WorldWideScience

Sample records for anemone fulgens

  1. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere. PMID:27481551

  2. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease. PMID:26054654

  3. Chemical constituents from rhizome of Anemone amurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chong-Ning; Li, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Jing; Qin, Ru-Lan; Lei, Tian-Li; Lu, Jin-Cai

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the rhizome of Anemone amurensis led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR data, and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested for cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (A549 and Hep-G2). Compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 38.53 and 66.17 μM, respectively, while compound 1 with IC50 > 100 μM. PMID:26978669

  4. Beheersing en bestrijding van Botrytis cinerea en van Penicillium in Euphorbia fulgens

    OpenAIRE

    Wubben, J.P.; Hazendonk, A.; Bosker, I.; Slootweg, C.; Hoope, ten, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    De bloeiwijze van Euphorbia fulgens kent twee belangrijke schimmelbelagers, die problemen in de teelt veroorzaken: Botrytis cinerea en Penicillium. B. cinerea geeft schade in de vorm van smet of pokken, die op de bloemblaadjes verschijnen. Dit zijn kleine donkerbruine/zwarte plekjes van ongeveer 1 mm doorsnede. Deze schimmel geeft met name problemen in de teelt wanneer de luchtvochtigheid hoog is, omdat de schimmel vocht nodig heeft om aantasting te geven. Penicillium komt met name voor in de...

  5. Searching for a toxic key to unlock the mystery of anemonefish and anemone symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Nedosyko

    Full Text Available Twenty-six species of anemonefish of the genera Amphiprion and monospecific Premnas, use only 10 species of anemones as hosts in the wild (Families: Actiniidae, Stichodactylidae and Thalassianthidae. Of these 10 anemone species some are used by multiple species of anemonefish while others have only a single anemonefish symbiont. Past studies have explored the different patterns of usage between anemonefish species and anemone species; however the evolution of this relationship remains unknown and has been little studied over the past decade. Here we reopen the case, comparing the toxicity of crude venoms obtained from anemones that host anemonefish as a way to investigate why some anemone species are used as a host more than others. Specifically, for each anemone species we investigated acute toxicity using Artemia francisca (LC50, haemolytic toxicity using ovine erythrocytes (EC50 and neurotoxicity using shore crabs (Ozius truncatus. We found that haemolytic and neurotoxic activity varied among host anemone species. Generally anemone species that displayed greater haemolytic activity also displayed high neurotoxic activity and tend to be more toxic on average as indicated by acute lethality analysis. An overall venom toxicity ranking for each anemone species was compared with the number of anemonefish species that are known to associate with each anemone species in the wild. Interestingly, anemones with intermediate toxicity had the highest number of anemonefish associates, whereas anemones with either very low or very high toxicity had the fewest anemonefish associates. These data demonstrate that variation in toxicity among host anemone species may be important in the establishment and maintenance of anemonefish anemone symbiosis.

  6. Two new triterpenoid saponins from rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Lu, Jincai; Wang, Jing;

    2009-01-01

    Two new 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid-type triterpenoid saponins, raddeanoside Ra (1) and raddeanoside Rb (2), were isolated from the rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated to be 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-alpha...

  7. First observations of attempted nudibranch predation by sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Reijnen, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    On two separate occasions during fieldwork in Semporna (eastern Sabah, Malaysia), sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae were observed attempting to feed on the nudibranch species Nembrotha lineolata and Phyllidia ocellata. These are the first in situ observations of nudibranch predation by sea ane

  8. Survey of Antibacterial Effect of Methanolic Extract of Fulgensia fulgens through in Vitro and in Vivo Conditions

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    tahereh valdbeigi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Daily increasing of bacteria resistance (specially Staphylococcus aureus to various antibiotics in particular penicillin and methicillin has always led the scientists to look for new medicines. Materials and methods: 600 g of Fulgensia fulgens was collected from KaneGonbad mountains in Ilam province, the methanol extract was prepared by soxhle. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the extract against two gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and Entrococcus faecalis and two gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherchia coli was tested by the use of disc diffusion method and microdilution (with determination of MIC and MBC. Wound was made on the dorsal surface of therat and wound infections caused by S.aureus for determination of in vivo antibacterial effect. Than rats were randomly divided into three groups; control, treated with tetracycline ointment and treated with 10% ointment of F. fulgens extract. Finally, wound areas wear measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. Results: Average inhibitory zone diameter of methanolic F. fulgens extract against S. aureus ranged between 11.21 mm to 33.01 mm. According to the wound area on 11th day, it could be concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the control group (0.63 cm2 and two treatment groups (0 (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between a group treated with tetracycline ointment and a group treated with 10% ointment of extract. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, the methanol extract of F. fulgens in the treatment of infections as S. aureus can be replaced by chemical antibiotics.

  9. DNA extraction from sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) tissues for molecular analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto S.M.; Fernandes-Matioli F.M.C.; Schlenz E.

    2000-01-01

    A specific DNA extraction method for sea anemones is described in which extraction of total DNA from eight species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharian was achieved by changing the standard extraction protocols. DNA extraction from sea anemone tissue is made more difficult both by the tissue consistency and the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. The technique described here is an efficient way to avoid problems of DNA contamination and obtain large amounts of purified and in...

  10. Cadherin-23 May Be Dynamic in Hair Bundles of the Model Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ciao Tang; Watson, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with anti...

  11. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria Toxins: An Overview

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    Agostinho Antunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines, but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  12. The reproduction of the anemone Sagartia troglodytes (PRICE): no influence of tidal manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The reproductive cycle and the glycogen content were monitored in the subtidal anemone Sagartia troglodytes (PRICE). Moreover, these parameters were followed for periods of 3 to 30 days over the course of 1 year in anemones previously submerged in stagnant water and thus subjected to a reduced food

  13. Parasitic anemone infects the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Møller, Lene Friis; Sundberg, Per;

    2010-01-01

    We report of the first finding of parasitic sea anemone larvae infecting the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Parasitic anemone larvae are common in the native habitat of Mnemiopsis, but have not previously been reported from any of the locations where Mnemiopsis...

  14. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

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    Modesta Makungu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  15. Anemonefish depletion reduces survival, growth, reproduction and fishery productivity of mutualistic anemone-anemonefish colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ashley J.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Munkres, Katherine P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Intimate knowledge of both partners in a mutualism is necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of each partner, and to manage human impacts that asymmetrically affect one of the partners. Although anemonefishes and their host anemones are iconic mutualists and widely sought by ornamental fisheries, the degree to which anemones depend on anemonefishes, and thus the colony-level effects of collecting anemonefishes, is not well understood. We tracked the size and abundance of anemone Entacmaea quadricolor and anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus colonies for 3 yr after none, some, or all of the resident anemonefish were experimentally removed. Total and partial removal of anemonefish had rapid and sustained negative effects on growth, reproduction and survival of anemones, as well as cascading effects on recruitment and productivity of anemonefish in the remaining colony. As predicted, total removal of anemonefish caused acute declines in size and abundance of anemones, although most anemone colonies (76 %) slowly resumed growth and reproduction after the arrival of anemonefish recruits, which subsequently grew and defended the hosts. Partial removal of anemonefish had similar but typically less severe effects on anemones. Remarkably, the colony-level effects on anemones and anemonefish were proportional to the size and number of anemonefish that were experimentally removed. In particular, anemone survival and anemonefish productivity were highest when one or more adult anemonefish remained in the colony, suggesting that adult fish not only enhanced the protection of anemones, but also increased the recruitment and/or survival of conspecifics. We conclude that the relationship between E. quadricolor and A. melanopus is not only obligate, but also demographically rigid and easily perturbed by anemonefish fisheries. Clearly, these two species must be managed together as a unit and with utmost precaution. To this end, we propose several tangible management actions

  16. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2013-08-08

    Background:Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.Methodology/Principal Findings:This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.Conclusions/Significance:Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host

  17. Taxonomic, spatial and temporal patterns of bleaching in anemones inhabited by anemonefishes.

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    Jean-Paul A Hobbs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments. Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%; however, this percentage was much higher (19-100% during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked

  18. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  19. 小熊猫奇异变形杆菌病的诊治%Diagnosis and treatment of Proteus mirabilis infection in Ailurus fulgens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 黄勉; 桑青芳

    2003-01-01

    @@ 2002年4月21~27日,广东某地饲养的4只小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)先后感染奇异变形杆菌(Proteus.mirabilis).由于发病急、病原菌株存在耐药现象,仅2只经治疗而康复.

  20. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

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    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  1. DNA extraction from sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria tissues for molecular analyses

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    Pinto S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific DNA extraction method for sea anemones is described in which extraction of total DNA from eight species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharian was achieved by changing the standard extraction protocols. DNA extraction from sea anemone tissue is made more difficult both by the tissue consistency and the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. The technique described here is an efficient way to avoid problems of DNA contamination and obtain large amounts of purified and integral DNA which can be used in different kinds of molecular analyses.

  2. Molecular cloning of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    activity. No cDNA coding for PAL could be identified, suggesting that sea anemone PAL is coded for by a gene that is different from the sea anemone PHM gene, a situation similar to the one found in insects. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a cnidarian PHM. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec-18...... conserved regions of PHM, we have now cloned a PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica showing 42% amino acid sequence identity with rat PHM. Among the conserved (identical) amino acid residues are five histidine and one methionine residue, which bind two Cu2+ atoms that are essential for PHM...

  3. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M

    2005-07-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion. PMID:15904858

  4. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Tao Han; Ying Fang; Ming-Ming Li; Hong-Bing Yang; Fang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1), glycoside St-J (2), anhuienoside E (3), hedera sapon...

  5. Analgesic Compound from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is the First Polypeptide Inhibitor of Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1)*

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroslav A. Andreev; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Ekaterina A. Ivanova; Monastyrnaya, Margarita M.; Kozlovskaya, Emma P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Venomous animals from distinct phyla such as spiders, scorpions, snakes, cone snails, or sea anemones produce small toxic proteins interacting with a variety of cell targets. Their bites often cause pain. One of the ways of pain generation is the activation of TRPV1 channels. Screening of 30 different venoms from spiders and sea anemones for modulation of TRPV1 activity revealed inhibitors in tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa venom. Several separation steps result...

  6. Continuous drug release by sea anemone Nematostella vectensis stinging microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  8. The expansion behaviour of sea anemones may be coordinated by two inhibitory neuropeptides, Antho-KAamide and Antho-RIamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFarlane, I D; Hudman, D; Nothacker, H P;

    1993-01-01

    Antho-KAamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2) and Antho-RIamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Tyr-Arg-Ile-NH2) are novel neuropeptides isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. They both inhibited spontaneous contractions of isolated muscle preparations from a wide variety of anemone species...

  9. Masquerade, mimicry and crypsis of the polymorphic sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni and its aggregations in South Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.; Crowther, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllodiscus semoni is a morphologically variable sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific with morphotypes ranging from upright and branched to low-lying and rounded. The apparent camouflage strategies of this sea anemone allow it to resemble other species or objects in its environment, such as st

  10. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  11. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Tal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of sea anemone Stichodactyla mertensii and Stichodactyla gigantea from Mandapam coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Thangaraj; S Bragadeeswaran; K Suganthi; N Sri Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol and aqueous extract of sea anemone Stichodactyla mertensii (S. mertensii) and Stichodactyla gigantea (S. gigantea).Methods:The sea anemone S. mertensii and S. gigantea were subjected to extraction by using methanol and distilled water. They were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Results: In antibacterial activity, S. gigantea exhibited significantly inhibitory activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the S. mertensii of butanolic extract. In antifungal activity, the S. mertensii extract showed good activity against Aspergillus niger (A. niger)compared with other strains. Whereas S. gigantea recorded maximum and minimum zone of inhibition against Botrytis cinerea, A. niger and Cladosporium cucumerinum respectively. Conclusions: The results support that the sea anemones S. mertensii and S. gigantea extracts for treatment of some bacterial and fungal diseases as an ethanomedicinal source.

  13. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie;

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  14. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with {\\it Yohkoh} Soft X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Ayumi; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V

    2008-01-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied by using the data obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard {\\it Yohkoh} from 1991 November to 1993 March. The following characteristics are found; Many of active regions appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a ``sea-anemone''. Such active regions are called {\\it anemone ARs}. About one-forth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure. For almost all the anemone ARs, the order of magnetic polarities is consistent with the Hale-Nicholson's polarity law. These anemone ARs also showed more or less east-west asymmetry in X-ray intensity distribution, such that the following (eastern) part of the ARs is brighter than its preceding (western) part. This, as well as the anemone shape itself, is consistent with the magnetic polarity distribution around the anemone ARs. These observations also suggest that an active region appearing in coronal holes has simpler ...

  15. Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chang; Chiang, Tsay-I; Lo, Chun; Lai, Yi-Hua; Yue, Chia-Herng; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Lee, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS. PMID:26224029

  16. Characteristics of Gas Exchange in Three Domesticated Anemone Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of three Anemone species were collected from the suburban areas of Kunming and planted in a nursery for three and a half years at Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Leaf gas exchange measurement indicated that these species had similar one-peak diurnal trends of net photosynthetic rate (PN, although A. rivularis had lower transpiration rate (TR, stomatal conductance (gs and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, and higher stomatal limit in the afternoon. Species differences in response of PN to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR were observed, especially under strong light. A. rivularis had the highest PN and Ci under strong light which corresponded with its highest gs and TR. A. rivularis had the highest light saturation point (LSP (1000 mol m-2 s-1 and light compensation point (LCP (69 mol m-2 s-1, while A. hupehensis var. japonica had the lowest LSP (800 ?mol m-2 s-1 and a lower LCP (53 mol m-2 s-1. But the three species responded similarly to the change of CO2 concentration in the air from 0 to 350 ?mol (CO2 mol-1, and their observed CO2 compensation point showed little difference (47, 53 and 56 ?mol (CO2 mol-1. Moreover, A. rivularis had the highest apparent quantum yield (0.032, carboxylation efficiency (0.049, PN (11.68 ?mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 and TR (5.36 mmol (H2O m-2 s-1 based on the PN -PAR response. The results implied that A. rivularis is able to grow well under higher radiation, while A. hupehensis var. japonica is the best one to grow under partial shade.

  17. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CAPTIVE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS) POPULATION, 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaski, Kristina M; Ramsay, Edward; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    Red pandas ( Ailurus fulgens ) are managed as captive populations in both North America and Europe. Regular review of pathology reports is a useful tool for developing veterinary care and husbandry strategies for such populations. Though thorough pathology reviews have been conducted for the European studbook, the North American population has not been reviewed similarly until now. Complete gross and histopathology reports were requested from institutions holding red pandas that died during 1992 through 2012 (n = 530), and reports were received for 95.8% of the individuals, including full necropsy records for 366 red pandas. These reports were classified by subspecies, gender, and age, then reviewed for primary cause of death and secondary pathological findings. A substantial portion of the deaths (40.2%) were neonates (animals, pneumonia was the most common cause of death. In adult (age = 366 days-10 yr) and geriatric red pandas (age >10 yr), cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death. Renal disease and gastrointestinal disease also were common pathologic findings in adult and geriatric animals. These findings suggest that stress associated with captivity and husbandry practices, including those associated with social, environmental, and nutritional conditions, may contribute to immune and cardiovascular pathologies, and other common necropsy findings. PMID:26667534

  18. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with {\\it Yohkoh} Soft X-ray Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V.

    2008-01-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied by using the data obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard {\\it Yohkoh} from 1991 November to 1993 March. The following characteristics are found; Many of active regions appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a ``sea-anemone''. Such active regions are called {\\it anemone ARs}. About one-forth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure....

  19. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag+ to Ag0 and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC50 value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic apoptosis effect of AgNPs

  20. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Tripathy, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Choudhary, Alka [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Aili, Pavan Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Chatterjee, Anupam [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Singh, Inder Pal [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Banerjee, Uttam Chand, E-mail: ucbanerjee@niper.ac.in [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India)

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0} and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC{sub 50} value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS ASSOCIATED WITH MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liping; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Peter, Hardi [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Feng, Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100871 Beijing (China); Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    Observations with the space-based solar observatory Hinode show that small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are found to be associated with a particular class of jets of plasma in the chromosphere called anemone jets. The goal of our study is to conduct a numerical experiment of such chromospheric anemone jets related to the moving magnetic features (MMFs). We construct a 2.5 dimensional numerical MHD model to describe the process of magnetic reconnection between the MMFs and the pre-existing ambient magnetic field, which is driven by the horizontal motion of the magnetic structure in the photosphere. We include thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field and optically thin radiative losses in the corona to account for a self-consistent description of the evaporation process during the heating of the plasma due to the reconnection process. The motion of the MMFs leads to the expected jet and our numerical results can reproduce many observed characteristics of chromospheric anemone jets, topologically and quantitatively. As a result of the tearing instability, plasmoids are generated in the reconnection process that are consistent with the observed bright moving blobs in the anemone jets. An increase in the thermal pressure at the base of the jet is also driven by the reconnection, which induces a train of slow-mode shocks propagating upward. These shocks are a secondary effect, and only modulate the outflow of the anemone jet. The jet itself is driven by the energy input due to the reconnection of the MMFs and the ambient magnetic field.

  2. Identification of a novel type of processing sites in the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmutzler, C; Darmer, D; Diekhoff, D;

    1992-01-01

    Neuropeptides are synthesized as large precursor proteins that undergo posttranslational cleavages and modifications to produce bioactive peptides. Here, we have cloned two closely related precursor proteins for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of tissue and associated bacteria from benthic sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni against microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G Prakash; Babu, S; Ravikumar, S; Kathiresan, K; Prathap, S Arul; Chinnapparaj, S; Marian, M P; Alikhan, S Liakath

    2007-10-01

    Associated bacteria from Stichodactyla haddoni are found maximum in tentacle tissues than the body tissue. There are eight associated bacterial species viz., Alcaligenes sp, Corynebacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Sporosarcina sp, Renibacterium sp, Camobacterium sp1, Camobacterium sp2 and Salinococcus sp were recorded. The culture extracts from the associated bacterial species showed sensitivity against human bacterial and fungalpathogens. However, the hexane tissue extract of sea anemone showed maximum sensitivity (24 mm dia.) against the fish bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila than the other chosen pathogens. Comparatively the tissue extracts showed promising antimicrobial sensitivity than the cell free extracts of associated bacteria, and hence, the tissue samples from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni is recommended for further exploration of novel antimicrobial drugs than the associated bacteria. PMID:18405113

  4. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    OpenAIRE

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M.; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and...

  5. Characterizing the spatiotemporal expression of RNAs and proteins in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wolenski, Francis S.; Layden, Michael J; Martindale, Mark Q; Gilmore, Thomas D.; Finnerty, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reconstruct the early evolution of animal genes and proteins, there is an increasing focus on basal animal lineages such as sponges, cnidarians, ctenophores and placozoans. Among the basal animals, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria) has emerged as a leading laboratory model organism partly because it is well suited to experimental techniques for monitoring and manipulating gene expression. Here we describe protocols adapted for use in Nematostella...

  6. Two new triterpenoid saponins from the aerial parts of Anemone taipaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xia-Yin; Hua, Dong; Liu, Yang; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Phytochemical study on the aerial parts of Anemone taipaiensis for the first time led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2, together with four known saponins (3-6). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. Saponins 2-4 exhibited cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U251MG cell line with IC50 values ranging from 1.56 to 80.62 μM. PMID:26021881

  7. Distribution and impact of the alien anemone Sagartia ornata in the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B. Robinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagartia ornata is an alien anemone that occurs intertidally within the West Coast National Park (WCNP. Whilst baseline distributional data was gathered in 2001, the range and abundance of this alien has not been reassessed. The present study aimed to determine the current status and distribution of this anemone, to assess its diet so as to establish the role it may play as predator and to investigate its impact on sandy-shore communities. Sagartia ornata was found to be restricted to the WCNP, where it occurred in densities of up to 508 ± 218 individuals per m2 . Within the park the distribution of this anemone had changed. Populations were recorded in Nanozostera capensis seagrass beds for the first time and this alien was absent from two areas in which it had previously occurred. Diet analysis revealed indigenous polychaetes and amphipods as the dominant prey items consumed by S. ornata. This alien was found to significantly alter sandy-shore community structure, with differences caused primarily by increases in the abundance and biomass of the tanaid Anatanais gracilis and the polychaete Orbinia angrapequensis. Additionally, invaded areas supported significantly greater invertebrate diversity, density and biomass. It is concluded that whilst this anemone negatively affects native biota, its current dependence on restricted habitats precludes widespread impacts with the park.Conservation implications: With regard to conservation implications, this invasion should be routinely monitored outside the WCNP as in its native range S. ornata occurs on rocky shores and kelp holdfasts, suggesting a potential for spread along the west coast of South Africa.

  8. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  9. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  10. Symbiodinium diversity in the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor on the east Australian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontasch, S.; Scott, A.; Hill, R.; Bridge, T.; Fisher, P. L.; Davy, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    The diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in Entacmaea quadricolor was analysed from five locations along ~2,100 km on the east coast of Australia using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) combined with bacterial cloning. DGGE revealed that E. quadricolor predominantly associated with six types of clade C (four of which are novel) and that most anemones harboured multiple types simultaneously. Anemones from southern locations associated with a mixed assemblage of C25 and a variant of C3. This assemblage also dominated the central location, but was absent at the northern location. At central and northern sites, two novel variants of C42(type2) and C1 were found. Anemones hosting C42(type2) also showed a low abundance of variants of C3 and C1, and E1 was found in one sample, as revealed by bacterial cloning. The occurrence of geographically distinct ITS2 types or a consortium of types might reflect a need to optimise physiological performance of the symbiosis at different latitudes.

  11. The 'Antenna Balloon Anemone' Found in the Seto Inland Sea: New Genus and Species of Sea Anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi (Cnidaria, Actinaria, Haloclavidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takato; Yanagi, Kensuke; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme. Furthermore, this species shows an interesting behavior: it can inflate its body like a balloon, lift above the seafloor, and drift with the sea current. The presence of a single, strong siphonoglyph, physa-like aboral end, and the lack of sphincter muscle classify this sea anemone within Haloclavidae. It resembles Peachia species, but cannot be classified in this genus as the new species has two pairs of mesenteries, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme, and irregular antenna tentacles. Therefore, we propose a new genus Antennapeachia to accommodate this species. PMID:27498806

  12. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Tripathy, Debabrata; Choudhary, Alka; Aili, Pavan Kumar; Chatterjee, Anupam; Singh, Inder Pal; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag(+) to Ag(0) and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC50 value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26042698

  13. Non-selective in situ grazing of diatoms by juvenile Green Abalone (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 in the Baja California Peninsula Consumo in situ no selectivo de diatomeas por juveniles de abulón azul (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 en la Península de Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Argumedo Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For experimental or rearing purposes, young abalones are fed benthic diatoms successfully during their early life stages without considering if the diatoms provided are found in the abalone habitat, nor if grazing selectivity exists. Our aim in this study was to gather further evidence that would indicate whether young Haliotis fulgens graze diatoms in situ selectively. Thirty-four specimens of young H. fulgens were collected in a fishing site in BCS, México on two dates. We identified the diatoms in their gut contents (144 species and determined their relative abundances. Fourteen diatoms (80% of the total abundance were considered most important and twelve were among the most important in the diet of young abalone in BCS. The diversity values (H' of the diatoms in their guts ranged from 1.05 to 4.47, depending on dominance, which reflected the structure of diatom assemblages in situ. The above observations and the low similarity measured between samples show that species richness and equitability are similar even if the species composition of diatoms ingested by young abalone differs between specimens. The results lead us to conclude that grazing of diatoms by young H. fulgens is non-selective, and that the structure of diatom assemblages is more important than the particular taxa in their diet.Durante sus etapas tempranas de vida los abulones jóvenes son alimentados exitosamente con diatomeas bentónicas sin considerar si las especies suministradas se hallan en su medio natural, o si existe algún tipo de preferencia o selectividad por ciertas diatomeas. El objetivo de este estudio fue recabar evidencias acerca de si los juveniles de Haliotis fulgens Philippi presentan un consumo selectivo de diatomeas cuando se alimentan in situ. Se recolectaron treinta y cuatro juveniles de H. fulgens en un sitio de pesca de BCS, México en dos fechas. Se disecaron y se examinaron contenidos intestinales. Se identificaron 144 taxa de diatomeas y se

  14. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 (Antho-KAamide), a novel neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced the neuropeptide L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. This neuropeptide (named Antho-KAamide) has the unusual N-terminal L-3-phenyllactyl blocking group which has recently also been discovered in 2 other neuropeptides from...... sea anemones. We propose that the L-3-phenyllactyl residue renders Antho-KAamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the neuropeptide after neuronal release. The existence of the L-3-phenyllactyl residue in 3 neuropeptides isolated so far suggests...... that this blocking group is more generally occurring....

