbullah; Suroso; Desy Nofriati

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment and packaging or rose cut flowers during stroage and transportation should be designed in order to keep its quality during vase life of the flowers. The objective of this study was to find out the pulsing solution and the design of packaging to prolong the vase life of the rose cut flowers. The flowers were harvested from Loji, Cipanas, when the flower was at two bud open stages. Before storage, the flowers were pulsed in the chemical solution of sucrose, glyserin, Na-benzoat and...

  3. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs in gene silencing in plants.

  4. Introduction of ROL genes in Rosa Hybrida L. for improved rootstock performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Salm, T.P.M.

    1996-06-04

    We aim to improve the performance of combination plants of rose by genetic modification of its root stock, with special reference to their performance at low energy conditions. The first objective of this research was the introduction of the ROL genes from A. rhizogenes in the recalcitrant species rose. For this purpose the rose root stock `Money way` was used. The second objective was to determine the effects of these genes on the rooting characteristics of root stock plants and their influence on the growth performance of combination plants. Special attention had to be paid to methodological aspects such as micropropagation, transformation and regeneration. First, the medium composition was optimized for the in vitro culture of root stock `Money way`. The effect of ROL genes on the formation of adventitious roots was described. It was shown that the formation of kanamycin resistant roots was stimulated by ROL genes, especially by a combination of ROLA, B and C. A regeneration method was developed, in which shoots were regenerated from excised roots via somatic embryogenesis. This regeneration method was applied for the regeneration of transformed shoots from kanamycin resistant roots, especially from those with the ROLB gene or a combination of ROLA, B and C genes. As a result several transformed plants were obtained. Expression patterns of the ROL genes were correlated with the phenotypical characteristics of the transformed rose plants. In order to determine the effect of ROL genes on the growth and development of a scion, combination plants were made, consisting of the root system of a transgenic root stock and the aerial parts of the cultivar `Madelon`. For evaluation of the effects of ROL genes on root stock performance and energy efficiency, the combination plants were studied under climate room conditions at 15 and 20 deg C. Finally, an overview is given of the possible applications of ROL genes for crop improvement.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of Petunia hybrida in response to salt stress using high throughput RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Villarino

    Full Text Available Salinity and drought stress are the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In sodic saline soils sodium chloride (NaCl disrupts normal plant growth and development. The complex interactions of plant systems with abiotic stress have made RNA sequencing a more holistic and appealing approach to study transcriptome level responses in a single cell and/or tissue. In this work, we determined the Petunia transcriptome response to NaCl stress by sequencing leaf samples and assembling 196 million Illumina reads with Trinity software. Using our reference transcriptome we identified more than 7,000 genes that were differentially expressed within 24 h of acute NaCl stress. The proposed transcriptome can also be used as an excellent tool for biological and bioinformatics in the absence of an available Petunia genome and it is available at the SOL Genomics Network (SGN http://solgenomics.net. Genes related to regulation of reactive oxygen species, transport, and signal transductions as well as novel and undescribed transcripts were among those differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The candidate genes identified in this study can be applied as markers for breeding or to genetically engineer plants to enhance salt tolerance. Gene Ontology analyses indicated that most of the NaCl damage happened at 24 h inducing genotoxicity, affecting transport and organelles due to the high concentration of Na+ ions. Finally, we report a modification to the library preparation protocol whereby cDNA samples were bar-coded with non-HPLC purified primers, without affecting the quality and quantity of the RNA-seq data. The methodological improvement presented here could substantially reduce the cost of sample preparation for future high-throughput RNA sequencing experiments.

  6. An Autotetraploid Linkage Map of Rose (Rosa hybrida) Validated Using the Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H.; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map. The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome. PMID:21647382

  7. Induced mutations in ornamental plants by 'in vitro' irradiation of Petunia hybrida meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades it has been observed that for the induction of mutation in ornamental plants we can obtain better results when the plants are irradiated in vegetative state and even better 'in vitro' that when its are irradiated 'in vivo'. In this work the possibilities are showed to avoid the best use of a new biotechnology: the gamma irradiations on the meristem 'in vitro'. A tissue culture method was described for the best vegetative propagation of Petunia hybrid hort through morphogenesis induction of meristem. These were planted in the Murashige and Skoog's basic medium added with BAP and ANA. The pH was adjusted to 6.5 prior autoclaving at 121 Centigrade degree and 1.1 Kg/ cm 2 for 15 minutes. Latter the meristem of plantules in immature and mature physiology stated were irradiated with gamma ray doses ranging from 1.0 at 10.0 Gy. The meristem were then subcultived aseptically with the following results: 1) The immature stage was higher radio sensibilities. 2) The LD 50 for the matured plants was to ranged from 1.0 at 9.0 Gy. and immature 1.0 at 8.0 Gy. 3) The better doses was at 7.5 Gy. 4) The meristem gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy. showed in the first culture: the adventitious bud induced and the multi meristem formation. 5) In the second cultured the results reveals the 'variegadas' plants formations and the new purples flowers. (Author)

  8. Phenylpyruvate Contributes to the Synthesis of Fragrant Benzenoid–Phenylpropanoids in Petunia × hybrida Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Oliva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe is a precursor for a large group of plant specialized metabolites, including the fragrant volatile benzenoid–phenylpropanoids (BPs. In plants, the main pathway leading to production of Phe is via arogenate, while the pathway via phenylpyruvate (PPY is considered merely an alternative route. Unlike plants, in most microorganisms the only pathway leading to the synthesis of Phe is via PPY. Here we studied the effect of increased PPY production in petunia on the formation of BPs volatiles and other specialized metabolites originating from Phe both in flowers and leaves. Stimulation of the pathway via PPY was achieved by transforming petunia with PheA∗, a gene encoding a bacterial feedback insensitive bi-functional chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase enzyme. PheA∗ overexpression caused dramatic increase in the levels of flower BP volatiles such as phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl acetate, vanillin, and eugenol. All three BP pathways characterized in petunia flowers were stimulated in PheA∗ flowers. In contrast, PheA∗ overexpression had only a minor effect on the levels of amino acids and non-volatile metabolites both in the leaves and flowers. The one exception is a dramatic increase in the level of rosmarinate, a conjugate between Phe-derived caffeate and Tyr-derived 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, in PheA∗ leaves. PheA∗ petunia flowers may serve as an excellent system for revealing the role of PPY in the production of BPs, including possible routes directly converting PPY to the fragrant volatiles. This study emphasizes the potential of the PPY route in achieving fragrance enhancement in flowering plants.

  9. RESÍDUOS COMPOSTADOS COMO SUBSTRATO PARA PRODUÇÃO DE PETUNIA X HYBRIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Zanello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A transformação de resíduo em tecnologia deve ser uma prioridade atual no setor agrícola, diminuindo o descarte inadequado e recuperando parte daquilo que é produzido e que pode retornar como nutriente as plantas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo buscar uma solução viável de uso de resíduos vegetais como a poda de grama, o bagaço de cana e o esterco bovino como substrato para o cultivo de plantas. Os resíduos utilizados foram compostados, e utilizados como substratos para a produção de petúnia, uma espécie ornamental. Como controle foram utilizados substratos comerciais a base de pó de coco (PC e de casca de pinus (CP. Após as mudas atingirem o ponto de transplantio, essas foram transplantadas para vasos plásticos com o mesmo substrato utilizado na produção da muda, mantendo os tratamentos. Os melhores substratos obtidos para o cultivo de petúnias em vasos foram o PG e CP, considerando ambos os aspectos dos desenvolvimentos vegetativo e reprodutivo. Esses resultados mostram o alto potencial de uso da poda de grama como substrato para a horticultura, sendo uma alternativa principalmente em sistemas sustentáveis de produção, por não necessitarem de fertilização complementar durante o cultivo.

  10. Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) tissue culture mutagenesis for new mutants generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    Tissue culture technique can be used to obtain complete regeneration of plant cells from shoots, rots, flowers, axillary buds and other parts of the plant. In this study, axillary buds from stem cuttings of Cutting Red, Christine Dior and Mini Rose varieties were used as the stating explants. Murashige and Skoog (1962) media supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP, at 4.44 - 8.88μM/l), Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0.54μM/l),, nad 3% sucrose were used for plantlet initiation and regeneration. Cultured axillary buds were exposed to gamma ray (0.250 Gy/s) at 0, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 Gy for radiosensitivity test. From the dose respond curve, LD 5 0 the value for cutting red variety was 25 Gy, Christion Dior 30 Gy and Mini Rose 38 Gy, yet 22% of Mini Rose samples survived at 65 Gy and another 10% at 70 Gy. Screening of M3 plants of irradiated cultured shoots, 2 colour variations were obtained at 40 Gy for Cutting Red variety, while 3 colour variations for Mini Rose at 20 Gy. When 6 varieties of Fragrance Rose were irradiated at 40 Gy, 1 colour variation was obtained from 99 screened plants. This study suggests that the dose range of 20 to 45 can be considered for rose mutagenesis study to produce mutants. (Author)

  11. Characterisation of plant MADS box transcription factor protein-protein interactions : use of Petunia hybrida as a model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, R.G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Homeotic genes specify the identity of different plant tissues and organs. Mutations in of these genes results in replacement of a specific organ or tissue by another plant body part or tissue, which is normally formed at a different position. An

  12. The ultrastructure of pollen grain surface in allotetraploid petunia (Petunia hybrida hort. superbissima as revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muszyński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of pollen grain surface in allotetraploid petunias was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grain wall is developed into characteristic pattern of convulations.

  13. Gene expression and physiological responses associated to stomatal functioning in Rosa×hybrida grown at high relative air humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Dália R A; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Lee, Sangseok; Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Krens, Frans A; Heuvelink, Ep; Carvalho, Susana M P

    2016-12-01

    High relative air humidity (RH≥85%) during growth disturbs stomatal functioning, resulting in excessive water loss in conditions of high evaporative demand. We investigated the expression of nine abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes (involved in ABA biosynthesis, oxidation and conjugation) and two non-ABA related genes (involved in the water stress response) aiming to better understand the mechanisms underlying contrasting stomatal functioning in plants grown at high RH. Four rose genotypes with contrasting sensitivity to high RH (one sensitive, one tolerant and two intermediate) were grown at moderate (62±3%) or high (89±4%) RH. The sensitive genotype grown at high RH showed a significantly higher stomatal conductance (g s ) and water loss in response to closing stimuli as compared to the other genotypes. Moreover, high RH reduced the leaf ABA concentration and its metabolites to a greater extent in the sensitive genotype as compared to the tolerant one. The large majority of the studied genes had a relevant role on stomatal functioning (NCED1, UGT75B2, BG2, OST1, ABF3 and Rh-APX) while two others showed a minor contribution (CYP707A3 and BG1) and AAO3, CYP707A1 and DREB1B did not contribute to the tolerance trait. These results show that multiple genes form a highly complex regulatory network acting together towards the genotypic tolerance to high RH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exogenous ethylene influences flower opening of cut roses (Rosa hybrida) by regulating the genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Cai, Lei; Lu, Wangjin; Tan, Hui; Gao, Junping

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differential responses of flower opening to ethylene in two cut rose cultivars, 'Samantha', whose opening process is promoted, and 'Kardinal', whose opening process is inhibited by ethylene. Ethylene production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and oxidase activities were determined first. After ethylene treatment, ethylene production, ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities in petals increased and peaked at the earlier stage (stage 3) in 'Samantha', and they were much more dramatically enhanced and peaked at the later stage (stage 4) in 'Kardinal' than control during vasing. cDNA fragments of three Rh-ACSs and one Rh-ACO genes were cloned and designated as Rh-ACS1, Rh-ACS2, Rh-ACS3 and Rh-ACO1 respectively. Northern blotting analysis revealed that, among three genes of ACS, ethylene-in- duced expression patterns of Rh-ACS3 gene corresponded to ACS activity and ethylene production in both cultivars. A more dramatic accumulation of Rh-ACS3 mRNA was induced by ethylene in 'Kardinal' than that of 'Samantha'. As an ethylene action inhibitor, STS at concentration of 0.2 mmol/L generally inhibited the expression of Rh-ACSs and Rh-ACO in both cultivars, although it induced the expression of Rh-ACS3 transiently in 'Kardinal'. Our results suggests that 'Kardinal' is more sensitive to ethylene than 'Samantha'; and the changes of Rh-ACS3 expression caused by ethylene might be related to the acceleration of flower opening in 'Samantha' and the inhibition in 'Kardinal'. Additional results indicated that three Rh-ACSs genes were differentially associated with flower opening and senescence as well as wounding

  15. A kinetic model describes metabolic response to perturbations and distribution of flux control in the benzenoid network of Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Amy Marshall; Sengupta, Neelanjan; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia; Morgan, John

    2010-04-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in the genetic enhancement of plant metabolism; however, attempts at genetic modification are often unsuccessful due to an incomplete understanding of network dynamics and their regulatory properties. Kinetic modeling of plant metabolic networks can provide predictive information on network control and response to genetic perturbations, which allow estimation of flux at any concentration of intermediate or enzyme in the system. In this research, a kinetic model of the benzenoid network was developed to simulate whole network responses to different concentrations of supplied phenylalanine (Phe) in petunia flowers and capture flux redistributions caused by genetic manipulations. Kinetic parameters were obtained by network decomposition and non-linear least squares optimization of data from petunia flowers supplied with either 75 or 150 mm(2)H(5)-Phe. A single set of kinetic parameters simultaneously accommodated labeling and pool size data obtained for all endogenous and emitted volatiles at the two concentrations of supplied (2)H(5)-Phe. The generated kinetic model was validated using flowers from transgenic petunia plants in which benzyl CoA:benzyl alcohol/phenylethanol benzoyltransferase (BPBT) was down-regulated via RNAi. The determined in vivo kinetic parameters were used for metabolic control analysis, in which flux control coefficients were calculated for fluxes around the key branch point at Phe and revealed that phenylacetaldehyde synthase activity is the primary controlling factor for the phenylacetaldehyde branch of the benzenoid network. In contrast, control of flux through the beta-oxidative and non-beta-oxidative pathways is highly distributed.

  16. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical...... and seed number, but seed weight and plant biomass were significantly reduced at the highest fertilizer concentration. In both experiments, the seeds germinated slower and less seeds germinated when plants had received the largest amount of fertilizer (6.25 mS·cm-1). In none of the experiments did applied...

  17. Alternative soilless media for growing Petunia x hybrida and Impatiens wallerana: physical behavior, effect of fertilization and nitrate losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Walter; Di Benedetto, Adalberto; Civeira, Gabriela; Lavado, Raúl

    2008-11-01

    The use of alternative soilless media for the production of potted plants requires knowledge of their physical and chemical characteristics to result in the best conditions for plant growth. We investigated the use of alternative soilless media based on river waste and Sphagnun sp. and Carex sp. from Argentinean peatlands on Petuniaxhybrida and Impatiens wallerana production at two fertilization levels (200 and 400mgl(-1)N). River waste or 'temperate peat' is the name given to a material, resulting from the accumulation of aquatic plant residues under an anaerobic subtropical environment, which is dredged from river banks. Our results showed that alternative substrates based on river waste can be used to grow high quality plants. This result was not fully explained on the basis of established methods to evaluate substrate quality. Highly concentrated fertigation solution decreased the substrate quality parameters and plant growth. Nitrate leaching from the alternative substrates containing river waste was lower than the standard peat-based materials, which makes river waste desirable from a sustainable pot production system perspective. River waste and Carex peat are suitable alternatives to Sphagnum peat from the Northern Hemisphere.

  18. Efficacy of new inhibitors of ethylene perception in improvement of display quality of miniature potted roses (Rosa hybrida L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanong, Mantana; Mibus, Heiko; Sisler, Edward C.

    2005-01-01

    1-Octylcyclopropene (1-OCP)and 1-Decylcyclopropene (1-DCP),ethylene receptor inhibitors,analogues to 1-MCP,substituted with longer carbon chain in the 1-position were investigated in miniature potted roses cultivar ‘Lavender ’.All levels of both chemicals protected as compared to untreated plants.1......,the plants were highly sensitive to ethylene.Exposure time of 4 h for both 1-OCP and 1-DCP was su ¿cient to improve display life of miniature roses and longer exposures did not have any additional bene ¿cial e ¿ect. Apparently,exposing miniature potted roses to various temperatures did not have an in ¿uence...

  19. Digestion rates of prey eaten by intertidal sea anemones from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the various prey categories tested, amphipods tended to be the most rapidly digested group, while molluscs and echinoderms usually remained in the coelenteron the longest. Mean gut retention times in B. reynaudi, the only species found both in False Bay (1 TC) and on the cold west coast (12'C) were markedly longer ...

  20. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect on the transcriptome of Anemone coronaria following infection with rust (Tranzschelia discolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Marina; Borghi, Cristina; Bobbio, Valentina; Allavena, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand plant/pathogen interaction, the transcriptome of uninfected (1S) and infected (2I) plant was sequenced at 3'end by the GS FLX 454 platform. De novo assembly of high-quality reads generated 27,231 contigs leaving 37,191 singletons in the 1S and 38,393 in the 2I libraries. ESTcalc tool suggested that 71% of the transcriptome had been captured, with 99% of the genes present being represented by at least one read. Unigene annotation showed that 50.5% of the predicted translation products shared significant homology with protein sequences in GenBank. In all 253 differential transcript abundance (DTAs) were in higher abundance and 52 in lower abundance in the 2I library. 128 higher abundance DTA genes were of fungal origin and 49 were clearly plant sequences. A tBLASTn-based search of the sequences using as query the full length predicted polypeptide product of 50 R genes identified 16 R gene products. Only one R gene (PGIP) was up-regulated. The response of the plant to fungal invasion included the up-regulation of several pathogenesis related protein (PR) genes involved in JA signaling and other genes associated with defense response and down regulation of cell wall associated genes, non-race-specific disease resistance1 (NDR1) and other genes like myb, presqualene diphosphate phosphatase (PSDPase), a UDP-glycosyltransferase 74E2-like (UGT). The DTA genes identified here should provide a basis for understanding the A. coronaria/T. discolor interaction and leads for biotechnology-based disease resistance breeding.

  2. Unconventional amino acid sequence of the sun anemone (Stoichactis helianthus) polypeptide neurotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kem, W.; Dunn, B.; Parten, B.; Pennington, M.; Price, D.

    1986-01-01

    A 5000 dalton polypeptide neurotoxin (Sh-NI) purified by G50 Sephadex, P-cellulose, and SP-Sephadex chromatography was homogeneous by isoelectric focusing. Sh-NI was highly toxic to crayfish (LD 50 0.6 μg/kg) but without effect upon mice at 15,000 μg/kg (i.p. injection). The reduced, 3 H-carboxymethylated toxin and its fragments were subjected to automatic Edman degradation and the resulting PTH-amino acids were identified by HPLC, back hydrolysis, and scintillation counting. Peptides resulting from proteolytic (clostripain, staphylococcal protease) and chemical (tryptophan) cleavage were sequenced. The sequence is: AACKCDDEGPDIRTAPLTGTVDLGSCNAGWEKCASYYTIIADCCRKKK. This sequence differs considerably from the homologous Anemonia and Anthopleura toxins; many of the identical residues (6 half-cystines, G9, P10, R13, G19, G29, W30) are probably critical for folding rather than receptor recognition. However, the Sh-NI sequence closely resembles Radioanthus macrodactylus neurotoxin III and r. paumotensis II. The authors propose that Sh-NI and related Radioanthus toxins act upon a different site on the sodium channel

  3. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  4. Distribution, habitat use and ecology of deepwater Anemones (Actiniaria) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Archie W.; Daly, Marymegan

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of deepwater Actiniaria is poorly known. Rarely are these organisms identified to family, as this requires both well-preserved specimens and taxonomic expertise. Ecological information is similarly lacking. From the results of a comprehensive surveying program in the deep Gulf of Mexico, we report the occurrence of nine species of Actiniaria. For the most abundant four of these, we plot distributions and discuss habitat use, morphological variation, and feeding strategies. Actiniaria in the Gulf appear to have broad, basin-wide distributions with little depth preference. Faunal biomass is highest in the NE Gulf within submarine canyons or at the base of slope escarpments. Attachment mode is mostly opportunistic on various types of hard substrata, including trash. Sediment-dwelling forms are very abundant at an organically rich site within a large submarine canyon.

  5. Aphid resistance in florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) induced by sea anemone equistatin overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valizadeh, M.; Deraison, C.; Kazemitabar, S.K.; Rahbé, Y.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the Asteraceae family and represents the second most important floricultural crop in the world. Most genotypes are sensitive to aphids and infestations can lower quality and cause transmission of viruses. The protease inhibitor Sea

  6. Tentacle cnidae of the sea anemone Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Östman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tentacle cnidae of Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761 were examined by light microscopy. In addition to spirocysts, feeding-tentacles had 3 nematocyst categories grouped into medium and small size-classes, including 5 types. Spirocysts dominated, especially distally, followed by medium b-mastigophores. The density of cnidae decreased towards the tentacle base. Early cnidoblasts were numerous on the tentacle tip. Late cnidoblasts appeared in a moderate number on the mid-tentacle. Catch-tentacles, found in two Metridium specimens, had a maturity gradient of isorhizas and gland cells along their length. Their tip had two distinct types of mature isorhizas in great numbers and large gland cells, but lacked spirocysts. Mature isorhizas and gland cells decreased in number towards the tentacle base. On the mid-tentacle differentiating ages of isorhizas were numerous. Ordinary feeding-tentacle cnidae, abundant at the tentacle base, decreased in number distally along the tentacle.

  7. Development and epithelial organisation of muscle cells in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nematostella vectensis, a member of the cnidarian class Anthozoa, has been established as a promising model system in developmental biology, but while information about the genetic regulation of embryonic development is rapidly increasing, little is known about the cellular organization of the various cell types in the adult. Here, we studied the anatomy and development of the muscular system of N. vectensis to obtain further insights into the evolution of muscle cells. Results The muscular system of N. vectensis is comprised of five distinct muscle groups, which are differentiated into a tentacle and a body column system. Both systems house longitudinal as well as circular portions. With the exception of the ectodermal tentacle longitudinal muscle, all muscle groups are of endodermal origin. The shape and epithelial organization of muscle cells vary considerably between different muscle groups. Ring muscle cells are formed as epitheliomuscular cells in which the myofilaments are housed in the basal part of the cell, while the apical part is connected to neighboring cells by apical cell-cell junctions. In the longitudinal muscles of the column, the muscular part at the basal side is connected to the apical part by a long and narrow cytoplasmic bridge. The organization of these cells, however, remains epitheliomuscular. A third type of muscle cell is represented in the longitudinal muscle of the tentacle. Using transgenic animals we show that the apical cell-cell junctions are lost during differentiation, resulting in a detachment of the muscle cells to a basiepithelial position. These muscle cells are still located within the epithelium and outside of the basal matrix, therefore constituting basiepithelial myocytes. We demonstrate that all muscle cells, including the longitudinal basiepithelial muscle cells of the tentacle, initially differentiate from regular epithelial cells before they alter their epithelial organisation. Conclusions A wide range of different muscle cell morphologies can already be found in a single animal. This suggests how a transition from an epithelially organized muscle system to a mesenchymal could have occurred. Our study on N. vectensis provides new insights into the organisation of a muscle system in a non-bilaterian organism. PMID:25009575

  8. New records on sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Rodríguez, E.; Gili, J.-M.; Segonzac, M.

    2003-01-01

    During several cruises carried out by the Ifremer (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer) with the submersile “Nautile” at different hydrothermal sites and cold seeps, an important collection of anthozoans - mainly actiniarians - was sampled. Additional material was collected

  9. A redescription of the Sea Anemone Bunodosoma Biscayensis (Fischer, 1874) (Actiniaria, Actiniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Bunodes biscayensis Fischer, 1874, a species of Actiniaria described from Moulleau, Arcachon, south-western coast of France, and never recorded since, was rediscovered in July 1985 and found again in 1986 and 1987 in several localities along the French "Côte Basque" between the mouth of the river

  10. Asexual reproduction and molecular systematics of the sea anemone Anthopleura krebsi (Actiniaria: Actiniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Braga Gomes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use allozyme analyses to demonstrate that individuals in Anthopleura krebsi aggregates are monoclonal. Additionally, sympatric samples of the red and the green colour-morphs of A. krebsi from Pernambuco, Brazil were genetically compared and no significant differences were observed between them (gene identity= 0.992, indicating that they do not belong to different biological species. All individuals within aggregates of the green colour-morph were found to be identical over the five polymorphic loci analysed. Such results would be extremely unlikely (PEn el presente trabajo se utilizó análisis de aloenzimas para demostrar que los individuos en los agregados de la especie Anthopleura krebsi son monoclonales. Además, muestras simpátricas de las variedades roja y verde fueron comparadas genéticamente y ninguna diferencia significativa fue observada entre ellas (Identidad génica= 0.992, indicando que ellas no pertenecen a especies biológicamente distintas. Todos los individuos dentro de un agregado de la variedad roja resultaron ser idénticos para los cinco loci polimórficos analizados. Tal resultado sería extremadamente improbable (p<10 -11 si los individuos analizados hubiesen sido generados a través de reproducción sexual, confirmando así la presencia de reproducción asexual en esta especie.

  11. Effect of polypeptides from sea anemone Heteractis crispa on the rodent blood pressure, heart rate, and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobtsova, L A; Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2016-09-01

    АРНС1-3 peptides, modulators of TRPV1 receptors, have been administered to SD rats to study their influence on the animal hemostatic system, heart rate, and blood pressure. None of АЗРС1-3 polypeptides have any effect on the hemostatic system. Both АРНС1 and АРНС2 polypeptides increased significantly the heart rate, but they did not affect blood pressure, which was probably caused by an ability of these polypeptides to modify animal thermoregulation.

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel lipases from a metagenomic library of the microbial community in the pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Manabu; Sato, Shoko; Kikuchi, Noriko; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2011-10-01

    Members of the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous plants that use the pitfall method of insect capture as a supplementary nutritional source. We extracted metagenomic DNA from the microbial community found in the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes and constructed a plasmid-based metagenomic library. An activity-based screening method enabled the isolation of two lipase genes, lip1 and lip2. Both Lip1 and Lip2 belong to a novel family or subfamily of lipases and show lipase activities in acidic conditions, such as those found in pitcher fluid. This study was conducted under the assumption that the secreted Lip1 and Lip2 were capable of enzymatic activity in the acidic pitcher fluid. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Franken, Philipp; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Fischer, Kerstin; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in `Petunia hybrida Hor`. Pt. 1. Localization of Ca{sup 2+} ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R. [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The localization of Ca{sup 2+} in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca{sup 2+} ions have been localized in the sporoderm in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grains. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs.

  15. The Study of Controlling the Bacterial Growth in the Cut Stem Rose (Rosa Hybrida L.‘Dolce Vita’) Flowers with Preservative Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oraee; T. Oraee; M. Kiani; E. Ganji Moghaddam

    2015-01-01

    Due to the economic importance of longevity of cut flowers, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nano-silver, silver thiosulfate, hydroxyl quinoline and a natural compound, thymol, on vase life and number of bacteria in cut stem ends of Rose flowers cv. Dolce vita. Cut flowers were transferred to laboratory at 22 ± 1ºC temperature and 60 ± 5% relative humidity. Cut flowers were pulse-treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L-1 nano-silver, 0.5,1 and 2 mM silver thiosulfate, 50, 100 an...

  16. The Study of Controlling the Bacterial Growth in the Cut Stem Rose (Rosa Hybrida L.‘Dolce Vita’ Flowers with Preservative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic importance of longevity of cut flowers, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nano-silver, silver thiosulfate, hydroxyl quinoline and a natural compound, thymol, on vase life and number of bacteria in cut stem ends of Rose flowers cv. Dolce vita. Cut flowers were transferred to laboratory at 22 ± 1ºC temperature and 60 ± 5% relative humidity. Cut flowers were pulse-treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L-1 nano-silver, 0.5,1 and 2 mM silver thiosulfate, 50, 100 and 200 mg L-1 hydroxy quinoline and 50, 100, 200 mg L-1 thymol with 5% sucrose. Experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 replications and one flower in each experimental unit. Based on the results, all of the treatments showed positive effects on the vase life of flowers and number of bacteria in cut stem ends during the vase period, and no bacteria were found in 5 and 10 mg L-1 SNP treatments. The nano-silver (5 and 10 mg L-1 treatments showed the greatest mean longevity (19 days. Considering the results and economical and functional aspects of the tested materials, nano-silver treatment can be used for increasing the vase life of ‘Dolce vita’rose.

  17. Influencia de las condiciones ambientales y de la técnica de despunte sobre la arquitectura de plantas de petunia (Petunia x hybrida)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanek, Carlos Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (Magister en Ciencias Agropecuarias. Mención: Producción Vegetal)--UNC- Facultad de Ciuencias Agropecuarias, 2014 El control de la altura de especies ornamentales comercializadas en contenedores, normalmente provee ventajas económicas al aumentar la calidad del producto. Para lograr plantas compactas se puede recurrir a técnicas físicas, químicas o genéticas. Por otro lado, bajo condiciones de días cortos y valores bajos de temperatura e irradiancia se h...

  18. Excitability parameters and sensitivity to anemone toxin ATX-II in rat small diameter primary sensory neurones discriminated by Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin IB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Alistair; Pittaway, James F; Baker, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Sensory neurone subtypes (ATX-II might also discriminate neurones and report that 1 microm has negligible or small effects on action potentials in IB4 +ve, but dramatically increased action potential duration in IB4 ve, neurones. The toxin did not act on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) Na(V)1.8 currents; discrimination was based on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) Na(+) channel expression. We also explored the effects of varying the holding potential on current threshold, and the effect of repetitive activation on action currents in IB4 +ve and ve neurones. IB4 +ve neurones became more excitable with depolarization over the range 100 to 20 mV, but IB4 ve neurones exhibited peak excitability near 55 mV, and were inexcitable at 20 mV. Eliciting action potentials at 2 Hz, we found that peak inward action current in IB4 +ve neurones was reduced, whereas changes in the current amplitude were negligible in most IB4 ve neurones. Our findings are consistent with relatively toxin-insensitive channels including Na(V)1.7 being expressed in IB4 +ve neurones, whereas toxin sensitivity indicates that IB4 ve neurones may express Na(V)1.1 or Na(V)1.2, or both. The retention of excitability at low membrane potentials, and the responses to repetitive stimulation are explained by the known preferential expression of Na(V)1.8 in IB4 +ve neurones, and the reduction in action current in IB4 +ve neurones with repetitive stimulation supports a novel hypothesis explaining the slowing of conduction velocity in C-fibres by the build-up of Na(+) channel inactivation.

  19. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch-like paraesthesias, suggesting that it mediates its effects mainly via activation of A-fibers.

  20. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Alexandra B; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Link, Andrea S; Namer, Barbara; Kutsche, Lisa K; Schuy, E Theresa; Sittl, Ruth; Hoffmann, Tali; Alzheimer, Christian; Huth, Tobias; Carr, Richard W; Lampert, Angelika

    2012-09-15

    Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) and how this may translate into human sensations. In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM) enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch-like paraesthesias), suggesting that it mediates its effects mainly via activation of A-fibers.

  1. The effects of asexual reproduction and inter-genotypic aggression on the genotypic structure of populations of the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, D J

    1983-03-01

    Genotype frequencies of adult and juvenile Actinia tenebrosa from 2 populations showed that settlement and recruitment predominantly involved the localised asexual (ameiotic) proliferation of established genotypes. However, there is strong indirect evidence that the genotypic variation was generated by sexual reproduction. Genotypic structuring of these populations was detected at 2 levels. First, coarse clumping of genotypically identical adults and juveniles occurred on a scale consistent with the pattern of asexual dispersal. Second, fine-scale clustering of genotypically identical adults and juveniles occurred on a scale consistent with predicted effects of inter-genotypic aggression. Inter-genotypic aggression seems certain to play an important role in inter-genotypic competition for recruitment space and should reduce the input of genotypic variation into established populations. The applicability of the Strawberry-Coral Model to the life history of this species is discussed.

  2. Analýza interakcí rodičovských genomů mezidruhového hybrida S. latifolia x S. viscosa na cytogenetické úrovni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2006), s. 395-396 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých vědeckých a výzkumných pracovníků z oborů chemie, biochemie a molekulární biologie /6./. 14.06.2006-17.06.2006, Devět skal - Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/2076; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : interspecific hybrid * GISH * Silene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  3. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynhetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    described the photosynthetic responses. Th e analysis indicated signifi cant diff erences in light saturated photosynthetic rates and in light compensation points. Th e cultivar with the lower light compensation points (Escimo) maintained a higher carbon gain despite its lower (but not-signifi cant) quantum...... effi ciency. Th e results suggested acclimation response, as carbon assimilation rates and stomatal conductance at each measurement date were higher for Escimo than Mercedes. Diff erences in photosynthesis rates were attributed to the adaptive capacity of the cultivars to light conditions at a specifi...... conditions. Leaf gas exchanges were measured at 11 light intensities from 0 to 1,400 µmol/m2s, at 800 ppm CO2, 25°C, and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. In order to describe the data corresponding to diff erent measurement dates, the non-linear mixed-eff ects regression analysis was used. Th e model successfully...

  4. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynthetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, C.

    2011-01-01

    described the photosynthetic responses. Th e analysis indicated signifi cant diff erences in light saturated photosynthetic rates and in light compensation points. Th e cultivar with the lower light compensation points (Escimo) maintained a higher carbon gain despite its lower (but not-signifi cant) quantum...... effi ciency. Th e results suggested acclimation response, as carbon assimilation rates and stomatal conductance at each measurement date were higher for Escimo than Mercedes. Diff erences in photosynthesis rates were attributed to the adaptive capacity of the cultivars to light conditions at a specifi...... conditions. Leaf gas exchanges were measured at 11 light intensities from 0 to 1,400 μmol/m2s, at 800 ppm CO2, 25°C, and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. In order to describe the data corresponding to diff erent measurement dates, the non-linear mixed-eff ects regression analysis was used. Th e model successfully...

  5. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PETÚNIA COMUM EM TUBETES BIODEGRADÁVEIS EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AOS SACOS PLÁSTICOS / SEEDLINGS OF PETUNIA X HYBRIDA IN BIODEGRADABLE TUBES TO REPLACE THE PLASTIC BAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ferraz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar o desenvolvimento da petúnia nos tubetes biodegradáveis com as mudas nos saquinhos plásticos durante a fase de produção. Foram avaliados a distribuição da massa seca nas três partes da planta (folhas, caule e sistema radicular. Também foi analisado a constituição do tubete e sua perda de massa ao longo do tempo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos intereiramente  casualizados. A análise utilizou 8 blocos com 16 parcelas em cada bloco, para saquinhos plásticos e tubetes biodegradáveis. No total 128 mudas foram utilizadas para cada embalagem totalizando 256 mudas no experimento. As médias foram submetidas à Análise de Variância, com e sem transformação nos dados e com comparações múltiplas entre as médias pelo Teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de significância. A análise dos dados demonstrou que as mudas produzidas nos tubetes biodegradáveis apresentaram desenvolvimento significativamente menor.

  6. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne RL; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish...

  7. The proteomic profile of Stichodactyla duerdeni secretion reveals the presence of a novel O-linked glycopeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Sea anemones represent one of the emerging groups of interest concerning venomous animals in toxinology and the goal of the present work was the prospection, and the structural and functional characterization of the compounds present in the secretion of the sea anemone Stichodactyla...... of analysis is perfectly suitable to other sea anemone secretions and animal venoms. Moreover, new peptide structures can arise contributing to the knowledge of the diversity of these animal peptides....

  8. Vth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ownby, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    ..., cardiotoxins, and antihemorrhagic factors. Presentations on plant and microbial toxins include work done on ricin, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, cone snail peptides, sea anemone toxins, proteinase inhibitors and maitotoxin...

  9. Invertebrate medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewbart, G.A

    2012-01-01

    .... Coverage includes sponges, jellyfish, anemones, corals, mollusks, starfish, sea urchins, crabs, crayfish, lobsters, shrimp, hermit crabs, spiders, scorpions, and many more, with chapters organized by taxonomy...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242268 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 1e-40 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 5e-25 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243514 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 2e-36 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 6e-18 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287666 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 1e-40 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287632 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 5e-11 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243244 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 2e-26 ...

  17. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 1993, 1994 en (ten dele) 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der Ruud; Holverda, Wout J.; Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1996-01-01

    New indigenous species are Conopodium majus and Vulpia membranacea, and the recently recorded hybrid Scutellaria galericulata x minor (S. x hybrida). New and fully naturalized neophytes are the invasive species Hydrocotyle ranunculoides and Impatiens capensis. Other new neophytes are

  18. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  19. Chemical and biological characterization of a crude venom extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sea-anemones, in common with other members of the phylum cnidaria (coelenterate) possess numerous tentacles containing specialized stinging cells of cnidocysts. Our main objective is to elucidate the chemical character and biological properties of this Nigerian species of sea anemone Bunodosoma ...

  20. Marine protected area restricts demographic connectivity: Dissimilarity in a marine environment can function as a biological barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Honda, Kentaro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Baslot, Darwin I; Genovia, Tom G; Nakamura, Yohei; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Pantallano, Allyn Duvin S; Lian, Chunlan; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes ( Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion ) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  = .032). The parentage analysis also showed that lower numbers of fishes were recruited from the fishing zones and outside of the study area into each anemone in the MPA than into each anemone in the fishing zones ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  fishing zones ( n  = 384 females, p  = .516). Because the ocean currents around the study site were unlikely to cause a lower settlement intensity of larvae in the MPA, the ocean circulation was not considered crucial to the observed abundance and recruitment patterns. Instead, stronger top-down control and/or a lower density of host anemones in the MPA were potential factors for such patterns. Our results highlight the importance of dissimilarity in a marine environment as a factor that affects connectivity.

  1. (Carlgren, 1938) nov. comb. (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - ... In-situ observations and photographs of an unusual and spectacular red and white striped, mobile anemone, which appears to feed on gorgonians ..... mental conditions at the times of collection, or detailing the composition of the benthic ...

  2. Marine organisms and their adaption - Adaptions solve the challenges of existence in the sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    great diversity of organisms. To survive, these organisms need to secure food, successfully reproduce and avoid predation. Simple animals, such as anemones or worms, absorb the gases through their skin. Mobile animals use gills, or even lungs to absorb...

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 50 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aphid resistance in florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) induced by sea anemone equistatin overexpression. Mahmood Valizadeh, Celine Deraison, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Yvan Rahbé, Maarten A Jongsma ...

  4. Compilation of 1986 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. TABS H-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    chronicles the data collection and analysis activities for a monitoring project during 1986. As in the past, each report has been reviewed by four or...sediments thoroughly and re- taining the suspended animals in a 60 tm mesh soil sieve. Animals were preserved in 80% ethyl alcohol . The sediments were...Gaultheria procuinbens Hepatica Labrador Tea Hepat ia americana Ledum groenland icum Anemone Bog Laurel Anemone sp Kahnmia polifolia Blue Cohosh Bog

  5. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. González Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977, from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circunscript sphincter pinnate type. The axis has a truncated cone shape while in P. clematis the shape is cylindrical on its origin and it is bifurcated at the end. Both species experiments were carried out using the isolated muscles. They were stimulated at increasing KCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 200 mM. The results were analysed in the form of dose-response curves expressed in tension in grams force vs concentration. Contractil force increases in a sigmoid form to increasing KCl concentrations. The correlation between morphology and function and the differences shown in both species would be related to their intertidal distribution.Se realizó la caracterización de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 y Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977 del ecosistema intermareal mediante estudio morfológico y funcional. La especie P. clematis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo palmado. Este músculo está constituido por un eje mesogloeal y varios subejes mesogloeales. Tanto el eje como los subejes dan soporte al endodermo cuyo borde es liso. La especie A. marplatensis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo pinnado. El eje tiene forma de cono truncado mientras que en P. clematis es cilíndrico en su origen bifurcándose en su parte final. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo usando el músculo aislado de ambas especies. Estos fueron estimulados a concentraciones crecientes de KCl en un rango de 20 a 200 mM. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante curvas dosis-respuesta expresados en tensión en gramos fuerza vs concentración. La fuerza contráctil se incrementó en forma sigmoidea. La correlación entre la morfología y función y las diferencias mostradas en ambas especies podrían estar relacionadas con su distribución en el intertidal.