  15. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a growing concern due to its deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, the combined effects of OA and other local stressors like metal pollution are largely unknown. In this study, we examined physiological effects in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to the global stressor carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the local stressor copper (Cu) over 7 days. Cu accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. At some time points, sea anemones exposed to 1000 ppm CO2 had higher tissue Cu concentrations than those exposed to 400 ppm CO2 at the same Cu exposure concentrations. In general, the activities of all anti-oxidant enzymes measured (catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx, glutathione reductase, GR) increased with exposure to increasing Cu concentrations. Significant differences in GR, CAT and to some degree GPx activity, were observed due to increasing CO2 exposure in control treatments. Sea anemones exposed to Cu in combination with higher CO2 generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentration of Cu and lower CO2. Activity of the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), involved in acid-base balance, was significantly decreased with increasing Cu exposure. At the two lowest Cu concentrations, the extent of CA inhibition was lessened with increasing CO2 concentration. These results provide insight into toxic mechanisms of both Cu and CO2 exposure to the sensitive cnidarian E. pallida and have implications for environmental exposure of multiple contaminants. PMID:26363274

  16. Increased cell proliferation and mucocyte density in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida recovering from bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fransolet

    Full Text Available Recovery of coral after bleaching episodes is a critical period for the health of the reef ecosystem. While events such as symbiont (genus Symbiodinium shifting/shuffling or tissue apoptosis have been demonstrated to occur following bleaching, little is known concerning tissue recovery or cell proliferation. Here, we studied the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exposed to a transient elevation of water temperature combined with high illumination (33°C and 1900 µmol photons x m(-2 x s(-1 for 30 h. Following such treatment bleached anemones showed a significant reduction of their Symbiodinium density. Cell proliferation in the ectodermis and gastrodermis was determined by assessing the densities of cells labeled with a thymidine analogue (EdU. Cell proliferation significantly increased during the first day following stress in both tissue types. This increased cell proliferation returned to pre-stress values after one week. Although cell proliferation was higher in the ectodermis in absence of stress, it was relatively more pronounced in the gastrodermis of stressed anemones. In addition, the ratio of ectodermal mucocytes significantly increased three weeks after induced stress. These results suggest that thermal/photic stress coupled with the loss of the symbionts is able to enhance cell proliferation in both gastrodermis and ectodermis of cnidarians. While new cells formed in the gastrodermis are likely to host new Symbiodinium, the fate of new cells in the ectodermis was only partially revealed. Some new ectodermal cells may, in part, contribute to the increased number of mucocytes which could eventually help strengthen the heterotrophic state until restoration of the symbiosis.

  17. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl2 exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl2 accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl2), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl2 accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl2, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl2. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic organisms to NP in the environment

  18. Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Wang; Minchang Wang; Min Xu; Yi Wang; Haifeng Tang; Xiaoli Sun

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–5, together with five known saponins 6–10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these...

  19. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail: gkbielmyer@valdosta.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  20. Genomic organization and splicing variants of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Hauser, F; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    Cnidarians are primitive animals that use neuropeptides as their transmitters. All the numerous cnidarian neuropeptides isolated, so far, have a carboxy-terminal amide group that is essential for their actions. This strongly suggests that alpha-amidating enzymes are essential for the functioning......, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), which is coded for by a single gene. In a previous paper (F. Hauser et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 241, 509-512, 1997) we have cloned the first known cnidarian PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. In the present paper we have determined...

  1. Reef fishes can recognize bleached habitat during settlement: sea anemone bleaching alters anemonefish host selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-05-25

    Understanding how bleaching impacts the settlement of symbiotic habitat specialists and whether there is flexibility in settlement choices with regard to habitat quality is essential given our changing climate. We used five anemonefishes (Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion latezonatus, Amphiprion ocellaris, Amphiprion percula and Premnas biaculeatus) and three host sea anemones (Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis crispa and Heteractis magnifica) in paired-choice flume experiments to determine whether habitat naive juveniles have the olfactory capabilities to distinguish between unbleached and bleached hosts, and how this may affect settlement decisions. All anemonefishes were able to distinguish between bleached and unbleached hosts, and responded only to chemical cues from species-specific host anemones irrespective of health status, indicating a lack of flexibility in host use. While bleached hosts were selected as habitat, this occurred only when unbleached options were unavailable, with the exception of A. latezonatus, which showed strong preferences for H. crispa regardless of health. This study highlights the potential deleterious indirect impacts of declining habitat quality during larval settlement in habitat specialists, which could be important in the field, given that bleaching events are becoming increasingly common. PMID:27226472

  2. Patterns of Symbiodinium spp. associations within the family Aiptasiidae, a monophyletic lineage of symbiotic of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Thornhill, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    Although the symbiotic relationships between dinoflagellates and cnidarians are well recognized, few studies have examined these associations from an evolutionary perspective. This is especially true for symbiotic sea anemones, in which many reports consist of an approximate species identification of the host, followed by the identification of the dinoflagellate symbiont using molecular genetic markers. To further explore the evolutionary history of sea anemone-dinoflagellate associations, we documented the diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in a monophyletic clade of sea anemones, the family Aiptasiidae. We combined information from several molecular genetic markers, including nuclear ITS2 and plastid cp23S-rDNA, to evaluate the patterns of evolution and diversification of Symbiodinium in the light of an existing phylogenetic framework for the sea anemone host. At the host family level, we found no evidence for coevolution or reciprocal phylogenies between host and endosymbiont. However, within some individual host species, Symbiodinium spp. exhibited patterns of host specialization and cladogenesis. This pattern suggests that coevolution between host and symbiont occurred within species and genera lineages, but that this process was regularly disrupted and symbiotic partners were recombined during the longer-term evolutionary history of the Aiptasiidae. Furthermore, we observed independent cases of phylogeographical partitioning of Symbiodinium within a single host species, suggesting that ecological speciation along an environmental gradient contributed to the diversity of associations found in nature.

  3. Menthol-induced bleaching rapidly and effectively provides experimental aposymbiotic sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) for symbiosis investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jennifer L; Sproles, Ashley E; Oakley, Clinton A; Grossman, Arthur R; Weis, Virginia M; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Experimental manipulation of the symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is crucial to advancing the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in host-symbiont interactions, and overall coral reef ecology. The anemone Aiptasia sp. is a model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, and notably it can be rendered aposymbiotic (i.e. dinoflagellate-free) and re-infected with a range of Symbiodinium types. Various methods exist for generating aposymbiotic hosts; however, they can be hugely time consuming and not wholly effective. Here, we optimise a method using menthol for production of aposymbiotic Aiptasia. The menthol treatment produced aposymbiotic hosts within just 4 weeks (97-100% symbiont loss), and the condition was maintained long after treatment when anemones were held under a standard light:dark cycle. The ability of Aiptasia to form a stable symbiosis appeared to be unaffected by menthol exposure, as demonstrated by successful re-establishment of the symbiosis when anemones were experimentally re-infected. Furthermore, there was no significant impact on photosynthetic or respiratory performance of re-infected anemones. PMID:26596538

  4. Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–5, together with five known saponins 6–10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia, HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma, A549 (lung carcinoma and HeLa (cervical carcinoma. The monodesmosidic saponins 6–8 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25–22.38 μM range.

  5. Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Jie ZOU; Yue-Sheng DONG; Jun-Shan YANG

    2005-01-01

    The roots of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey. have been used in the treatment of epilepsia,neurasthenia, and arthritis in Chinese folk medicine for a long time. In order to find new and bioactive compounds, the chemical constituents of the roots of A. altaica were investigated and nine compounds were isolated from the EtOH extract of this plant. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the structures of these compounds were elucidated as 4-(9H-β-carbolin-1-yl)-4-oxo-butyric acid (1), carboxymethyl isoferulate (2), isoferulic acid (3), cirsiumaldehyde (4), 5-hydroxy-4-oxo-pentanoic acid (5), triacontane (6), palmic acid (7), β-sitosterol (8), and daucosterol (9). Among them, 1 and 2 were new compounds, and 3 and 4 were obtained from this genus for the first time.

  6. Variation in partner benefits in a shrimp-sea anemone symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, C Seabird; O'Donnell, James L

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions, where two species occur in close physical proximity for the majority of the participants' lifespans, may constrain the fitness of one or both of the participants. Host choice could result in lineage divergence in symbionts if fitness benefits vary across the interaction with hosts. Symbiotic interactions are common in the marine environment, particularly in the most diverse marine ecosystems: coral reefs. However, the variation in symbiotic interactions that may drive diversification is poorly understood in marine systems. We measured the fecundity of the symbiotic shrimp Periclimenes yucatanicus on two anemone hosts on coral reefs in Panama, and found that while fecundity varies among host species, this variation is explained largely by host size, not species. This suggests that shrimp on larger hosts may have higher fitness regardless of host species, which in turn could drive selection for host choice, a proposed driver of diversification in this group. PMID:26618082

  7. Force-dependent discharge of nematocysts in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Verrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Todaro

    2012-05-01

    Sea anemones discharge cnidae (‘stinging capsules’ including nematocysts to capture prey and to defend themselves. In the present study, we tested the relationship between the force of test probes striking feeding tentacles and discharge of microbasic p-mastigophore nematocysts into the test probes. In seawater alone, the response curve is bimodal with maximal discharge observed at 0.33 and 1.10 millinewtons (mN and with minimal discharge at 1.50 mN. Upon activating chemoreceptors for N-acetylated sugars, maximal discharge is observed across a broad range of smaller forces from 0.16 to 0.9 mN before decreasing to a minimum at 1.50 mN. Likewise, in the presence of nearby vibrations at key frequencies, maximal discharge is observed over a broad range of smaller forces before decreasing to a minimum at 1.50 mN. It appears that sensory input indicating proximity of potential prey expands the range of small forces of impact that stimulate maximal discharge (i.e. to less than 1.10 mN but not at larger forces of impact (i.e. at approximately 1.50 mN. Thus, contact by small prey would stimulate maximal discharge, and all the more so if such contact is accompanied by specific odorants or by vibrations at specific frequencies. Nevertheless, anemones would not maximally discharge nematocysts into large animals that blunder into contact with their tentacles.

  8. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  9. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae from eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crowther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 680-960 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911. The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-west Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia.

  10. A sea anemone-like CuO/Co3O4 composite: an effective catalyst for electrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiumin; Guan, Guoqing; Du, Xiao; Cao, Ji; Hao, Xiaogang; Ma, Xuli; Jagadale, Ajay D; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-10-18

    A facile unipolar pulse electrodeposition combined with the thermal oxidation method was applied for fabrication of CuO/Co3O4 composites on carbon electrode for water electrolysis, and it was found that the sea anemone-like one with a 3D hierarchical structure formed at -0.8 V exhibited excellent performance for water electrolysis at a low overpotential with high stability. PMID:26311303

  11. Notes on the genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) and its host sea anemones in the Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, den, J.M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801, is represented in the Seychelles by two species, A. akallopisos Bleeker, 1853, and the endemic A. fuscocaudatus Allen, 1972. Throughout its distributional range Amphiprion akallopisos has exclusively been recorded to associate with the clownfish anemones Heteractis magnifica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) and Stichodactyla mertensii Brandt, 1835. During the Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme (NIOP) Seychelles Expedition 19921993 this was confirmed for the...

  12. Characterization, purification and phylogenetic analysis of a cytolysin from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica of the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karthikayalu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that sea anemones comprise a rich source of cytolytic toxins. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of a cytolysin obtained from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica collected in the Andaman Islands of the Indian Ocean. The crude extract was screened for hemolytic activity by a blood agar plate method and a 6-mm zone of clearance was observed after incubation. The hemolytic property of the crude extract, tested by the microtiter plate method, revealed positive results at concentrations as low as 120 ng/mL. Furthermore, it was favored by alkaline pH and was stable up to 60°C. On the other hand, the hemolytic effect was abolished by the addition of human serum. Purification steps involved ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent desalting by dialysis, followed by anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies. The purified fractions displayed the presence of a 19-kDa cytolysin when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The conserved region of the cytolysin (with 303 bp was amplified by RT-PCR and was sequenced. The sequence showed maximum homology (97% with the already reported cytolysins from other sea anemone species.

  13. Reproductive biology of the sea anemone shrimp Periclimenes rathbunae (Caridea, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa-Solano, Juan Carlos; Elizondo-Coto, Marcelo; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Caridean shrimps are a highly diverse group and many species form symbiotic relationships with different marine invertebrates. Periclimenes rathbunae is a brightly colored shrimp that lives predominantly in association with sea anemones. Information about the reproductive ecology of the species is scarce. Therefore, we collected 70 ovigerous females inhabiting the sun sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in coral reefs from the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Females produced on average 289 ± 120 embryos. The volume of recently-produced embryos was on average 0.038 mm3, and embryo volume increased by 192% during the incubation period. The average embryo mortality during embryogenesis was 24%. The reproductive output was 0.24 ± 0.094, considerably higher than in many other pontoniine shrimps. Females carrying embryos close to hatching showed fully developed ovaries, suggesting consecutive spawning. We assume that the sheltered habitat, living on sea anemones, allows Periclimenes rathbunae to allocate more energy in embryo production than most other free-living caridean shrimps. This is the first record of Periclimenes rathbunae for Costa Rica. PMID:25561838

  14. Fine-scale population structure of two anemones (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea

    KAUST Repository

    Gatins, Remy

    2014-12-01

    Anemonefish are one of the main groups that have been used over the last decade to empirically measure larval dispersal and connectivity in coral reef populations. A few species of anemones are integral to the life history of these fish, as well as other obligate symbionts, yet the biology and population structure of these anemones remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure the genetic structure of these anemones within and between two reefs in order to assess their reproductive mode and dispersal potential. To do this, we sampled almost exhaustively two anemones species (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) at two small islands in Kimbe Bay (Papua New Guinea) separated by approximately 25 km. Both the host anemones and the anemonefish are heavily targeted for the aquarium trade, in addition to the populations being affected by bleaching pressures (Hill and Scott 2012; Hobbs et al. 2013; Saenz- Agudelo et al. 2011; Thomas et al. 2014), therefore understanding their biology is crucial for better management strategies. Panels of microsatellite markers were developed for each species using next generation sequencing tools. Clonality analyses confirm six pairs of identical genotypes for S. gigantea (n=350) and zero for H. magnifica (n=128), indicating presence/absence of asexual reproduction in this region. S. gigantea showed low structure between islands (FST= 0.003, p-value= 0.000), however, even if the majority of the individuals were unrelated (r~0), 81 families that shared 50% of their genetic material formed from two to four members were found. Out of these families, 45% were found with individuals only within Tuare Island, 11% only in Kimbe Island, and 44% were sharing individuals among islands. In comparison, H. magnifica showed no structure (FST= 0.002, p-value= 0.278), mean relatedness indicated the majority of individuals were unrelated, and 31 families were identified. Families again consisted from two to four members and

  15. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Towanda

    2012-05-01

    Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO2 on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO2 and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO2, pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO2, pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O2 g−1 h−1. Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2% than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6% but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%. The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO2. Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO2.

  16. Re-description of Phymactis papillosa (Lesson, 1830) and Phymanthea pluvia (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa), two common actiniid sea anemones from the south east Pacific with a discussion of related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2004-01-01

    Actiniid sea anemones possess few characteristics of taxonomic value, which makes columnar outgrowths one of the most important features for systematic work. There are two species of actiniid sea anemones known from Chile and southern Peru that exhibit a column densely covered with non-adhesive vesi

  17. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa. PMID:26081482

  18. Iodine labelling of sea anemone toxin II, and binding to normal and denervated diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Sea anemone toxin II (ATX II) which keeps the activated sodium channels open, can be labelled at its histidine residues with 125I up to a specific radioactivity of 500 Ci/mmole. Upon intraventricular injection in mice, ATX II causes acute, short-lasting hyperexcitation and convulsions. Its LD50 in mice is between 25 and 50 ng of the native peptide, and between 50 and 100 ng of the radioactive material per animal. 2. The labelled peptide is bound to mouse diaphragm from where it can be displaced by ATX II and, even better, by scorpion neurotoxin but not by other basic peptides, e.g., histone or aprotinin. Binding is not significantly influenced by 50 mM potassium, by replacing sodium with choline, by veratridine or tetrodotoxin. In contrast to binding of α-bungarotoxin, binding of ATX II is not changed by denervation of the diaphragm. ATX II binds not only to the muscular but also to the tendinous moiety of the mouse diaphragm. 3. ATX II lowers the surface tension of water. Further experiments are needed to establish the usefulness of 125I-ATX for labelling sodium channels in excitable membranes. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Allyn; Sterling, Alphonse; Adams, Mitzi; Alexander, Caroline; Moore, Ronald; Woolley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120 arcseconds across), beginning at approximately 19:00 Universal Time on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 angstroms, 304 angstroms, and 94 angstroms, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  20. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn F.; Alexander, Caroline E.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Woolley, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120'' across), beginning at approximately 19:00 UT on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 Å, 304 Å, and 94 Å, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  1. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  2. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  3. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T García; D Martinez; A Palmero; C Soto; M Tejuca; F Pazos; R Menéndez; C Alvarez; A Garateix

    2009-12-01

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms. In guinea-pig erythrocytes ( = 3), St II possessed higher haemolytic activity in comparison with St I and this activity was lost at an alkaline pH. In molluscan central neurons ( = 30), they irreversibly decreased the amplitude of the cholinergic response; St I (EC50 0.6 molL–1) was more potent than St II (EC50 > 6.6 molL–1) and they both increased the duration of the action potential; these effects were absent at an alkaline pH. In guinea-pig isolated atrium ( = 25), both increased the amplitude of the contraction force, but St II was more potent than St I (EC50 0.03 molL–1 and 0.3 molL–1, respectively) and this effect persisted at an alkaline pH. In summary, both cytolysins have neuroactive and cardioactive properties. The main mechanism in molluscan neurons seems to be associated with the cytolytic activity of these molecules, whereas in guinea-pig atrium, the existence of an additional pharmacological mechanism might be contributing to the observed effect.

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of the Triterpenoid Saponins Biosynthetic Pathway in Anemone flaccida by Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chuansong; Li, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zeying; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Luo, Biaobiao; Zhang, Qiyun; Hu, Yanru; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as ‘Di Wu’ in China, is a perennial herb with limited distribution. The rhizome of A. flaccida has long been used to treat arthritis as a tradition in China. Studies disclosed that the plant contains a rich source of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known about triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in A. flaccida. Results: In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from A. flaccida. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97%) showed significant similarity (E-value HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and iTRAQ technique was shown to be a powerful method for the discovery of candidate genes, which encoded enzymes that were responsible for the biosynthesis of novel secondary metabolites in a non-model plant. The transcriptome data of our study provides a very important resource for the understanding of the triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis of A. flaccida. PMID:27504115

  5. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Simakov, Oleg; Esherick, Lisl Y; Liew, Yi Jin; Lehnert, Erik M; Michell, Craig T; Li, Yong; Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Guse, Annika; Oates, Matt E; Gough, Julian; Weis, Virginia M; Aranda, Manuel; Pringle, John R; Voolstra, Christian R

    2015-09-22

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal-algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal-algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome. PMID:26324906

  6. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2015-08-31

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal–algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal–algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome.

  7. Antifouling and Fungicidal Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Sea Anemone-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Ai; Shao, Chang-Lun; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Blum, Mathias; Gan, Li-She; Wang, Kai-Ling; Chen, Min; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-03-25

    Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, cochliomycins D-F, 1-3, and eight known analogues, 4-11, were isolated from the sea anemone-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. Compounds 1-4 are diastereomers differing from each other by the absolute configurations of the 4',5'-diol chiral centers. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established by the CD exciton chirality method and TDDFT ECD calculations. In antifouling assays, 1, 3-6, and 6a exhibited potent antifouling activities against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite at nontoxic concentrations, with EC50 values ranging from 1.82 to 22.5 μg/mL. Noticeably, fungicide whole-plant assays indicated that 6 showed excellent activity on the Plasmopara viticola preventative test at 6 ppm and concentration-dependent activity on the Phytophthora infestans preventative application at 200, 60, and 20 ppm. Preliminary structure-activity relationships are also discussed. PMID:24635109

  8. Changes of Cellular Superficial Configuration of Symbiotic Algae During Cultivation from Two Anemones Found in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  9. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE AND GEOGRAPHIC SUBDIVISION OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS)%小熊猫种群遗传结构和地理分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 饶刚; 魏辅文; 方盛国; 汤纯香; 玉手英利

    2002-01-01

    本文采用分子系统地理学的研究方法,对我国小熊猫 (Ailurus fulgens) 地理分布格局的形成原因进行了探讨.我们从四个地理单元的32号样品中成功地扩增出了371 bp的线粒体DNA控制区片段,在所有可比较的357 bp的序列中,发现29个变异位点,其中转换和颠换分别为21和8,没有插入/缺失.在四个地理单元中,共有16种线粒体DNA单倍型,且在各地理单元中都具有较高的单倍型的多态性.进一步分析表明,各单倍型之间的遗传距离平均为1.60%,76.59%的遗传差异发生在地理单元间,仅23.41%发生在单元内.分子变异分析和系统重建结果也表明,各地理单元之间不存在共享的单倍型,YN (云南地理单元) 与XL (相岭地理单元) 和QL (邛崃地理单元) 之间存在着显著的遗传分化,FST分别为0.336和0.351 (P0.05),单倍型缺乏比较明显的地理分布格局,各地理单元中的单倍型相互散布在不同的分布群中.经Fs检验(Fs=-10.121),并结合化石资料,我们认为由于受第四纪气候和环境变化的影响,小熊猫种群在进化过程中曾经历种群暴发而不断扩散,从而形成今天的分布格局.

  10. Tenacibaculum aiptasiae sp. nov., isolated from a sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2008-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated a4T, isolated from a sea anemone (Aiptasia pulchella) in Taiwan, was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain a4T was aerobic, Gram-negative, pale-yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped. It grew optimally at 30-35 degrees C, in the presence of 3-4 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The closest neighbours were Tenacibaculum lutimaris TF-26T (97.6 % similarity) and Tenacibaculum aestuarii SMK-4T (97.7 % similarity). The novel isolate could be distinguished from all Tenacibaculum species by several phenotypic characteristics. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 omega 7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, 19.6 %), iso-C15 : 0 (12.9 %), iso-C16 : 0 3-OH (10.2 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (9.9 %) and iso-C15 : 1 (9.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.0 mol%. Hence, genotypic and phenotypic data demonstrate that strain a4(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum aiptasiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is a4T (=BCRC 17655T =LMG 24004T). PMID:18398166

  11. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. PMID:26478191

  12. Identification of hemolytic and neuroactive fractions in the venom of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lagos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of biologically active substances. In crayfish muscle fibers, Bunodosoma cangicum whole venom selectively blocks the I K(Ca currents. In the present study, we report for the first time powerful hemolytic and neuroactive effects present in two different fractions obtained by gel-filtration chromatography from whole venom of B. cangicum. A cytolytic fraction (Bcg-2 with components of molecular mass ranging from 8 to 18 kDa elicited hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes with an EC50 = 14 µg/ml and a maximum dose of 22 µg/ml. The effects of the neuroactive fraction, Bcg-3 (2 to 5 kDa, were studied on isolated crab nerves. This fraction prolonged the compound action potentials by increasing their duration and rise time in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was evident after the washout of the preparation, suggesting the existence of a reversible substance that was initially masking the effects of an irreversible one. In order to elucidate the target of Bcg-3 action, the fraction was applied to a tetraethylammonium-pretreated preparation. An additional increase in action potential duration was observed, suggesting a blockade of a different population of K+ channels or of tetraethylammonium-insensitive channels. Also, tetrodotoxin could not block the action potentials in a Bcg-3-pretreated preparation, suggesting a possible interaction of Bcg-3 with Na+ channels. The present data suggest that B. cangicum venom contains at least two bioactive fractions whose activity on cell membranes seems to differ from the I K(Ca blockade described previously.