  6. The Petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  7. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioefficacy of the essential oils from Ocimum basilicum, Cymbopogan nardus and Lavandula hybrida towards the Kolanut weevil Balanogastris kolae. Abstract · Vol 32, No 2 (2011) - Articles Effect of Pasteurization and Preservation Treatment on the Quality of “kunun zaki” made from Sorghum (Sorghum biocolor)

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioefficacy of the essential oils from Ocimum basilicum, Cymbopogan nardus and Lavandula hybrida towards the Kolanut weevil Balanogastris kolae. Abstract. ISSN: 0189-7241. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  10. Triacetic acid lactone production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical produced from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2PS) gene. Studies are ongoing to optimize production, purification, and chemical modification of TAL, which can be used to create the commercial chemicals...

  11. De corticole fauna van platanen: ii. Springstaarten, stofluizen, loopkevers (Collembola, Psocoptera, Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: ii. Springtails, barklice and ground beetles (Collembola, Psocoptera, Carabidae) From July 1999 until September 2001 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of 450 plane trees (Platanus x hybrida), spread over 69 localities in the Netherlands.

  12. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  13. Embolism in rose stems as a result of vascular occlusion by bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeksma, H.C.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Using detection of ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE), we tested the hypothesis that xylem blockage by bacteria in rose stems (Rosa hybrida L.) can induce cavitation. In both Madelon and Cara Mia roses, cavitation started when the bacterial count in vase water reached 108 ml-1, although the number

  14. Relationship between cavitation and water uptake in rose stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Suiro, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cavitation in rose stems (Rosa hybrida L.) was assessed in both intact plants and excised flowers, by measurement of ultrasonic acoustic emissions at the stem surface and determination of the air-conductivity of 2.5-cm segments that were attached at one end to air at low pressure (0.01 MPa). On

  15. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant extracts are very cost effective and eco-friendly, thus, can be an economic and efficient alternative for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. The preparation of stable, uniform silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver ions with Emblica officinalis, Terminalia catappa and Eucalyptus hybrida extract is reported in the ...

  16. Petal abscission in rose flowers: effects of water potential, light intensity and light quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vojinovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    Petal abscission was studied in roses (Rosa hybrida L.), cvs. Korflapei (trade name Frisco), Sweet Promise (Sonia) and Cara Mia (trade name as officially registered cultivar name). Unlike flowers on plants in greenhouses, cut flowers placed in water in the greenhouse produced visible symptoms of

  17. A model for net photosynthesis of rose leaves as a function of photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieth, J.H.; Pasian, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical description for the relationship between the rate of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) leaf net photosynthesis and photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age is developed. The model provides a tool for the prediction of these rates for leaves growing in a rose crop canopy. (author)

  18. ODORANT1 regulates fragrance biosynthesis in petunia flowers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.C.; Haring, M.A.; van Tunen, A.J.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid

  19. Benzenoids dominate the fragrance of Petunia flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, D.G.; Pichersky, E.; Verdonk, J.; Dudareva, N.; Haring, M.; Klahre, U.; Schuurink, R.; Gerats, T.; Strommer, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade Petunia hybrida has emerged as the model of choice to study volatile benzenoid and phenylpropanoid synthesis, emission and regulation. These volatiles are synthesized predominantly in the corolla limb and emission is highly regulated, with a circadian rhythm, during corolla

  20. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars 'Cool Water' and 'Pretty Blinda', were treated with either ...

  1. Towards a functional–structural plant model of cut-rose: simulation of light environment, light absorption, photosynthesis and interference with the plant structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Henke, M.; Sarlikioti, V.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Vos, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The production system of cut-rose (Rosa × hybrida) involves a complex combination of plant material, management practice and environment. Plant structure is determined by bud break and shoot development while having an effect on local light climate. The aim of the present study

  2. Trace metals distribution and uptake in soil and rice grown on a 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Land application of municipal sewage wastewater: yield and chemical composition of forage crops. Environ. Qual. J. 7(2): 222-226. Chamani E, Joyce DC, Reihanytabar A (2008). Vermicompost effects on the growth and flowering of Petunia hybrida 'Dream Neon Rose'. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ.

  3. Four Hypotheses to Explain Axillary Budbreak after Removal of Flower Shoots in a Cut-rose Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Okello, R.C.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2013-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut-rose (Rosa ×hybrida) are harvested (removed), a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Besides removing within-shoot correlative inhibition, it is hypothesized that shoot removal leads to 1)

  4. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  5. Axillary budbreak in a cut rose crop as influenced by light intensity and red:far-red ratio at bud level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2014-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut rose (Rosa ·hybrida) are harvested, a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Earlier experiments indicated that light reaching the bud affected the number of budbreaks. In all these studies, whole

  6. Expression of Clarkia S-linalool synthase in transgenic petunia plant results in the accumulation of S-linalyl-b-D-glucopyranoside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Schwab, W.; Blaas, J.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Petunia hybrida W115 was transformed with a Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase cDNA (lis). Lis was expressed in all tissues analysed, and linalool was detected in leaves, sepals, corolla, stem and ovary, but not in nectaries, roots, pollen and style. However, the S-linalool produced by the plant in

  7. Characterizing and identifying black spot resistance genes in polyploid roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses (Rosa hybrida) is under constant threat from foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Fungicides are primarily used to manage black spot; however, there is a high consumer demand for disease resistant roses which eliminate the nee...

  8. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dual DNA binding specificity of a petal epidermis-specific MYB transcription factor (MYB.Ph3) from Petunia hybrida. EMBO J. 14, 1773–1784. Stalberg K., Ellerstom M., Ezcurra I., Ablov S. and Rask L. 1996. Disruption of an overlapping E-box/ABRE motif abolished high transcription of the napA storage-protein promoter in ...

  9. An ethylene-induced regulatory module delays rose flower senescence by regulating cytokinin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many plant species, including rose (Rosa hybrida), flower senescence is promoted by the gaseous hormone, ethylene, and inhibited by cytokinin (CTK) class of hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these antagonistic effects are not well understood. In this current study, we charact...

  10. Identification of a highly successful cryopreservation method (droplet-vitrification) for petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunia (Petunia × hybrida Vilm.) is a very important crop conserved in the National Genebank of China. Petunia cultivar “Niu 2” was used to develop a droplet-vitrification protocol to cryopreserve shoot tips. Six variables (age of the in vitro plants, concentration of sucrose in the preculture solu...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seo, Kyoung-In. Vol 11, No 29 (2012) - Articles Genome shotgun sequencing and development of microsatellite markers for gerbera (Gerbera hybrida H.) by 454 GS-FLX Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  12. CCoAOMT down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in petunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaipulah, N.F.M.; Muhlemann, Joëlle K.; Woodworth, Benjamin D.; Moerkercke, Van Alex; Verdonk, J.C.; Ramirez, A.A.; Haring, Michel A.; Dudareva, Natalia; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower

  13. Regulation of floral scent production in petunia revealed by targeted metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.C.; Vos, de C.H.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Haring, M.A.; Tunen, van A.J.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Petunia hybrida line W115 (Mitchell) has large white flowers that produce a pleasant fragrance. By applying solid phase micro extraction (SPME) techniques coupled to GC-MS analysis, volatile emission was monitored in vivo using a targeted metabolomics approach. Mature flowers released predominantly

  14. Effect of harvest methods on yield and quality of Marketable flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of harvest methods (proximal and median harvests) on yield and quality of marketable flowers of greenhouse hybrid tea rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars of different growth habits. The cultivar Grant Galla represented cultivars of vigorous growth habit whereas 'Vivaldi' ...

  15. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Crustaceans associated with Cnidaria, Bivalvia, Echinoidea and Pisces at São Tomé and Príncipe islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic crustaceans were searched for at sea anemones (Actiniaria, encrusting anemones (Zoantharia, horny coral (Gorgonaria, black coral (Antipatharia, bivalves (Bivalvia, and sea urchins (Echinoidea at São Tomé and Príncipe Islands (Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic. Sixteen species of crustaceans were found in association with these invertebrate hosts; eleven of them were new records for the area and two species, belonging to the genera Hippolyte and Heteromysis, were new for science. The thalassinid Axiopsis serratifrons was occasionally associated with an undescribed species of gobiid fish.

  17. Novel gaseous ethylene binding inhibitor prevents ethylene effects in potted flowering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, M.; Reid, M.S. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-11-01

    A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia xelatior hybrida Fotsch. Najada' and Rosa', B. xtuberhybrida Voss. Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl-liter[sup [minus]1] this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mM solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).

  18. Immediate and delayed contact hypersensitivity to verbena plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potter, P C; Mather, S; Lockey, P

    1995-01-01

    Plants from the Verbenaceae family may cause contact dermatitis of unknown nature. This report describes 2 cases of allergic reactions to the Verbena species. A teenage boy developed an anaphylactic allergic response following contact with the leaves of Verbena hybrida. Characterization of the pa......Plants from the Verbenaceae family may cause contact dermatitis of unknown nature. This report describes 2 cases of allergic reactions to the Verbena species. A teenage boy developed an anaphylactic allergic response following contact with the leaves of Verbena hybrida. Characterization......, a common perennial in South African gardens. The other case was a 23-year-old female gardener who developed immediate and delayed-type contact dermatitis from Verbena elegans 'Cleopatra' produced in a Danish nursery. Prick tests to plant material were considered positive and of an allergic nature....

  19. Silicon induces changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Fretté, Xavier; Jensen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Application of 3.6 mM silicon (Si+) to the rose (Rosa hybrida) cultivar Smart increased the concentration of antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in the phe......Application of 3.6 mM silicon (Si+) to the rose (Rosa hybrida) cultivar Smart increased the concentration of antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes...... phenolics can be transported to the epidermal surface. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Si plays an active role in disease reduction in rose by inducing the production of antifungal phenolic metabolites as a response to powdery mildew infection....

  20. NEW AND RARE PLANTS FOR THE FLORA OF CENTRAL SIBERIА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kurbatsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species (Ceratophyllum submersum L., Astragalus glycyphyllos L., Centaurea apiculata Ledeb. are reported for the first time for the flora of Central Siberia and two species (Amoria hybrida (L. C. Presl, Thyselium palustre (L. Rafin. for the flora of Khakassia. New localities of four rare species (Hackelia thymifolia (DC. Johnston, Chaenorhinum minus (L. Willk. et Lange, Orobanche uralensis G. Beck, Valeriana alternifolia Ledeb. of the flora of the Republic of Khakassia are also given.

  1. Effects of iron on efficiency and map of photosystem II photochemical yield of rose flower using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Kiani

    2012-01-01

    Interveinal chlorosis induced by iron deficiency is considered to be one of the problems in rose production in greenhouses all over the world. This experiment was conducted to elucidate the capability of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technique to recognize early iron deficiency and also determination of relationship between leaf iron concentration and leaf chlorophyll content index and photosystem II photochemical efficiency of rose flower (Rosa hybrida L., cv. First Red). Rose plants were...

  2. Plant cuticle staining with bismarck brown Y and azure B or toluidine blue O before paraffin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E T; Joshi, P A

    1996-03-01

    Transverse paraffin sections of mature greenwood stems of rose (Rosa x hybrida) and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) were stained with Bismarck brown followed by azure B or toluidine blue 0. The Bismarck brown was replaced by thiazin dye metachromasia in all structures except the cuticle which remained brown or yellow. The interface between the cuticle and exterior cell walls of the epidermis was delineated clearly.

  3. Cloning and Molecular Analysis of HlbZip1 and HlbZip2 Transcription Factors Putatively Involved in the Regulation of the Lupulin Metabolome in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Kocábek, Tomáš; Patzak, J.; Stehlík, Jan; Füssy, Zoltán; Krofta, K.; Heyerick, A.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Maloukh, L.; De Keukeleire, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2010), s. 902-912 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/08/0740; GA MZe QH81052; GA MŠk ME 940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : secondary metabolites transcriptional regulation * cDNA-AFLP analysis * hop cDNA library screening * Nicotiana benthamiana * Petunia hybrida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2010

  4. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C; Kobayashi, Akira; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the stamen number and ovule development phenotypes of the Arabidopsis sup mutant. Two P. hybrida lines of transposon (dTph1) insertion mutants of PhSUP1 exhibited increased stamen number at the cost of normal carpel development, and ovule development was defective owing to aberrant growth of the integument. Unlike Arabidopsis sup mutants, phsup1 mutants also showed extra tissues connecting stamens, a petal tube and an ovary, and aberrancies in the development of anther and placenta. PhSUP1 transcripts occurred in the basal region of wild-type flowers around developing organ primordia in whorls 2 and 3 as well as in the funiculus of the ovule, concave regions of the placenta, and interthecal regions of developing anthers. Overexpression of PhSUP1 in P. hybrida resulted in size reduction of petals, leaves, and inflorescence stems. The shortening of inflorescence stems and petal tubes was primarily attributable to suppression of cell elongation, whereas a decrease in cell number was mainly responsible for the size reduction of petal limbs.

  5. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1 encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants.

  6. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Meng, Xiangyu; Liang, Lingjie; Jiang, Wangshu; Huang, Yafei; He, Jing; Hu, Haiyan; Almqvist, Jonas; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1) encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants.

  7. ODORANT1 Regulates Fragrance Biosynthesis in Petunia FlowersW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Julian C.; Haring, Michel A.; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid biosynthesis have been characterized, the enzymes involved are less well understood. How production and emission are regulated is unknown. By targeted transcriptome analyses, we identified ODORANT1 (ODO1), a member of the R2R3-type MYB family, as a candidate for the regulation of volatile benzenoids in Petunia hybrida cv W115 (Mitchell) flowers. These flowers are only fragrant in the evening and at night. Transcript levels of ODO1 increased before the onset of volatile emission and decreased when volatile emission declined. Downregulation of ODO1 in transgenic P. hybrida Mitchell plants strongly reduced volatile benzenoid levels through decreased synthesis of precursors from the shikimate pathway. The transcript levels of several genes in this pathway were reduced by suppression of ODO1 expression. Moreover, ODO1 could activate the promoter of the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene. Flower pigmentation, which is furnished from the same shikimate precursors, was not influenced because color and scent biosynthesis occur at different developmental stages. Our studies identify ODO1 as a key regulator of floral scent biosynthesis. PMID:15805488

  8. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms.

  9. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  10. To Build an Ecosystem: An Introductory Lab for Environmental Science & Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Daniel; Finnerty, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis-driven laboratory is described that introduces students to the complexities of ecosystem function. Students work with live algae, brine shrimp, and sea anemones to test hypotheses regarding the trophic interactions among species, the exchange of nutrients and gases, and the optimal ratio of producers to consumers and predators in…

  11. Heliacus (Gastropoda: Architectonicidae) symbiotic with Zoanthiniaria (Coelenterata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R

    1967-04-14

    Eight species of Heliacus are obligate symbionts with Zoanthus and Palythoa, colonial zoanthid sea anemones. The gastropods live among Zoanthus polyps and under the edges of Palythoa incrustations, on which they feed and to which they and their egg masses are attached with sturdy but elastic mucous threads.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 25 of 1853 ... (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) a mobile sea anemone attacking octocorals, Abstract PDF. Karin Riemann-Zürneck, Charles L. Griffiths. Vol 35, No 2 (2000), Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic copepod infecting gills of spinner sharks, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839), ...

  13. African Zoology - Vol 34, No 4 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korsaranthus natalensis (Carlgren, 1938) nov. comb. (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) a mobile sea anemone attacking octocorals · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Karin Riemann-Zürneck, Charles L. Griffiths, 190-196 ...

  14. Three methods for isolating viable anthozoan endoderm cells with their intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. D.; Muscatine, L.

    1992-09-01

    Three maceration methods are described for the isolation of single endoderm cells from marine cnidarians. Two are enzymatic treatments suitable for fleshy anthozoans such as sea anemones and zoanthids. The third employs calcium free sea water and is suitable for stony corals. The viability and morphology of the endoderm cells is described using fluorogenic dyes and scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia:

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electrostatic interactions as well as lipid composition. J. Biosci. 36 781–791] DOI 10.1007/s12038-011-9156-4. 1. Introduction. The pore-forming proteins sticholysin I and sticholysin. II (St I/II) produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Lanio et al. 2001) are highly hemolytic toxins with 93% sequence identity.

  17. In memoriam Jacobus Cornelis (Koos) den Hartog (1942-2000), marine naturalist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Jacobus Cornelis den Hartog was born on 17 April 1942 in Broek op Langedijk. He read biology at Leiden University from 1963 to 1970. He worked at the Caribbean Marine Biological Station on Curaçao from 1971 to 1973, where he studied Caribbean sea anemones. From 1973 he worked in the National Museum

  18. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-07

    Dec 7, 2009 ... experimental (Cuba: Ciencia y Técnica); Chapter 2, pp 97–99. Tejuca M, Serra S M, Ferreras M, Lanio M E and Menestrina G. 1996 Mechanism of membrane permeabilization by sticholysin, a cytolysin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus; Biochemistry 35 14947–14957. MS received 10 ...

  19. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein/kg mice i.p (Eno et al. 1998). [n the same study, it was! found that the extract produced spontaneous contractions of the guineapig ileum, and that it blocked the contractile effect of histamine. The blocking actions of the extract of another sea anemone, Tealia felina on histamine ~ induced contractions of the guinea pig ...

  20. Study of UO2 radioinduced densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, J.P.; Bruet, M.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of radioinduced densification were performed on UO 2 DCN (intergranular fine porosity) and UO 2 DCI (interaggregate coarse porosity) in the Anemone device. The densification kinetics was followed by measuring the shrinkage of the oxide column on neutron radiographic plates. UO 2 DCI was found stable in regard to densification. At power near 450Wcm -1 , densification is hitten by restructuring phenomena [fr

  1. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. T García D Martinez A Palmero C Soto M Tejuca F Pazos R Menéndez C Alvarez A Garateix. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 891-898 ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acuña, Fabian H. Vol 39, No 2 (2004) - Articles Species richness, endemicity and distribution patterns of South African sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria & Corallimorpharia) Abstract. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  3. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The term venom is used for a variety of toxins that are injected by certain animals into a victim through a specialized apparatus. Though venom is most commonly employed as a means of defense and predation, it is also used as a means of asserting dominance over conspecifics. Venomous animals include sea anemones ...

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of the nervous system in the tentacles of some coelenterates (Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile, Cerianthus membranaceus, Tealia felina and Hydra vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van J.

    1977-01-01

    The nervous system in the tentacles of the sea anemones Tealia felina, Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile and Cerianthus membranaceus was studied using light microscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Because of the small dimensions of the nerve cells (6—7 µm) and of the neurites (diameter

  5. The occurrence of Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, 1848) (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.; Dekker, R.; Faasse, M.A.; Hartog, den J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of the sea anemone Sagartia elegans var. miniata, var. nivea and var. venusta in considerable numbers at three localities in the Netherlands is reported upon. Previous records of the species in Dutch coastal waters are reviewed. Most of these are considered as doubtful. Characters to

  6. Onubactis rocioi gen. et spec. nov., a new species of Actiniidae (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the southern Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Hartog, den J.C.; García-Gómez, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A new genus and species of sea anemone, Onubactis rocioi gen. et spec. nov. (Actiniidae) is described from the Atlantic coast of the southern Iberian Peninsula. The main features of Onubactis rocioi are: a smooth to corrugate scapus, a delicate scapulus provided with a ruff of non-adherent papillate

  7. Actiniaria from Ria de Arosa, Galicia, northwestern Spain, in the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ates, R.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Twentysix species of sea anemones (Actiniaria) collected in Galicia, northwestern Spain are present in the collection of the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis. They are listed and discussed. The cnidom of seventeen species is surveyed. Diadumene cincta is not a recent immigrant in

  8. A case of associated occurrence of the crab Lauridromia inter-media (Laurie, 1906) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Dromiidae) and the actinian Nemanthus annamensis Carlgren, 1943 (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Nemanthidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Hartog, den J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Members of the crab family Dromiidae tend to cover their carapace mostly with sponges or colonial tunicates. More rarely are used other objects or organisms such as solitary Tunicata, Zoantharia (= encrusting anemones), valves of Bivalvia, etc.; a review of these is presented. A new association of a

  9. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at lea...

  10. Worldwide exploration of the microbiome harbored by the cnidarian model, Exaiptasia pallida (Agassiz in Verrill, 1864) indicates a lack of bacterial association specificity at a lower taxonomic rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya; Otero, Christopher; Grajales, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Estefania

    2017-01-01

    Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1–V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community. When examined at the phylum level, bacterial diversity and abundance associated with E. pallida are broadly conserved across geographic space with samples, containing largely Proteobacteria and Bacteroides. However, the species-level makeup within these phyla differs drastically across space suggesting a high-level core microbiome with local adaptation of the constituents. Indeed, no bacterial OTU was ubiquitously found in all anemones samples. We also revealed changes in the microbial community structure after rearing anemone specimens in captivity within a period of four months. Furthermore, the variation in bacterial community assemblages across geographical locations did not correlate with the composition of microalgal Symbiodinium symbionts. Our findings contrast with the postulation that cnidarian hosts might actively select and maintain species-specific microbial communities that could have resulted from an intimate co-evolution process. The fact that E. pallida is likely an introduced species in most sampled localities suggests that this microbial turnover is a relatively rapid process. Our findings suggest that environmental settings, not host specificity, seem to dictate bacterial community structure associated with this sea anemone. More than maintaining a specific composition of bacterial species some cnidarians associate with a

  11. Towards a revision of the genus Periclimenes: resurrection of Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902, and designation of three new genera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ďuriš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on recently published molecular phylogenies of Indo-West Pacific palaemonid shrimps and further morphological evidence, the systematic position of several species of the polyphyletic genus Periclimenes is revised. The generic name Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902 is re-established for the anemone-associated P. brevicarpalis. Actinimenes gen. n., is proposed for the anemone-associated P. inornatus, P. ornatellus and P. ornatus, all of which have a subspatulate first pereiopod. Cristimenes gen. n., is designated for the echinoderm-associated species, P. commensalis, P. cristimanus, and P. zanzibaricus, all with a unique carpo-propodal articulation of the second pereiopods. Rapimenes gen. n. is established for the hydroid and antipatharian-associated P. brucei, P. granulimanus, and P. laevimanus, for which the long, slender and unequal second pereiopods and prehensile ambulatory propodi are the main synapomorphic characters.

  12. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  13. Morphological and molecular characteristics of foliar nematode attacking silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1890 Christie, 1932 was isolated from leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth seedlings proving that the source of infection was anemones plants. This is the first report to our best knowledge showing that the source of nematode infection of a woody plant could be a perennial plant. A. fragariae was identified by morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphological diagnosis based on the bending shape of the tail of males and pronounced apex and rostrum proved to be the most accurate reliable characteristic. On the opposite, the high variability of the mucron shape in female tails made the identification by microscopic analyses difficult. Identification of the species was confirmed by analysis of 28S rDNA sequences. The morphometric data of adults extracted from silver birch was compared with that of nematodes isolated from Anemone hupehensis (Lemoine Lemoine. Males body length varied highly in samples collected from both host plant species.

  14. Towards a revision of the genus Periclimenes: resurrection of Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902, and designation of three new genera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Based on recently published molecular phylogenies of Indo-West Pacific palaemonid shrimps and further morphological evidence, the systematic position of several species of the polyphyletic genus Periclimenes is revised. The generic name Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902 is re-established for the anemone-associated Periclimenes brevicarpalis. Actinimenes gen. n., is proposed for the anemone-associated Periclimenes inornatus, Periclimenes ornatellus and Periclimenes ornatus, all of which have a subspatulate first pereiopod. Cristimenes gen. n., is designated for the echinoderm-associated species, Periclimenes commensalis, Periclimenes cristimanus, and Periclimenes zanzibaricus, all with a unique carpo-propodal articulation of the second pereiopods. Rapimenes gen. n. is established for the hydroid and antipatharian-associated Periclimenes brucei, Periclimenes granulimanus, and Periclimenes laevimanus, for which the long, slender and unequal second pereiopods and prehensile ambulatory propodi are the main synapomorphic characters. PMID:28228674

  15. Additional Remarks on Ranunculaceae in Taiwan (8 -Revision of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Aleck Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a taxonomic study of the genera of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan, including Aconitum L., Anemone L., Calathodes L., Cimicifuga Hook.f. & Thomson, Coptis L., Dichocarpum L., Ranunculus L., Semiaquilegea Makino, Thalictrum L. and Trollius L. Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. matsudae Yamam. is recognized in Taiwan; the concept of the genus Cimicifuga is still accepted, excluding genus Actaea. A key to the genera, keys to the taxa under each genus and synonyms of each taxon are provided. The taxonomic descriptions of taxa are only for those published after 1996. For easy understanding and checking of Taiwanese Ranunculaceae, phenology, distribution and specimens examined in each taxon are also presented. Totally, there are 11 genera and 51 taxa (including 41 species, 2 subspecies and 8 varieties of family Ranunculaceae in Taiwan.

  16. Fungos associados a sementes e plantas ornamentais herbáceas no Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sarah da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Estudou-se a microflora fúngica de sementes de nove espécies de plantas ornamentais herbáceas (Dahlia pinnata, Petunia x hybrida, Phlox drummondii, Rudbeckia hirta, Salvia farinacea, Salvia splendens, Tagetes patula, Viola tricolor e Zinnia elegans). Foram analisadas 13 amostras de sementes, sendo 5 delas estavam com data de validade vencida (P. drummondii, R. hirta, T. patula lote nº1, T. patula lote nº 2 e Z. elegans). Além disso, realizou-se o levantamento de fungos em mudas e plantas em f...

  17. Fungi on seeds of ornamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sarah da Silva; Rezende, Denise Vilela de; Blum, Luiz Eduardo Bassay

    2011-01-01

    Estudou-se a ocorrência de fungos em sementes de nove espécies de plantas ornamentais herbáceas (Dahlia pinnata, Petunia x hybrida, Phlox drummondii, Rudbeckia hirta, Salvia farinacea, Salvia splendens, Tagetes patula, Viola tricolor e Zinnia elegans) costumeiramente plantadas no Distrito Federal. O método de detecção utilizado foi o de papel de filtro (“blotter-test”), sendo que uma subamostra, de 100 sementes, de cada espécie foi submetida a assepsia com álcool 70% e hipoclorito de sódio 1%...

  18. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) common in many marine environments. In this study, the diversity of zoanthids in the Cape Verde Islands is specifically examined for the first time. Field images and sampling are combined with...

  19. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Rao Methari; Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Chinna Raja; Sheik Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos) were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, surv...

  20. Palytoxin Found in Palythoa sp. Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Sold in the Home Aquarium Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Handy, Sara M.; White, Kevin D.; Reimer, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50) in mice 300 ng/kg), but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant co...

  1. Use of Vegetation in Delineating Wetland Borders in Upper Missouri River Basin; North-Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    The 7.5- to 8.0-m dichtomy marks the end of the distribution of Scirpus fluviatilis, Stachys palustris, Mentha .4 arvensis and ruderals growing on the...diif Mentha arvensis UtricuiiiTulgaris - Transition Zonp hgrpyron srnithii** Helianthus maxmiliani Amroi Palo Lacuca serriola* Anemone ciiiidnss** Mel...BRINE 1 *Brornus jpnicus Thunb. BRJAP 10 fro-mu tectorwa L. BRTEC 5 Calamaro-stis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv- CACAN 10 caaarouti anxpnsa Gray CAINE 30

  2. Engineering of Nanoscale Antifouling and Hydrophobic Surfaces on Naval Structural Steel HY-80 by Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    form a biofilm—an assemblage of attached cells, which is commonly referred to as slime [29]. These microorganisms adhere to the surface by...extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). So the biofilm, which is the result of micro fouling, comprises both the microorganisms and the EPS, and thus the... sponges , anemones, tunicates, and hydroids, whilst hard fouling comprises invertebrates such as barnacles, mussels, and tubeworms. The specific

  3. Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

  4. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emph...

  5. Coral reef fish smell leaves to find island homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Danielle L; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge; Pratchett, Morgan S; Srinivasan, Maya; Syms, Craig; Thorrold, Simon R

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some coral reef fish larvae return to natal reefs, while others disperse to distant reefs. However, the sensory mechanisms used to find settlement sites are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that larvae use olfactory cues to navigate home or find other suitable reef habitats. Here we show a strong association between the clownfish Amphiprion percula and coral reefs surrounding offshore islands in Papua New Guinea. Host anemones and A. percula are particularly abundant in shallow water beneath overhanging rainforest vegetation. A series of experiments were carried out using paired-choice flumes to evaluate the potential role of water-borne olfactory cues in finding islands. Recently settled A. percula exhibited strong preferences for: (i) water from reefs with islands over water from reefs without islands; (ii) water collected near islands over water collected offshore; and (iii) water treated with either anemones or leaves from rainforest vegetation. Laboratory reared-juveniles exhibited the same positive response to anemones and rainforest vegetation, suggesting that olfactory preferences are innate rather than learned. We hypothesize that A. percula use a suite of olfactory stimuli to locate vegetated islands, which may explain the high levels of self-recruitment on island reefs. This previously unrecognized link between coral reefs and island vegetation argues for the integrated management of these pristine tropical habitats. PMID:18755672

  6. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne Rl; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-10-05

    Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. The multigene families of actinoporins (part II): Strategies for heterologous production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, A; Hervis, Y P; Socas, L B P; Canet, L; Faheem, M; Barbosa, J A R G; Lanio, M E; Pazos, I F

    2016-08-01

    The sea anemone venom contains pore-forming proteins (PFP) named actinoporins, due to their purification from organisms belonging to Actiniaria order and its ability to form pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Actinoporins are generally basic, monomeric and single-domain small proteins (∼20 kDa) that are classified as α-type PFP since the pore formation in membranes occur through α-helical elements. Different actinoporin isoforms have been isolated from most of the anemones species, as was analyzed in the first part of this review. Several actinoporin full-length genes have been identified from genomic-DNA libraries or messenger RNA. Since the actinoporins lack carbohydrates and disulfide bridges, their expression in bacterial systems is suitable. The actinoporins heterologous expression in Escherichia coli simplifies their production, replaces the natural source reducing the ecological damage in anemone populations, and allows the production of site-specific mutants for the study of the structure-function relationship. In this second part of the review, the strategies for heterologous production of actinoporins in Escherichia coli are analyzed, as well as the different approaches used for their purification. The activity of the recombinant proteins with respect to the wild-type is also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Host specialist clownfishes are environmental niche generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas

    2014-11-22

    Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are less well understood. Yet, such systems may provide an alternative to the classical theory of stable evolutionary coexistence of generalist and specialist species on a single resource dimension. We explore such systems and the potential trade-offs between different resource dimensions in clownfishes. All species of this iconic clade are obligate mutualists with sea anemones yet show interspecific variation in anemone host specificity. Moreover, clownfishes developed variable environmental specialization across their distribution. In this study, we test for the existence of a relationship between host-specificity (number of anemones associated with a clownfish species) and environmental-specificity (expressed as the size of the ecological niche breadth across climatic gradients). We find a negative correlation between host range and environmental specificities in temperature, salinity and pH, probably indicating a trade-off between both types of specialization forcing species to specialize only in a single direction. Trade-offs in a multi-dimensional resource space could be a novel way of explaining the coexistence of generalist and specialists. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed, Kawther F

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial and anticandidal properties of essential oils obtained from 7 plant species used in traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries were evaluated for activity against test bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using an agar dilution method. Our results showed that oils from Azadirachta indica, Ziziphus spine, Matricaria chamomilla, Agrimonia eupatoria and Lupinus albus, even at the highest concentration did not inhibit any of the tested organisms. The essential oil extracted from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida plants did not show any antibacterial activities. However, essential oil extracts from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida exhibited varying degrees of growth inhibition of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 2.0%( v/v) of Juniper oil and 0.5% (v/v) for Lavender oil against Candida albicans. Our results suggest that the anticandidal properties of Juniper and Lavender oils may be further investigated to explore the possibility of using them in the treatment of candidal infections. (author)

  10. Molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. Consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britsch, L; Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1993-10-15

    A heterologous cDNA probe from Petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cDNA clones from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (Callistephus chinensis) and stock (Matthiola incana). The deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from P. hybrida, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases from the different sources. Alignment with the sequences of other known enzymes of the same class and to related non-heme iron-(II) enzymes demonstrated the strict genetic conservation of 14 amino acids, in particular, of three histidines and an aspartic acid. The conservation of the histidine motifs provides strong support for the possible conservation of structurally similar iron-binding sites in these enzymes. The putative role of histidines as chelators of ferrous ions in the active site of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases was corroborated by diethyl-pyrocarbonate modification of the partially purified recombinant Petunia enzyme.

  11. Cryptic diversity, geographical endemism and allopolyploidy in NE Pacific seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, João; Serrão, Ester A; Anderson, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Martins, Neusa; Gouveia, Licínia; Paulino, Cristina; Coelho, Nelson C; Miller, Kathy Ann; Reed, Daniel C; Ladah, Lydia B; Pearson, Gareth A

    2017-01-23

    Molecular markers are revealing a much more diverse and evolutionarily complex picture of marine biodiversity than previously anticipated. Cryptic and/or endemic marine species are continually being found throughout the world oceans, predominantly in inconspicuous tropical groups but also in larger, canopy-forming taxa from well studied temperate regions. Interspecific hybridization has also been found to be prevalent in many marine groups, for instance within dense congeneric assemblages, with introgressive gene-flow being the most common outcome. Here, using a congeneric phylogeographic approach, we investigated two monotypic and geographically complementary sister genera of north-east Pacific intertidal seaweeds (Hesperophycus and Pelvetiopsis), for which preliminary molecular tests revealed unexpected conflicts consistent with unrecognized cryptic diversity and hybridization. The three recovered mtDNA clades did not match a priori species delimitations. H. californicus was congruent, whereas widespread P. limitata encompassed two additional narrow-endemic species from California - P. arborescens (here genetically confirmed) and P. hybrida sp. nov. The congruence between the genotypic clusters and the mtDNA clades was absolute. Fixed heterozygosity was apparent in a high proportion of loci in P. limitata and P. hybrida, with genetic analyses showing that the latter was composed of both H. californicus and P. arborescens genomes. All four inferred species could be distinguished based on their general morphology. This study confirmed additional diversity and reticulation within NE Pacific Hesperophycus/Pelvetiopsis, including the validity of the much endangered, modern climatic relict P. arborescens, and the identification of a new, stable allopolyploid species (P. hybrida) with clearly discernable ancestry (♀ H. californicus x ♂ P. arborescens), morphology, and geographical distribution. Allopolyploid speciation is otherwise completely unknown in brown

  12. Fouling community dominated by Metridium senile (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria in Bahía San Julián (southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Martin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information about a harbour-fouling community dominated by Metridium senile in southern Patagonia. Several steel tubes from the wharf of Puerto San Julián were extracted to perform repair tasks, allowing the attached benthic community to be studied. Sampling was conducted at three levels: lower intertidal, 3-4 m depth and 6-7 m depth. In the lower intertidal, M. senile had a relative abundance of 43%, the most abundant accompanying species being Perumytilus purpuratus, Mytilus edulis platensis and Aulacomya atra atra. At subtidal level, the anemone showed relative abundances of 64% and 65%, and was accompanied by Monocorophium insidiosum at 3-4 m depth and by polychaetes of families Sabellidae and Syllidae at 6-7 m at depth. In the lower intertidal, epibiosis was more frequent on P. purpuratus, A. atra atra and M. edulis platensis, while in the subtidal, the richness of substrate-organisms increased significantly and the anemone was fixed to A. atra atra, M. edulis platensis, Paramolgula gregaria, Crepipatella dilatata, Austromegabalanus psittacus, Hiatella arctica, Polyzoa opuntia, Pyura sp. and Sabellidae tubes. The ability of M. senile to settle on many different organisms, along with other strategies, makes it a colonizer able to displace other species that could compete with it for substratum. Given the cosmopolitan nature of M. senile, the fact that this species has not been previously reported in the coastal zone of the region, and the results of our study, we discuss the possibility that this sea anemone is an invasive alien species in southern Patagonia, or at least a cryptogenic species.

  13. Characterization of two Bunodosoma granulifera toxins active on cardiac sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Cyril; Ferrer, Tania; Galàn, Loipa; Artiles, Adriana; Batista, Cesar F V; Possani, Lourival D; Alvarez, Julio; Aneiros, Abel; Tytgat, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Two sodium channel toxins, BgII and BgIII, have been isolated and purified from the sea anemone Bunodosoma granulifera. Combining different techniques, we have investigated the electrophysiological properties of these toxins. We examined the effect of BgII and BgIII on rat ventricular strips. These toxins prolong action potentials with EC50 values of 60 and 660 nM and modify the resting potentials. The effect on Na+ currents in rat cardiomyocytes was studied using the patch-clamp technique. BgII and BgIII slow the rapid inactivation process and increase the current density with EC50 values of 58 and 78 nM, respectively. On the cloned hH1 cardiac Na+ channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, BgII and BgIII slow the inactivation process of Na+ currents (respective EC50 values of 0.38 and 7.8 μM), shift the steady-state activation and inactivation parameters to more positive potentials and the reversal potential to more negative potentials. The amino acid sequences of these toxins are almost identical except for an asparagine at position 16 in BgII which is replaced by an aspartic acid in BgIII. In all experiments, BgII was more potent than BgIII suggesting that this conservative residue is important for the toxicity of sea anemone toxins. We conclude that BgII and BgIII, generally known as neurotoxins, are also cardiotoxic and combine the classical effects of sea anemone Na+ channels toxins (slowing of inactivation kinetics, shift of steady-state activation and inactivation parameters) with a striking decrease on the ionic selectivity of Na+ channels. PMID:11704639

  14. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Results Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. Conclusions The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed. PMID:21281459

  15. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  16. Microbial diversity and activity in the Nematostella vectensis holobiont: insights from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, isolate genomes, and a pilot-scale survey of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yi Har

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the molecular and genomic diversity of the microbiota of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model for comparative developmental and functional biology and a year-round inhabitant of temperate salt marshes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed four ribotypes associated with N. vectensis at multiple locations and times. These associates include two novel ribotypes within the ε-Proteobacterial order Campylobacterales and the Spirochetes, respectively, each sharing 99% 16S rRNA identity with Endozoicomonas elysicola and Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. Species-specific PCR revealed that these populations persisted in N. vectensis asexually propagated under laboratory conditions. cDNA indicated expression of the Campylobacterales and Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA in anemones from Sippewissett Marsh, MA. A collection of bacteria from laboratory raised N. vectensis was dominated by isolates from P. oleovorans and Rhizobium radiobacter. Isolates from field-collected anemones revealed an association with Limnobacter and Stappia isolates. Genomic DNA sequencing was carried out on 10 cultured bacterial isolates representing field- and laboratory-associates, i.e. Limnobacter spp., Stappia spp., P. oleovorans and R. radiobacter. Genomes contained multiple genes identified as virulence (host-association factors while S. stellulata and L. thiooxidans genomes revealed pathways for mixotrophic sulfur oxidation. A pilot metatranscriptome of laboratory-raised N. vectensis was compared to the isolate genomes and indicated expression of ORFs from L. thiooxidans with predicted functions of motility, nutrient scavenging (Fe and P, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis for carbon storage, and selective permeability (porins. We hypothesize that such activities may mediate acclimation and persistence of bacteria in N. vectensis.

  17. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  18. Assimilation and partitioning of prey nitrogen within two anthozoans and their endosymbiotic zooxanthellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniak, G.A.; Lipschultz, F.; McClelland, J.

    2003-01-01

    The movement of nitrogen from zooplankton prey into the temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula and the anemone Aiptasia pallida was measured using 15N-labeled brine shrimp. The efficiency with which prey nitrogen was incorporated into cnidarian tissues was species-specific. O. arbuscula with a full complement of zooxanthellae had an assimilation efficiency of nearly 100%, compared to only 46% for corals containing few zooxanthellae. In A. pallida, symbiont density had no effect, and nitrogen assimilation was 23 to 29%. In both species, the host retained the bulk of the ingested label. Complete digestion was rapid (feeding and de novo synthesis.