  13. Staining protocol for the histological study of sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria with recommendations for anesthesia and fixation of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the characteristics used in sea anemone taxonomy can only be examined through histological sections. Since there is no standardized procedure for this purpose, various anesthesia and fixation techniques applied to specimens of the intertidal species Anthopleura hermaphroditica and Bunodactis hermafroditica are discussed. Additionally, further modifications are proposed to the Masson's trichrome method according to the results obtained on these species. The combined effect of the short application of menthol crystals, together with small doses of MgCl2 were the most satisfactory anesthetics for maintaining the specimens expanded. The best preparations were obtained from samples fixed for several months in 8% seawater formalin; however, in order to achieve a good differentiation of the tissue, mordanting the samples with Bouin's fixative was necessary. Besides being a fast method, the modified Masson's trichrome gives very good contrasts between the epithelia and the mesoglea, and allows controlling the timing of differentiation during staining. The present paper includes suggestions and precautions and thus offers practical help for the histological study of sea anemones.

  14. Characterization of a novel EF-hand homologue, CnidEF, in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Laura L; Phillips, Wendy S; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-04-01

    The superfamily of EF-hand proteins is comprised of a large and diverse group of proteins that contain one or more characteristic EF-hand calcium-binding domains. This study describes and characterizes a novel EF-hand cDNA, CnidEF, from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). CnidEF was found to contain two EF-hand motifs near the C-terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence and two regions near the N-terminus that could represent degenerate EF-hand motifs. CnidEF homologues were also identified from two other sea anemone species. A combination of bioinformatic and molecular phylogenetic analyses was used to compare CnidEF to EF-hand proteins in other organisms. The closest homologues identified from these analyses were a luciferin binding protein (LBP) involved in the bioluminescence of the anthozoan Renilla reniformis, and a sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) involved in fluorescence of the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor. Predicted structure and folding analysis revealed a close association with bioluminescent aequorin (AEQ) proteins from the hydrozoan cnidarian Aequorea aequorea. Neighbor-joining analyses grouped CnidEF within the SARC lineage along with AEQ and other cnidarian bioluminescent proteins rather than in the lineage containing calmodulin (CAM) and troponin-C (TNC). PMID:17280859

  15. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Arnold (Institute for Advanced Study)

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  16. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that

  17. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction

  18. The rise of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model system to investigate development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, Michael J; Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous systems in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model system. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408-428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563

  19. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Taufiq, E-mail: mtur2@cam.ac.uk; Smith, Ewan St. John

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction.

  20. Pharmacological and biomedical properties of sea anemones Paracondactylis indicus, Paracondactylis sinensis, Heteractis magnificaand Stichodactyla haddonifrom East coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bragadeeswaran Subramanian; Thangaraj Sangappellai; Rajiv Chandra Rajak; Balaji Diraviam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the biomedical and pharmacological activity ofParacondactylis indicus (P. indicus),Paracondactylis sinensis(P. sinensis),Heteractis magnifica (H. magnifica) and Stichodactyla haddoni (S. haddoni).Methods: The live sea anemones were kept inside the glass bowl along with some amount of distilled water in an ice container for15 min. During stress condition, nematocysts released from the tentacles were collected and centrifuged at5 000 rpm for 15 min. The supernatant were collected in separate cleaned beakers for lyophilisation.Results:The protein content of crude extracts was15.2, 28.7, 18.2 and35.4μg/mL. In hemolytic assay, the P. indicus was sensitive (16.842 HT/mg) on chicken blood butP. sinensis was less sensitive (1.114 HT/mg) on chicken and goat blood. WhereasH. magnificaandS. haddoni showed hemolysis (0.879, 0.903 HT/mg and 56.263, 0.451 HT/mg) in chicken and goat blood. In antimicrobial assay, the methanol extract ofP. indicus showed maximum inhibition zone of9.7mm againstS. typhii andP. sinensisshowed9.8 mm againstK. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts. Whereas theH. magnifica andS. haddoni showed maximum of10 mm againstS. typhii, K. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts.Conclusions: The high toxic sea anemones may also contain some biologically active agents which has haemolytic, analgesic and anti-infilamatory activity.

  1. Induction of Apoptosis and Reduction of Endogenous Glutathione Level by the Ethyl-Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Methanol Extract of the Roots of Potentilla fulgens in Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Tripathy

    Full Text Available Potentilla fulgens root traditionally used as a folk remedy in Meghalaya, India. However, systematic evaluation of its anticancer efficacy was limited. We investigated the anticancer potentials of the various extracts prepared by partitioning of the methanol extract of the root with the aim to discover major contributing factors from the most effective fractions. Methanol extract of P. fulgens roots (PRE was prepared by maceration which was subsequently fractionated into hexane, ethyl-acetate (EA and n-butanol soluble fractions. Various assays (clonogenic assay, Flow cytometry analysis, western blot, semiquantitative RT-PCR and the level of endogenous glutathione were used to evaluate different parameters, such as Cell survivability, PARP-1 proteolysis, expression pattern of anti-apoptotic and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase heavy subunit (GCSC genes in both MCF-7 and U87 cancer cell lines. Since the EA-fraction showed most efficient growth inhibitory effect, it was further purified and a total of nine compounds and some monomeric and dimeric flavan-3-ols were identified and characterized. Three compounds viz., epicatechin (EC, gallic acid (GA and ursolic acid (UA were taken on the basis of their higher yield and 10 μg/ml of each was mixed together. The concentration used in this study for PRE, EA- and Hex-fraction was 100 μg/ml, which was higher than the IC50 value. Apoptotic cell death in the PRE, EA-fraction and EC+GA+UA treated cancer cell cultures was significantly greater than in normal cells due to suppression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 following treatment. Depletion of glutathione by downregulating GCSC was also observed. Induction of apoptosis and lowering the level of glutathione are considered to be positive activity for an anticancer agent. Therefore, modulation of GSH concentration in tumor cells by PRE and its EA-fraction opened up the possibility of a new therapeutic approach because these plant products are not harmful to

  2. Two variants of the major serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; González, Lidice; Mansur, Manuel; Machado, Yoan; Redecke, Lars; Hahn, Ulrich; Betzel, Christian; Chávez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    The major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-1) is a non-specific inhibitor that binds trypsin and other trypsin-like enzymes, as well as chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of ShPI-1 to produce two variants (rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S) that were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. After a single purification step, 65 mg and 15 mg of protein per liter of culture supernatant were obtained for rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S, respectively. Functional studies demonstrated a 100-fold decreased trypsin inhibitory activity as result of the K13L substitution at the reactive (P1) site. This protein variant has a novel tight-binding inhibitor activity of pancreatic elastase and increased activity toward neutrophil elastase in comparison to rShPI-1A. In contrast, the substitution Y15S at P2' site did not affect the Ki value against trypsin, but did reduce activity 10-fold against chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase. Our results provide two new ShPI-1 variants with modified inhibitory activities, one of them with increased biomedical potential. This study also offers new insight into the functional impact of the P1 and P2' sites on ShPI-1 specificity. PMID:26993255

  3. Comparative analysis and culturing of the microbial community of Aiptasia pallida, A Sea Anemone Model for Coral Biology

    KAUST Repository

    Binsarhan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Recent works has highlighted the contribution of microbes to animal function. In this regard, the microbial community associated with corals has become a growing field of research in order to understand how microbes contribute to the host organisms’ response to environmental changes. It has been shown that microbes associated with corals have important functions in the coral holobiont such as immunity and nutrient assimilation. However, corals are notoriously difficult to work with. To this end, the sea anemone Aiptasia is becoming a model organism for coral symbiosis. Given the importance of host-­microbiome interactions, the topic of this thesis is to assess microbial structure of Aiptasia, culture prominent bacterial members, and compare bacterial community structure to corals. Different molecular methods have been applied using 16S rRNA bacterial gene fragments to characterize the microbial composition of Aiptasia. 16S rRNA gene sequence derived from cultured bacteria was compared to 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from native Red Sea Aiptasia. Inter-­individual as well as methodological differences were found to account for variance in microbiome composition. However, all approaches showed a highly abundant microbial taxon belonging to the genus Alteromonas in all samples. The Alteromonas species was successfully isolated for further research targeting microbiome selection mechanisms in Aiptasia. Future investigations by using different molecular tools will help to define the functions and relationship between the Aiptasia and its complex microbiome.

  4. Studies on the comparison of pollen morphology and viability of four naturally distributed and commercial varieties of anemone coronaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study presents a comparison of the pollen morphology and viability of naturally distributed four varieties of Anemone coronaria L. These are A. coronaria var. coccinea (Jord.) Burn, A. coronaria var. rosea (Hanry) Batt, A. coronaria var. cyanea, A. coronaria var. alba Goaty and Pens) and its commercial cultivars. The four varieties were collected from areas near the road side along the Kirkagac-Soma highway in the State of Manisa. The commercial cultivars were obtained from the commercial flower growers in the Urla region of zmir. Pollen viability levels decreased in all commercial cultivars of A. coronaria. The highest reduction in pollen viability was recorded in A. coronaria pink cultivars of de Caen group. The general pollen type is prolate spheroidal in all pure forms, but there are some pollen morphological features which were not observed in the natural ones, although encountered in all commercial cultivars. On the other hand, various non-viable pollen types like wrinkled pollens, with abnormally shaped pollens or pollinia were found in the commercial cultivars. It was concluded that pesticides used to produce more flowers with rapid growth are the major cause for his reduction. Another reason could be the use of tetraploid F1 hybrids of A. coronaria cultivars of de Caen group as commercial samples. (author)

  5. Seeds Germination and Polyploid Induction by the Colchicine of Lychnis fulgens Fisch.%剪秋罗种子催芽及秋水仙碱诱导多倍体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宁; 李旦; 武永明; 曹芹; 夏昶; 张金凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of low germination rate in Lychnis fulgens seeds, influence on germinative force and germination rate in seed of Lychnis fulgens between stored and new seeds, different planting substrate and different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) pretreatment were compared. The result showed one year of stored seeds were better than when new seeds on seed indicators, then the seed may have a newborn sleep characteristics. Using 150 mg/L of GA3 pretreated the stored seeds for 24 h sown in petri dishes could get the highest germinative force of 76.33% and the highest germination rate of 85.33% . Germinated seeds were treated by different concentration of colchicine (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%) and different treating time (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h) to induce polyploidy. And morphologic, stoma and cytologio comparison between treated plants and CK were studied. The survival rate was generally low after colchicine treatment. Variative plants were obtained under each colchicine concentration and concentration of 0.10% was the optimal induction concentration with the higher mutagenic rate and lower death rate. Varieties plants showed differences on morphologic, stoma and cytological analysis to control plants. One polyploidy was obtained after identification. This study opened up a new way for breeding new cultivar of Lychnis fulg%为了解决剪秋罗种子发芽率不高的问题,以剪秋罗种子为试验材料,比较种子新旧、播种基质以及不同浓度赤霉素(GA3)对剪秋罗种子发芽势和发芽率的影响,并在此基础上利用不同浓度秋水仙碱和不同时间处理剪秋罗萌动种子诱导多倍体.通过形态鉴定、气孔鉴定以及细胞学鉴定变异植株.结果表明:存放1年的剪秋罗种子发芽指标均优于当年新种子,当年种子可能具有初生休眠特性.以150 mg/L的GA3预处理存放1年的剪秋罗种子24 h并播种于培养皿中能获得最高的发芽势(76.33

  6. Nme gene family evolutionary history reveals pre-metazoan origins and high conservation between humans and the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Desvignes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme functions. However, the evolutionary history of the family remains poorly understood outside the vertebrate lineage. The aim of the study was thus to elucidate the evolutionary history of the Nme gene family in Metazoans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a total of 21 eukaryote species including 14 metazoans, the evolutionary history of Nme genes was reconstructed in the metazoan lineage. We demonstrated that the complexity of the Nme gene family, initially thought to be restricted to chordates, was also shared by the metazoan ancestor. We also provide evidence suggesting that the complexity of the family is mainly a eukaryotic innovation, with the exception of Nme8 that is likely to be a choanoflagellate/metazoan innovation. Highly conserved gene structure, genomic linkage, and protein domains were identified among metazoans, some features being also conserved in eukaryotes. When considering the entire Nme family, the starlet sea anemone is the studied metazoan species exhibiting the most conserved gene and protein sequence features with humans. In addition, we were able to show that most of the proteins known to interact with human NME proteins were also found in starlet sea anemone. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our observations further support the association of Nme genes with key cellular functions that have been conserved throughout metazoan evolution. Future investigations of evolutionarily conserved Nme gene functions using the starlet sea anemone could shed new light on a wide variety of

  7. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptides are an important group of hormones mediating or modulating neuronal communication. Neuropeptides are especially abundant in evolutionarily "old" nervous systems, such as those of cnidarians, the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Cnidarians often have a life cycle including...... a polyp, a medusa, and a planula larva stage. Recently, a neuropeptide, isolated from sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a hydropolyp [Leitz, T., Morand, K. & Mann, M. (1994) Dev. Biol. 163, 440-446]. Here, we have cloned...

  8. Pre-bilaterian origins of the Hox cluster and the Hox code: evidence from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Ryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hox genes were critical to many morphological innovations of bilaterian animals. However, early Hox evolution remains obscure. Phylogenetic, developmental, and genomic analyses on the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis challenge recent claims that the Hox code is a bilaterian invention and that no "true" Hox genes exist in the phylum Cnidaria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analyses of 18 Hox-related genes from Nematostella identify putative Hox1, Hox2, and Hox9+ genes. Statistical comparisons among competing hypotheses bolster these findings, including an explicit consideration of the gene losses implied by alternate topologies. In situ hybridization studies of 20 Hox-related genes reveal that multiple Hox genes are expressed in distinct regions along the primary body axis, supporting the existence of a pre-bilaterian Hox code. Additionally, several Hox genes are expressed in nested domains along the secondary body axis, suggesting a role in "dorsoventral" patterning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A cluster of anterior and posterior Hox genes, as well as ParaHox cluster of genes evolved prior to the cnidarian-bilaterian split. There is evidence to suggest that these clusters were formed from a series of tandem gene duplication events and played a role in patterning both the primary and secondary body axes in a bilaterally symmetrical common ancestor. Cnidarians and bilaterians shared a common ancestor some 570 to 700 million years ago, and as such, are derived from a common body plan. Our work reveals several conserved genetic components that are found in both of these diverse lineages. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that a set of developmental rules established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians is still at work today.

  9. Spatial gene expression quantification: a tool for analysis of in situ hybridizations in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botman Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial gene expression quantification is required for modeling gene regulation in developing organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is the model system most widely applied for spatial gene expression analysis due to its unique embryonic properties: the shape does not change significantly during its early cleavage cycles and most genes are differentially expressed along a straight axis. This system of development is quite exceptional in the animal kingdom. In the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis the embryo changes its shape during early development; there are cell divisions and cell movement, like in most other metazoans. Nematostella is an attractive case study for spatial gene expression since its transparent body wall makes it accessible to various imaging techniques. Findings Our new quantification method produces standardized gene expression profiles from raw or annotated Nematostella in situ hybridizations by measuring the expression intensity along its cell layer. The procedure is based on digital morphologies derived from high-resolution fluorescence pictures. Additionally, complete descriptions of nonsymmetric expression patterns have been constructed by transforming the gene expression images into a three-dimensional representation. Conclusions We created a standard format for gene expression data, which enables quantitative analysis of in situ hybridizations from embryos with various shapes in different developmental stages. The obtained expression profiles are suitable as input for optimization of gene regulatory network models, and for correlation analysis of genes from dissimilar Nematostella morphologies. This approach is potentially applicable to many other metazoan model organisms and may also be suitable for processing data from three-dimensional imaging techniques.

  10. Developing the anemone Aiptasia as a tractable model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis: the transcriptome of aposymbiotic A. pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Erik M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reefs are hotspots of oceanic biodiversity, forming the foundation of ecosystems that are important both ecologically and for their direct practical impacts on humans. Corals are declining globally due to a number of stressors, including rising sea-surface temperatures and pollution; such stresses can lead to a breakdown of the essential symbiotic relationship between the coral host and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, a process known as coral bleaching. Although the environmental stresses causing this breakdown are largely known, the cellular mechanisms of symbiosis establishment, maintenance, and breakdown are still largely obscure. Investigating the symbiosis using an experimentally tractable model organism, such as the small sea anemone Aiptasia, should improve our understanding of exactly how the environmental stressors affect coral survival and growth. Results We assembled the transcriptome of a clonal population of adult, aposymbiotic (dinoflagellate-free Aiptasia pallida from ~208 million reads, yielding 58,018 contigs. We demonstrated that many of these contigs represent full-length or near-full-length transcripts that encode proteins similar to those from a diverse array of pathways in other organisms, including various metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and neuropeptide precursors. The contigs were annotated by sequence similarity, assigned GO terms, and scanned for conserved protein domains. We analyzed the frequency and types of single-nucleotide variants and estimated the size of the Aiptasia genome to be ~421 Mb. The contigs and annotations are available through NCBI (Transcription Shotgun Assembly database, accession numbers JV077153-JV134524 and at http://pringlelab.stanford.edu/projects.html. Conclusions The availability of an extensive transcriptome assembly for A. pallida will facilitate analyses of gene-expression changes, identification of proteins of interest, and other studies in this

  11. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the KD values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of [125I]-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace [125I]-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin

  12. Evolution of an ancient venom: recognition of a novel family of cnidarian toxins and the common evolutionary origin of sodium and potassium neurotoxins in sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Sunagar, Kartik; Federman Gross, Aya; Scheib, Holger; Alewood, Paul F; Moran, Yehu; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    Despite Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) being the oldest venomous animal lineage, structure-function relationships, phyletic distributions, and the molecular evolutionary regimes of toxins encoded by these intriguing animals are poorly understood. Hence, we have comprehensively elucidated the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary histories of pharmacologically characterized cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs). We show that despite long evolutionary histories, most cnidarian toxins remain conserved under the strong influence of negative selection-a finding that is in striking contrast to the rapid evolution of toxin families in evolutionarily younger lineages, such as cone snails and advanced snakes. In contrast to the previous suggestions that implicated SCRiPs in the biomineralization process in corals, we demonstrate that they are potent neurotoxins that are likely involved in the envenoming function, and thus represent the first family of neurotoxins from corals. We also demonstrate the common evolutionary origin of type III KTxs and NaTxs in sea anemones. We show that type III KTxs have evolved from NaTxs under the regime of positive selection, and likely represent a unique evolutionary innovation of the Actinioidea lineage. We report a correlation between the accumulation of episodically adaptive sites and the emergence of novel pharmacological activities in this rapidly evolving neurotoxic clade. PMID:25757852

  13. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...

  14. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis coliumen

  15. The role of complement in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ePoole

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1 characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone A. pallida, (2 investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3 examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggests that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together these results indicate functional divergence between Ap

  16. Generation and analysis of transcriptomic resources for a model system on the rise: the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate endosymbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunagawa Shinichi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment, maintenance, and breakdown of the symbiotic partnership are, however, not well understood. Efforts to dissect these questions have been slow, as corals are notoriously difficult to work with. In order to expedite this field of research, we generated and analyzed a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont (Symbiodinium sp., a system that is gaining popularity as a model to study cellular, molecular, and genomic questions related to cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses. Results A set of 4,925 unique sequences (UniSeqs comprising 1,427 clusters of 2 or more ESTs (contigs and 3,498 unclustered ESTs (singletons was generated by analyzing 10,285 high-quality ESTs from a mixed host/symbiont cDNA library. Using a BLAST-based approach to predict which unique sequences derived from the host versus symbiont genomes, we found that the contribution of the symbiont genome to the transcriptome was surprisingly small (1.6–6.4%. This may reflect low levels of gene expression in the symbionts, low coverage of alveolate genes in the sequence databases, a small number of symbiont cells relative to the total cellular content of the anemones, or failure to adequately lyse symbiont cells. Furthermore, we were able to identify groups of genes that are known or likely to play a role in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses, including oxidative stress pathways that emerged as a prominent biological feature of this transcriptome. All ESTs and UniSeqs along with annotation results and other tools have been made accessible through the implementation of a publicly accessible database named AiptasiaBase. Conclusion We have established the first large-scale transcriptomic resource for

  17. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

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    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  18. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

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    Lachlan D. Rash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3.

  19. Triterpenoid saponin flaccidoside II from Anemone flaccida triggers apoptosis of NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors via the MAPK-HO-1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han LT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lin-tao Han,1 Yin Fang,1 Yan Cao,2 Feng-hua Wu,1 E Liu,2 Guo-yan Mo,2 Fang Huang1 1China Key Laboratory of TCM Resource and Prescription, Ministry of Education, 2Department of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are highly aggressive soft tissue neoplasms that are extremely rare and are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. MPNSTs are typically fatal, and there is no effective treatment so far. In our previous study, we showed that flaccidoside II, one of the triterpenoid saponins isolated from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, has antitumor potential by inducing apoptosis. In the present study, we found that flaccidoside II inhibits proliferation and facilitates apoptosis in MPNST cell lines ST88-14 and S462. Furthermore, this study provides a mechanism by which the downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways is involved in the apoptotic role of flaccidoside II. This study suggested the potential of flaccidoside II as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for MPNSTs. Keywords: flaccidoside II, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, apoptosis, MAPK, HO-1

  20. Characterization of the Cadherin-Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell-Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W; Lowe, Christopher J; Weis, William I; Nelson, William James

    2016-08-01

    The cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell-cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin-catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  1. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  2. Characterization of the Cadherin–Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell–Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Weis, William I.; Nelson, William James

    2016-01-01

    The cadherin–catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell–cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin–catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  3. Primary structure of the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (less than Glu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Schmutzler, C; Diekhoff, D; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptides containing the carboxylterminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 are found throughout the animal kingdom and are important substances mediating neuronal communication. Here, we have cloned the cDNA coding for the precursor protein of the sea anemone neuropeptide (Antho-RFamide) less than Glu......-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. This precursor is 334 amino acids in length and contains 19 copies of unprocessed Antho-RFamide (Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-Gly), which are tandemly arranged in the C-terminal part of the protein. Paired basic residues (Lys-Arg) or single basic residues (Arg) occur at the C-terminal side of each Antho...... glutamic acid residues. Such processing is, to our knowledge, hitherto unknown for peptidergic neurons. The Antho-RFamide precursor also contains two copies of the putative Antho-RFamide-related peptide Phe-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 and one copy of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Arg-Tyr-NH2. In addition, the precursor protein...

  4. Floral Morphogenesis of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var.flore-minore Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) with Special Emphasis on Androecium Developmental Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li CHANG; Yi REN; An-Min LU

    2005-01-01

    The floral morphogenesis and androecium developmental sequence of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. flore-minore Maxim. were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM)and by means of histological methods in order to expand our knowledge of the morphogenesis and development of the floral organs of the Ranunculaceae. The initiation of the floral elements is a centripetal spiral and the direction of the spiral is clockwise or anti-clockwise. However, the development of the androecium is highly unusual: in a longitudinal series of four stamens, the second stamen develops first from the inner to outer, then the third one, the fourth one and the first one in turn. The microsporogenesis and anther maturation follows the same developmental sequence. The tepals are different from the bracts and the stamens in both shape and size in the early developmental stage, but there is no difference between the stamens and carpels in the early developmental stage. Therefore, we established a spatio-temporal process of the floral morphogenesis of4. rivularis var.flore-minore and offer another meaning of the floral diversity patterns attributed to the level of the genus.

  5. Evidence for participation of GCS1 in fertilization of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: Implication of a common mechanism of sperm–egg fusion in plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GCS1 is a sperm transmembrane protein that is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. • The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals. • NvGCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and GCS1 protein exists in sperm of a sea anemone. • Anti-GCS1 antibodies inhibited the fertilization, showing the participation in fertilization. - Abstract: It has been reported that GCS1 (Generative Cell Specific 1) is a transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed in sperm cells and is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals, implying the occurrence of a common or ancestral mechanism of GCS1-mediated gamete fusion. In order to elucidate the common mechanism, we investigated the role of GCS1 in animal fertilization using a sea anemone (Cnidaria), Nematostella vectensis. Although the existence of the GCS1 gene in N. vectensis has been reported, the expression of GCS1 in sperm and the role of GCS1 in fertilization are not known. In this study, we showed that the GCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and that GCS1 protein exists in sperm by in situ hybridization and proteomic analysis, respectively. Then we made four peptide antibodies against the N-terminal extracellular region of NvGCS1. These antibodies specifically reacted to NvGCS1 among sperm proteins on the basis of Western analysis and potently inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that sperm GCS1 plays a pivotal role in fertilization, most probably in sperm–egg fusion, in a starlet sea anemone, suggesting a common gamete-fusion mechanism shared by eukaryotic organisms

  6. 雌性小熊猫粪样中雌二醇与孕酮水平的变化与繁殖启动的关系%Relationship Between Fecal Estradiol and Progesterone Concentrations and Reproductive Startup in Female Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 魏辅文; 胡锦矗

    2005-01-01

    于1999年12月-2000年4月在成都动物园和成都大熊猫繁育研究基地,用放射免疫分析法测定了4只雌性小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)粪样中雌二醇(E2)和孕酮(P)水平的变化,同时对其交配行为进行了观察.研究结果表明:雌性小熊猫进入发情期后,粪样中E2迅速升高,并多次出现峰值,表明小熊猫可能是季节性多发情动物.交配行为发生前E2出现峰值,P水平上升,说明E2和P是启动雌性小熊猫交配行为的重要因素;未伴随有P水平相对上升的E2峰值不能引起雌性小熊猫发生交配行为,该现象为暗发情.交配行为发生后P水平持续升高,据此推断小熊猫的排卵方式可能是诱导排卵,诱导因子是交配刺激.

  7. Characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of melanin in Ascochyta anemones%白头翁叶斑病菌黑色素的理化性质及其生物合成途径初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 吕国忠; 周如军; 杨红; 傅俊范

    2014-01-01

    对白头翁叶斑病菌胞壁结合黑色素和胞外黑色素进行了理化性质和红外光谱扫描测定,结果表明两者具有相似的理化性质,均易溶于KOH、H2 O2和NaClO,不溶于水、乙醇和丙酮。红外光谱分析表明,白头翁叶斑病菌YS-24菌株的胞壁结合黑色素与胞外黑色素为同一种类型的黑色素。DHN黑色素的特异性抑制剂—三环唑,对白头翁叶斑病菌黑色素的产生有明显的抑制作用;以白头翁叶斑病菌基因组DNA为模板,通过PCR扩增,得到了聚酮体合成酶基因的同源片段AaPKS,初步推断白头翁叶斑病菌黑色素合成属于DHN途径。%The characteristics of melanin,extracted from cell wall and fermented filtrate of Ascochyta anemones, were determined by diagnostic test and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that they have similar physical and chemical properties,and they are soluble in KOH,H2 O2 and NaClO,but not in water,ethanol and acetone. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that the wall-bound melanin and extracellular melanin belonged to the same type. Tricyclazole,a specific inhibitor of DHN melanin synthesis,could inhibit the fungal melanin’s biosynthesis of A.anemones. The homologous fragment of polyketide synthase gene (AaPKS)was amplified by PCR using A.anemones genomic DNA as a template. The results suggested that the melanin in A.anemones might be synthe-sized from DHN pathway.

  8. CgNa, a type I toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea shows structural similarities to both type I and II toxins, as well as distinctive structural and functional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda, Emilio; Pérez-Castells, Javier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Garateix, Anoland; Salazar, Hector; López, Omar; Aneiros, Abel; Ständker, Ludger; Béress, Lászlo; Forssmann, Wolf Georg; Soto, Enrique; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract CgNa is a toxin from the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea that is comprised of 47-residues. The structure of CgNa, solved by 1}H NMR spectroscopy, is somewhat atypical, displaying significant homologies to both type I and II anemonae toxins, as well as a considerable number of exceptions to what are considered as canonical structural elements of this group of toxins, and that are thought to be essential for their activity. Furthermore, unique residues in CgNa define a cha...

  9. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  10. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM AN ANEMONE ACTIVE REGION: RECONNECTION AND DEFLECTION OF THE 2005 AUGUST 22 ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a three-dimensional thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic model, the space weather modeling framework. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of an Hα filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find that the effect of the Lorentz force is a deflection of the CME by about 30 R-1sun toward the east during the first 30 minutes of the propagation. We also produce coronagraphic and EUV images of the CME, which we compare with real images, identifying a dimming region associated with the reconnection process. We discuss the implication of our results for the arrival at Earth of CMEs originating from the limb and for models to explain the presence of open field lines in magnetic clouds.

  11. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Adam G.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  12. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Marsh

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis. Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to

  13. 小熊猫小脑皮层的组织结构及RT-97、KGF和Bax蛋白在小脑皮层的表达%Histological Structure and Expression of RT-97, KGF and Bax Proteins in the Cerebellar Cortex of Ailurus fulgens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高先军; 王昱; 俞诗源; 王悦; 郭婷婷

    2009-01-01

    为了解小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)小脑皮层的结构特征,观察神经丝蛋白抗体RT-97、角质细胞生长因子(KGF)及Bax蛋白在小脑皮层中的表达,利用组织学方法和免疫组织化学方法观察了小熊猫小脑皮层的显微结构,检测了RT-97、KGF和Bax蛋白的表达.结果表明,小脑皮层从外向内依次可分为分子层、Purkinje细胞层、颗粒层3层.RT-97在小熊猫小脑皮层Purkinje细胞层、颗粒层中神经细胞的轴突、分子层中颗粒细胞的轴突及小脑髓质中有阳性表达;KGF在小脑皮层分子层、Purkinje细胞层和颗粒细胞层及髓质中均有阳性表达;Bax蛋白在小脑皮层分子层、Purkinje细胞层和颗粒细胞层中有阳性表达.RT-97、KGF和Bax蛋白在小脑皮层神经结构的构筑中可能发挥着不同的功能.

  14. 国产毛茛科银莲花族十七种植物的细胞学研究%Cytology of ten species in Anemone,one in Anemoclema and six in Clematis (Trib. Anemoneae, Ranunculaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亲二

    2002-01-01

    研究了国产毛茛科银莲花族Trib. Anemoneae 17种植物的染色体数目和核型.10种银莲花属Anemone L.植物中,1种(西南银莲花A. davidii)为x=8的四倍体(2n=4x=32),5种 (匍枝银莲花A. stolonifera、草玉梅A. rivularis、卵叶银莲花A. begoniifolia、水棉花 A. hupehensis f. alba、大火草A. tomentosa)为x=8的二倍体 (2n=2x=16), 4种 (鹅掌草A. flaccida、湿地银莲花A. rupestris、蓝匙叶银莲花A. trullifolia var. colestina、拟条叶银莲花A. trullifolia var. holophylla、展毛银莲花A. demissa) 为x=7 的二倍体 (2n=2x=14).罂粟莲花 Anemoclema glaucifolium为x=8 的二倍体.6种铁线莲属Clematis L. 植物 (滇川铁线莲C. kockiana、长花铁线莲 C. rehderiana、毛茛铁线莲 C. ranunculoides、扬子铁线莲C. puberula var. ganpiniana、短尾铁线莲 C. brevicaudata、金毛铁线莲 A. chrysocoma)均为 x=8的二倍体.银莲花属中x=7的种类的核型彼此十分相似,均由6对大型具中部着丝点的染色体和1对具端部着丝点的染色体组成;x=8的二倍体种类的核型与罂粟莲花属和铁线莲属植物的核型十分相似,均由5对大型具中部着丝点和3对具端部或近端部着丝点的染色体组成.%The somatic chromosome number and detailed chromosome morphology have been studied in ten species of Anemone, one species of Anemoclema, and six species of Clematis, all from China, namely Anemone davidii Franch. (2n=4x=32), A. stolonifera Maxim. (2n=2x=16), A. flaccida Fr. Schmidt (2n=2x=14), A. rivularis Buch.-Ham. (2n=2x=16), A. begoniifolia Lévl. et Vant. (2n=2x=16), A. hupehensis Lem. f. alba W. T. Wang (2n=2x =16), A. tomentosa (Maxim.) Péi (2n=2x=16), A. rupestris Hook. f. et Thoms. (2n=2x=14), A. trullifolia var. colestina (Franch.) Finet et Gagnep. (2n=2x=14), A. trullifolia var. holophylla Diels (2n=2x=14), A. demissa Hook. f. et Thoms. (2n=2x=14), Anemoclema glaucifolium (Franch.) W. T. Wang (2n=2x=16), Clematis kockiana Schneid. (2n=2x=16

  15. Functional Expression in Escherichia coli of the Disulfide-Rich Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2, a Potent Blocker of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn F. King

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated sodium channels present in the central and peripheral nervous system of chordates. ASIC3 is highly expressed in sensory neurons and plays an important role in inflammatory and ischemic pain. Thus, specific inhibitors of ASIC3 have the potential to be developed as novel analgesics. APETx2, isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, is the most potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels. However, the mechanism of action of APETx2 and the molecular basis for its interaction with ASIC3 is not known. In order to assist in characterizing the ASIC3-APETx2 interaction, we developed an efficient and cost-effective Escherichia coli periplasmic expression system for the production of APETx2. NMR studies on uniformly 13C/15N-labelled APETx2 produced in E. coli showed that the recombinant peptide adopts the native conformation. Recombinant APETx2 is equipotent with synthetic APETx2 at inhibiting ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using this system we mutated Phe15 to Ala, which caused a profound loss of APETx2’s activity on ASIC3. These findings suggest that this expression system can be used to produce mutant versions of APETx2 in order to facilitate structure-activity relationship studies.

  16. 香格里拉高山植物园银莲花属访花者初步研究%Preliminary Investigation on Visitors of Anemone in Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓辛; 黄至欢; 王向平; 张潮

    2012-01-01

    Visitors of three species of Anemone were compared in Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden in this article, and the visitors of A. demissa with different floral colors were observed and compared. The results indicated that A, ruptstris and A. rivutaris have more visitor types than A. demissa. The visiting frequency of different visitors to A. demissa with different flower colors is not significantly different, and floral color and visitor types have no significant effect on visiting frequency. Further study should focus on flower color change in A. demissa, so as to provide conditions for exploiting wild flower resources.%对香格里拉高山植物园3种银莲花属植物的访花者进行比较,并对不同颜色展毛银莲花的访问者进行观察和比较.结果表明,湿地银莲花与草玉梅的访花者种类较多,而展毛银莲花的则相对较少.访问者不同对花色展毛银莲花的访问次数没有明显差异,颜色不同和访问者不同对访问频次没有明显影响.应对展毛银莲花的花色变化进行深入研究,为开发利用野生花卉资源创造条件.

  17. 紫色色杆菌感染小熊猫引起肺炎的临床调查%Clinical investigation of pneumonia in the red panda(Ailurus fulgens)caused by the non-pigmented strain of Chromobacterium violaceum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修云芳; 邵良平; 李碧春; 徐素慧; 吴尚明; 王隆伯; 王德春; 周伦江; 陈玉村

    2011-01-01

    This clinical investigation reports several cases of pneumonia in the red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) which occurred at Fuzhou Giant Panda Research Center in July, 2008. Among 7 infected animals, 3 red pandas died within 3 days after showing symptoms of high fever and severe respiratory disease. Necropsy results showed a white foamy discharge in the trachea; suppurative necrosis and massive congestion in the lung; turbid pleural and pericardial effusions; a liver with multiple atrophic foci and focal congestive necrosis. Through bacterial isolation and identification, the pathogen was confirmed to be non-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum. Based on GenBank database of 16S RNA gene sequences for Chromobacterium violaceum, primer pairs ( 5' GAG CAA ACA GGA TTA GAT ACC 3 '; 5' TTA CGG TrA CCT TGT TAC GAC 3' )were designed to amplify a 739 bp gene fragment by PCR. The nucleotide sequences obtained subsequently were compared to seven strains of Chromobacterium violaceum from the GenBank database and found to be 98.8% identical to strains CV09c and ESBV4400 as well as 98.2%, 98.0%, 94.9%, 93.1% and 92.8% identical to strains AY117554, EAV2,AJ871127, LMG3953 and JS1, respectively. Intraperitoneal inoculation of 5 mice with the isolated pathogen culture resulted in the death of all mice within 2 - 3 days, a reflection of the virulence of this isolate. Several measures were implemented to control the spread of infection including disinfecting of the grounds, housing environment, and water supply. We further tested the clinical isolate for antibiotic susceptibility and based on these findings, the 4 remaining asymptomatic pandas were all treated twice daily intramuscularly with Cefoperazone sodium for two days in combination with oral dosing of Sulfamethoxazole twice a day for four days, and no new case was seen after the treatments. This investigation indicates that the rapid onset of infection and high fatality rate of Chromobacterium violaceum in the red panda

  18. Actiniarian Sea anemone fauna of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sea anemone [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nia_equina_S.png Actinia_equina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=NS ...

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. Despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of Cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. In this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. Using a PCR approach, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected from 110 captive lesser pandas held throughout China (approximately one third of the captive population). We determined Cryptosporidium species via a BLAST comparison of our sequences against those of published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. We report that captive lesser pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni, at a prevalence of 6.36 % (7/110). The present investigation revealed the existence of C. andersoni infection in captive lesser panda and suggested that proper control measures should be taken carefully to protect the welfare of zoo workers and visitors. PMID:25563613

  1. Diseases of Red Panda(Ailurus fulgens)%圈养小熊猫的疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴金

    2007-01-01

    小熊猫作为一种高度特化的素食性食肉目动物,在分类、系统进化及生态学等领域具有十分重要的研究价值,也是动物园里具有很高观赏价值的一种动物.为了更好地保护小熊猫免受疾病侵扰,做到有针对性的疾病预防,对近年来有关小熊猫疾病的报道进行了总结,并按病毒病、细菌病、真菌病、寄生虫病、代谢病、中毒病等进行了分类介绍.

  2. Successful breeding of Lesser Panda (Ailurus Fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825) and loss through inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erken, A.H.M.; Jacobi, E.F.

    1972-01-01

    Die Kleinen Pandas züchteten in einem kleinen Außengehege mit Regenschutz und Käfigen. Das Männchen war bei der Zucht 5 Jahre alt, die Weibchen erwachsen (Alter unbekannt). Die Paarung fand im Januar/Februar statt, die Geburt im Juni. Die Tragzeit betrug 125 bis 132 (155?) Tage. Der Grund für die Un

  3. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanli Kong

    Full Text Available The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16 and captive (n = 6 red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo.

  4. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Yossi Tal; Ari Ayalon; Agnesa Sharaev; Zoya Kazir; Vera Brekhman; Tamar Lotan

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the fi...

  5. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, D; Demoulin, P; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Green, L M; Steed, K; Carlyle, J

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EIS instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359 arcsec x 485 arcsec. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the AR age, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP b...

  6. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  7. Comparative Chromosome Painting Shows the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) Has A Highly Conserved Karyotype%比较染色体涂色显示小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)具有高度保守的核型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田颖; 佴文惠; 王金焕; 杨云飞; 杨凤堂

    2002-01-01

    以狗的整条染色体特异探针,通过比较染色体涂色(Comparative Chromosome Painting),建立了小熊猫和狗的比较染色体图谱.狗的38条常染色体探针在小熊猫染色体上共检出71个同源片段.其中狗的18条常染色体每一条在小熊猫染色体上各有1个同源片段,其余的20条常染色体每一条在小熊猫染色体上各有2至5个同源片段.广泛的染色体结构重排造成了小熊猫与狗的核型差异:至少需要经过28次断裂,49次融合,4次倒位才能将狗的核型(2n=78)"转变"为小熊猫的核型(2n=36).结合已发表的狗与家猫的比较染色体图谱,我们推测:小熊猫与家猫之间共存在26个同源片段,二者的核型之间显示了较高的同源性.通过比较分析狗的染色体同源片段在小熊猫与家猫染色体上的分布和排列,可以看出:4次染色体易位,2次倒位造成了小熊猫与家猫的核型差异.我们的工作进一步证实了利用基因组高度重排的物种(如:狗)的染色体特异探针与核型保守的物种(如:家猫、水貂、小熊猫)进行比较染色体涂色研究,不但可以准确快速地鉴别物种进化过程中所发生的染色体间的结构重排,而且还可揭示染色体内的结构重组.

  8. 云南省小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)资源分布及保护现状%The Current Distribution,Population and Conservation Status of Ailurus fulgens in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡刚; 杜勇

    2002-01-01

    小熊猫的2个亚种在云南省均有分布,但其现行主要分布区已退缩至云南西北部的偏远山区和东北部的威信、彝良一带.其中,指名亚种分布于怒江以西地区,川西亚种分布于怒江以东地区.调查表明,云南省小熊猫分布区森林面积共21 685.1 km2,小熊猫的栖息地面积仅为10 634.20 km2,其中密集分布区栖息地面积为5 741.34 km2,一般分布区为4 743.56 km2,稀有分布区为149.30 km2.云南省小熊猫现存种群数量估计为2 000~2 600只.大面积的栖息地丧失和偷猎是小熊猫种群下降的主要原因.在云南省已建立的与小熊猫保护有关的自然保护区有7个,有林地总面积达5 554.98 km2,占云南省小熊猫分布区森林面积的25.65%.

  9. Artificial Raising of Red Panda(Ailurus fulgens)Kit%小熊猫人工育幼的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄松; 吴晓云; 刘成; 徐梦莎

    2008-01-01

    2007年7~10月,昆明动物园对1只小熊猫幼仔进行人工育幼,提供适宜的育幼条件,采用兔奶与人工乳制品相结合饲喂,终于获得成功.同时结合前几年昆明动物园小熊猫人工育幼失败的教训及其他动物园成功的经验,指出了小熊猫人工育幼成败的关键因素在于适宜的环境条件,合理的饲料配给,精心的护理,特别是饲喂适合的动物乳汁可大大提高人工育幼条件下小熊猫幼仔的成活率.

  10. Normal Behavior Training of Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)%小熊猫的常规行为训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽芬; 朱岩; 张旭升; 孙伟明

    2013-01-01

    对小熊猫进行常规行为训练的目的是减少人为应激对小熊猫的影响,方便兽医对小熊猫进行疾病预防、诊断与治疗,同时有助于了解小熊猫的生长状况,更是为了增进人和动物的和谐关系,提高动物福利.小熊猫的行为训练在正常饲喂时间进行,主要在小熊猫采食牛奶稀饭或苹果的过程中对其进行分步式、渐进式、强化式训练.通过1a时间的训练,动物园内饲养的4只小熊猫都能主动配合训练者完成肌注、采血、心率测定、体温测量、体重称量、眼睛检查.

  11. Ecological Research Status of Ailurus fulgens, China%中国小熊猫生态学研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 张明海; 刘振生

    2011-01-01

    概述了中国小熊猫的分布现状、栖息地状况,进一步阐明了目前对我国小熊猫的研究主要集中在生境和食物选择方面,且研究地区主要在四川进行,分析了我国小熊猫保护面临的受到人类活动的干扰、森林过度采伐、乱捕滥猎等问题,提出了加大投入、扩大保护面积、建立和实施保护补偿制度、提高公众保护意识以及加强科学研究等相应的保护对策.

  12. Breeding of Red Panda(Ailurus fulgens)in Captivity%小熊猫的圈养繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴金; 黎绘宏; 李婉萍; 黄志宏

    2008-01-01

    讨论了广州地区圈养繁殖小熊猫的技术要点,基于小熊猫行为研究的笼舍环境设计,以及圈养小熊猫的日粮组成和营养水平,提出了适度驯化有助于动物管理、生物安全防制疾病的观点.

  13. Environ: E00407 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00407 Anemone altaica rhizome ... Rhizoma anemone Crude drug Anemone altaica, Anemone [TAX:22868] R ... anunculaceae (buttercup family) Anemone altaica rhizome ... (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: oth ... culaceae (buttercup family) E00407 Anemone altaica rhizome ...

  14. Distribution, habitat use and ecology of deepwater Anemones (Actiniaria) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Archie W.; Daly, Marymegan

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of deepwater Actiniaria is poorly known. Rarely are these organisms identified to family, as this requires both well-preserved specimens and taxonomic expertise. Ecological information is similarly lacking. From the results of a comprehensive surveying program in the deep Gulf of Mexico, we report the occurrence of nine species of Actiniaria. For the most abundant four of these, we plot distributions and discuss habitat use, morphological variation, and feeding strategies. Actiniaria in the Gulf appear to have broad, basin-wide distributions with little depth preference. Faunal biomass is highest in the NE Gulf within submarine canyons or at the base of slope escarpments. Attachment mode is mostly opportunistic on various types of hard substrata, including trash. Sediment-dwelling forms are very abundant at an organically rich site within a large submarine canyon.

  15. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Thums, Michele; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Furby, Kathryn A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of a...

  16. HISTOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE SEA ANEMONE A. PALLIDA TO BLEACHING INDUCING STRESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Fransolet, David

    2014-01-01

    Tropical Coral reefs are among the richest and most important ecosystem on Earth. This success would not be possible without the symbiosis established between corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium that provide them with photosynthesis-derived carbon. Unfortunately, with the climatic upheaval that we witness today, the long-term survival of coral reefs could be in jeopardy. Massive loss of symbiotic algae, a phenomenon known as coral bleaching, becomes indeed more and more fre...

  17. NMR analysis of sequence of toxin II from the sea anemone Radianthus paumotensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxin II from Radianthus paumotensis (Rp/sub II/) has been investigated by high-resolution NMR and chemical sequencing methods. Resonance assignments have been obtained for this protein by the sequential approach. NMR assignments could not be made consistent with the previously reported primary sequence for this protein, and chemical methods have been used to determine a sequence with which the NMR data are consistent. Analysis of the 2D NOE spectra shows that the protein secondary structure is comprised of two sequences of β-sheet, probably joined into a distorted continuous sheet, connected by turns and extended loops, without any regular α-helical segments. The residues previously implicated in activity in this class of proteins, D8 and R13, occur in a loop region

  18. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Ashley J Frisch; Ford, Benjamin M.; Michele Thums; Pablo Saenz-Agudelo; Kathryn A Furby; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of...

  19. New records on sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Rodríguez, E.; Gili, J.-M.; Segonzac, M.

    2003-01-01

    During several cruises carried out by the Ifremer (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer) with the submersile “Nautile” at different hydrothermal sites and cold seeps, an important collection of anthozoans - mainly actiniarians - was sampled. Additional material was collected

  20. 圈养小熊猫几种病毒的PCR检测%PCR detection of selected viruses in captive red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦琴; 张陕宁; 李明; 魏辅文

    2006-01-01

    本文采用巢式PCR/RT-PCR方法,对我国10个动物园中无临床症状的圈养小熊猫的71个肛拭子和61个唾液拭子样品,进行犬瘟热病毒(CDV)、犬细小病毒(CPV)、犬冠状病毒(CCV)、犬腺病毒(CAV)和犬疱疹病毒(CHV)的检测,以评估我国圈养小熊猫是否面临这几种病毒的威胁.对阳性PCR结果进行测序分析,并与GenBank上的序列进行比较.结果,在肛拭子样品中检测到3个CPV和6个CCV阳性结果,经测序后,与GenBank上序列的同源性分别达99%和100%.而在唾液拭子样品中没有检测到任何阳性结果,且CDV、CAV和CCV的检测结果均为阴性.从阳性CPV的肛拭子样品中分离到一株细小病毒毒株,表明圈养小熊猫已受到细小病毒和犬冠状病毒的感染,今后应加强这两种病毒的预防工作.本文所采用的PCR方法检测病毒性疾病,能检测到微量的病毒模板,可对小熊猫病毒性感染进行早期诊断.

  1. 小熊猫血液生理生化指标的测定%Determination of Blood Physiology and Biochemistry Parameters of Ailurus fulgens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐素慧; 修云芳; 邵良平; 王德春; 陈婷; 施飞宁; 陈玉村

    2009-01-01

    为建立健康成体小熊猫血液生理生化参数指标,选择福州大熊猫研究中心圈养的28只(雌性20只,雄性8只)外观发育正常、临床检查健康的小熊猫作为试验对象,通过食物引诱自行进入夹笼,在无麻醉的情况下,静脉采血.用全自动血细胞分析仪和生化分析仪检测23项血液参数和25项血液生化参数.用SPSS11.5统计软件包对各参数计算平均值(X)和标准差(SD),t检验比较雄性与雌性小熊猫相应指标的差异显著性.测定结果为小熊猫的疾病诊断、动物检疫和相关的研究提供科学的依据.