  19. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from Hydra magnipapillata containing multiple copies of Hydra-L Wamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides: evidence for processing at Ser and Asn residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    The simple, freshwater polyp Hydra is often used as a model to study development in cnidarians. Recently, a neuropeptide, cloned a preprohormone...... from Hydra magnipapillata containing 11 (eight different) immature neuropeptide sequences that are structurally related to the metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anermones. During the final phase of our cloning experiments, another research team independently isolated and sequenced five...... most frequent one being Gly-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-NH2; Hydra-LWamide l; three copies). Based on their structural similarities with the metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones, the mature peptides derived from the Hydra-LWamide preprohormone are potential candidates for being...

  20. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  1. In memoriam Jacobus Cornelis (Koos) den Hartog (1942-2000), marine naturalist

    OpenAIRE

    Land, van der, J.

    2003-01-01

    Jacobus Cornelis den Hartog was born on 17 April 1942 in Broek op Langedijk. He read biology at Leiden University from 1963 to 1970. He worked at the Caribbean Marine Biological Station on Curaçao from 1971 to 1973, where he studied Caribbean sea anemones. From 1973 he worked in the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden, where he became curator of Coelenterata in 1975. For 25 years he was an active member of the marine research group of the museum and as such he participated in 15 expe...

  2. Mini-review: The Morphology, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Accumulated Iron Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-11

    U-166 and the SS Robert E. Lee, known to be carrying 5,000 tons of aluminum ore ( bauxite ) at the time it sank, was also used to support the notion of...suggested that porosity within the tubercle deter- mined the ease with which ions migrate within the core. Table 2. World War II shipwrecks in the Gulf of...diversity, reef fishes U-166 1,256 1942–1942 U-boat Mines and torpedoes Brown and white rusticles, Venus flytrap anemones, abundant red deep-sea crab

  3. Inotropic response elicited by nematocyst contents of Hydra oligactis (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh-Laurie, G E; DiBlasi, S L; Suchy, P E; Senturia, J B

    1989-01-01

    1. Intact, isolated nematocysts from the non-toxic, freshwater coelenterate Hydra oligactis contain soluble material(s) capable of producing a sustained increase in the rate of developed force in the vertebrate myocardium. 2. The positive inotropic effects of this material(s) appear grossly comparable to those described for Anthopleurin-A (AP-A) and Toxin II (ATX-II) from sea anemones. 3. The effects of the nematocyst material are distinct from those of known vasoactive peptides reported to occur in Hydra.

  4. [Venomous and poisonous animals. V. Envenomations by venomous marine invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; de Haro, L

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological information about marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical countries where this type of injury is more severe and the need for medical attention is more frequent. For this reason use of the regional poison control centers in the areas where envenomation occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by poisonous marine invertebrates (cephalopods, sea urchins, cone shells, jellyfish, anemones, star-fish, corals, and worms). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  5. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  6. Genetics of Floral Development (By Christine Fleet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Summaryplantcell;29/11/tpc.117.tt1117/FIG1F1fig1A basic model for floral organ identity has been developed using model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana , snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus ), and petunia ( Petunia hybrida ). In this model, different combinations of proteins known as ABCDE proteins, mostly MADS-domain transcription factors, activate the transcription of target genes to specify the identity of each whorl of floral organs. Changes in the regulation or activation of these target genes contribute to the wide variety of floral forms that we see within and across species. In addition, duplications and divergence of these genes in different groups of flowering plants have resulted in differences in gene function and expression patterns, contributing to differences in flower form across species. Posted December 8, 2017.Click HERE to access Teaching Tool Components. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Change in Caco-2 cells following treatment with various lavender essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadu, M G; Usai, D; Mazzarello, V; Molicotti, P; Cannas, S; Bellardi, M G; Zanetti, S

    2017-09-01

    Lavender is an aromatic evergreen shrub diffused in the Mediterranean basin appreciated since antiquity. The genus Lavandula is part of Lamiaceae family and includes more than 20 species, among which true lavender (L. vera D.C. or L. angustifolia Miller.) and spike lavender (L. latifolia Medikus); there are also numerous hybrids known as lavandins (L. hybrida Rev.). L. vera, spike lavender and several hybrids are the most intensely used breeding species for the production of essential oils. Lavender and lavandin essential oils have been applied in food, pharmaceutical and other agro industries as biological products. In their chemical composition, terpenes linalool and linalyl acetate along with terpenoids such as 1,8-cineole are mostly responsible for biological and therapeutic activities. This study evaluates cytotoxic activity of essential oils derived from four lavender species on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Analysis of pre- and post-treatment cell morphology has been performed using scanning electron microscope.

  8. Traditional Mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat Malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.

  9. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on photosynthetic characteristics and secondary metabolism in greenhouse plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis

    2014-01-01

    In greenhouse cultivation, the spectral environment of plants is dependent on the use of growth lamps. In this thesis, distinct blue and red LED light combinations as well as different blue light ratios and intensities were applied to investigate the impact of supplemental LED lighting on growth......, photo-synthetic performance, and secondary metabolism of different plants. As model plants we used rose (Rosa hybrida), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), campanula (Campanula portenschlagiana), orchid (Phalaenopsis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). In our first experiment, by growing roses......, chrysanthemums, and campanulas under four different LED combinations, we report that a fraction of 20 – 40% blue LED light was adequate to amend morphological abnormalities. Stomatal conductance increased with increasing blue light, but net photosynthesis remained unaffected. In our second experiment, we show...

  10. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  11. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Silvia E; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Balasundaram, Chellam; Bouza, Carmen; Calcaterra, Nora B; Cezilly, Frank; Chen, Shi-long; Cipriani, Guido; Cruz, V P; D'Esposito, D; Daniel, Carla; Dejean, Alain; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Díaz, Juan; Du, Man; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Dziadek, Jarosław; Foresti, F; Peng-cheng, Fu; Gao, Qing-bo; García, Graciela; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Giovino, Antonio; Goswami, Mukunda; Guarino, Carmine; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Harris, D J; Heo, Moon-Soo; Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Mija; Lakra, Wazir S; Lauth, Jérémie; Leclercq, Pierre; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Theresa; Li, Yin-hu; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Shufang; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Mandhan, Rishi Pal; Martinez, Paulino; Mayer, Veronika E; Mendel, Jan; Mendes, N J; Mendonça, F F; Minias, Alina; Minias, Piotr; Oh, Kyeong-Suk; Oliveira, C; Orivel, Jérôme; Orsini, L; Pardo, Belén G; Perera, A; Procaccini, G; Rato, C; Ríos, Néstor; Scibetta, Silvia; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Sierens, Tim; Singh, Akhilesh; Terer, Taita; Triest, Ludwig; Urbánková, Soňa; Vera, Manuel; Villanova, Gabriela V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Vyskočilová, Martina; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Jiu-li; Wattier, Rémi A; Xing, Rui; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yin, Guibo; Yuan, Yanjiao; Yun, Jong-Chul; Zhang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Jing-hua; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2013-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A CACGTG motif of the Antirrhinum majus chalcone synthase promoter is recognized by an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staiger, D.; Kaulen, H.; Schell, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the chalcone synthase gene of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), 150 base pairs of the 5' flanking region contain cis-acting signals for UV light-induced expression. A nuclear factor, designated CG-1, specifically recognizes a hexameric motif with internal dyad symmetry, CACGTG, located within this light-responsive sequence. Binding of CG-1 is influenced by C-methylation of the CpG dinucleotide in the recognition sequence. CG-1 is a factor found in a variety of dicotyledonous plant species including Nicotiana tabacum, A. majus, Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Glycine max. CACGTG motifs contained within trans-acting factor recognition sites in various other plant promoters can interact with CG-1. In addition, the binding site of the human adenovirus major late transcription factor USF can compete for CG-1 binding to the chalcone synthase promoter. This suggests an evolutionary conservation of trans-acting factor recognition sites involved in divergent mechanisms of gene control. (author)

  13. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

  14. Copper, nickel and lead in lichen and tree bark transplants over different periods of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Mafalda S. [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: abaptista@fc.up.pt; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S.D. [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mtvascon@fc.up.pt; Cabral, Joao Paulo [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: jpcabral@fc.up.pt; Freitas, M. Carmo [ITN - Technological and Nuclear Institute, Reactor E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: cfreitas@itn.mcies.pt; Pacheco, Adriano M.G. [CVRM-IST - Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: apacheco@ist.utl.pt

    2008-01-15

    This work aimed at comparing the dynamics of atmospheric metal accumulation by the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata and bark of Platanus hybrida over different periods of time. Transplants were exposed in three Portuguese coastal cities. Samples were retrieved (1) every 2 months (discontinuous exposure), or (2) after 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-month periods (continuous exposure), and analysed for Cu, Ni and Pb. Airborne accumulation of metals was essentially independent of climatic factors. For both biomonitors [Pb] > [Ni] > [Cu] but Pb was the only element for which a consistent pattern of accumulation was observed, with the bark outperforming the lichen. The longest exposure periods hardly ever corresponded to the highest accumulation. This might have been partly because the biomonitors bound and released metals throughout the exposure, each with its own dynamics of accumulation, but both according to the environmental metal availability. - Lichen and tree bark have distinct dynamics of airborne metal accumulation.

  15. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white...... hypothesize that blue light may predispose plants to better cope with stress....

  16. Pollen irradiation and possible gene transfer in Nicotiana species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1985-01-01

    Progeny from crosses of Nicotiana langsdorffii with gamma irradiated pollen of Nicotiana alata ‘Crimson Bedder’ showed skewed segregation in the F2 favoring the maternal parent. This is probably not gene transfer in a strict sense, rather just an extreme case of reduced transmission of irradiated...... chromosomes, leading to massive overrepresentation of maternal genes. Gene transfer or mutational loss may explain some anomalous F1 plants. Segregation in the F2 progeny showed the presence of several genes from the irradiated pollen. Crosses of Nicotiana sylvestris, N. plumbaginifolia N. paniculata......, and Petunia parodii with irradiated pollen from N. alata and Petunia hybrida showed no evidence of gene transfer, nor did experiments with irradiated mentor pollen. This indicates that gene transfer with irradiated pollen between non-crossing species or between species giving sterile hybrids is probably...

  17. Degradation of PVC/HC blends. II. Terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Profire, Lenuţa; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at degradation by soil burial of some plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with a variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, physiologic state of the plants, assimilatory pigments) were studied. Using the growth test of the terrestrial plants, we followed the development of Triticum (wheat), Helianthus annus minimus (little sunflower), Pisum sativum (pea), and Vicia X hybrida hort, during a vegetation cycle. After the harvest, for each plant, the quantities of chlorophyll and carotenoidic pigments and of trace- and macroelements were determined. It was proved that, in the presence of polymer blends, the plants do not suffer morphological and physiological modifications, the products released in the culture soil being not toxic for the plants growth.

  18. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF COMPOSITAE PLANTS. I. CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS WITH NEW PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.Matvieieva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The review explores some of the recent advances and the author's own researchs concerning biotechnological approaches for Agrobacterium tumefaciens- and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Compositae family plants. This paper reviews the results of genetic transformation of Compositae plants, including edible (Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, oil (Helianthus annuus, decorative (Gerbera hybrida, medical (Bidens pilosa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Withania somnifera etc. plant species. Some Compositae genetic engineering areas are considered including creation of plants, resistant to pests, diseases and herbicides, to the effect of abiotic stress factors as well as plants with altered phenotype. The article also presents the data on the development of biotechnology for Compositae plants Cynara cardunculus, Arnica montana, Cichorium intybus, Artemisia annua "hairy" roots construction.

  19. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  20. Application of Reclaimed Wastewater in the Irrigation of Rosebushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Luccas Erickson de Oliveira; Tonetti, Adriano Luiz; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Coraucci Filho, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The use of reclaimed wastewater in agriculture can be a solution for regions with water shortages or low rainfall periods; besides fulfilling the crop's water needs, it would also promote the recycle of nutrients. However, care should be taken regarding soil salinization, especially in closed environments such as greenhouses for the cultivation of ornamental plants. The domestic effluents are rich in sodium which can accumulate on soil and cause soil sealing. This study evaluated the use of effluents from anaerobic filters and intermittent sand filters in the production of rosebushes ( Rosa hybrida " Ambiance "). The crop yield of the rosebushes irrigated with reclaimed wastewater exceeded the one obtained with traditional cultivation, reaching a value 31.8 % higher when employing nitrified effluent originated from intermittent sand filters, with no difference in the product quality. The salinity levels are below the critical limits found in the literature; however, there was a significant increase compared to the irrigation with drinking water.

  1. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Disequilibrium of flavonol synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase expression associated tightly to white versus red color flower formation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower colour is the main character throughout the plant kingdom. Though substantial information exists regarding the structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, little is known that what make a diverse white versus red color flower in natural species. Here, the contents of pigments in seven species from varied phylogenetic location in plants with red and white flowers.were determined. Flavonols could be detected in red and white flowers, but anthocyanins were almost undetectable in the white cultivar. Comparisons of expression patterns of gene related to the flavonoid biosynthesis indicated that disequilibrium expression of flavonol synthase (FLS and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR genes determined the accumulation of flavonols and anothcyanins in both red and white flowers of seven species. To further investigate the role of such common regulatory patterns in determining flower color, FLS genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrFLS1, Prunus persica (PpFLS and Petunia hybrida (PhFLS, and DFR genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrDFR1 and Petunia hybrida (PhDFR. Heterologous expression of the FLS genes within tobacco host plants demonstrated conservation of function, with the transgenes promoting flavonol biosynthesis and inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation, so resulting in white flowers. Conversely, overexpression of DFR genes in tobacco displayed down-regulation of the endogenous NtFLS gene, and the promotion of anthocyanin synthesis. On this basis, we propose a model in which FLS and DFR gene-products compete for common substrates in order to direct the biosynthesis of flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively, thereby determining white versus red coloration of flowers.

  4. Natural cleaning of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon) in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Legraverant, Yohann; Berthe, Cécile; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lo, Cédrik; Lecchini, David

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling increases the operational and economic costs associated with pearl production. As current procedures for reducing oyster biofouling can be detrimental to survival and growth and may pollute the surrounding environment developing alternative, biologically-mediated, methods could potentially increase both production and ecological sustainability. With this in mind, the present study investigated natural cleaning of black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera, by butterflyfishes (Chaetodon). The feeding behaviour of six butterflyfish species was examined at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia: Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon ulietensis. All species cleaned the surface of pearl oysters by removing epibionts (from 16% to 40% of total biomass), although dietary variation may explain different cleaning efficiencies. Generalist omnivores (C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium and C. ulietensis) were the most efficient cleaners (% cleaning range: 26-40% of total biomass). Within this group, C. ephippium removed the most biomass (average of 41%) targeting algae and anemones. However, C. auriga targeted the most diverse range of epibionts, removing significant amounts of algae, sponges, tunicates, and anemones. These results suggest that foraging by butterflyfishes can substantially reduce biofouling on economically-important tropical bivalves.

  5. Investigation of fungal root colonizers of the invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum and co-occurring local native plants in a field and woodland area in Southern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities forming associations with plant roots have generally been described as ranging from symbiotic to parasitic. Disruptions to these associations consequently can have significant impacts on native plant communities. We examined how invasion by Vincetoxicum rossicum, a plant native to Europe, can alter both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the general fungal communities associating with native plant roots in both field and woodland sites in Southern Ontario. In two different sites in the Greater Toronto Area, we took advantage of invasion by V. rossicum and neighbouring uninvaded sites to investigate the fungal communities associating with local plant roots, including goldenrod (Solidago spp., wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis, meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum, and wild ginger (Asarum canadense. Fungi colonizing roots were characterized with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of amplified total fungal (TF and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF ribosomal fragments. We saw a significant effect of the presence of this invader on the diversity of TF phylotypes colonizing native plant roots, and a composition shift of both the TF and AMF community in native roots in both sites. In native communities invaded by V. rossicum, a significant increase in richness and colonization density of TF suggests that invaders such as V. rossicum may be able to influence the composition of soil fungi available to natives, possibly via mechanisms such as increased carbon provision or antibiosis attributable to unique root exudates.

  6. Probability of successful larval dispersal declines fivefold over 1 km in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Peter M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Planes, Serge; Thorrold, Simon R

    2012-05-22

    A central question of marine ecology is, how far do larvae disperse? Coupled biophysical models predict that the probability of successful dispersal declines as a function of distance between populations. Estimates of genetic isolation-by-distance and self-recruitment provide indirect support for this prediction. Here, we conduct the first direct test of this prediction, using data from the well-studied system of clown anemonefish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island, in Papua New Guinea. Amphiprion percula live in small breeding groups that inhabit sea anemones. These groups can be thought of as populations within a metapopulation. We use the x- and y-coordinates of each anemone to determine the expected distribution of dispersal distances (the distribution of distances between each and every population in the metapopulation). We use parentage analyses to trace recruits back to parents and determine the observed distribution of dispersal distances. Then, we employ a logistic model to (i) compare the observed and expected dispersal distance distributions and (ii) determine the relationship between the probability of successful dispersal and the distance between populations. The observed and expected dispersal distance distributions are significantly different (p < 0.0001). Remarkably, the probability of successful dispersal between populations decreases fivefold over 1 km. This study provides a framework for quantitative investigations of larval dispersal that can be applied to other species. Further, the approach facilitates testing biological and physical hypotheses for the factors influencing larval dispersal in unison, which will advance our understanding of marine population connectivity.

  7. Novel Kunitz-like Peptides Discovered in the Zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum through Transcriptome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiwen; Li, Shengnan; Siu, Shirley Weng In; Yang, Binrui; Huang, Chen; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Wong, Clarence Tsun Ting; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2018-02-02

    Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, on the basis of the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active, and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz). The three predicted PcKuz isotoxins (1-3) were selected for functional studies. Through computational processing comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, molecular docking, and dynamics simulation, PcKuz3 was shown to be a potential voltage gated potassium-channel inhibitor. PcKuz3 fitted well as new functional Kunitz-type toxins with strong antilocomotor activity as in vivo assessed in zebrafish larvae, with weak inhibitory effect toward proteases, as evaluated in vitro. Notably, PcKuz3 can suppress, at low concentration, the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity on the locomotive behavior of zebrafish, which indicated PcKuz3 may have a neuroprotective effect. Taken together, PcKuz3 figures as a novel neurotoxin structure, which differs from known homologous peptides expressed in sea anemone. Moreover, the novel PcKuz3 provides an insightful hint for biodrug development for prospective neurodegenerative disease treatment.

  8. Grazing intensity influences the strength of an associational refuge on temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenbach, Stuart

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the role of positive interactions in ecological communities, but few have addressed how positive interactions are mediated by abiotic stress and biotic interactions. Here, I investigate the effect of a facilitator species on the abundance of macroalgae over a gradient of herbivory. Grazing by sea urchins can be intense on temperate reefs along the California coast, with benthic macroalgae growing exclusively in physical refuges and interspersed within colonies of the strawberry anemone, Corynactis californica. Field experiments indicated that the net effect of C. californica on turf algae was strongly nonlinear over a gradient in density of sea urchins. At low intensities of urchin grazing, the anemone and macroalgae competed for space, with algae capable of overgrowing C. californica. At intermediate grazing intensities, C. californica provided a refuge for turf algae but not for juvenile kelp. Neither turf algae nor kelp benefited from the presence of C. californica at the highest levels of grazing intensity, as sea urchins consumed nearly all macroalgae. The hump-shaped effect observed for C. californica contrasts with the prevailing view in ecological theory that positive interactions are more common in harsh environmental conditions. The results reported here qualify this view and underscore the need to evaluate positive interactions over a range of abiotic stress and consumer pressure.