  2. Daily Activity Rhythm of Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in Summer and Autumn%小熊猫夏秋季的昼夜活动节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗先; 胡锦矗; 杨建东

    2006-01-01

    2002年5~11月,在邛崃山系宝兴蜂桶寨自然保护区采用无线电遥测技术对6只野生小熊猫的昼夜活动节律进行了研究.结果表明,小熊猫具有晨昏活动的习性,5~11月的平均活动率为0.5286.小熊猫以白昼活动为主,兼夜间活动,白昼的活动率(0.5903±0.0538)高于夜晚活动率(0.4468±0.0413).每昼夜有(52.86±9.8)%的时间处于活动状态,其中64.53%的活动时间在白昼,35.47%的活动时间在夜晚.每昼夜有两个活动高峰,分别出现在08:00~10:00和17:30~18:30.在休息时间的分配上,小熊猫每昼夜长休息平均2.07次,持续时间平均3.75小时;中等长度休息1.56次,持续1.59小时;短休息1.21次,持续0.84小时;长休息有44.06%在白昼,55.94%在夜晚.

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Case of Tibiofibula Fracture in Ailurus fulgens%一例小熊猫胫腓骨骨折的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐素慧; 修云芳; 施飞宁; 翁妮娜; 陈玉村; 邵良平

    2011-01-01

    一例右后肢跛行的小熊猫,经X光摄影确诊为胫骨和腓骨发生骨折,在钢丝捆绑法固定失败的情况下,采用髓内针进行髓内固定治疗胫骨骨折,最终取得成功,结果表明,髓内固定治疗长骨骨折是一种有效的方法.

  4. Daily Activity Rhythm of Captive Red Pandas(Ailurus fulgens)%圈养小熊猫的昼夜活动节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗先; 魏辅文; 李明; 张泽钧; 胡锦矗

    2005-01-01

    Daily activity rhytlms of three radio-collared captive red pandas were monitored individually at 15 minute intervals for 3 euntinuous days each month at Yele Nature Reserve, Xiangling Mountains, June- October 1995. Our data indicated that mean rate of activity [0.51 ) of captive red pandas was lower than that of wild red pandas. Three captive red pandas showed similar daily activity patterns, being least active during night and more active during daytime. Mean rate of activity during daylight (0.58)was higher than during nighttime (0.41). Daily mean durations of activity and rest were 12.21 hours and 11.79 hours, respectively. Active times of captive red pandas accounted for 50.6% of each 24 hours, of which 66.5% were recorded during daylight and 33.5% during night. Two active peaks appeared at07: 30-09: 15 and 17: 30- 19: 00. We recorded a mean of 2.17, 2.13 and 0.88 long, mid-length, and short resting bouts daily, which had mean durations of 3.47, 1.65 and 0.87 hour, respectively.Among these long rests, 46.1% occurred during daytime and 53.8% during nighttime.

  5. Nursing Behaviors of the Captive Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)%圈养小熊猫育幼行为的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪卿; 张泽钧; 魏辅文; 李明; 李春; 杨智; 胡锦矗

    2003-01-01

    Nursing behaviors of the captive md pandas were quantitatively studied by focal sampling methods in Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding from Jldy to August, 2000. The results indicated that frequencies of activity and rest were low in the first three days after birth, and became higher as time went by. The frequency of licking cub was higher in the first day after birth and deserting cub was only observed in the seventh day. Frequencies of some behaviors, such as rest, licking cub, cherishing cub,sniffing cub, returning to shed and deserting cub, differed sioaificantly in different phases of the first month after birth. Frequencies of licking cub, cherishing cub, sniffing cub and returning to shed were significantly higher in the pre-nursing period than in the midnursing and post-nursing periods. However, frequencies of rest and deserting cub were sioaificantly higher in the post-nursing period than in the per-nursing and mid-nursing periods. The degree of maternal behaviors can be inferred from degree that the mother exposes her babies to the envim~unent and the time that the mother leaves her shed.

  6. 凉山山系小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)分布区景观格局%Landscape pattern analysis of red panda habitat in Liangshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺林; 冉江洪; 唐明坤; 杜蓓蓓; 杨青; 刘世昌

    2008-01-01

    根据2000~2001年对凉山山系主山脊7个县小熊猫野外分布调查数据,利用"3S"技术对凉山山系小熊描分布区进行了确定,估算出分布区面积为219055hm2,占山系研究区域面积17.8%.利用景观空间格局定量化分析软件FRAGSTATS,分析了小熊猫分布区景观格局的组成、各类型斑块特征、不同类型斑块间空间分布关系.结果表明,栖息地景观边缘褶皱程度低,趋于平整,景观丰富度大;森林斑块间的结构连通性较好,各类型斑块聚集度较高.小熊猫生境内部破碎化程度较低,森林结构连接程度高,有适宜生境面积为160249.5hm2,占分布区面积的73.15%,生境中存在3个脆弱区域,特别是美姑峨边公路通过的椅子垭口区域需要引起极大的关注.

  7. Histological observations on ovaries of adult female red pandas(Ailurus fulgens)%成体雌性小熊猫卵巢组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修云芳

    2010-01-01

    2000年至2009年,12只固定于10%福尔马林中非生殖系统疾病死亡的小熊猫卵巢组织,按常规组织学技术制作组织切片,HE染色,光学显微镜观察.结果:(1)不同发情时期卵巢均有原始卵泡、初级卵泡和次级卵泡分布.发情期的卵巢未观察到典型的成熟卵泡和卵母细胞;(2)原始卵泡数量较少,初级卵泡数量较多,多数初级卵泡和大多数的次级卵泡都处在闭锁状态;(3)卵泡腔出现之前,卵母细胞的直径和卵泡直径同时增长;卵泡腔出现之后,卵母细胞直径增长较慢,卵泡直径增长较快;(4)不同发情时期的小熊猫卵巢均存在大量的间质腺细胞;(5)妊娠小熊猫和发情间期无妊娠小熊猫的卵巢均有发育正常的黄体;(6)卵泡细胞发育呈低柱状至柱状时出现透明带.结论:(1)卵泡闭锁主要发生在初级卵泡阶段,仅少数卵泡能发育至次级卵泡;(2)卵母细胞和卵泡生长呈双相生长的趋势;(3)不同发情时期的小熊猫卵巢间质腺都发达;(4)发情排卵后,非妊娠黄体与妊娠黄体维持的时间相似,证实了小熊猫存在假孕现象.

  8. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  9. 小熊猫染色体异染色质的显示%HETEROCHROMATIN DEMONSTRATION IN THE CHROMOSOMES OF RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 王喜忠; 王子淑; 马用信; 陈文元; 王小行; 宋云芳; 陈红卫; 何光昕; 费立松

    1999-01-01

    以培养的小熊猫外周血淋巴细胞为实验材料,结合C-显带技术及CMA3/DA/DAPI三重荧光染色的方法,对小熊猫的染色体组型、C-带带型以及CMA3/DA/DAPI荧光带带型进行了研究.发现: ①经C-显带技术处理,可在小熊猫染色体上呈现出一种极为独特的C-带带型.在多数染色体上可见到丰富的插入C-带(intercalary C-bands) 及端粒C-带,而着丝区仅显示弱阳性C-带;②除着丝粒区外,CMA3诱导的大多数强荧光带纹与C-阳性带纹的出现位置具一致性,表明小熊猫染色体的这些阳性C-带富含GC碱基;③ 14号染色体为短臂中部具次级缢痕的中着丝粒染色体,是小熊猫的标记染色体,其着丝粒区显示强阳性C-带.

  10. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D; Dickerson, James H

    2014-06-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. PMID:24760418

  11. Selective and oriented immobilization of (phospho lipases from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Ellis, 1768 by interfacial adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto del Monte-Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las lipasas inmovilizadas por adsorción interfacial a soportes hidrofóbicos constituyen sistemas enzimáticos con potencialidades comprobadas para diversas aplicaciones como la bioconversión. Por otro lado, las enzimas de invertebrados marinos muestran especificidades de sustrato poco usuales, que las convierten en blancos atractivos para el desarrollo de biocatalizadores inmovilizados. En este trabajo se describe la inmovilización por adsorción interfacial al soporte Octyl-Sepharose CL 4B de dos (fosfolipasas: las Sticholysinas I y II, y una actividad esterasa de alto peso molecular, a partir del extracto total de la anémona del mar Caribe Stichodactyla helianthus. La inmovilización fue selectiva para las lipasas, que mostraron actividad esterolítica frente a p-nitrofenilacetato, B-naftilcaprilato y tributirina. Esta actividad esterolítica de las Sticholysinas frente a sustratos no fosfolípidos no había sido informada con anterioridad. La actividad enzimática específica máxima aparente frente a p-nitrofenilacetato fue menor en los derivados inmovilizados que en las muestras solubles. La inmovilización resultó además orientada, ya que aumentó la afinidad aparente por el sustrato, lo que indica una mayor accesibilidad a los centros activos. El 68 % de las (fosfolipasas inmovilizadas conservaron la actividad hidrolítica frente a la tributirina. Estas enzimas requieren el ion Ca2+ para hidrolizar p-nitrofenilacetato y se inhibieron a concentraciones de p-nitrofenilacetato mayores que 1,185 mmol/L. Concentraciones de Ca2+ iguales a 40 mmol/L eliminaron la inhibición por exceso de sustrato en el extracto inmovilizado. Estas características cinéticas sugieren un posible uso de los biocatalizadores obtenidos en bioconversión enzimática.

  12. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  13. Clinical investigation of toxic hepatitis of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) induced by mycotoxins in diet%日粮中霉菌毒素引发小熊猫中毒性肝炎的临床调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修云芳; 邵良平; 徐素慧; 王德春; 陈婷; 翁妮娜; 陈玉村

    2008-01-01

    本文报道了小熊猫霉菌毒素中毒性肝炎的群发病案.35只小熊猫中,21只发病,5只死亡.通过日粮成分调查,饲料中霉菌毒素检测,病原微生物检查,血液参数测定,病理学检查和动物试验,确诊为呕吐毒素(DON)和玉米赤霉烯酮(F-2)毒素中毒.依据调查结果对小熊猫进行治疗,小熊猫预后良好.结论:(1)小熊猫对霉菌毒素(DON和F-2毒素)极其敏感,应予以高度重视;(2)DON和F-2毒素存在相互增强作用,对小熊猫的毒性作用主要为肝毒性和肾毒性,并可导致小熊猫机体免疫功能降低;(3)小熊猫对霉菌毒素的耐受性与环境的适应性有关,应激因素能提高小熊猫对霉菌毒素的敏感性.

  14. 小熊猫妊娠期粪便中孕酮、雌二醇的水平变化%Fecal Progesterone and Estradioi Levels during Gestation and the Correlation to Parturition in Female Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 魏辅文; 胡锦矗

    2005-01-01

    2000年3~8月在成都动物园和成都大熊猫繁育研究基地,用放射免疫分析法测定了6只雌性小熊猫粪样中孕酮(P)和雌二醇(E2)的水平变化,同时对其繁殖行为进行了观察.研究结果表明,交配后的雌体粪样中F2浓度下降至基础水平,P浓度在30 d后上升至150 ng/g以上;怀孕雌体在妊娠期粪样中P水平在200 ng/g以上,P峰值可以达500 ng/g以上;假妊娠者粪样中P水平一般不超过150 ng/g,P峰值在200ng/g以下;雌体产前半个月孕酮迅速下降,E2缓慢上升,产后P保持在基础水平.这意味着可通过测定粪便中P水平进行早孕诊断、产期预测和真假妊娠判断.根据行为观察和粪样激素分析可知,雌兽妊娠期为123~128 d(x=124,N=5),产仔率为1.8/胎(N=5).

  15. The Statistic Analysis of Blood Physiologic and Biochemical Indexes on Captivc Ailurus Fulgens%圈养小熊猫血液生理及生化指标的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐素慧; 陈玉村; 修云芳; 王德春

    2003-01-01

    本文用全自动血细胞分析仪和生化分析仪检测17只小熊猫血液成分.试验总共获得23项血液生理检测数据和24项血液生化检测数据.并将其血液生理及血液生化数据用计算机作统计分析.建立小熊猫血液生理、生化参考指标,供今后在临床和科研中参考.

  16. Investigation of reference values of 30 blood biochemistry parameters in ailurus fulgens%小熊猫血液30项生化指标参考值的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岱容; 谢幼新; 陈大鹏; 周维芝

    2003-01-01

    目的:建立健康小熊猫血液生物化学的参考值,为人工养殖小熊猫的卫生检疫,疾病防治提供科学依据.方法:利用挤压笼将小熊猫固定,抽取静脉血后测定30例小熊猫血液生物化学指标.结果:经生物学统计获得了小熊猫的生物化学指标的参考值.结论:以上生物化学指标的参考值对小熊猫疾病的诊断和治疗有重要作用.

  17. 邛崃和相岭山系小熊猫种群的遗传结构%POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS) IN QIONGLAI AND XIANGLING MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏辅文; 饶刚; 李明; 冯祚建

    2002-01-01

    测定了来自小熊猫主要分布的两大山系--相岭和邛崃的23只小熊猫样品的mtDNA控制区5'端569 bp序列,共发现23个变异位点,定义了8种单元型,其中邛崃山系5种,相岭山系3种.分析结果表明,两山系均表现出较低的核苷酸多态性;单元型多态性差异明显,其中邛崃山系高于相岭山系.分子变异分析表明,两山系的小熊猫种群间具有较高的基因流(Nm= 2.95),两种群遗传分化不明显(ΦST= 0.145, P>0.05).结合细胞色素b序列分析,认为两种群可能是从经历了近期瓶颈效应的同一祖先群衍生而来,并且可将两山系的小熊猫种群作为一个管理单元进行保护和管理.

  18. Behavioral responses of the red panda Ailurus fulgens to opposite and same-sex scents%小熊猫对同性和异性气味的行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 王小明

    2006-01-01

    食肉目动物的复杂社会行为在种间和种群间变化较大,这种变化是动物对其生态环境的适应表现特征之一。食肉目的动物与嗅觉通讯相关的气味源有肛周腺、肛囊腺、尾下腺、会阴腺、足腺、尿液、唾液和粪便等十几种,产生的气味物质包含有个体、性别和群体的识别信息,在其繁殖调控中发挥着非常重要的作用(MacDonald,1985;Swaisgood et al.,2000,2002;White et al.,2003)。雄性家犬(Canis familiaris Linnaeus)对来自不同气味源、不同性别和不同激素水平的雌性家犬的气味的嗅闻持续时间长短不同,毫无疑问,雄性家犬能够通过嗅闻来识别发情的雌性家犬(Doty and Dunbar,1974;Dunbar,1977)。气味对食肉类动物个体识别也有很大作用,亚洲矮獴(Helogale undulata rufula)和红颊獴(Herpestes auropunctatus)能分别区分不同年龄阶段的肛周腺分泌物的气味(Rasa,1973)并进行个体识别(Gorman,1976)。

  19. 小熊猫接种犬瘟热弱毒疫苗的效果分析%Effects of Canine Distemper Virus Attenuated Vaccines on Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世宗; 徐麟木

    2012-01-01

    使用荷兰英特威(intervet)公司生产的犬用犬瘟热(Canine Distemper)弱毒疫苗,接种了云南野生动物收容拯救中心、云南野生动物园和南京市红山森林动物园3处不同地点、不同饲养环境条件下的72只小熊猫,历时12 a,先后共接种302次,接种前所有小熊猫经过检疫、检查,无任何疾病,健康状况良好.抽检其中4只小熊猫作抗体变化测定,接种前中和抗体效价平均为1∶44,经犬用犬瘟热病弱毒疫苗接种后中和抗体效价提高到1∶1976,经多次接种试验,除1只发生不良反应出现死亡之外,其余接种的71只健康状况良好,多年来未发生犬瘟热病,通过此次试验,证明使用荷兰英特威公司生产的犬用犬瘟热弱毒疫苗接种小熊猫较为安全,中和抗体效价比接种前提高了45倍,有很好的免疫效果,是国内动物园预防小熊猫犬瘟热较为理想的疫苗.

  20. 应用ITS-2基因对小熊猫源恶丝虫虫种的鉴定%Identification of Dirofilaria sp. from Ailurus fulgens based on ITS-2 sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费宇翔; 黄红松; 杨光友; 张志和; 王成东; 杨智; 兰景超; 罗娌; 刘礼

    2009-01-01

    为探讨采自小熊猫的恶丝虫虫种的分类地位,测定了四川雅安地区犬源犬恶丝虫和成都及重庆两地小熊猫源恶丝虫的核糖体第二内转录间隔区(ITS-2)基因序列并进行了比对分析.结果显示,犬源犬恶丝虫和小熊猫源恶丝虫与来自中国台湾、印度的犬恶丝虫的ITS-2基因序列的同源性高达98.0%~100%.同时,构建的NJ树和MP树均显示不同宿主和不同地区的犬恶丝虫和小熊猫源恶丝虫聚类形成一个支系.表明,小熊猫源恶丝虫应为犬恶丝虫,而前苏联学者定名的小熊猫恶丝虫应为犬恶丝虫的同物异名虫种.

  1. 圈养小熊猫对栖息地点的选择及其行为观察%Site Choice and Behavior of the Captive Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎绘宏; 李婉萍; 黄志宏; 谢高基; 王兴金

    2013-01-01

    为了解圈养条件下小熊猫对人工环境的选择和行为习性,为笼舍的设计和改进提供理论依据,在春夏两季对圈养的10只小熊猫进行了行为观察.结果表明,与野生小熊猫白天主要以活动行为为主不同,圈养小熊猫白天以睡和卧等安静行为为主(68.32%),对行为发生的地点具有明显的选择性(P<0.001),而且几乎不受气温和天气的影响(P>0.05).自然生长的树为圈养小熊猫的首选地点(53.6%).小熊猫在地面主要以活动行为为主(83.06%),对笼箱的结构和材料没有明显的选择性(P>0.05).因此,圈养小熊猫笼舍内最好能种植树木,而笼箱的结构和材料则依景观的需要进行设置.

  2. 小熊猫卵巢肥大细胞与雌性生殖干细胞的初步观察%Observation on Mast Cells and Female Germline Stem Cells in Ovaries of Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修云芳; 王全溪; 邵良平; 李碧春; 徐素慧; 陈玉村

    2015-01-01

    为了解小熊猫卵巢肥大细胞分布情况,收集15只成体小熊猫的卵巢,按常规组织学技术制作组织切片.根据甲苯胺蓝染色结果,肥大细胞主要分布于血管壁与卵泡动脉外膜的结缔组织中,其数量随着发情周期呈规律性变化,发情期最高,乏情期次之,妊娠期数量最少,不同时期之间肥大细胞数量差异极显著(P<0.01);阿尔新蓝-番红花红(AB-S)染色将肥大细胞可分为黏膜型、结缔组织型与混合型.肥大细胞可能对小熊猫的受精,胚胎着床,妊娠有调节作用.免疫组化染色显示,小熊猫卵巢有组胺阳性细胞,这些细胞分布也是随着发情周期呈规律性变化,卵母细胞和生殖上皮细胞呈现小鼠脉管同系物(MVH)阳性反应,说明小熊猫卵巢内存在生殖干细胞.

  3. 圈养条件下小熊猫指名亚种旱季的活动规律%Activity of Captive Red Panda(Ailurus fulgens)during Dry Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰存子; 刘旭; 刁丽丽; 刘振生; 张明明

    2011-01-01

    2008年11~12月,在姚家坪小熊猫繁育基地采用目标取样法和瞬时扫描取样法对19只圈养小熊猫指名亚种的活动规律进行了研究.结果表明,圈养小熊猫1 d大部分时间用于休息(56.2%),其次是运动(25.1%)和采食(9.9%),其余行为分配的时间较短.在行为节律上,休息行为除9:00~9:55外,其余时间均为所占比例最高的行为,出现4个休息高峰,分别为8:00~8:55、11:00~11:55、14:00~14:55和17:00~17:55,在9:00~9:55出现极低值16.3%,此时是运动和采食的高峰;运动行为在9:00~9:55、13:00~13:55和15:00~15:55形成波峰;采食有2个高峰,分别为9:00~9:55和19:00~19:55;标记行为在9:00~9:55、10:00~10:55和13:00~13:55出现频率较高,超过5%,修饰行为在9:00~9:55超过5%,其余时间标记和修饰行为均低于5%;其他行为所占比率较低.不同年龄组间小熊猫的行为时间分配有差异,老年在休息行为上明显高于幼年和成年,约占总行为的72%;幼年在休息、运动和标记行为上略高于成年;成年的修饰行为明显高于幼年和老年.

  4. Serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during the estrous cycle in female red pandas (Ailurus fulgens)%小熊猫繁殖周期血清雌二醇和孕酮含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修云芳; 邵良平; 王德春; 陈玉村; 徐素慧

    2007-01-01

    为研究小熊猫繁殖周期血清雌二醇、孕酮含量变化规律,采用化学发光免疫分析法连续16次测定了2只成体雌性小熊猫血清雌二醇和孕酮含量变化,历经发情间期、发情期和两次妊娠期;连续9次测定了7只小熊猫妊娠期的孕酮含量变化.结果:(1)发情间期,小熊猫血清雌二醇的水平一直维持在低水平(基础水平),进入发情前期,血清雌二醇水平明显升高,在发情期一直维持高水平,配种后迅速降至基础水平;(2)小熊猫血清孕酮含量在发情间期和发情期均维持在较低水平,直至发情期过后才出现升高,在妊娠期一直维持高水平,峰值出现在5月;(3)发情的小熊猫不论妊娠与否,在妊娠期内血清孕酮含量均维持在高水平.研究表明:小熊猫血清雌二醇、孕酮含量变化能直接反映其繁殖规律,雌二醇对启动雌性小熊猫季节性繁殖起重要作用;在妊娠期内小熊猫血清孕酮含量升高不能作为判断小熊猫妊娠的标准;雌性小熊猫在妊娠期有假孕现象.

  5. 雄性小熊猫粪便中睾酮水平的变化与繁殖周期的关系%Fecal Testosterone Levels and Reproduction Cycle in Male Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 魏辅文; 李明; 刘雪卿; 杨智; 胡锦矗

    2003-01-01

    1999年12月至2000年9月,使用放射免疫分析法,测定了成都动物园和成都大熊猫繁育研究基地的4只雄性小熊猫粪样中睾酮水平变化情况,同时对其行为进行了观察.研究结果表明,雄性粪样中睾酮水平在繁殖期(12月~3月)显著高于非繁殖期(4月~9月)(P<0.01),且睾酮水平变化与繁殖行为密切相关.在非繁殖期,雄性小熊猫的睾酮水平处于基础的较低水平时,其繁殖行为如蹭阴、舔阴、舔标记物和咩叫等几乎没有发生或很少发生;而在繁殖期,雄性小熊猫的睾酮水平明显升高,这些繁殖行为频繁发生.以上结果说明,睾酮是调节雄性小熊猫繁殖行为季节性变化的生理因子.

  6. 蜂桶寨自然保护区小熊猫巢域初步研究%Home range of red pandas(Ailurus fulgens)in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建东; 张泽钧; 李明; 胡锦矗; 魏辅文

    2006-01-01

    2002年5~11月,在蜂桶寨自然保护区利用无线电遥测技术对6只小熊猫的巢域利用进行了初步研究.结果表明,6只戴颈圈个体M1、M2、M3、F1、F2、F3的巢域面积分别为330.26 hm2、135.18 hm2、190.67 hm2、98.23 hm2、141.60 hm2、204.80 hm2;雄性个体平均巢域面积为218.70 hm2,雌性个体为148.21 hm2.小熊猫个体间巢域重叠普遍,平均重叠率达25.33%,其中雄性个体之间为26.00%,雌性个体之间为23.67%,两性个体之间为25.67%.可能受人为干扰的影响,M1在6只监测个体中巢域面积、日均移动距离均为最大.

  7. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative results.

  8. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch-like paraesthesias, suggesting that it mediates its effects mainly via activation of A-fibers.