  9. A Chemical Approach to Mitigate Coral Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Rivera, M.; Yudowski, G.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in sea surface temperature and irradiance can induce bleaching and increase mortality in corals. Coral bleaching occurs when symbiotic algae living inside the coral is degraded or expelled, reducing the availability of energetic resources. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a possible molecular mechanism triggering bleaching. We hypothesized that reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress could mitigate or prevent coral bleaching. We utilized the coral Porites Astreoides as our model to test the effects of two natural antioxidants, catechin and Resveratrol, on thermally induced bleaching. Coral fragments were exposed to four treatments: high temperature (32°C), high temperature plus antioxidants (1μM), ambient temperature (25°C), or ambient temperature (25°C) plus antioxidant for four days. A total of 8 corals were used per treatment. We measured several photobiological parameters, such as maximum quantum yield and light curves to assess the viability of symbiodinium spp. after thermal stress in the presence of antioxidants. Preliminary experiments on a model species, the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and corals, showed that exposure to antioxidants reduced intracellular levels of ROS. Additionally, antioxidant-treated anemones showed higher photosynthetic efficiency (67%) than those exposed to high-temperature alone.

  10. An actinoporin plays a key role in water stress in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Quoc Truong; Cho, Sung Hyun; McDaniel, Stuart F; Ok, Sung Han; Quatrano, Ralph S; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2009-10-01

    * Modern land plants arose from a green algae-like ancestor c. 480 million years ago. While several novel morphological features were critical for survival in the aerial environment, physiological innovation undoubtedly played a key role in the colonization of terrestrial habitats. Recently, actinoporin genes, a small group of pore-forming toxins from sea anemones, have been found in the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages of land plants where they are upregulated in water-stressed tissues. * The bryoporin gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpBP) was functionally characterized by RNA blot analyses and overexpression in P. patens. In order to examine functional homology between PpBP and sea anemone actinoporins, the recombinant PpBP was subjected to hemolytic analysis of pig blood cells, which is one of the specific activities of actinoporins. * PpBP was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, in particular most strongly by dehydration stress. Overexpression of the bryoporin gene heightens drought tolerance in P. patens significantly. In addition, PpBP shared the highest structural homology with actinoporins in a three-dimensional structural database and showed hemolytic activity. * These results suggest that this phylogenetic distribution may have resulted from an ancient horizontal gene transfer and actinoporins may have played an important role in early land plants.

  11. Multi-omics analysis of thermal stress response in a zooxanthellate cnidarian reveals the importance of associating with thermotolerant symbionts

    KAUST Repository

    Cziesielski, Maha J.

    2018-04-18

    Corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium have a fragile relationship that breaks down under heat stress, an event known as bleaching. However, many coral species have adapted to high temperature environments such as the Red Sea (RS). To investigate mechanisms underlying temperature adaptation in zooxanthellate cnidarians we compared transcriptome- and proteome-wide heat stress response (24 h at 32°C) of three strains of the model organism Aiptasia pallida from regions with differing temperature profiles; North Carolina (CC7), Hawaii (H2) and the RS. Correlations between transcript and protein levels were generally low but inter-strain comparisons highlighted a common core cnidarian response to heat stress, including protein folding and oxidative stress pathways. RS anemones showed the strongest increase in antioxidant gene expression and exhibited significantly lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in hospite However, comparisons of antioxidant gene and protein expression between strains did not show strong differences, indicating similar antioxidant capacity across the strains. Subsequent analysis of ROS production in isolated symbionts confirmed that the observed differences of ROS levels in hospite were symbiont-driven. Our findings indicate that RS anemones do not show increased antioxidant capacity but may have adapted to higher temperatures through association with more thermally tolerant symbionts.

  12. Sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of Anthopleura dowii Verrill (1869, from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Tonatiuh Ayala-Sumuano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation technologies for determination of genomics and transcriptomics composition have a wide range of applications. Moreover, the development of tools for big data set analysis has allowed the identification of molecules and networks involved in metabolism, evolution or behavior. By natural habitats aquatic organisms have implemented molecular strategies for survival, including the production and secretion of toxic compounds for their predators; therefore these organisms are possible sources of proteins or peptides with potential biotechnological application. In the last decade anthozoans, mainly octocorals but also sea anemones, have been proben to be a source of natural products. Members of the genus Anthopleura are one of the best known and most studied sea anemones because they are common constituents of rocky intertidal communities and show interesting ecological and biological phenomena (e.g. intraespecific competition, symbiosis, etc.; however, many aspects of these taxa remain in need to be analyzed. This work describes the transcriptome sequencing of Anthopleura dowii Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria; this is the first report of this kind for these species. The data set used to construct the transcriptome has been deposited on NCBI's database. Illumina sequence reads are available under BioProject accession number PRJNA329297 and Sequence Read Archive under accession number SRP078992.

  13. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  14. Comparing chemolithoautotrophic subseafloor communities across geochemical gradients using meta-omics and RNA-SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, C. S.; Huber, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The chemolithoautotrophic microbial community of the rocky subseafloor potentially provides a large amount of organic carbon to the deep ocean, yet our understanding of the activity and metabolic complexity of subseafloor organisms remains poorly described. Past studies have shown that the taxonomic structure of subseafloor communities differs based on the geochemical signatures of individual vents. In this study, we expanded beyond phylogeny and used a combination of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) analyses to identify the metabolic potential, expression patterns, and the active autotrophic players and genomic pathways present in venting fluids from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano off the coast of Oregon, USA. Low-temperature diffuse vent fluids from three hydrothermal vents, Marker 113, Marker 33, and Anemone, were filtered and preserved on the seafloor for metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses. Fluid for RNA-SIP was also collected and incubated shipboard with 13C-labeled sodium bicarbonate at 30ºC, 55ºC, and 80ºC for each vent. Taxonomically, Epsilonproteobacteria comprised a significant proportion of the community at all three vents, but each vent also had distinct groups that were abundant including SUP05 at Anemone and Methanococcus at Marker 113. Functionally, vents shared many metabolic processes including genes for denitrification, sulfur reduction and sulfur, hydrogen, and ammonium oxidation, which were present and expressed in similar abundance across all three vents. One metabolic difference between vents was the presence and expression of genes for methanogenesis, which were highly abundant and expressed at Marker 113, in lower abundance and expression at Marker 33, and not present at Anemone. RNA-SIP analysis is ongoing but initial results from Marker 113 revealed that at mesophilic, thermophilic, or hyperthemophilic temperatures, different genera and autotrophic metabolisms dominated

  15. Interactions between benthic predators and zooplanktonic prey are affected by turbulent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H E; Finelli, C M; Koehl, M A R

    2013-11-01

    Predators capture prey in complex and variable environments. In the ocean, bottom-dwelling (benthic) organisms are subjected to water currents, waves, and turbulent eddies. For benthic predators that feed on small animals carried in the water (zooplankton), flow not only delivers prey, but can also shape predator-prey interactions. Benthic passive suspension feeders collect prey delivered by movement of ambient water onto capture-surfaces, whereas motile benthic predators, such as burrow-dwelling fish, dart out to catch passing zooplankton. How does the flow of ambient water affect these contrasting modes of predation by benthic zooplanktivores? We studied the effects of turbulent, wavy flow on the encounter, capture, and retention of motile zooplanktonic prey (copepods, Acartia spp.) by passive benthic suspension feeders (sea anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima). Predator-prey interactions were video-recorded in a wave-generating flume under two regimes of oscillating flow with different peak wave velocities and levels of turbulent kinetic energy ("weak" and "strong" waves). Rates of encounter (number of prey passing through a sea anemone's capture zone per time), capture (prey contacting and sticking to tentacles per time), and retention (prey retained on tentacles, without struggling free or washing off, per time) were measured at both strengths of waves. Strong waves enhanced encounter rates both for dead copepods and for actively swimming copepods, but there was so much variability in the behavior of the live prey that the effect of wave strength on encounter rates was not significant. Trapping efficiency (number of prey retained per number encountered) was the same in both flow regimes because, although fewer prey executed maneuvers to escape capture in strong waves, more of the captured prey was washed off the predators' tentacles. Although peak water velocities and turbulence of waves did not affect feeding rates of passive suspension-feeding sea anemones

  16. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones.......We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot...

  17. Mechanisms for eco-immunity in a changing enviroment: how does the coral innate immune system contend with climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, N. G.

    2016-02-01

    Innate immunity plays a central role in maintaining homeostasis, and within the context of impending climate change scenarios, understanding how this system works is critical. However, the actual mechanisms involved in the evolution of the innate immune system are largely unknown. Cnidaria (including corals, sea anemones and jellyfish) are well suited for studying the fundamental functions of innate immunity because they share a common ancestor with bilaterians. This study will highlight the transcriptomic changes during a heat shock in the coral Acropora hyacinthus of American Samoa, examining the temporal changes, every half an hour for 5 hours. We hypothesize that genes involved in innate immunity, and extracellular matrix maintenance will be key components to the heat stress response. This presentation will highlight the novel role of the tumor necrosis factor receptor gene family as a responder to heat stress and present future directions for this developing field in coral reef research.

  18. [Steroidal alkaloid batrachotoxin--instrument for studying voltage-regulated sodium channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodorov, B I

    1985-01-01

    Results of recent studies on the batrachotoxin (BTX) effect on the properties of voltage-operated sodium channels in excitable membranes are summarized in the review. The following problems are considered: allosteric interaction of the BTX receptor with structural entities of the sodium channel responsible for its activation, inactivation, ion selectivity, binding of polypeptide (scorpion and anemone) toxins, local anesthetics and many blocking drugs; relationship between BTX-induced changes in the sodium conductance and intramembrane charge movement; relationship between ion selectivity and effective pK of the selectivity filter acid group of sodium channels modified by BTX or aconitine; effects of BTX on the behaviour and conductance (gamma) of single sodium channels. The problem of the BTX receptor location and possible mechanism of the sodium channel modification by BTX are discussed.

  19. A trophic model of fringing coral reefs in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan suggests overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Jan, Rong-Quen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chen, Chung-Chi; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2009-09-01

    Several coral reefs of Nanwan Bay, Taiwan have recently undergone shifts to macroalgal or sea anemone dominance. Thus, a mass-balance trophic model was constructed to analyze the structure and functioning of the food web. The fringing reef model was comprised of 18 compartments, with the highest trophic level of 3.45 for piscivorous fish. Comparative analyses with other reef models demonstrated that Nanwan Bay was similar to reefs with high fishery catches. While coral biomass was not lower, fish biomass was lower than those of reefs with high catches. Consequently, the sums of consumption and respiratory flows and total system throughput were also decreased. The Nanwan Bay model potentially suggests an overfished status in which the mean trophic level of the catch, matter cycling, and trophic transfer efficiency are extremely reduced.

  20. Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Leviev, I; Carstensen, Kathrine

    1996-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system and it was probably within this phylum or in a related ancestor group that nervous systems first evolved. The primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. From a single sea anemone species, Anthopleura elegantissima...... molecule. In addition to well-known, "classical" processing enzymes, novel prohormone processing enzymes must be present in cnidarian neurons. These include a processing enzyme hydrolyzing at the C-terminal sides of acidic (Asp and Glu) residues and a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase digesting at the C......-terminal sides of N-terminally located X-Pro and X-Ala sequences. All this shows that the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are already quite complex, and that neuropeptides play a central role in the physiology of these animals....

  1. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  2. Marine Organisms with Anti-Diabetes Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lauritano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes. Both in vitro and in vivo screenings have been used to test anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of marine organisms. This review summarizes recent discoveries in anti-diabetes properties of several marine organisms as well as marine wastes, existing patents and possible future research directions in this field.

  3. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  4. DNA methylation regulates transcriptional homeostasis of algal endosymbiosis in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong

    2017-11-03

    The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is the cornerstone of coral reef ecosystems. Although research is focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying this symbiosis, the role of epigenetic mechanisms, which have been implicated in transcriptional regulation and acclimation to environmental change, is unknown. To assess the role of DNA methylation in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, we analyzed genome-wide CpG methylation, histone associations, and transcriptomic states of symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones in the model system Aiptasia. We find methylated genes are marked by histone H3K36me3 and show significant reduction of spurious transcription and transcriptional noise, revealing a role of DNA methylation in the maintenance of transcriptional homeostasis. Changes in DNA methylation and expression show enrichment for symbiosis-related processes such as immunity, apoptosis, phagocytosis recognition and phagosome formation, and unveil intricate interactions between the underlying pathways. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation provides an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional homeostasis during symbiosis.

  5. A new species of Halcampella (Actiniaria, Halcampoididae from the eastern Weddell Sea and Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of soft-bottom-dwelling sea anemone of the genus Halcampella is described and illustrated based on 47 specimens collected during the Polarstern cruises ANT XV/3 and ANT XVII/3 to the Antarctic Peninsula and the eastern Weddell Sea. The new Halcampella species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the number of cycles of mesenteries and tentacles, the cnidae and the geographic distribution. The new species is described and compared to the available type material of the other species of the genus and new cnidae data are given for H. maxima Hertwig, 1888 and H. robusta Carlgren, 1931. According to other authors H. endromitata (Andres, 1881 is considered a nomen dubium and H. maxima is here proposed as the types species of the genus.

  6. The alkaloid Ageladine A, originally isolated from marine sponges, used for pH-sensitive imaging of transparent marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The brominated pyrrole-imidazole Ageladine A was used for live imaging of the jellyfish (jellies) Nausithoe werneri, the sea anemone Metridium senile and the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. The fluorescence properties of Ageladine A allow for estimation of pH values in tissue and organs in living animals. The results showed that Nausithoe werneri had the most acidic areas in the tentacles and close to the mouth (pH 4-6.5), Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (pH 5) and in Macrostomum lignano, the rhabdoids, the gonads and areas close to the mouth were the most acidic with values down to pH 5.

  7. The Alkaloid Ageladine A, Originally Isolated from Marine Sponges, Used for pH-Sensitive Imaging of Transparent Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Bickmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brominated pyrrole-imidazole Ageladine A was used for live imaging of the jellyfish (jellies Nausithoe werneri, the sea anemone Metridium senile and the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. The fluorescence properties of Ageladine A allow for estimation of pH values in tissue and organs in living animals. The results showed that Nausithoe werneri had the most acidic areas in the tentacles and close to the mouth (pH 4–6.5, Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (pH 5 and in Macrostomum lignano, the rhabdoids, the gonads and areas close to the mouth were the most acidic with values down to pH 5.

  8. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  9. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  10. Identification and gene expression analysis of a taxonomically restricted cysteine-rich protein family in reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    Full Text Available The amount of genomic sequence information continues to grow at an exponential rate, while the identification and characterization of genes without known homologs remains a major challenge. For non-model organisms with limited resources for manipulative studies, high-throughput transcriptomic data combined with bioinformatics methods provide a powerful approach to obtain initial insights into the function of unknown genes. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel family of putatively secreted, small, cysteine-rich proteins herein named Small Cysteine-Rich Proteins (SCRiPs. Their discovery in expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the coral Montastraea faveolata required the performance of an iterative search strategy based on BLAST and Hidden-Markov-Model algorithms. While a discernible homolog could neither be identified in the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, nor in a large EST dataset from the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, we identified SCRiP sequences in multiple scleractinian coral species. Therefore, we postulate that this gene family is an example of lineage-specific gene expansion in reef-building corals. Previously published gene expression microarray data suggest that a sub-group of SCRiPs is highly responsive to thermal stress. Furthermore, data from microarray experiments investigating developmental gene expression in the coral Acropora millepora suggest that different SCRiPs may play distinct roles in the development of corals. The function of these proteins remains to be elucidated, but our results from in silico, transcriptomic, and phylogenetic analyses provide initial insights into the evolution of SCRiPs, a novel, taxonomically restricted gene family that may be responsible for a lineage-specific trait in scleractinian corals.

  11. Life history and feeding biology of the deep-sea pycnogonid Nymphon hirtipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Pycnogonids (sea spiders) are commonly collected at bathyal and abyssal depths all around the world; however, little is known about species from deep-water habitats. The present study explores the life history of Nymphon hirtipes collected in northeastern Newfoundland between 700 and 1450 m depth and monitored in mesocosms for over 2 years. The pycnogonids were found in association with octocorals, hydrozoans and sea anemones. Adult females developed mature oocytes between June and August. Paired mating followed by oviposition occurred between early July and mid-October. Up to three egg masses were brooded by each male. It took a maximum of 4 months for the propagules to hatch from the egg mass. Offspring developed from walking leg-bearing larvae to early juveniles over the next ~5 months before leaving the male's protection. Mating and oviposition coincided with the highest water temperatures of the annual cycle and dispersal of juveniles occurred in spring, when phytodetritus deposition was high and as ocean temperature rose markedly. All the females died after oviposition and the males ~9 months later, after juvenile dispersal. The sex ratio of mature individuals (~55-60 mm leg span) was 2 males for 3 females. Fecundity was estimated to be 184-288 eggs per adult female. Adults of N. hirtipes were seen feeding on hydrozoan polyps, small sea anemones (Stephanauge nexilis) and nudibranchs. Larvae and early juveniles did not feed while brooded by the male. Upon dispersal, their feeding apparatus became functional and they began feeding on hydrozoan polyps. After 13 months of growth post hatching, the juveniles reached ~21 mm leg span. Curve fitting estimated that ~7 years are required to reach the adult size of 55 mm leg span.

  12. Glucose-Induced Trophic Shift in an Endosymbiont Dinoflagellate with Physiological and Molecular Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tingting; Jinkerson, Robert E; Clowez, Sophie; Tran, Cawa; Krediet, Cory J; Onishi, Masayuki; Cleves, Phillip A; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2018-02-01

    Interactions between the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium and its cnidarian hosts (e.g. corals, sea anemones) are the foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Carbon flow between the partners is a hallmark of this mutualism, but the mechanisms governing this flow and its impact on symbiosis remain poorly understood. We showed previously that although Symbiodinium strain SSB01 can grow photoautotrophically, it can grow mixotrophically or heterotrophically when supplied with Glc, a metabolite normally transferred from the alga to its host. Here we show that Glc supplementation of SSB01 cultures causes a loss of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity, disorganization of thylakoid membranes, accumulation of lipid bodies, and alterations of cell-surface morphology. We used global transcriptome analyses to determine if these physiological changes were correlated with changes in gene expression. Glc-supplemented cells exhibited a marked reduction in levels of plastid transcripts encoding photosynthetic proteins, although most nuclear-encoded transcripts (including those for proteins involved in lipid synthesis and formation of the extracellular matrix) exhibited little change in their abundances. However, the altered carbon metabolism in Glc-supplemented cells was correlated with modest alterations (approximately 2x) in the levels of some nuclear-encoded transcripts for sugar transporters. Finally, Glc-bleached SSB01 cells appeared unable to efficiently populate anemone larvae. Together, these results suggest links between energy metabolism and cellular physiology, morphology, and symbiotic interactions. However, the results also show that in contrast to many other organisms, Symbiodinium can undergo dramatic physiological changes that are not reflected by major changes in the abundances of nuclear-encoded transcripts and thus presumably reflect posttranscriptional regulatory processes. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Accumulation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in indigenous and agricultural plants grown in HMX-contaminated anti-tank firing-range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Carl A; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Morris, Neil; Olivier, Lucie; Dubois, Charles; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    To investigate their potential for phytoremediation, selected agricultural and indigenous terrestrial plants were examined fortheir capacity to accumulate and degrade the explosive octahydro-1 ,3,5,7-tetra nitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Plant tissue and soil extracts were analyzed for the presence of HMX and possible degradative metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array UV detection (MEKC-UV), and HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pattern of HMX accumulation for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), canola (Brassica rapa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne) grown in a controlled environment on contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range was similar to that observed for plants (wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii), brome grass (Bromus sitchensis), koeleria (Koeleria gracilis), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), anemone (Anemone sp.), common thistle (Circium vulgare), wax-berry (Symphoricarpos albus), western sage (Artemisia gnaphalodes), and Drummond's milk vetch (Astragalus drummondii)) collected from the range. No direct evidence of plant-mediated HMX (bio)chemical transformation was provided by the available analytical methods. Traces of mononitroso-HMX were found in contaminated soil extracts and were also observed in leaf extracts. The dominant mechanism for HMX translocation and accumulation in foliar tissue was concluded to be aqueous transpirational flux and evaporation. The accumulation of HMX in the leaves of most of the selected species to levels significantly above soil concentration is relevant to the assessment of both phytoremediation potential and environmental risks.