  9. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger Alexandra B; Eberhardt Mirjam; Link Andrea S; Namer Barbara; Kutsche Lisa K; Schuy E; Sittl Ruth; Hoffmann Tali; Alzheimer Christian; Huth Tobias; Carr Richard W; Lampert Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Her...

  10. Tree litter and forest understorey vegetation: a conceptual framework to understand the effects of tree litter on a perennial geophyte, Anemone nemorosa

    OpenAIRE

    Baltzinger, M; Archaux, F.; Dumas, Y.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Litter is a key factor in structuring plant populations, through positive or negative interactions. The litter layer forms a mechanical barrier that is often strongly selective against individuals lacking hypocotyle plasticity. Litter composition also interacts with plant growth by providing beneficial nutrients or, inversely, by allowing harmful allelopathic leaching. As conspicuous litter fall accumulation is often observed under deciduous forests, interactions betwe...

  11. For she that hath, to her shall be given…Implications of flowering in Anemone nemorosa L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Peter Milan; Philipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    the following spring. We hypothesised that the decision to invest in flower buds depends on the amount of resources stored in the recently formed annual segment. We also hypothesised a trade-off between flowering and segment growth and, finally, as a consequence, we expected individual rhizomes to...... alternate between the flowering and the non-flowering state. We found that segments producing flower buds were significantly longer than non-flowering segments, indicating that resource level influences the function of the preformed buds. Contrary to our expectations, we found flowering rhizomes produced...... longer annual segments than non-flowering rhizomes. We suggest the larger leaf area of flowering rhizomes and occasional abortion of flowers or seeds as possible mechanisms behind this pattern. Our study shows that even though the decision to produce a flower bud is taken in another time-frame than that...

  12. 一种筛选微卫星位点的改进方法及其在小熊猫微卫星基因文库构建上的应用%An Improved Method for Isolation of Microsatellite DNA and Application In Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艳丽; 刘志瑾; 魏辅文; 李明

    2005-01-01

    微卫星基因位点是在各个遗传学领域被广泛使用的分子标记.而对于首次研究的物种,必须筛选出可以应用的微卫星位点.对于分离微卫星位点来说由于只有大约0.5%~2%的重组体含有微卫星位点,所以标准的基因组文库需要至少产生5 000个重组体.传统的筛选方法就是通过检测大量重组体来定位这些少量的位点.近几年来出现了一些新的筛选方法,采用"富集"微卫星序列的技术将包含微卫星位点的重组体比例提高了10~100倍.这样就降低了筛选工作的时间和劳动强度,大大提高了筛选微卫星位点的效率.本文在结合了几种筛选微卫星位点技术路线的基础上,采用生物素标记探针杂交、富集和PCR筛选技术,对原有技术路线进行了改进.主要实验步骤为:1)基因组DNA的提取和消化;2)生物素标记探针富集;3)克隆建库;4)"PCR"筛选;5)引物设计和多态性检测.新的方法在小熊猫微卫星基因文库的构建中取得成功,获得了10个具有多态性的(CA)n重复序列微卫星位点.

  13. 环境丰容对上海动物园圈养小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)行为分配的影响%The Effects of Environmental Enrichment on the Behavior of Captive Red Panda in Shanghai Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群秀; 张姝; 何维光; 夏菊兴

    2015-01-01

    对上海动物园7只小熊猫进行丰容,并应用丰容前后的动物行为的变化对丰容效果进行评价.研究表明,环境丰容对小熊猫行为整体的分配产生了显著影响(P<0.05).小熊猫的昼间行为通常以休息(x=34.0%,SD=10.9%)、取食(x=13.4%,SD=5.0%)和攀爬行为(x=10.2%,SD =4.1%)为主,通过开展环境丰容,休息行为(x=21.2%,SD=12.4%)显著减少(P<0.05),取食(x=19.3%,SD =4.6%)和攀爬行为(x=16.7%,SD=5.4%)显著增加(P<0.05).小熊猫的移动行为由5.1%显著增加至8.4%(P<0.05),刻板行为由4.8%显著减少至1.1%(P<0.05).环境丰容对小熊猫不同个体的行为产生的影响大体相似,但不同个体间存在异同.丰容使个体1、5、6、7的探究行为增加,但是对个体2的影响相反,个体3、4则没有明显影响.对于刻板行为,丰容对个体1、3、6无影响,使个体4、5、7减少,个体2则增加.环境丰容增加了小熊猫的积极行为,如探究行为、增加了活动量,同时还减少了消极行为,如刻板行为.

  14. 大熊猫、小熊猫、浣熊等五种动物毛的扫描电镜结构比较研究%A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE HAIRS OF AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA,SELENARCTOR THIBETANUS,URSUS ARCTOS,AILURUS FULGENS AND PROCYON LOTOR WITH SCANNING ELDCTRON MICROSCOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雨新; 张伟; 王小明

    1998-01-01

    本文对大熊猫、黑熊、棕熊、小熊猫和浣熊等动物毛的扫描电镜结构进行了比较研究,并对其主要鳞片类型的差异性进行了t检验.结果表明:大熊猫、黑熊、棕熊在毛的微观结构上与小熊猫、浣熊存在明显差异.

  15. The morphology–diet relationship and its role in the coexistence of two species of annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppeler, F. W.; Lanés, L. E. K.; Rolon, A. S.; Stenert, C.; Lehmann, P.; Reichard, Martin; Maltchik, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2015), s. 77-90. ISSN 0906-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Austrolebias minuano * Cynopoecilus fulgens * niche overlap * sexual dimorphism * ontogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2014

  16. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of photochromic fulgides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sivasankaran Nithyanandan; Chinnusamy Saravanan; Sengodan Senthil; Palaninathan Kannan

    2010-03-01

    The oxazole and indole based heterocyclic photochromic fulgides were synthesized from their corresponding fulgenic acid derivatives by clay catalysed microwave irradiation methodology. Improved yields of fulgides were observed by the microwave irradiation method as compared other chemical methods employed so far. The proportions of clay (montmorillonite KSF) and isopropenyl acetate play a key role in increasing the yields of fulgides.

  18. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  19. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cárdenas; José Antonio Morales-Serna; Bernardo Antonio Frontana-Uribe; Manuel Salmón; Miguel Ángel Jaime-Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  20. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  1. Anatomy of the Didestive System of Small Panda%小熊猫消化系统解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑云; 王玉玺

    1986-01-01

    @@ 小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)隶属食肉目浣熊科.体重5-10公斤,体长50-60厘米.为国家二类保护动物,是动物园中珍奇的观赏兽.本文共解剖三例标本,对其消化系统进行了研究.

  2. Marine organisms and their adaption - Adaptions solve the challenges of existence in the sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    great diversity of organisms. To survive, these organisms need to secure food, successfully reproduce and avoid predation. Simple animals, such as anemones or worms, absorb the gases through their skin. Mobile animals use gills, or even lungs to absorb...

  3. Etologie sasankové krevety \\kur{Ancylomenes longicarpus} v Rudém moři

    OpenAIRE

    KARÁSKOVÁ, Martina

    2011-01-01

    In this Master thesis the behaviour of anemone shrimp Ancylomenes longicarpus was studied in situ in the Red Sea. The diurnal activity, signalling behaviour and also cleaning behaviour was observed and analyzed.

  4. Reproductive biology and pollination mechanisms of Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae). Floral variation: a consequence of natural hybridization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Amaral, M C E

    2008-03-01

    The phenology, flower morphology, pollination mechanism and reproductive biology of Epidendrum secundum were studied in a semi-deciduous forest at the Serra do Japi (SJ), and in the Atlantic rain forest of Picinguaba, both natural reserves in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. E. secundum flowers all year round, with a flowering peak between September and January. This species is either a lithophytic or terrestrial herb in the SJ, whereas, in Picinguaba, it grows mainly in disturbed areas along roadsides. E. secundum is pollinated by several species of diurnal Lepidoptera at both study sites. In Picinguaba, where E. secundum is sympatric with E. fulgens and both share the same pollinators, pollen transference between these two species was recorded. E. secundum is self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. It is inter-compatible with E. fulgens, producing fertile seeds. In contrast to the population of the SJ, in the Picinguaba region, floral morphology is quite variable among plants and some individuals present flowers with characteristics in-between both sympatric species, suggesting that natural hybridization occasionally occurs. The anthropogenic perturbation is probably the cause of the occurrence of E. secundum in the Picinguaba region, enabling its contact with E. fulgens. PMID:18304195

  5. Plant-derived visual signals may protect beetle herbivores from bird predators

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar; Miriam Kishinevsky; Avi Shmida; Yoram Gerchman; Nicka Chinkov; Avi Koplovich; Gadi Katzir

    2013-01-01

    Insect herbivores often use chemical signals obtained from their food plants to deter enemies and/or attract sexual partners. Do plant-based visual signals act similarly, i.e., repel consumers' enemies and appeal to potential mates? We explored this question using the pollen-feeding beetle Pygopleurus israelitus (Glaphyridae), a specialized pollinator of Anemone coronaria's chemically defended red-morph flowers. We presented dead beetles, which had fed either on anemones or on cat-food, to yo...

  6. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  7. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. González Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977, from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circunscript sphincter pinnate type. The axis has a truncated cone shape while in P. clematis the shape is cylindrical on its origin and it is bifurcated at the end. Both species experiments were carried out using the isolated muscles. They were stimulated at increasing KCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 200 mM. The results were analysed in the form of dose-response curves expressed in tension in grams force vs concentration. Contractil force increases in a sigmoid form to increasing KCl concentrations. The correlation between morphology and function and the differences shown in both species would be related to their intertidal distribution.Se realizó la caracterización de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 y Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977 del ecosistema intermareal mediante estudio morfológico y funcional. La especie P. clematis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo palmado. Este músculo está constituido por un eje mesogloeal y varios subejes mesogloeales. Tanto el eje como los subejes dan soporte al endodermo cuyo borde es liso. La especie A. marplatensis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo pinnado. El eje tiene forma de cono truncado mientras que en P. clematis es cilíndrico en su origen bifurcándose en su parte final. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo usando el músculo aislado de ambas especies. Estos fueron estimulados a concentraciones crecientes de KCl en un rango de 20 a 200 mM. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante curvas dosis-respuesta expresados en tensión en gramos fuerza vs concentración. La fuerza contráctil se incrementó en forma sigmoidea. La correlación entre la morfología y función y las diferencias mostradas en ambas especies podrían estar relacionadas con su distribución en el intertidal.

  8. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira A. González Oliveira; Darlo Luis Patronelli; Mauricio O. Zamponi

    2009-01-01

    It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849) and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977), from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circun...

  9. The rapid separation and identification of saponins from Chinese herb Anemone raddeana REGEL by RP-HPLC-MS-MS%高效液相色谱-质谱-质谱法快速鉴定中药竹节香附的皂苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺意; 李紫; 王世敏; 陈勇

    2000-01-01

    应用反相高效液相色谱-电喷雾-质谱-质谱(RP-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS)方法对竹节香附皂苷提取物的化学成分进行分析.通过一步分析可以同时 分离并鉴定出竹节香附中的竹节香附皂苷R2、R3、R6、R7、R8和R9等6种有效 成分.同时也发现一些本药材中原来没有报道的成分.本研究结果为竹节香附及其相关药品有效成分分析和鉴定提供一种快速鉴定方法.

  10. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. PMID:27030417

  11. Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) from Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gardene Maria de Sousa; Maria das Graças Lapa Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Foram registradas dez espécies do gênero Aechmea no Estado de Pernambuco: A. aquilega (Salisb.) Griseb., A. eurycorymbus Harms, A. fulgensBrongn., A. lingulata (L.) Baker, A. mertensü(G. Mey.) Schult. f., A. mulfordii L. B. Sm., A. murícata(Arruda) L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa M&z e A. werdermannii Harms. Duas espécies são endêmicas (A. murícata e A. werdermannii) e uma nova ocorrência (A. stelligerd) foi referida para Pernambuco. São apresentados chave, descrições, ilustr...

  12. Estudio de los hongos que fructifican en la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss., en España peninsular. II. Ascomycotina. II

    OpenAIRE

    Larios, Juana M.ª; Honrubia, Mario; Moreno, Gabriel

    1988-01-01

    Se citan 41 taxones de la subdivisión Ascomycotina procedentes de la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss. en las provincias de Málaga y Cádiz. Es de resaltar la presencia de Aphiorhynchostoma curreyi (Rabenh.) MUller, Cucurbitaria berberidis (Pers.: Fries) Gray, Sydowia polispora (Bref. C v. Tavel) MUller, Glonium graphicum (Fries) Duby, Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boudier, Coronophora abietina Fuck. y Rosellinia tassiana De Not.Se incluyen observaciones de tipo morfológico y taxonómico ...

  13. A preliminary checklist of butterflies recorded from Jeypore-Dehing forest, eastern Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Gogoi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some of the rare butterfly species recorded during February 2010-October 2011 in the lowland semi-evergreen Jeypore rainforest of upper Assam along with a preliminary checklist of the area. Altogether, 292 species were recorded based on the survey conducted in different seasons. Important sightings include the report of White Punch longicaudata, Pale Striped Dawnfly Capilia zennara, Blue Quaker Pithecops fulgens etc and range extension of Andaman Yellow-banded Flat Celaenorrhinus andamanicus hanna to northeastern India.

  14. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    . In reality, a coral is a simple animal like the sea anemone we find on rocky beaches. Unlike the anemone, the coral animal is generally small and constructs a skeleton around its body for protection. A coral animal is also called a polyp. 2.... Are polyp and coral the same? No. The term coral is usually denotes the skeleton though at times the polyp is also called coral animal. 3. What does a polyp look like? Each polyp is a hollow cylinder of tissues with tentacles and a central mouth opening...

  15. Crustaceans associated with Cnidaria, Bivalvia, Echinoidea and Pisces at São Tomé and Príncipe islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic crustaceans were searched for at sea anemones (Actiniaria, encrusting anemones (Zoantharia, horny coral (Gorgonaria, black coral (Antipatharia, bivalves (Bivalvia, and sea urchins (Echinoidea at São Tomé and Príncipe Islands (Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic. Sixteen species of crustaceans were found in association with these invertebrate hosts; eleven of them were new records for the area and two species, belonging to the genera Hippolyte and Heteromysis, were new for science. The thalassinid Axiopsis serratifrons was occasionally associated with an undescribed species of gobiid fish.

  16. Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae from Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardene Maria de Sousa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas dez espécies do gênero Aechmea no Estado de Pernambuco: A. aquilega (Salisb. Griseb., A. eurycorymbus Harms, A. fulgensBrongn., A. lingulata (L. Baker, A. mertensü(G. Mey. Schult. f., A. mulfordii L. B. Sm., A. murícata(Arruda L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa M&z e A. werdermannii Harms. Duas espécies são endêmicas (A. murícata e A. werdermannii e uma nova ocorrência (A. stelligerd foi referida para Pernambuco. São apresentados chave, descrições, ilustrações e comentários das espécies estudadas.A taxonomic study of the genus Aechmea ofPernambuco, Brazil was done. Ten species were found: A. aquilega (Salisb. Griseb., A. euryccrymhusHarms, A.fulgensBrongn., A. lingulataXL. Baker, A. mertensii(G. Mey. Schult. f., A. mulfordiih. B. Sm., A. murícata (Arruda L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa Mez and A werdermannii Harms. Aechmea murícata and A. werdermannii are endemic, and A. stelligera is a new records for Pernambuco State. Key, descriptions, comments and illustrations of the species are included.

  17. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Novozhilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1, 20-hydroxyecdysone (2, ecdysone (3, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4 has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandrium sachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1 st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae. Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis.

  18. Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

    2006-12-01

    Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

  19. Coral-reef diatoms (Bacillariophyta from Guam: new records and preliminary checklist, with emphasis on epiphytic species from farmer-fish territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennesi, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine diatom flora of the tropical western Pacific island of Guam is all but unknown. Following several taxonomic/systematic papers, this floristics paper documents 179 new records of diatoms identified from light microscopy and/or scanning electron microscopy. Samples were collected from diverse habitats for several research projects in the authors’ laboratories, but the majority reported here are epiphytic, especially from pomacentrid farmer-fish territories. While many of the species are well known from other regions, some recently named, rarely seen, or poorly-described taxa include Amphora decussata Grunow;Ardissonea fulgens var. fulgens (Greville Grunow and var. gigantea (Lobarzewsky De Toni; Campylodiscus humilis Greville; Falcula paracelsianus Voigt; Hyalosira interrupta (Ehrenberg Navarro; Olifantiella pilosella Riaux-Gobin; andTriceratium pulchellum (Grunow Grunow. A preliminary checklist incorporating the new records and our previous records totals 237 taxa, which is a step towards the development of the regional flora. Many taxa remain to be identified from the documentation so far and few samples have been analyzed from other habitats such as sediments and mangroves. Only 28–42% of the species in this checklist also occurred in lists from the Society Islands, Mahé, Puerto Rico and The Bahamas—but all regions remain seriously undersampled. We do, however note some apparent differences in common and distinctive species.

  20. Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Leviev, I; Carstensen, Kathrine

    1996-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system and it was probably within this phylum or in a related ancestor group that nervous systems first evolved. The primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. From a single sea anemone species, Anthopleura elegantissi...

  1. Multi-scale modeling of gene regulation of morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Kaandorp; D. Botman; C. Tamulonis; R Dries

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a spatio-temporal gene regulatory network for early gastrulation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We measure gene expression during early gastrulation using a gene expression quantification tool. We measure gene expression during early gastrulation when the emb

  2. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  3. To Build an Ecosystem: An Introductory Lab for Environmental Science & Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Daniel; Finnerty, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis-driven laboratory is described that introduces students to the complexities of ecosystem function. Students work with live algae, brine shrimp, and sea anemones to test hypotheses regarding the trophic interactions among species, the exchange of nutrients and gases, and the optimal ratio of producers to consumers and predators in…

  4. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at least...

  5. The proteomic profile of Stichodactyla duerdeni secretion reveals the presence of a novel O-linked glycopeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz;

    2013-01-01

    , a new peptide of 3431Da, named U-SHTX-Sdd1, was purified and completely sequenced by automated Edman's degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. An analysis of U-SHTX-Sdd1 revealed a modified O-HexNAc-Threonine at position 1, which, at the best of our knowledge, constitutes the first sea anemone toxin...

  6. Zingiberaceae Diversity in Khao Nan and Khao Luang National Parks, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napat KITTIPANANGKUL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiberaceae diversity in Khao Nan and Khao Luang National Parks was determined from September 2006 - August 2007. Twenty-nine species in 11 genera in 3 tribes of the family were collected from 9 stations, less than     30 % of the Zingiberaceae recorded in southern Thailand. Tribe Alpinieae, the highest diversity, comprises 5 genera and 15 species. Tribe Zingibereae, the second highest diversity, includes 5 genera and 12 species. The lowest diversity, tribe Globbeae consists of only 2 species in the genus Globba. The checklist, illustrations and distributions of the 29 species found are given. Most species of Zingiberaceae in this study grow in a Tropical Evergreen Rain Forest. Four species, Amomum sp., Globba leucantha, Boesenbergia basispicata and B. plicata grow in the Lower Montane Rain Forest. Soils at the stations where most species are found are partly composed of sand. Only 1 species, Amomum aculeatum is found in a loam soil type. There are few species found in the interior part of the forest and they are less abundant and sparsely distributed. The diversity of species is mostly distributed at an altitude of 90 - 300 m and the number of species decrease as the altitude increases. It is observed that at least 6 species of Zingiberaceae of Khao Nan National Park are also found in the northern part of Khao Luang National Park, such as Zingiber newmanii which is distributed around the Klong Klai Basin. At least 5 species, due to their bright distinctive flower parts, could be developed to be ornamental plants, i.e. Alpinia mutica, A. zerumbet, Etlingera fulgens, Curcuma rubescens and Z. newmanii, in addition to the well known ornamental species such as E. elatior, C. aurantiaca and Kaempferia pulchra. Eight species are edible, i.e. Amomum biflorum, E. elatior, E. fulgens, E. littoralis, C. longa, C. zedoaria, Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet. The seeds of 3 species, Z. newmanii, E. fulgens and E. elatior may prove to be important

  7. Influence of climate on the survivorship of neonatal red pandas in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princée, Frank P G; Glatston, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Red pandas, Ailurus fulgens, are popular exhibit animals in zoos. It is clear from data in the global studbook that there is considerable variation in their breeding success in different zoos. Population managers have long suspected that environmental temperature plays a key role in these differences. It is generally thought that this species, which is so well adapted to life in the cold damp climate of the mid-altitude forests of the Himalayas, has a problem coping with warmer climates. However, this hypothesis has not been tested until now. Using data extracted from the global studbook, we have demonstrated that climate at the location of birth has a clear impact on the survival of infant red pandas. PMID:26849175

  8. 小熊猫的肺丝虫病%Lung Nematodiasis of the Red Panda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬捷; 胡洪光; 黄华; 赵观禄; 张德洪; 赖祥文; 丁祥元

    1984-01-01

    @@ 小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)是人们喜爱的珍贵野生动物.小熊猫患肺丝虫病,很少为人们注意.邬捷(1956)曾在成都动物园解剖2只小熊猫后发现此病.1982-1983年,我们在重庆市动物园小熊猫寄生虫研究中,发现小熊猫患肺丝虫病相当普遍,危害严重,并可引起死亡.现将我们的研究结果,简要报告于后,供各地参考.

  9. 小熊猫绿脓杆菌病的诊断%Diagnosis of pyocyanosis in lesserpanda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余星明; 王成东; 钟顺隆; 王强; 雷蕾; 刘莉; 张再容

    2000-01-01

    @@ 小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)属食肉目浣熊科动物,主要产于我国西南地区,属国家二类保护动物,具有较高观赏价值.1999年1月15~22日,成都动物园饲养的3只小熊猫先后发病,经系统检查确诊为绿脓杆菌病,但所表现的临床症状及药物敏感试验结果均与以前曾报道的小熊猫绿脓杆菌病有所差异.

  10. 圈养野生杂食动物肠道寄生虫感染情况调查%Survey of intestinal parasitic infections about captive wild omnivores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 陈小丽; 唐耀; 王璜; 王宇翔; 黄翠琴; 王寿昆; 邵良平

    2015-01-01

    To understand the Fuzhou Zoo omnivores parasitic infections.The test collected eight kinds omnivores fecal samples of 20 parts by McMaster flotation method tests found three kinds of parasites omnivores 8 species, nematodes and roundworms by the brown bear; Baylisascaris, Strongyloides stercoralis and Hymenolepis nana by Ailurus fulgens; Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura, Sphaerozoum fuscum by porcupine. Omnivores parasite infection rate was 37.5%of the total (3/8), the highest intensity of infection was Baylisascaris by Ailurus fulgens about 12,210/g. Omnivores in Fuzhou Zoo mostly feeding flocks, animal parasites mostly mixed infec﹣tions, insect work was difficult.%为了解福州动物园杂食动物寄生虫感染情况,采集8种杂食动物粪样20份,经麦克马斯特漂浮法检验发现3种杂食动物感染寄生虫种类8种,分别是棕熊感染线虫、蛔虫2种寄生虫;小熊猫感染贝蛔虫、类圆线虫和短膜壳绦虫3种寄生虫;豪猪感染蛲虫、鞭虫和球虫3种寄生虫。杂食动物寄生虫总感染率为37.5%(3/8),感染强度最高者为小熊猫贝蛔虫卵,高达12210个/g。福州动物园杂食动物大多成群饲养,感染寄生虫的动物多属于寄生虫混合感染,驱虫工作难度大。

  11. The Kunitz-Type Protein ShPI-1 Inhibits Serine Proteases and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Peigneur, Steve; Pons, Tirso; Alvarez, Carlos; González, Lidice; Chávez, María A; Tytgat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz-type protein ShPI-1 (UniProt: P31713) is the major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. This molecule is used in biotechnology and has biomedical potential related to its anti-parasitic effect. A pseudo wild-type variant, rShPI-1A, with additional residues at the N- and C-terminal, has a similar three-dimensional structure and comparable trypsin inhibition strength. Further insights into the structure-function relationship of rShPI-1A are required in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this sea anemone peptide. Using enzyme kinetics, we now investigated its activity against other serine proteases. Considering previous reports of bifunctional Kunitz-type proteins from anemones, we also studied the effect of rShPI-1A on voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. rShPI-1A binds Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6 channels with IC50 values in the nM range. Hence, ShPI-1 is the first member of the sea anemone type 2 potassium channel toxins family with tight-binding potency against several proteases and different Kv1 channels. In depth sequence analysis and structural comparison of ShPI-1 with similar protease inhibitors and Kv channel toxins showed apparent non-sequence conservation for known key residues. However, we detected two subtle patterns of coordinated amino acid substitutions flanking the conserved cysteine residues at the N- and C-terminal ends. PMID:27089366

  12. Isolation and distribution of iridescent Cellulophaga and further iridescent marine bacteria in the Charente Maritime coast, French Atlantic coast

    OpenAIRE

    Kientz, Betty; Agogué, Hélène; Lavergne, Céline; Marié, Pauline; Rosenfeld, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An intense colored marine bacterium, identified as Cellulophaga lytica, has been previously isolated from a sea anemone surface on the Charente Maritime rocky shore (Atlantic Coast, France). Iridescence of the colonies under direct light was recently described and proved physically. Iridescence intensities were found to strongly differ among C. lytica strains from culture collections. Importantly, the occurrence and distribution of iridescent bacteria in the marine environment were still unkn...

  13. Enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway encoded in the genome of a basal metazoan, Nematostella vectensis, have microbial origins

    OpenAIRE

    Starcevic, Antonio; Akthar, Shamima; Dunlap, Walter C.; Shick, J. Malcolm; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Long, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The shikimic acid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many aromatic compounds by a broad range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and some protozoans. Animals are considered to lack this pathway, as evinced by their dietary requirement for shikimate-derived aromatic amino acids. We challenge the universality of this traditional view in this report of genes encoding enzymes for the shikimate pathway in an animal, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Molecula...

  14. Strategies toward structural and functional 'optimization' of animal peptide toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti N; Ziadi H; Mouhat S; De Waard M; Sabatier J-M

    2012-01-01

    Background: venoms of a variety of animal species (i.e. scorpions, snakes, spiders, sea anemones, marine cone snails, worms, and insects) are rich sources of bioactive compounds that possess obvious pharmacological, therapeutic and/or biotechnological values. A majority of these compounds are peptides that mainly target enzymes, membrane receptors or ion channels. Aim: In recent years, much efforts of researchers have been focused on characterizing and ‘improving’ the pharmacological profile ...

  15. Evolutionary conservation of the mature oocyte proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Lotan

    2014-06-01

    Significance: The current study provides the first proteomic profile of an oocyte of a cnidarian organism the starlet sea anemone N. vectensis and gives new insights on the ancient origin of an oocyte proteome template. The comparative analysis with a chordate oocyte suggests that the oocyte proteome predates the divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. In addition, the data generated in the study will serve as a valuable resource for further developmental and evolutional studies.

  16. Comparative lipid profiling of the cnidarian Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Garrett

    Full Text Available Corals and other cnidarians house photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts within membrane-bound compartments inside gastrodermal cells. Nutritional interchanges between the partners produce carbohydrates and lipids for metabolism, growth, energy stores, and cellular structures. Although lipids play a central role in the both the energetics and the structural/morphological features of the symbiosis, previous research has primarily focused on the fatty acid and neutral lipid composition of the host and symbiont. In this study we conducted a mass spectrometry-based survey of the lipidomic changes associated with symbiosis in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, an important model system for coral symbiosis. Lipid extracts from A. pallida in and out of symbiosis with its symbiont Symbiodinium were prepared and analyzed using negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Through this analysis we have identified, by exact mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS, several classes of glycerophospholipids in A. pallida. Several molecular species of di-acyl phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as well as 1-alkyl, 2-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidycholine were identified. The 1-alkyl, 2-acyl PEs are acid sensitive suggestive that they are plasmalogen PEs possessing a double bond at the 1-position of the alkyl linked chain. In addition, we identified several molecular species of phosphonosphingolipids called ceramide aminoethylphosphonates in anemone lipid extracts by the release of a characteristic negative product ion at m/z 124.014 during MS/MS analysis. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG, an anionic lipid often found in photosynthetic organisms, was identified as a prominent component of Symbiodinium lipid extracts. A comparison of anemone lipid profiles revealed a subset of lipids that show dramatic differences in abundance when anemones are in the symbiotic state as

  17. Symbiosis induces widespread changes in the proteome of the model cnidarian Aiptasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clinton A; Ameismeier, Michael F; Peng, Lifeng; Weis, Virginia M; Grossman, Arthur R; Davy, Simon K

    2016-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are metabolically founded on the mutualism between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. The glass anemone Aiptasia sp. has become a tractable model for this symbiosis, and recent advances in genetic information have enabled the use of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in this model. We utilized label-free liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the effects of symbiosis on the proteomes of symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aiptasia. We identified and obtained relative quantification of more than 3,300 proteins in 1,578 protein clusters, with 81 protein clusters showing significantly different expression between symbiotic states. Symbiotic anemones showed significantly higher expression of proteins involved in lipid storage and transport, nitrogen transport and cycling, intracellular trafficking, endocytosis and inorganic carbon transport. These changes reflect shifts in host metabolism and nutrient reserves due to increased nutritional exchange with the symbionts, as well as mechanisms for supplying inorganic nutrients to the algae. Aposymbiotic anemones exhibited increased expression of multiple systems responsible for mediating reactive oxygen stress, suggesting that the host derives direct or indirect protection from oxidative stress while in symbiosis. Aposymbiotic anemones also increased their expression of an array of proteases and chitinases, indicating a metabolic shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. These results provide a comprehensive Aiptasia proteome with more direct relative quantification of protein abundance than transcriptomic methods. The extension of "omics" techniques to this model system will allow more powerful studies of coral physiology, ecosystem function, and the effects of biotic and abiotic stress on the coral-dinoflagellate mutualism. PMID:26716757

  18. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Simon K; Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review ...

  19. Saponin 1 Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-κB-Mediated Survival Signaling in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Chi; Li, Bo; Wang, Yuangang; Gao, Zhenhui; Luo, Peng; Yin, Anan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Cheng, Guang; Fei, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhi...

  20. Environ: E00378 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available monin [CPD:C16913] Pulsatilla chinensis, Pulsatilla dahurica, Pulsatilla koreana [TAX:387930], Pulsatilla [T...931], Artemisia [TAX:4219], Gerbera piloselloides [TAX:496626], Saussurea radiata, Saussurea...e (buttercup family) Anemone, Asteraceae (daisy family) Inula cappa, Artemisia, Gerbera piloselloides, Saussurea...4], Potentilla chinensis [TAX:210858], Potentilla discolor [TAX:648872], Polycarpaea cor...ymbosa, Polycarpaea [TAX:431020] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Pulsatilla root Homonym: Ranunculacea

  1. The Kunitz-Type Protein ShPI-1 Inhibits Serine Proteases and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Peigneur, Steve; Pons, Tirso; Alvarez, Carlos; González, Lidice; Chávez, María A.; Tytgat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz-type protein ShPI-1 (UniProt: P31713) is the major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. This molecule is used in biotechnology and has biomedical potential related to its anti-parasitic effect. A pseudo wild-type variant, rShPI-1A, with additional residues at the N- and C-terminal, has a similar three-dimensional structure and comparable trypsin inhibition strength. Further insights into the structure-function relationship of rShPI-1A are required in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this sea anemone peptide. Using enzyme kinetics, we now investigated its activity against other serine proteases. Considering previous reports of bifunctional Kunitz-type proteins from anemones, we also studied the effect of rShPI-1A on voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. rShPI-1A binds Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6 channels with IC50 values in the nM range. Hence, ShPI-1 is the first member of the sea anemone type 2 potassium channel toxins family with tight-binding potency against several proteases and different Kv1 channels. In depth sequence analysis and structural comparison of ShPI-1 with similar protease inhibitors and Kv channel toxins showed apparent non-sequence conservation for known key residues. However, we detected two subtle patterns of coordinated amino acid substitutions flanking the conserved cysteine residues at the N- and C-terminal ends. PMID:27089366

  2. Mechanisms of equinatoxin II-induced transport through the membrane of a giant phospholipid vesicle.

    OpenAIRE

    Mally, M; Majhenc, J; Svetina, S; Zeks, B.

    2002-01-01

    Protein equinatoxin II from sea anemone Actinia equina L. was used to form pores in phospholipid membranes. We studied the effect of these pores on the net transmembrane transport of sucrose and glucose by observing single giant (cell-size) vesicles under the phase contrast microscope. Sugar composition in the vesicle was determined by measuring the width of the halo, which appears around the vesicle in the phase contrast image. The transport of sugars was induced when a vesicle, filled with ...

  3. The multigene families of actinoporins (part II): Strategies for heterologous production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, A; Hervis, Y P; Socas, L B P; Canet, L; Faheem, M; Barbosa, J A R G; Lanio, M E; Pazos, I F

    2016-08-01

    The sea anemone venom contains pore-forming proteins (PFP) named actinoporins, due to their purification from organisms belonging to Actiniaria order and its ability to form pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Actinoporins are generally basic, monomeric and single-domain small proteins (∼20 kDa) that are classified as α-type PFP since the pore formation in membranes occur through α-helical elements. Different actinoporin isoforms have been isolated from most of the anemones species, as was analyzed in the first part of this review. Several actinoporin full-length genes have been identified from genomic-DNA libraries or messenger RNA. Since the actinoporins lack carbohydrates and disulfide bridges, their expression in bacterial systems is suitable. The actinoporins heterologous expression in Escherichia coli simplifies their production, replaces the natural source reducing the ecological damage in anemone populations, and allows the production of site-specific mutants for the study of the structure-function relationship. In this second part of the review, the strategies for heterologous production of actinoporins in Escherichia coli are analyzed, as well as the different approaches used for their purification. The activity of the recombinant proteins with respect to the wild-type is also reviewed. PMID:27080349

  4. Genetic Relationship of Ascarid Nematodes from Giant Panda and Seven Other Species of Captive Wild Mammals Based on COX Ⅰ and COX Ⅱ Genes%大熊猫等8种野生哺乳动物蛔虫的线粒体COXⅠ和COXⅡ基因的亲缘关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛李丽; 陈维刚; 王淑贤; 杨光友; 陈世界; 汪涛; 古小彬; 严玉宝; 余华; 邓家波; 严慧娟; 余星明

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the taxonomic relationships of ascarid nema-todes from Ailuropoda melanoleuca , Ailurus fulgens , Ursus maritimus , Ursus arctos pruino-sus , Ursus thibetanus mupinensis , Ursus arctos lasiotus , Pan troglodytes and Hylobates hoolock. The mitochondrial cytochrome coxidase subunits Ⅰ (COX Ⅰ ) and Ⅱ (COXⅡ ) were amplified by PCR and sequenced directly. Then, sequence analyses was carried out based on COX Ⅰ and COX Ⅱ sequences from ascarid nematodes acquired in our study and 12 homologous sequences from GenBank. The lengths of COX I and COX H in ascarid nematodes from the eight species of cap-tive animals were all 393 bp and 582 bp, respectively. The COX I and COX II of ascarid nema-todes from giant panda shared 94. 8%-95. 0% and 94. 9%-95. 5% sequence identity with these from A. fulgens, U. maritimus, U. arctos pruinosus , U. thibetanus mupinensis and U. arctos lasiotus, respectively. Additionally, the COX Ⅰ and COXⅡ genes of ascarid nematodes from P. troglodytes shared 99. 8% and 99. 5% identity with the nematodes from H. hooloc, respectively. Phylogentic analysis showed that ascarid nematodes from A. melanoleuca, A. fulgens and four Ursids species belonged to the genus Baylisascaris, while roundworms from H. hoolock and P. troglodytes clustered under the genus Ascaris. These results showed that a co-evolutionary rela-tionship may link the ascarid nematodes and their corresponding hosts together.%为了探讨寄生于大熊猫、小熊猫、北极熊、棕熊东北亚种、棕熊西藏亚种、黑熊四川亚种、黑猩猩和白眉长臂猿体内蛔虫的分类地位,采用PCR技术扩增了这些野生动物体内寄生蛔虫的线粒体COX Ⅰ、COXⅡ基因序列,并与GenBank中注册的同源性序列进行了分析.序列分析结果显示:扩增的8种野生哺乳动物蛔虫的COXⅠ、COXⅡ基因长度均分别为393和582 bp,其中大熊猫与小熊猫及4种熊科动物蛔虫COXⅠ和COXⅡ

  5. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  6. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  7. The Alkaloid Ageladine A, Originally Isolated from Marine Sponges, Used for pH-Sensitive Imaging of Transparent Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Bickmeyer

    2012-01-01

    The brominated pyrrole-imidazole Ageladine A was used for live imaging of the jellyfish (jellies) Nausithoe werneri, the sea anemone Metridium senile and the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. The fluorescence properties of Ageladine A allow for estimation of pH values in tissue and organs in living animals. The results showed that Nausithoe werneri had the most acidic areas in the tentacles and close to the mouth (pH 4–6.5), Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (p...

  8. Neurones and neuropeptides in coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff; McFarlane, I D

    1989-01-01

    The first nervous system probably evolved in coelenterates. Many neurons in coelenterates have morphological characteristics of both sensory and motor neurones, and appear to be multifunctional. Using immunocytochemistry with antisera to the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), RFamide-like peptides......) was isolated, which also belongs to the less than Glu...Arg-X-NH2 family. Using specific antisera it was shown that all four peptides were located in neurones. Application of low doses of Antho-RFamide, or Antho-RWamide I or II induced contractions of endodermal muscles of sea anemones. This indicates...

  9. DOĞU AKDENİZ BÖLGESİNDE YETİŞEN BAZI OTSU VE ODUNSU MAKİ BİTKİLERİNİN TOPRAK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Kızıldağ, Nacide; Özer, Gülistan; Cenkseven, Şahin; Kutlay, Ahu; KOÇAK, Burak; Aka Sağlıker, Hüsniye; Darıcı, Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Akdeniz Bölgesi’ne özgü üç farklı otsu (Anemone coronaria, Asphodelus aestivus, Cyclamen sp.), çalı (Calycotome villosa, Cistus creticus, Osyris alba) ve odunlu bitki yaprağının (Cupressus sempervirens, Olea europaea ve Pinus brutia) C, N ve P içerikleri (%) ile topraklarının bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ve bu toprakların 30 günlük karbon mineralizasyonu belirlenerek aynı ekosistem içindeki farkl...

  10. Caryological notes in some portuguese Ranunculaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Margarida

    1990-01-01

    Chromosome numbers of fourteen portuguese laxa of Ranunculaceae are reported: Helleborus foetidus 20 = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n =...

  11. The transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora digitifera to a competent Symbiodinium strain: the symbiosome as an arrested early phagosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A R; Cumbo, V; Harii, S; Shinzato, C; Chan, C X; Ragan, M A; Bourne, D G; Willis, B L; Ball, E E; Satoh, N; Miller, D J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the ecological significance of the relationship between reef-building corals and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its establishment. Indeed, microarray-based analyses point to the conclusion that host gene expression is largely or completely unresponsive during the establishment of symbiosis with a competent strain of Symbiodinium. In this study, the use of Illumina RNA-Seq technology allowed detection of a transient period of differential expression involving a small number of genes (1073 transcripts; corals and symbiotic sea anemones with their endosymbionts. PMID:27094992

  12. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics. This...... is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  13. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos LARA; Vanessa MART(I)NEZ-GARC(I)A; Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO; Jessica BRAVO-CADENA; Salvador LORANCA; Alex C(O)RDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo,Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strignacoccus) and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such re sources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens). Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively.

  14. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LARA, Vanessa MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO, Jessica BRAVO-CADENA, Salvador LORANCA, Alex CÓRDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo, Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strigmacoccus and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such resources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens. Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively [Current Zoology 57 (1: 56–62, 2011].

  15. Recurrent insertion of 5'-terminal nucleotides and loss of the branchpoint motif in lineages of group II introns inserted in mitochondrial preribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Fang; Costa, Maria; Bassi, Gurminder; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Michel, François

    2011-07-01

    A survey of sequence databases revealed 10 instances of subgroup IIB1 mitochondrial ribosomal introns with 1 to 33 additional nucleotides inserted between the 5' exon and the consensus sequence at the intron 5' end. These 10 introns depart further from the IIB1 consensus in their predicted domain VI structure: In contrast to its basal helix and distal GNRA terminal loop, the middle part of domain VI is highly variable and lacks the bulging A that serves as the branchpoint in lariat formation. In vitro experiments using two closely related IIB1 members inserted at the same ribosomal RNA site in the basidiomycete fungi Grifola frondosa and Pycnoporellus fulgens revealed that both ribozymes are capable of efficient self-splicing. However, whereas the Grifola intron was excised predominantly as a lariat, the Pycnoporellus intron, which possesses six additional nucleotides at the 5' end, yielded only linear products, consistent with its predicted domain VI structure. Strikingly, all of the introns with 5' terminal insertions lack the EBS2 exon-binding site. Moreover, several of them are part of the small subset of group II introns that encode potentially functional homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG family rather than reverse transcriptases. Such coincidences suggest causal relationships between the shift to DNA-based mobility, the loss of one of the two ribozyme sites for binding the 5' exon, and the exclusive use of hydrolysis to initiate splicing. PMID:21613530

  16. 小熊猫耳部成纤维细胞的培养和冷冻保存%Establishment and cryopreservation of red panda fibroblast cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健明; 陶勇; 韩伟; 章美玲; 方俊顺; 张志忠; 章孝荣

    2007-01-01

    小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)是生活在陆地上的活化石,在类熊类哺乳动物的进化史中具有关键的作用,但近年来数量急剧下降,因此小熊猫的品种保护逐渐受到人们的重视.细胞的培养和冷冻保存已经成为种质资源保护的重要方法.本试验采取小熊猫的耳部组织,用组织培养法对小熊猫组织进行原代、继代培养并成功进行了冷冻和解冻处理,建立了耳部成纤维细胞系.并对培养的细胞进行了形态学观察,该细胞系的建立填补了小熊猫体细胞培养的空白,使得小熊猫种质资源在细胞水平上得到了保存.

  17. 小熊猫寄生虫与寄生虫病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光友; 王成东

    2000-01-01

    @@ 小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens Cuvier)是东亚地区喜马拉雅山、横断山脉的特产珍贵动物,主要栖居于3000米以下的针阔混交林或常绿阔叶林中有竹丛的地方,以竹笋、竹叶、野果和小动物为食;除了我国四川、云南、贵州、西藏等地外,只有印度、尼泊尔、缅甸等国的狭窄地区有少数分布,而且产量稀少.我国政府已将它列为二级重点保护动物[1].小熊猫与大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)一样,形态优美,生态独特,具极高的科学研究价值,是动物园内最逗人喜爱的观赏动物之一.目前,我国已有50余家动物园饲养有小熊猫,在日本、美国、印度等国的动物园内也饲养有一定数量.

  18. A Molecular Phylogeny of Shennongjia White Bear Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequence%从细胞色素b基因序列差异分析神农架白熊的系统进化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧娟; 张志敏; 刘中来; 熊国梅

    2006-01-01

    神农架白熊的分类地位从它被发现后就一直存在着争议.文章测定了神农架白熊一个个体的Cyt b基因从423~1 140共718 bp的序列, 结合亚洲黑熊(Selenarctos thibetanus)、美洲黑熊(Euarctos americanus)、马来熊(Helarctos malayanus)、棕熊(Ursus arctos)、北极熊(Thalarctos maritimus)、懒熊(Melursus ursinus)、眼镜熊(Tremarctos ornatus)、大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)、小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)、浣熊(Procyon lotor)同源DNA序列进行比较, 分析了碱基组成频率、替代数、变异位点、简约信息位点数、转换/颠换比率、相似指数和分化指数.用邻接法( NJ)和最大节约法(MP)构建了分子系统树, 得到了基本相同的拓扑结构.结果显示, 神农架白熊与亚洲黑熊的亲缘关系最近, 与大熊猫的亲缘关系较远.

  19. Biological characteristics of 9 wild flower species seeds%9种野生花卉种子生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荷; 郝爽; 刘燕

    2009-01-01

    该文研究了9种野生花卉的千粒重、含水量、种子形态及种子萌发特性.试验结果表明,在设定的温度范围15~25 ℃内,种子萌发难易度有明显不同.大花剪秋萝(Lychnis fulgens)和狭苞橐吾(Ligularia intermedia)较易萌发,发芽历程短,萌发的最适温度分别为25 ℃和20 ℃,发芽率分别达到97.3%和100%;芹叶铁线莲(Clematis aethusifolia)、短尾铁线莲(Clematis brevicaudata)和棉团铁线莲(Clematis hexapetala)发芽历程长,种子始发芽晚,在20 ℃条件下发芽率均达到最高,分别为88%,84%和57.3%.野罂粟(Papaver nudicaule)、牛扁(Aconitum barbatum var puberlum)、草本威灵仙(Veronicastrum sibiricum)和金莲花(Trollius chinensis)发芽率低,在试验条件下种子最高萌发率分别为29%,20%,17%和4.0%.

  20. Comparison of Vegetative Biomass in Different Configuration Modes for Reforestation of Cultivated Land in Liping County of Guizhou Province%贵州黎平县退耕还林不同配置模式下植被生物量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王引乾; 孙保平; 赵岩; 周湘山; 钟晓娟

    2011-01-01

    对贵州省黎平县退耕还林不同配置模式下植被生物量进行定量对比和定性分析结果表明:杉木生物量较大,是与地退耕还林保持水土的先锋树种:亮叶含笑林下草本层生物量最大;麻栎和马尾松林下枯落物生物量积累较多,能够发挥较大的水土保持效果.%The quantitative comparison and qualitative analysis were conducted lo the vegetative biomass in differentconfiguration modes for reforestation of cultivated land in Liping County of Cuizhou Province. The results showed thatCunningfamia Lanceolata is the pioneer tree species for soil and water conservation because its biomass is relativelylarger; Mkheiia fulgens forest has the highest biomass in its herb layer, the forest of Quercus aciuissima and Pinusmassoniana has relatively higher biomass in its litter layer, which can play a significant role in soil and waterconservation.

  1. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  2. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown ifsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwas Rao Methari; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Chinna Raja; Sheik Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos) were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 oC using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 oC to 34 oC (P Conclusions:This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  3. Trimethylamine oxide, betaine and other osmolytes in deep-sea animals: depth trends and effects on enzymes under hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, P H; Rhea, M D; Kemp, K M; Bailey, D M

    2004-06-01

    Most shallow teleosts have low organic osmolyte contents, e.g. 70 mmol/kg or less of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). Our previous work showed that TMAO contents increase with depth in muscles of several Pacific families of teleost fishes, to about 180 mmol/kg wet wt at 2.9 km depth in grenadiers. We now report that abyssal grenadiers (Coryphaenoides armatus, Macrouridae) from the Atlantic at 4.8 km depth contain 261 mmol/kg wet wt in muscle tissue. This precisely fits a linear trend extrapolated from the earlier data. We also found that anemones show a trend of increasing contents of methylamines (TMAO, betaine) and scyllo-inositol with increasing depth. Previously we found that TMAO counteracts the inhibitory effects of hydrostatic pressure on a variety of proteins. We now report that TMAO and, to a lesser extent, betaine, are generally better stabilizers than other common osmolytes (myo-inositol, taurine and glycine), in terms of counteracting the effects of pressure on NADH Km of grenadier lactate dehydrogenase and ADP Km of anemone and rabbit pyruvate kinase. PMID:15529747

  4. Protease Inhibitors from Marine Venomous Animals and Their Counterparts in Terrestrial Venomous Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B. F. Mourão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are the best-characterized family of serine protease inhibitors, probably due to their abundance in several organisms. These inhibitors consist of a chain of ~60 amino acid residues stabilized by three disulfide bridges, and was first observed in the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-like protease inhibitors, which strongly inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin. In this review we present the protease inhibitors (PIs described to date from marine venomous animals, such as from sea anemone extracts and Conus venom, as well as their counterparts in terrestrial venomous animals, such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, Anurans, and Hymenopterans. More emphasis was given to the Kunitz-type inhibitors, once they are found in all these organisms. Their biological sources, specificity against different proteases, and other molecular blanks (being also K+ channel blockers are presented, followed by their molecular diversity. Whereas sea anemone, snakes and other venomous animals present mainly Kunitz-type inhibitors, PIs from Anurans present the major variety in structure length and number of Cys residues, with at least six distinguishable classes. A representative alignment of PIs from these venomous animals shows that, despite eventual differences in Cys assignment, the key-residues for the protease inhibitory activity in all of them occupy similar positions in primary sequence. The key-residues for the K+ channel blocking activity was also compared.