  14. Functional characterization of sticholysin I and W111C mutant reveals the sequence of the actinoporin's pore assembly.

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    Valeria Antonini

    Full Text Available The use of pore-forming toxins in the construction of immunotoxins against tumour cells is an alternative for cancer therapy. In this protein family one of the most potent toxins are the actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones. We work on the construction of tumour proteinase-activated immunotoxins using sticholysin I (StI, an actinoporin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. To accomplish this objective, recombinant StI (StIr with a mutation in the membrane binding region has been employed. In this work, it was evaluated the impact of mutating tryptophan 111 to cysteine on the toxin pore forming capability. StI W111C is still able to permeabilize erythrocytes and liposomes, but at ten-fold higher concentration than StI. This is due to its lower affinity for the membrane, which corroborates the importance of residue 111 for the binding of actinoporins to the lipid bilayer. In agreement, other functional characteristics not directly associated to the binding, are essentially the same for both variants, that is, pores have oligomeric structures with similar radii, conductance, cation-selectivity, and instantaneous current-voltage behavior. In addition, this work provides experimental evidence sustaining the toroidal protein-lipid actinoporins lytic structures, since the toxins provoke the trans-bilayer movement (flip-flop of a pyrene-labeled analogue of phosphatidylcholine in liposomes, indicating the existence of continuity between the outer and the inner membrane leaflet. Finally, our planar lipid membranes results have also contributed to a better understanding of the actinoporin's pore assembly mechanism. After the toxin binding and the N-terminal insertion in the lipid membrane, the pore assembly occurs by passing through different transient sub-conductance states. These states, usually 3 or 4, are due to the successive incorporation of N-terminal α-helices and lipid heads to the growing pores until a stable toroidal

  15. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

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    Vishwas Rao Methari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Water temperature also influenced the feeding of three different clown fish significantly with feed conversion ratio increased from (0.071±0.020, (0.075±0.030 and (0.079±0.028 to (0.057±0.040, (0.047±0.030 and (0.045±0.028 for Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii and Amphiprion akallopisos respectively with increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Specific growth rates (P<0.05 increased significantly with increase of water temperature and positively correlated with the feed conversion ratio, indicating that growth rates are significantly increased with increase of temperature. Conclusions: This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  16. First insight into the viral community of the cnidarian model metaorganism Aiptasia using RNA-Seq data

    KAUST Repository

    Brüwer, Jan D.

    2018-03-01

    Current research posits that all multicellular organisms live in symbioses with associated microorganisms and form so-called metaorganisms or holobionts. Cnidarian metaorganisms are of specific interest given that stony corals provide the foundation of the globally threatened coral reef ecosystems. To gain first insight into viruses associated with the coral model system Aiptasia (sensu Exaiptasia pallida), we analyzed an existing RNA-Seq dataset of aposymbiotic, partially populated, and fully symbiotic Aiptasia CC7 anemones with Symbiodinium. Our approach included the selective removal of anemone host and algal endosymbiont sequences and subsequent microbial sequence annotation. Of a total of 297 million raw sequence reads, 8.6 million (∼3%) remained after host and endosymbiont sequence removal. Of these, 3,293 sequences could be assigned as of viral origin. Taxonomic annotation of these sequences suggests that Aiptasia is associated with a diverse viral community, comprising 116 viral taxa covering 40 families. The viral assemblage was dominated by viruses from the families Herpesviridae (12.00%), Partitiviridae (9.93%), and Picornaviridae (9.87%). Despite an overall stable viral assemblage, we found that some viral taxa exhibited significant changes in their relative abundance when Aiptasia engaged in a symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium. Elucidation of viral taxa consistently present across all conditions revealed a core virome of 15 viral taxa from 11 viral families, encompassing many viruses previously reported as members of coral viromes. Despite the non-random selection of viral genetic material due to the nature of the sequencing data analyzed, our study provides a first insight into the viral community associated with Aiptasia. Similarities of the Aiptasia viral community with those of corals corroborate the application of Aiptasia as a model system to study coral holobionts. Further, the change in abundance of certain viral taxa across different

  17. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

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    Mark P Johnson

    Full Text Available We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm, and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs.

  18. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zou, Xi [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Jin-Yong [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Sun, Wei [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jian [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Xu, Jia-Li [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wang, Rui-Ping, E-mail: ruipingwang61@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug.

  19. Transdermal delivery of scopolamine by natural submicron injectors: in-vivo study in pig.

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    Esther Shaoul

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery has made a notable contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. While transdermal delivery systems would appear to provide an attractive solution for local and systemic drug delivery, only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through the outer layer of the skin. The most difficult to deliver in this way are hydrophilic drugs. The aquatic phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish and hydra, is one of the most ancient multicellular phyla that possess stinging cells containing organelles (cnidocysts, comprising a sophisticated injection system. The apparatus is folded within collagenous microcapsules and upon activation injects a thin tubule that immediately penetrates the prey and delivers its contents. Here we show that this natural microscopic injection system can be adapted for systemic transdermal drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells and uploaded with the drug. Using a topically applied gel containing isolated natural sea anemone injectors and the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, we found that the formulated injectors could penetrate porcine skin and immediately deliver this hydrophilic drug. An in-vivo study in pigs demonstrated, for the first time, rapid systemic delivery of scopolamine, with T(max of 30 minutes and C(max 5 times higher than in controls treated topically with a scopolamine-containing gel without cnidocysts. The ability of the formulated natural injection system to penetrate a barrier as thick as the skin and systemically deliver an exogenous compound presents an intriguing and attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  20. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Philippe; Moya, Aurélie; Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the

  1. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  2. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+ channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jegla

    Full Text Available The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+ channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1, Shaw (Kv3 and Shal (Kv4. In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+ channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+ channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2 family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  3. Species, diaspore volume and body mass matter in gastropod seed feeding behavior.

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    Manfred Türke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1 further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2 to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa than smaller ones. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size.

  4. Species, diaspore volume and body mass matter in gastropod seed feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1) further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2) to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean) mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length) swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus) swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) than smaller ones. Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size.

  5. Contrasting physiological plasticity in response to environmental stress within different cnidarians and their respective symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, Daniel. T.; Dodge, Danielle; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Given concerns surrounding coral bleaching and ocean acidification, there is renewed interest in characterizing the physiological differences across the multiple host-algal symbiont combinations commonly found on coral reefs. Elevated temperature and CO2 were used to compare physiological responses within the scleractinian corals Montipora hirsuta ( Symbiodinium C15) and Pocillopora damicornis ( Symbiodinium D1), as well as the corallimorph (a non-calcifying anthozoan closely related to scleractinians) Discosoma nummiforme ( Symbiodinium C3). Several physiological proxies were affected more by temperature than CO2, including photochemistry, algal number and cellular chlorophyll a. Marked differences in symbiont number, chlorophyll and volume contributed to distinctive patterns of chlorophyll absorption among these animals. In contrast, carbon fixation either did not change or increased under elevated temperature. Also, the rate of photosynthetically fixed carbon translocated to each host did not change, and the percent of carbon translocated to the host increased in the corallimorph. Comparing all data revealed a significant negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and symbiont density that corroborates previous hypotheses about carbon limitation in these symbioses. The ratio of symbiont-normalized photosynthetic rate relative to the rate of symbiont-normalized carbon translocation (P:T) was compared in these organisms as well as the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida hosting Symbiodinium minutum, and revealed a P:T close to unity ( D. nummiforme) to a range of 2.0-4.5, with the lowest carbon translocation in the sea anemone. Major differences in the thermal responses across these organisms provide further evidence of a range of acclimation potential and physiological plasticity that highlights the need for continued study of these symbioses across a larger group of host taxa.

  6. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Gang; Zou, Xi; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Sun, Wei; Wu, Jian; Xu, Jia-Li; Wang, Rui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug

  7. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis, and red rose (Rosa hybrida were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain. Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites.

  8. The role of ABCG-type ABC transporters in phytohormone transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Lorenzo; Kang, Joohyun; Ko, Donghwi; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) integrate endogenous and exogenous signals thus synchronizing plant growth with environmental and developmental changes. Similar to animals, phytohormones have distinct source and target tissues, hence controlled transport and focused targeting are required for their functions. Many evidences accumulated in the last years about the regulation of long-distance and directional transport of phytohormones. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters turned out to play major roles in routing phytohormones not only in the plant body but also towards the outer environment. The ABCG-type proteins ABCG25 and ABCG40 are high affinity abscisic acid (ABA) transporters. ABCG14 is highly co-expressed with cytokinin biosynthesis and is the major root-to-shoot cytokinin transporter. Pleiotropic drug resistance1 (PDR1) from Petunia hybrida transports strigolactones (SLs) from the root tip to the plant shoot but also outside to the rhizosphere, where SLs are the main attractants to mycorrhizal fungi. Last but not least, ABCG36 and ABCG37 possibly play a dual role in coumarine and IBA transport. © 2015 Authors.

  9. Lateral CO2 diffusion inside dicotyledonous leaves can be substantial: quantification in different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James I L; Lawson, Tracy; Cornic, Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Substantial lateral CO(2) diffusion rates into leaf areas where stomata were blocked by grease patches were quantified by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging in different species across the full range of photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). The lateral CO(2) flux rate over short distances was substantial and very similar in five dicotyledonous species with different vascular anatomies (two species with bundle sheath extensions, sunflower [Helianthus annuus] and dwarf bean [Phaseolus vulgaris]; and three species without bundle sheath extensions, faba bean [Vicia faba], petunia [Petunia hybrida], and tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]). Only in the monocot maize (Zea mays) was there little or no evident lateral CO(2) flux. Lateral diffusion rates were low when PPFD diffusion represented 15% to 24% of the normal CO(2) assimilation rate. Smaller patches and higher ambient CO(2) concentration increased lateral CO(2) diffusion rates. Calculations with a two-dimensional diffusion model supported these observations that lateral CO(2) diffusion over short distances inside dicotyledonous leaves can be important to photosynthesis. The results emphasize that supply of CO(2) from nearby stomata usually dominates assimilation, but that lateral supply over distances up to approximately 1 mm can be important if stomata are blocked, particularly when assimilation rate is low.

  10. The ion-beam breeding makes great success in plant business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yoshida, S.

    2005-01-01

    The ion-beam breeding developed by the Ring cyclotron of RARF is highly effective to create new flower cultivars within a short duration. A new type of garden plants 'Temari' series (verbena hybrida) keeps many flower clusters from spring until autumn, however 'Coral Pink' of this series shows poor flower clusters. To improve 'Coral Pink' using the ion-beam irradiation. sixty four single nodes were cultured in one plastic dish which was treated with 1-10 Gy of the N-ion beam at 135 MeV/u. Finally, four mutant lines with rich blooming were successfully selected. These mutants grew well compared to host plant, and kept many flower clusters even in autumn. The best mutant had larger number of flower clusters than the host plant in the pot-planting test so that it was released to the market in 2002 with a level of several hundred thousand pots. The development period of the new 'Coral Pink' was only three years. The similar successful cases were demonstrated by the new Dahlia World' (2002), the new Verbena 'Sakura' (2003) and the new Petunia 'Rose' (2003). Thus, we conclude that the ion beam irradiation is an excellent tool for mutation breeding to improve horticultural and agricultural crops with high efficiency. (author)

  11. The relationship between the chemical composition of three essential oils and their insecticidal activity against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Karamanoli, Katerina I; Stamopoulos, Dimitrios C; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2004-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from various parts of three Greek aromatic plants (Lavandula hybrida Rev, Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globulus Labill) collected at different seasons was determined by GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal action of these oils and of their main constituents on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) adults was evaluated and their LC50 values were estimated. All essential oils tested exhibited strong activity against A. obtectus adults, with varying LC50 values depending on insect sex and the composition of the essential oils. A correlation between total oxygenated monoterpenoid content and activity was observed, with oxygenated compounds exhibiting higher activity than hydrocarbons. Among the main constituents, only linalyl and terpinyl acetate were not active against A. obtectus, while all the others exhibited insecticidal activity against both male and female adults, with LC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 47.1 mg litre(-1) air. An attempt to correlate the insecticidal activity to the monoterpenoid's structure is presented, and the difference in sensitivity between male and female individuals is also explored.

  12. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. LrABCF1, a GCN-type ATP-binding cassette transporter from Lilium regale, is involved in defense responses against viral and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyang; Zhang, Xinguo; Li, Shaohua; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Zhang, Yanlong; Niu, Lixin

    2016-12-01

    The L. regale ATP-binding cassette transporter gene, LrABCF1 belonging to GCN subfamily, functions as a positive regulator of plant defense against Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus , and Botrytis cinerea in petunia. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are essential for membrane translocation in diverse biological processes, such as plant development and defense response. Here, a general control non-derepressible (GCN)-type ABC transporter gene, designated LrABCF1, was identified from Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-induced cDNA library of L. regale. LrABCF1 was up-regulated upon inoculation with CMV and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). Salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) application and treatments with abiotic stresses such as cold, high salinity, and wounding increased the transcript abundances of LrABCF1. Constitutive overexpression of LrABCF1 in petunia (Petunia × hybrida) resulted in an impairment of plant growth and development. LrABCF1 overexpression conferred reduced susceptibility to CMV, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), and B. cinerea infection in transgenic petunia plants, accompanying by elevated transcripts of PhGCN2 and a few defense-related genes in SA-signaling pathway. Our data indicate that LrABCF1 positively modulates viral and fungal resistance.

  14. Characterization of a chalcone synthase (CHS) flower-specific promoter from Lilium orential 'Sorbonne'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Lou, Qian; Xu, Weirong; Xin, Yi; Bassett, Carole; Wang, Yuejin

    2011-12-01

    The first enzyme in the flavonoid pathway, chalcone synthase, is encoded by a gene (CHS) whose expression is normally under developmental control. In our previous studies, an 896-bp promoter region of a flower-specific CHS gene was isolated from Lilium orential 'Sorbonne', and designated as PLoCHS. Here, the PLoCHS promoter was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene to characterize its spatial and temporal expression in Petunia hybrida 'Dreams Midnight' using an Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation method. Our results demonstrated that GUS expression was present in flowers, but reduced or absent in the other tissues (leaf and stem) examined. In petals, GUS activity reached its peak at flower developmental stage 4, and decreased at later stages. Deletion analysis indicated that even a 307-bp fragment of the PLoCHS promoter could still direct flower-specific expression. Further deletion of the region from -261 to -72 bp resulted in weak expression in different organs, including flowers, leaves and stems. This evidence combined with prediction of cis-acting elements in the PLoCHS promoter suggests that the TACPyAT box located in this promoter plays a key role in the regulation of organ-specific expression.

  15. Species-Dependent Variation in the Interaction of Substrate-Bound Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (Rubisco) and Rubisco Activase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Yuan; Snyder, Gordon W.; Esau, Brian D.; Portis, Archie R.; Ogren, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Purified spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase supported 50 to 100% activation of substrate-bound Rubisco from spinach, barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), Arabidopsis thaliana, maize (Zea mays L.), and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii but supported only 10 to 35% activation of Rubisco from three Solanaceae species, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), petunia (Petunia hybrida L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Conversely, purified tobacco and petunia Rubisco activase catalyzed 75 to 100% activation of substrate-bound Rubisco from the three Solanacee species but only 10 to 25% activation of substrate-bound Rubisco from the other species. Thus, the interaction between substrate-bound Rubisco and Rubisco activase is species dependent. The species dependence observed is consistent with phylogenetic relationships previously derived from plant morphological characteristics and from nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons of the two Rubisco subunits. Species dependence in the Rubisco-Rubisco activase interaction and the absence of major anomalies in the deduced amino acid sequence of tobacco Rubisco activase compared to sequences in non-Solanaceae species suggest that Rubisco and Rubisco activase may have coevolved such that amino acid changes that have arisen by evolutionary divergence in one of these enzymes through spontaneous mutation or selection pressure have led to compensatory changes in the other enzyme. PMID:16653209

  16. Measurement of 2-Carboxyarabinitol 1-Phosphate in Plant Leaves by Isotope Dilution 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon d.; Kobza, John; Seemann, Jeffrey R.

    1991-01-01

    The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. 14C-labeled standard was synthesized from [2-14C]carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role. PMID:16668153

  17. Patterning of inflorescences and flowers by the F-Box protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souer, Erik; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Bliek, Mattijs; Kusters, Elske; de Bruin, Robert A M; Koes, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY (LFY), which encodes a transcription factor that promotes FMI. We found that this is regulated in petunia (Petunia hybrida) via transcription of a distinct gene, DOUBLE TOP (DOT), a homolog of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Mutation of DOT or its tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog ANANTHA abolishes FMI. Ubiquitous expression of DOT or UFO in petunia causes very early flowering and transforms the inflorescence into a solitary flower and leaves into petals. Ectopic expression of DOT or UFO together with LFY or its homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER (ALF) in petunia seedlings activates genes required for identity or outgrowth of organ primordia. DOT interacts physically with ALF, suggesting that it activates ALF by a posttranslational mechanism. Our findings suggest a wider role than previously thought for DOT and UFO in the patterning of flowers and indicate that the different roles of LFY and UFO homologs in the spatiotemporal control of floral identity in distinct species result from their divergent expression patterns.

  18. Sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative tissue of Petunia plants requires anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Naing, Aung Htay; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-11-01

    The effects of three different sucrose concentrations on plant growth and anthocyanin accumulation were examined in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T 2 ) specimens of the Petunia hybrida cultivar 'Mirage rose' that carried the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1. Anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in NT plants in any treatments, whereas a range of anthocyanin accumulation was observed in transgenic plants. The anthocyanin content detected in transgenic plants expressing the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors (B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1) was higher than that in NT plants. In addition, increasing sucrose concentration strongly enhanced anthocyanin content as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, wherein increased concentrations of sucrose enhanced transcript levels of the transcription factors that are responsible for the induction of biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis; this pattern was not observed in NT plants. In addition, sucrose affected plant growth, although the effects were different between NT and transgenic plants. Taken together, the application of sucrose could enhance anthocyanin production in vegetative tissue of transgenic Petunia carrying anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors, and this study provides insights about interactive effects of sucrose and transcription factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Species diversity of the genus Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Macaronesian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Sánchez, María; Rousseau, Florence; Le Gall, Line; Cassano, Valéria; Neto, Ana I; Sentíes, Abel; T Fujii, Mutue; Gil-Rodríguez, María Candelaria

    2016-08-01

    Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section). Specimens were sequenced for COI-5P (39 specimens) and three species delimitation methods (Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, and Poisson Tree Processes) were used to assess the threshold between infra- and interspecific relationships. Subsequently, one or several sequences of plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (21 specimens) per delimited species were generated to assess the phylogenetic relationships among Macaronesian Osmundea. Moreover, for each delineated species, vegetative and reproductive anatomy was thoroughly documented and, when possible, specimens were either assigned to existing taxa or described as novel species. This integrative approach has provided data for (i) the presence of O. oederi, O. pinnatifida, and O. truncata in Macaronesia; (ii) the proposal of two novel species, O. prudhommevanreinei sp. nov. and O. silvae sp. nov.; and (iii) evidence of an additional species referred as "Osmundea sp.1," which is a sister taxon of O. hybrida. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Role of Petal-Specific Orcinol O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Rose Scent1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, Gabriel; Lionnet, Claire; Le Bechec, Mickaël; Dutron, Laurence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Baudino, Sylvie; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jullien, Frédéric; Chambrier, Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Dumas, Christian; Cock, J. Mark; Hugueney, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Orcinol O-methyltransferase (OOMT) 1 and 2 catalyze the last two steps of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the phenolic methyl ether 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT), the major scent compound of many rose (Rosa x hybrida) varieties. Modern roses are descended from both European and Chinese species, the latter being producers of phenolic methyl ethers but not the former. Here we investigated why phenolic methyl ether production occurs in some but not all rose varieties. In DMT-producing varieties, OOMTs were shown to be localized specifically in the petal, predominanty in the adaxial epidermal cells. In these cells, OOMTs become increasingly associated with membranes during petal development, suggesting that the scent biosynthesis pathway catalyzed by these enzymes may be directly linked to the cells' secretory machinery. OOMT gene sequences were detected in two non-DMT-producing rose species of European origin, but no mRNA transcripts were detected, and these varieties lacked both OOMT protein and enzyme activity. These data indicate that up-regulation of OOMT gene expression may have been a critical step in the evolution of scent production in roses. PMID:16361520

  1. Post-X-irradiation effects on petunia pollen germinating in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The germination of Petunia hybrida L. pollen grains in germination medium, containing 10% sucrose and 0.01 % H 3 BO 3 , was linearly related to relative humidity (RH): being minimal at 0 % RH and maximal at 100 % RH. The low germination at 0 % RH was completely restored after transfer to 100 % RH. Germination in medium decreased with increasing X-ray exposures between O and 400 kR. This decrease was caused by pollen rupture. No in vitro germination occurred at exposures of 400 kR and more. The radiosensitivity of pollen in vitro was minimal at 80 % RH. Transfer of pollen to the stigma post-X-irradiation resulted in resistance to much higher exposures of irradiation (<750 kR). The differences in radiosensitivity of the pollen germinated in vitro and in vivo are due possibly to the differences in composition of the germination medium and the stigmatic exudate. Pollen tube growth of irradiated pollen after compatible or incompatible pollination at first showed retarded then normal tube growth. A conclusion is that X-irradiation of pollen cannot influence the characteristics of pollen tube growth after compatible or incompatible pollination. (author)

  2. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Pathogens Responsible for Otitis Externa in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina V; Nardoni, Simona; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Najar, Basma; Pistelli, Luisa; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-04-21

    Background: Essential oils (EOs) are recommended by some veterinarians to treat otitis externa in pets, but data about their efficacy in scientific literature are very scant. Methods: Nine commercial EOs, from roman chamomile ( Anthemis nobilis L.), star anise ( Illicium verum ), lavender ( Lavandula hybrida ), litsea ( Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.), basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano ( Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirticum ), rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.), clary sage ( Salvia sclarea L.), and thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) were tested against bacterial and fungal pathogens previously isolated from dogs and cats with otitis externa. In particular, the analyses were carried out against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudointermedius , Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Trichosporon sp., and Rhodotorula sp. Results: O. vulgare and S. sclarea showed superior antibacterial activity, even if not against all the strains. Trichosporon sp., C. albicans , and A. terreus were insensitive to most Eos, while other yeasts and molds showed different degrees of sensitivity. In particular, most fungi were inhibited by O. vulgare and R. officinalis . Conclusions: The obtained results suggest that some EOs could be included in treatment as an alternative therapeutic option in bacterial otitis complicated by fungi, in association with conventional drugs.

  3. Reducing fertilization for cut roses: effect on crop productivity and twospotted spider mite abundance, distribution, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Andrew; Chau, Amanda; Heinz, Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    Fertilization reduction could be a useful pest management tactic for floriculture crops if it reduced pest populations with little loss in crop yield and quality. We evaluated the response of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), to different fertilization levels for cut roses, Rosa hybrida L. 'Tropicana' and quantified fertilization effects on (1) management of T. urticae on roses, (2) abundance and distribution of T. urticae on roses, and (3) yield and quality of the cut rose crop. We tested two fertilization levels, 10% (15 ppm N) and 100% (150 ppm N) of the recommended level for commercial production, and three control methods: no control measure; a predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot; and a miticide, bifenazate. Combinations of both bottom up (fertilization) and top down (biological or chemical control) tactics provided a greater degree of T. urticae control than either tactic alone. Rose productivity was reduced with fertilization at 10% of the recommended level; therefore, we conducted studies with T. urticae on roses fertilized with 33% (50 ppm N), 50% (75 ppm N), and 100% (150 ppm N) of the recommended level. Mean numbers of T. urticae and T. urticae eggs per flower shoot were twice as high on roses fertilized with 100 versus 33% or 50% of the recommended level. Number of rose leaves and total leaf area infested by T. urticae were similar at all fertilization levels. Cut rose yield and marketability were not compromised on plants fertilized with 50% of the recommended level.

  4. Age-related changes in petal membranes from attached and detached rose flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, H; Borochov, A; Mayak, S

    1990-11-01

    Changes in petal membrane properties during aging were studied in cut and in attached rose flowers (Rosa hybrida L., cv Mercedes). Both cut and attached flowers exhibited a growth phase characterized by an increase in fresh weight and an accumulation of membrane components. The growth phase, which was more pronounced in the attached than in the cut flowers, was followed by a senescence phase, characterized by a decrease in fresh weight and a decline in membrane components. In cut flowers, both the growth and the senescence phases were accompanied by a decrease in membrane fluidity and in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, but the ratio of sterol to phospholipid increased. In attached flowers, while both the membrane fluidity and the sterol-to-phospholipid ratio remained unchanged during the growth phase, the senescence phase was accompanied (as in cut flowers) by a decrease in membrane fluidity and an increase in the sterol-to-phospholipid ratio. Unlike in cut flowers, however, the age-related changes in the ratio of unsaturation of fatty acids were not correlated with those of fluidity. Changes in the saturation of phospholipid acyl chains are commonly thought to influence membrane fluidity. Our observations question this view and suggest instead that the ratio of sterol to phospholipid may play the major role in maintaining membrane lipid fluidity.

  5. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  6. Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D 2O tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, U.; Herppich, W. B.; Kardjilov, N.; Graf, W.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.

    2009-06-01

    Water flow imaging may help to better understand various problems related to water stress of plants. It may help to fully understand the water relations of plants. The objective of this research was to estimate the velocity of water flow in plant samples. Cut roses ( Rosa hybrida, var. 'Milva') were used as samples. Cold neutron radiography (CNR) was conducted at CONRAD, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin, Germany. D 2O and H 2O were interchangeably injected into the water feeding system of the sample. After the uptake of D 2O, the neutron transmission increased due to the smaller attenuation coefficient of D 2O compared to H 2O. Replacement of D 2O in the rose peduncle was clearly observed. Three different optical flow algorithms, Block Matching, Horn-Schunck and Lucas-Kanade, were used to calculate the vector of D 2O tracer flow. The quality of sequential images providing sufficient spatial and temporal resolution allowed to estimate flow vector.

  7. One-Pot Synthesis of Hyperoside by a Three-Enzyme Cascade Using a UDP-Galactose Regeneration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jianjun; Chen, Anna; Zhao, Linguo; Cao, Fuliang; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2017-07-26

    Hyperoside exhibits many biological properties and is more soluble in water than quercetin. A uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) galactose regeneration system and one-pot synthesis of hyperoside was described herein. Glycine max sucrose synthase (GmSUS) was coupled with Escherichia coli UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) to regenerate UDP-galactose from sucrose and UDP. Petunia hybrida glycosyltransferase (PhUGT) with high activity toward quercetin was used to synthesize hyperoside via the UDP-galactose regeneration system. The important factors for optimal synergistic catalysis were determined. Through the use of a fed-batch operation, the final titer of hyperoside increased to 2134 mg/L, with a corresponding molar conversion of 92% and maximum number of UDP-galactose regeneration cycles (RC max ) of 18.4 under optimal conditions. Therefore, the method described herein for the regeneration of UDP-galactose from UDP and sucrose can be widely used for the glycosylation of flavonoids and other bioactive substances.

  8. Elemental levels in tree-bark and epiphytic-lichen transplants at a mixed environment in mainland Portugal, and comparisons with an in situ lichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: apacheco@ist.utl.pt; Freitas, M.C. [Reactor-ITN, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Baptista, M.S. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, University of Porto, R. do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, J.P. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, University of Porto, R. do Campo Alegre 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    Samples of Platanus hybrida Brot. bark and Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale thalli, from a clean area in northern Portugal (Baiao), were transplanted into an exposure location at the south-western Atlantic coast, impacted by urban-industrial emissions (Sines), for a 10-month long experiment. Bark pieces were confined into nylon bags (2-mm mesh), and lichen thalli kept with their bark substrate (Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol.). Every two months, a double set of transplants (one for bark, one for lichens) was brought back into the laboratory, together with native samples of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. Following suitable cleansing and preparation procedures, field samples were put through INAA for elemental assessment. The results indicate that, regardless of signal magnitude, (1) concentrations in bark and lichen transplants are significantly correlated with atmospheric deposition for an appreciable number of elements; (2) there are a number of significant correlations between transplanted and native samples, and again between the latter and the deposition; and (3) the elements with biological patterns that follow the deposition in either transplanted or native samples (Co, V) are the very ones whose bioaccumulation seems to benefit from an alternation of wet-dry periods, which fits the precipitation record of the test site during the exposure term. - Depending on the element(s) of interest, native lichens can replace transplants for temporal (short-term) atmospheric assessment.

  9. Determination of subcellular concentrations of soluble carbohydrates in rose petals during opening by nonaqueous fractionation method combined with infiltration-centrifugation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kunio; Norikoshi, Ryo; Suzuki, Katsumi; Imanishi, Hideo; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2009-11-01

    Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm and apoplast of petal cells during flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. We determined the subcellular distribution of soluble carbohydrates by combining nonaqueous fractionation method and infiltration-centrifugation method. During petal growth, fructose and glucose rapidly accumulated in the vacuole, reaching a maximum when petals almost reflected. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the volume of vacuole and air space drastically increased with petal growth. Carbohydrate concentration was calculated for each compartment of the petal cells and in petals that almost reflected, glucose and fructose concentrations increased to higher than 100 mM in the vacuole. Osmotic pressure increased in apoplast and symplast during flower opening, and this increase was mainly attributed to increases in fructose and glucose concentrations. No large difference in osmotic pressure due to soluble carbohydrates was observed between the apoplast and symplast before flower opening, but total osmotic pressure was much higher in the symplast than in the apoplast, a difference that was partially attributed to inorganic ions. An increase in osmotic pressure due to the continued accumulation of glucose and fructose in the symplast may facilitate water influx into cells, contributing to cell expansion associated with flower opening under conditions where osmotic pressure is higher in the symplast than in the apoplast.

  10. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  11. A peroxisomally localized acyl-activating enzyme is required for volatile benzenoid formation in a Petuniaxhybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Thomas A; Marciniak, Danielle M; Wedde, Ashlyn E; Kim, Joo Young; Schwieterman, Michael L; Levin, Laura A; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Schuurink, Robert C; Clark, David G

    2012-08-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, β-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript has been cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD.

  12. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

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    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  13. Detection of pre-symptomatic rose powdery-mildew and gray-mold diseases based on thermal vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Minaei, S.; Safaie, N.

    2017-09-01

    Roses are the most important plants in ornamental horticulture. Roses are susceptible to a number of phytopathogenic diseases. Among the most serious diseases of rose, powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa var. rosae) and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) are widespread which require considerable attention. In this study, the potential of implementing thermal imaging to detect the pre-symptomatic appearance of these fungal diseases was investigated. Effects of powdery mildew and gray mold diseases on rose plants (Rosa hybrida L.) were examined by two experiments conducted in a growth chamber. To classify the healthy and infected plants, feature selection was carried out and the best extracted thermal features with the largest linguistic hedge values were chosen. Two neuro-fuzzy classifiers were trained to distinguish between the healthy and infected plants. Best estimation rates of 92.55% and 92.3% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 8 clusters in order to identify the leaves infected with powdery mildew. In addition, the best estimation rates of 97.5% and 92.59% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 4 clusters to identify the gray mold disease on flowers. Performance of the designed neuro-fuzzy classifiers were evaluated with the thermal images captured using an automatic imaging setup. Best correct estimation rates of 69% and 80% were achieved (on the second day post-inoculation) for pre-symptomatic appearance detection of powdery mildew and gray mold diseases, respectively.

  14. Postharvest quality of cut roses following electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.Y.; Gladon, R.J.; Gleason, M.L.; Parker, S.K.; Agnew, N.H.; Olson, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Cut Rosa x hybrida L. 'Royalty' flowers were used to determine the efficacy of electron-beam irradiation for increasing postharvest quality and decreasing petal infection by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In an experiment for determining the injury threshold, roses received electron-beam irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy. Irradiation dosages greater than or equal to 4 kGy caused necrosis on petal tissue and decreased postharvest life at 20 degrees C. In a second experiment to evaluate postharvest quality, roses were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy. Dosages of 0.25 and 0.5 kGy slowed the rate of flower bud opening for 2 days but did not decrease postharvest quality when compared with nonirradiated roses. Roses that received irradiation dosages of 0.75 and 1 kGy showed unacceptable quality. In a third experiment, roses that had or had not been inoculated with B. cinerea were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy. Irradiation did not control B. cinerea populations, and rose quality decreased as dosage increased. In a fourth experiment to determine the effect of irradiation on B. cinerea, conidia on water-agar plates exposed to dosages less than or equal to 1, 2, and 4 kGy germinated at rates of approximately 90%, 33%, and 2%, respectively, within 24 h

  15. Functional characterization of duplicated Suppressor of Overexpression of Constans 1-like genes in petunia.

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    Jill C Preston

    Full Text Available Flowering time is strictly controlled by a combination of internal and external signals that match seed set with favorable environmental conditions. In the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae, many of the genes underlying development and evolution of flowering have been discovered. However, much remains unknown about how conserved the flowering gene networks are in plants with different growth habits, gene duplication histories, and distributions. Here we functionally characterize three homologs of the flowering gene Suppressor Of Overexpression of Constans 1 (SOC1 in the short-lived perennial Petunia hybrida (petunia, Solanaceae. Similar to A. thaliana soc1 mutants, co-silencing of duplicated petunia SOC1-like genes results in late flowering. This phenotype is most severe when all three SOC1-like genes are silenced. Furthermore, expression levels of the SOC1-like genes Unshaven (UNS and Floral Binding Protein 21 (FBP21, but not FBP28, are positively correlated with developmental age. In contrast to A. thaliana, petunia SOC1-like gene expression did not increase with longer photoperiods, and FBP28 transcripts were actually more abundant under short days. Despite evidence of functional redundancy, differential spatio-temporal expression data suggest that SOC1-like genes might fine-tune petunia flowering in response to photoperiod and developmental stage. This likely resulted from modification of SOC1-like gene regulatory elements following recent duplication, and is a possible mechanism to ensure flowering under both inductive and non-inductive photoperiods.

  16. Production of Fungal Mycelial Protein in Submerged Culture of Soybean Whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanghe, Helcio; Smith, A. K.; Rackis, J. J.

    1964-01-01

    Various soybean whey media were tested as substrate for seven species of fungi in submerged culture. Very little mycelial growth was obtained with Morchella hybrida, Collybia velutipes, Cantharellus cibarius, and Xylaria polymorpha. Agaricus campestris failed to grow. Tricholoma nudum and Boletus indecisus showed the greatest rate of growth and production of mycelial protein and the best utilization of soybean whey solids, with much shorter incubation times compared with those of the other species. T. nudum developed as spheres having diameters of about 5 to 8 mm, instead of the usual slurry or yeastlike form, in the presence of added ammonium acetate. B. indecisus always developed as spheres. Mycelial yields and production of protein by T. nudum greatly decreased with the addition of more than 1% glucose to soybean whey, whereas with B. indecisus the yield of protein almost doubled when up to 3% glucose was added. The effect of minerals on mycelial growth was determined. With soybean whey concentrated to 50%, the rate of mycelial growth of T. nudum was nearly doubled, but protein content of mycelia was greatly reduced. Mycelial growth and yield of protein of B. indecisus grown in concentrated whey were increased greatly. About 4 to 6 g of mycelial protein per liter can be obtained from fermentation in soybean whey, depending upon the medium used. Utilization of soybean whey by fungal fermentation may have economic value in whey disposal and in the production of products of high protein content. PMID:14199023

  17. Pyruvate Decarboxylase Provides Growing Pollen Tubes with a Competitive Advantage in PetuniaW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Nathalie; Glagotskaia, Tatiana; Mellema, Stefan; Stuurman, Jeroen; Barone, Mario; Mandel, Therese; Roessner-Tunali, Ute; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2005-01-01

    Rapid pollen tube growth places unique demands on energy production and biosynthetic capacity. The aim of this work is to understand how primary metabolism meets the demands of such rapid growth. Aerobically grown pollen produce ethanol in large quantities. The ethanolic fermentation pathway consists of two committed enzymes: pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Because adh mutations do not affect male gametophyte function, the obvious question is why pollen synthesize an abundant enzyme if they could do just as well without. Using transposon tagging in Petunia hybrida, we isolated a null mutant in pollen-specific Pdc2. Growth of the mutant pollen tubes through the style is reduced, and the mutant allele shows reduced transmission through the male, when in competition with wild-type pollen. We propose that not ADH but rather PDC is the critical enzyme in a novel, pollen-specific pathway. This pathway serves to bypass pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymes and thereby maintain biosynthetic capacity and energy production under the unique conditions prevailing during pollen–pistil interaction. PMID:15994907

  18. Pyruvate decarboxylase provides growing pollen tubes with a competitive advantage in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Nathalie; Glagotskaia, Tatiana; Mellema, Stefan; Stuurman, Jeroen; Barone, Mario; Mandel, Therese; Roessner-Tunali, Ute; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2005-08-01

    Rapid pollen tube growth places unique demands on energy production and biosynthetic capacity. The aim of this work is to understand how primary metabolism meets the demands of such rapid growth. Aerobically grown pollen produce ethanol in large quantities. The ethanolic fermentation pathway consists of two committed enzymes: pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Because adh mutations do not affect male gametophyte function, the obvious question is why pollen synthesize an abundant enzyme if they could do just as well without. Using transposon tagging in Petunia hybrida, we isolated a null mutant in pollen-specific Pdc2. Growth of the mutant pollen tubes through the style is reduced, and the mutant allele shows reduced transmission through the male, when in competition with wild-type pollen. We propose that not ADH but rather PDC is the critical enzyme in a novel, pollen-specific pathway. This pathway serves to bypass pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymes and thereby maintain biosynthetic capacity and energy production under the unique conditions prevailing during pollen-pistil interaction.

  19. Tamponamento do pH da solução nutritiva na hidroponia de plantas ornamentais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira C. M. Fonseca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis espécies de plantas ornamentais: Viola tricolor, Antirrhinum majus, Phlox drummondii, Petunia hibrida, Statice sinuata e Alyssum maritimun foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com e sem agente tamponante, num experimento fatorial inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Avaliou-se o tempo para germinação, produção de muda, início do florescimento, teores de nutrientes e perdas do vigor e da qualidade das flores. As plantas foram colhidas quando perderam o vigor e a qualidade das flores. Dentre as espécies cultivadas, a que apresentou menor ciclo foi boca-de-leão (Antirrhinum majus. Boca-de-leão (Antirrhinum majus e petúnia (Petúnia x hybrida monstraram-se melhor esenvolvidas quando cultivadas com agente tamponante. Amorperfeito (Viola tricolor e flox (Phlox drummondii tenderam a um melhor desenvolvimento em solução nutritiva sem agente tamponante. Para estátice (Statice sinuata e alisso (Alyssum maritimun as soluções empregadas não resultaram em diferenças significativas no crescimento das plantas, embora o vigor e número de flores de alisso apresentem superioridade em presença de agente tamponante.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Gerbera hybrid: including in silico confirmation of defence genes found

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    Yiqian eFu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the ornamental crop Gerbera hybrida, breeding at the moment is done using conventional methods. As this has drawbacks in breeding speed and efficiency, especially for complex traits like disease resistance, we set out to develop genomic resources. The leaf and flower bud transcriptomes of four parents, used to generate two gerbera populations, were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 36,770 contigs with an average length of 1397 bp were generated and these have been the starting point for SNP identification and annotation. The consensus contig sequences were used to map reads of individual parents, to identify genotype specific SNPs, and to assess the presence of common SNPs between genotypes.Comparison with the non-redundant protein database (nr showed that 29,146 contigs gave BLAST hits. Of sequences with blast results, 73.3% obtained a clear gene ontology (GO annotation. EST contigs coding for enzymes were found in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes maps (KEGG. Through these annotated data and KEGG molecular interaction network, transcripts associated with the phenylpropanoid metabolism, other secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction were analysed in more detail. Identifying genes involved in these processes could provide genetic and genomic resources for studying the mechanism of disease resistance in gerbera.