  5. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. PMID:26459519

  6. Nucleosides from Anthopleura stell%绿海葵中的核苷类成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禚如朋; 付宏征; 张礼和; 林文翰

    2001-01-01

    目的 为了寻找抗肿瘤的活性成分。方法 利用溶剂法和色谱法对绿海葵进行了研究。结果 分离得到5 个核苷,经波谱学解析鉴定为2-羟基嘌呤核苷(Ⅰ),脱氧肌苷(Ⅱ),1-甲基黄嘌呤核苷(Ⅲ),脱氧鸟苷(Ⅳ),脱氧核糖胸腺嘧啶(Ⅴ)。结论 Ⅲ为一新天然产物,其余均为海洋生物中首次发现。%To study the chemical constituents of sea anemone, Anthopleura stell Verrill.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and their structures elucidated by chemical evidences and spectra data.Results 5 nucleosides were obtained and identified from the ethanolic extract as 2-hydroxy purine (Ⅰ); deoxyinosine (Ⅱ); 1-methylxanthosine (Ⅲ); deoxyguanosine (Ⅳ), and deoxyribo-thymidine (Ⅴ).Conclusion Compound Ⅲ was a new natural product, while the others were found from sea anemone for the first time.

  7. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. PMID:26375331

  8. Comparing chemolithoautotrophic subseafloor communities across geochemical gradients using meta-omics and RNA-SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, C. S.; Huber, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The chemolithoautotrophic microbial community of the rocky subseafloor potentially provides a large amount of organic carbon to the deep ocean, yet our understanding of the activity and metabolic complexity of subseafloor organisms remains poorly described. Past studies have shown that the taxonomic structure of subseafloor communities differs based on the geochemical signatures of individual vents. In this study, we expanded beyond phylogeny and used a combination of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) analyses to identify the metabolic potential, expression patterns, and the active autotrophic players and genomic pathways present in venting fluids from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano off the coast of Oregon, USA. Low-temperature diffuse vent fluids from three hydrothermal vents, Marker 113, Marker 33, and Anemone, were filtered and preserved on the seafloor for metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses. Fluid for RNA-SIP was also collected and incubated shipboard with 13C-labeled sodium bicarbonate at 30ºC, 55ºC, and 80ºC for each vent. Taxonomically, Epsilonproteobacteria comprised a significant proportion of the community at all three vents, but each vent also had distinct groups that were abundant including SUP05 at Anemone and Methanococcus at Marker 113. Functionally, vents shared many metabolic processes including genes for denitrification, sulfur reduction and sulfur, hydrogen, and ammonium oxidation, which were present and expressed in similar abundance across all three vents. One metabolic difference between vents was the presence and expression of genes for methanogenesis, which were highly abundant and expressed at Marker 113, in lower abundance and expression at Marker 33, and not present at Anemone. RNA-SIP analysis is ongoing but initial results from Marker 113 revealed that at mesophilic, thermophilic, or hyperthemophilic temperatures, different genera and autotrophic metabolisms dominated

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of ascarids from Ailuropoda melanoleuca and five other species of wild mammals based on the cytochrome b gene%基于cytb基因对大熊猫等六种珍稀野生动物感染蛔虫的种系发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛李丽; 李岩; 古小彬; 余华; 邓家波; 严慧娟; 余星明; 陈维刚; 王淑贤; 杨光友

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the taxonomic status of roundworms from Ailuropoda melanoleuca,Ailurus fulgens,Procyon lotor,Ursus maritimus,Ursus thibetanus mupinensis,and Macaca mulatta,the mitochondrial partial cytb genes of roundworms from these animals were amplified by PCR.Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic relationship were then inferred based on the cytb genes.NJ tree,MP tree and ML tree were constructed using the MEGA 4.0,PAUP*4.010b,and PHYML v3.0.1 software,respectively.The results indicated that all the length of the partial sequences of cytb genes were 875 bp,with 156 va-riation sites detected among the roundworms from A.melanoleuca,A.fulgens,U.maritimus,U.thibetanus mupinensis,and P.lotor,and 11 variation sites were detected between roundworms from M.mulatta and pig.Phylogenetic trees revealed that the roundworms from the six wild mammals all belonged to the genus Baylisascaris.The results indicated that the gene cytb is a good marker in the classification and species-specific diagnosis within ascarids from wildlife.%为分析大熊猫、小熊猫、北极熊、黑熊四川亚种、浣熊和猕猴等6种野生动物蛔虫cytb基因的遗传多态性及其种系发育关系,对这6种野生动物寄生蛔虫cytb基因进行了扩增与测序分析,并分别构建NJ、MP和ML系统进化树。结果显示,六种野生动物寄生蛔虫的cytb基因经PCR扩增后共获得长度均为875bp的序列,其中大熊猫、小熊猫、北极熊、黑熊四川亚种和浣熊寄生的蛔虫cytb序列中包含了156个变异位点,而寄生于猕猴的蛔虫与寄生于猪的猪蛔虫在cytb序列上存在11个位点的差异。系统进化树显示,大熊猫等6种野生动物蛔虫聚类成贝蛔属分支。表明cytb基因适合于野生动物蛔虫的分类鉴定以及种系发育分析,可用于野生动物蛔虫的鉴别诊断。

  10. 7种观赏植物对甲醛的净化效果及生理响应%The Capacity on Purifying Indoor Formaldehyde Pollution and Physiology Response of 7 Ornamental Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂芳

    2012-01-01

    To select suitable plants for use in purified indoor formaldehyde pollution, seven species of ornamental plants were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing formaldehyde concentrations in a simulated fumigating box environment, and the absorption capacities were compared and ranked according to the net ratio of absorption and the reduction of formaldehyde in the unit leaf area. Meanwhile, the leaf plasma membrane permeability, MDA content and POD activity were measured to assess those plants' physiological responses to formaldehyde stress. The results indicated that the capacities of different plants in removing formaldehyde were different, and the order of the plants according to the absorption efficiency amount per unit of leaf area was Peperomia tetraphylla> Reineckea carnea> Aspidistra elatior> Crassula portulacea> Stromanthe sanguinea> Nidularium fulgens. The leaf relative conductivity, MDA content and POD activity of all the seven species changed after formaldehyde treatment and the resistances of different species to formaldehyde stress were different. According to formaldehyde removal capacity and the resistance measured in the experiment, 6 ornamental plants (including Peperomia tetraphylla, Reineckea carnea, Aspidistra elatior, Crassula portulacea, Stromanthe sanguine, Nidularium fulgens) had both higher removal capacities and higher resistance that were suitable to be used in indoor decoration.%为净化室内甲醛污染筛选出净化能力强的植物种类,以7种常见室内观赏植物为试材,采用气体密封舱熏气法,进行甲醛熏气处理,以净吸收率及单位叶面积甲醛减少量来比较植物吸收甲醛能力的大小,同时测定了熏气前后植物叶片的相对电导率、丙二醛含量及POD活性等指标.结果显示,被测植物在一定程度上均可以有效吸收甲醛,单位面积吸收量从大到小依次为椒草、吉祥草、一叶兰、燕子掌、紫背竹芋、锦巢凤梨、一品红.不同植物

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from animal sources in Qinghai province%青海省隐孢子虫的分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利青; 王戈平; 陆艳; 蔡其刚; 王光华; 李秀萍; 李晓卉; 刘维宏; 王小飞

    2013-01-01

    本研究中分别对来自西宁动物园的21种观赏动物,乌兰县的16头牦牛和42只山羊,用免疫荧光法(IFT)进行了隐孢子虫卵囊的调查.用套式PCR进行种和基因型的检测,并且用18SrRNA进行序列分析.用IFT分别在西宁动物园的17个观赏动物,乌兰县的2头牦牛和15只山羊中发现了隐孢子虫的卵囊.对IFT阳性样品进行PCR扩增,其中10份为PCR阳性.并且用黑豹(Panthera pardus)、黑颈鹤(Grus nigricollis),蛮羊(Ammotragus lervia),羚牛(Budorcas taxicolor),小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)和白马鸡(Crossoptilon crossoptilon)等动物隐孢子虫卵囊的PCR序列分析结果跟与微小隐孢子虫鼠基因型进行了比较.本研究首次报道了青海省野生动物中隐孢子虫的感染情况,并且首次在北山羊上分离得到的隐孢子虫中发现了鹿源基因型,类似C.bovis基因型,以及在山羊和野牦牛上发现了新的Cryptosporidium spp.

  12. CLONING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF SRY-HMG BOX FROM RACCOON%浣熊SRY-HMG box的克隆和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓娟; 杨玉华; 张义正; 陈红卫; 费立松; 宋云芳; 何光昕

    2002-01-01

    @@哺乳动物胚胎发育期的性别分化取决于Y染色体,特别是Y染色体上性别决定基因的存在(Cooke,1990).SRY(sex-determining-region on Y chromosome,SRY)基因位于Y染色体上靠近拟常染色质区一个35 kb的区域,在进化上高度保守(Sinclair et al.,1990),该基因所编码蛋白中有一段含有70个氨基酸残基的序列具有DNA结合蛋白的特征,被命名为HMG-box.到目前为止,引起性反转的所有SRY 基因突变位点几乎全位于HMG-box序列内(Denny et al.,1992;Whitfield et al.,1993).但SRY基因在性别决定及分化发育中的确切机制仍有待进一步阐明.浣熊(Procyon lotor)是一种产于中美及北美的珍贵哺乳动物,我们克隆到浣熊的HMG-box并对其进行了同源比较分析,不仅为性别决定机制的研究工作提供了进一步的资料,而且对熊类动物中颇具争议的大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)和小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)分类地位的探讨也具有重要意义.

  13. Current status and analysis of national protected animal species in Shaanxi province of China%陕西省国家重点保护野生动物的现状及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩会生; 曾治高; 王西峰; 赵凯辉; 张琼

    2009-01-01

    分析了国家重点保护野生动物在陕西省的分布状况.陕西省境内分布的国家级重点保护野生动物共有98种,包括23种哺乳类、69种鸟类、1种爬行类、1种两栖类、2种鱼类和2种昆虫,其中属于国家Ⅰ、Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物的物种分别有19种和79种.华南虎(Panthera tigris)、小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)、猞猁(Lynx lynx)和雪鸮(Nyctea scandiaca)在陕西的分布及存在有待以后的调查求证.国家级重点保护野生动物在陕西的分布存在明显的地域性差异,它们在陕北分布的物种数明显低于陕南的秦岭及大巴山地区.秦岭及大巴山地区是陕西珍稀濒危物种保护及生物多样性保护的关键区域.针对陕西境内受保护动物资源的现状与分布格局提出了相应的保护建议.

  14. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  15. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  16. Medwall, notre contemporain ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Debax

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Le texte Fulgens et Lucres de H. Medwall, joué en 1989 à Toulouse, était très largement fidèle à celui de 1494, en vers rimés, la rime étant un véhicule du charme et du comique tout à la fois. Les chevilles ont été scrupuleusement conservées, pour leur effet comique et phatique. Le metteur en scène s’est refusé à reconstituer les formes anciennes, et s’est gardé de tout exotisme, s’efforçant de gérer l’écart entre la mise en scène d’aujourd’hui et la réalisation censée avoir été celle du Moyen Âge. La différence entre les protagonistes historiques et les serviteurs-amuseurs a été soulignée par les costumes, le rapport au public et l’utilisation d’un livret tenu à la main par les premiers. Ce qui est recherché est un équilibre entre pratiques médiévales et contemporaines, et non point un compromis, qui aurait pour résultat de balloter le spectateur dans un univers incohérent. La connaissance des conditions initiales ne peut-être qu’un point de départ pour la réflexion, ce sont les conditions réelles et présentes de la représentation qui ont guidé les choix du metteur en scène d’aujourd’hui.

  17. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (Pfossil evidence that extends the early adaptive radiation of the total clade of musteloids to the Eocene-Oligocene transition and also suggests Asia as a center of this radiation. PMID:19699810

  18. Morphological changes of V-79 cells after equinatoxin II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, U; Jezernik, K

    1992-02-01

    Morphological observations on the V-79-379 A cells after treatment with equinatoxin II (EqT II), isolated from the sea anemone Actina equina L., and fetal calf serum (FCS) treated toxin were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the cells incubated with FCS treated EqT II were almost ultrastructurally unaltered. When the cells were treated with low concentrations of EqT II alone cell ultrastructure was altered with the evidence of numerous blebs and decreased microvilli number on the cell surface and appearance of numerous vesicles in the Golgi regions. High concentrations of EqT II caused disintegration of plasmalemma and intracellular membranes as well as degradation of cytosol. PMID:1348018

  19. Autocrine-Based Selection of Drugs That Target Ion Channels from Combinatorial Venom Peptide Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkai; Du, Mingjuan; Xie, Jia; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Jingying; Wang, Wei; Xin, Xiu; Possani, Lourival D; Yea, Kyungmoo; Lerner, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Animal venoms represent a rich source of pharmacologically active peptides that interact with ion channels. However, a challenge to discovering drugs remains because of the slow pace at which venom peptides are discovered and refined. An efficient autocrine-based high-throughput selection system was developed to discover and refine venom peptides that target ion channels. The utility of this system was demonstrated by the discovery of novel Kv1.3 channel blockers from a natural venom peptide library that was formatted for autocrine-based selection. We also engineered a Kv1.3 blocker peptide (ShK) derived from sea anemone to generate a subtype-selective Kv1.3 blocker with a long half-life in vivo. PMID:27197631

  20. Effect of power plant heated effluent on distribution of sedentary fauna and flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedentary fauna and floral assemblages at heated (st.3) and non-heated (st.2) areas of the discharge canal of Madras atomic power station (MAPS) were observed over an annual cycle and compared with those of the intake area (st.1). Barnacles (30-57%) followed by hydroids, ascidians, gree mussels, tube worms (8-12%) brown mussels (5-10%), and sea anemones (10-14%) were conspicuous in the intake area. Macroalgae (15-59%) followed by barnacle (12-34%), tube worm (8-21%) and brown mussel (10-15%) were the components at st.2 whereas st.3 was bare except for bluegreen algal mats (100%) with few periwinkles. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from Hydra magnipapillata containing multiple copies of Hydra-L Wamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides: evidence for processing at Ser and Asn residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    The simple, freshwater polyp Hydra is often used as a model to study development in cnidarians. Recently, a neuropeptide, < Glu-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-NH2, has been isolated from sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a polyp. Here, we have cloned a preprohormone...... from Hydra magnipapillata containing 11 (eight different) immature neuropeptide sequences that are structurally related to the metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anermones. During the final phase of our cloning experiments, another research team independently isolated and sequenced five of...... processing sites. Thus, the structure of the Hydra preprohormone confirms our earlier findings that cnidarian preprohormones contain unusual or novel processing sites. Nearly all neuropeptide copies located on the Hydra preprohormone will give rise to mature neuropeptides with a C-terminal Gly-Leu-Trp-NH2...

  2. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  3. The Alkaloid Ageladine A, Originally Isolated from Marine Sponges, Used for pH-Sensitive Imaging of Transparent Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Bickmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brominated pyrrole-imidazole Ageladine A was used for live imaging of the jellyfish (jellies Nausithoe werneri, the sea anemone Metridium senile and the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. The fluorescence properties of Ageladine A allow for estimation of pH values in tissue and organs in living animals. The results showed that Nausithoe werneri had the most acidic areas in the tentacles and close to the mouth (pH 4–6.5, Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (pH 5 and in Macrostomum lignano, the rhabdoids, the gonads and areas close to the mouth were the most acidic with values down to pH 5.

  4. The alkaloid Ageladine A, originally isolated from marine sponges, used for pH-sensitive imaging of transparent marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The brominated pyrrole-imidazole Ageladine A was used for live imaging of the jellyfish (jellies) Nausithoe werneri, the sea anemone Metridium senile and the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. The fluorescence properties of Ageladine A allow for estimation of pH values in tissue and organs in living animals. The results showed that Nausithoe werneri had the most acidic areas in the tentacles and close to the mouth (pH 4-6.5), Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (pH 5) and in Macrostomum lignano, the rhabdoids, the gonads and areas close to the mouth were the most acidic with values down to pH 5. PMID:22363232

  5. Axis Patterning by BMPs: Cnidarian Network Reveals Evolutionary Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Genikhovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BMP signaling plays a crucial role in the establishment of the dorso-ventral body axis in bilaterally symmetric animals. However, the topologies of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling networks vary drastically in different animal groups, raising questions about the evolutionary constraints and evolvability of BMP signaling systems. Using loss-of-function analysis and mathematical modeling, we show that two signaling centers expressing different BMPs and BMP antagonists maintain the secondary axis of the sea anemone Nematostella. We demonstrate that BMP signaling is required for asymmetric Hox gene expression and mesentery formation. Computational analysis reveals that network parameters related to BMP4 and Chordin are constrained both in Nematostella and Xenopus, while those describing the BMP signaling modulators can vary significantly. Notably, only chordin, but not bmp4 expression needs to be spatially restricted for robust signaling gradient formation. Our data provide an explanation of the evolvability of BMP signaling systems in axis formation throughout Eumetazoa.

  6. Potent Human α-Amylase Inhibition by the β-Defensin-like Protein Helianthamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) are an effective means of controlling blood sugar levels in the management of diabetes. A high-throughput screen of marine natural product extracts led to the identification of a potent (Ki = 10 pM) peptidic HPA inhibitor, helianthamide, from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. Active helianthamide was produced in Escherichia coli via secretion as a barnase fusion protein. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complex of helianthamide with porcine pancreatic α-amylase revealed that helianthamide adopts a β-defensin fold and binds into and across the amylase active site, utilizing a contiguous YIYH inhibitory motif. Helianthamide represents the first of a novel class of glycosidase inhibitors and provides an unusual example of functional malleability of the β-defensin fold, which is rarely seen outside of its traditional role in antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27066537

  7. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  8. The phylogenetic significance of fruit structures in ranunculaceae of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external and internal structures of fruits from 95 taxa representing 27 Ranunculaceae genera of China were studied. The results show that Ranunculaceae could be divided into 4 groups based on the fruit types, epidermal surface, vascular bundle, mesocarp cell, and endocarp cell structures: Group 1: follicle or achene, branching or branching and anastomosing vascular bundles, mesocarp parenchyma, and endocarp with one layer of lignified cells (including Aconitum and other genera); Group 2: achene, vascular bundle branching, mesocarp lignified, endocarp with one layer of irregular and partly lignified cells (Thalictrum only); Group 3: achene, endocarp with multilayered thick-walled cells (including Adonis, Batrachium and Ranunculus); Group 4: achene, two non-branching vascular bundles, and endocarp with one layer of fibers (including Anemone, Clematis and Pulsatilla). This study show that the fruit structures of Ranunculaceae could provide morphological and anatomical evidences for molecular phylogeny. (author)

  9. 小菊品种‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现%Genetic Presentation of BC1 Between ‘Zhongshanjingui' and ‘Zhongshanjingui' x Ajania przewalskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文莹; 刘新春; 房伟民; 管志勇; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 陈发棣

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Genetic presentation of BC1 between 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskii. Was studied in order to obtain new germplasm with higher ornamental and cold tolerance. [Method] Backcross hybridizations were made between Dendranthema morifolium variety 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and 'Zhongshanjingui' Xajania przewalskⅡ (as male). The backcross hybrids were obtained and their hybridity was confirmed by a combination of morphological, cytological analysis and resistance comparison. [Result] A total of 17 backcross hybrids were obtained. The hybrids differentiated obviously from their parents in many morphological characters and all hybrid lines bloomed normally. There happened three flower types, I.e. standard anemone type, mid-anemone type and non-anemone type, and most were anemone type. Some hybeids' inflorescence diameter was greater than 'Zhongshanjingui', the flower color was the same as 'Zhongshanjingui'. Compared with the male parent, the ornamental value was greatly improved. The chromosome number of 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskⅡ were 54 and 45, respectively. Their backcross hybrids chromosome number was between 41-54. In comparison of cold resistance, almost all the hybrids showed higher tolerance than 'Zhongshanjingui', which illustrated the backcross hybrids preserved the cold tolerance of Ajania przewalskii. [ Conclusion ] By using backcross between intergeneric hybrid F1 and its chrysanthemum parent, not only the intergeneric hybrid's ornamental vatue can be improved, but new germplasm of chrysanthemum also can be created.%[目的]对菊属栽培菊‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现进行研究,获得观赏性和抗性改良的优异属间新种质.[方法]以‘钟山金桂’×细裂亚菊F1为父本,‘钟山金桂’为轮回亲本开展回交试验.对获得的回交后代进行细胞学鉴定,对BC1代的形态性状观测,对经过越冬

  10. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+ channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jegla

    Full Text Available The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+ channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1, Shaw (Kv3 and Shal (Kv4. In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+ channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+ channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2 family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  11. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. ► Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. ► Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. ► Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. ► Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its 15N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 310-helix and two α-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two α-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the “functional dyad” required for the high-affinity interaction with the K+-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  12. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug

  13. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zou, Xi [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Jin-Yong [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Sun, Wei [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jian [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Xu, Jia-Li [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wang, Rui-Ping, E-mail: ruipingwang61@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug.

  14. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Johnson

    Full Text Available We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm, and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of a cnidarian – dinoflagellate mutualism reveals complex modulation of host gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Wendy S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cnidarian – dinoflagellate intracellular symbioses are one of the most important mutualisms in the marine environment. They form the trophic and structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems, and have played a key role in the evolutionary radiation and biodiversity of cnidarian species. Despite the prevalence of these symbioses, we still know very little about the molecular modulators that initiate, regulate, and maintain the interaction between these two different biological entities. In this study, we conducted a comparative host anemone transcriptome analysis using a cDNA microarray platform to identify genes involved in cnidarian – algal symbiosis. Results We detected statistically significant differences in host gene expression profiles between sea anemones (Anthopleura elegantissima in a symbiotic and non-symbiotic state. The group of genes, whose expression is altered, is diverse, suggesting that the molecular regulation of the symbiosis is governed by changes in multiple cellular processes. In the context of cnidarian – dinoflagellate symbioses, we discuss pivotal host gene expression changes involved in lipid metabolism, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Conclusion Our data do not support the existence of symbiosis-specific genes involved in controlling and regulating the symbiosis. Instead, it appears that the symbiosis is maintained by altering expression of existing genes involved in vital cellular processes. Specifically, the finding of key genes involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis have led us to hypothesize that a suppression of apoptosis, together with a deregulation of the host cell cycle, create a platform that might be necessary for symbiont and/or symbiont-containing host cell survival. This first comprehensive molecular examination of the cnidarian – dinoflagellate associations provides critical insights into the maintenance and regulation of the

  16. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  17. Contrasting physiological plasticity in response to environmental stress within different cnidarians and their respective symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, Daniel. T.; Dodge, Danielle; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Given concerns surrounding coral bleaching and ocean acidification, there is renewed interest in characterizing the physiological differences across the multiple host-algal symbiont combinations commonly found on coral reefs. Elevated temperature and CO2 were used to compare physiological responses within the scleractinian corals Montipora hirsuta ( Symbiodinium C15) and Pocillopora damicornis ( Symbiodinium D1), as well as the corallimorph (a non-calcifying anthozoan closely related to scleractinians) Discosoma nummiforme ( Symbiodinium C3). Several physiological proxies were affected more by temperature than CO2, including photochemistry, algal number and cellular chlorophyll a. Marked differences in symbiont number, chlorophyll and volume contributed to distinctive patterns of chlorophyll absorption among these animals. In contrast, carbon fixation either did not change or increased under elevated temperature. Also, the rate of photosynthetically fixed carbon translocated to each host did not change, and the percent of carbon translocated to the host increased in the corallimorph. Comparing all data revealed a significant negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and symbiont density that corroborates previous hypotheses about carbon limitation in these symbioses. The ratio of symbiont-normalized photosynthetic rate relative to the rate of symbiont-normalized carbon translocation (P:T) was compared in these organisms as well as the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida hosting Symbiodinium minutum, and revealed a P:T close to unity ( D. nummiforme) to a range of 2.0-4.5, with the lowest carbon translocation in the sea anemone. Major differences in the thermal responses across these organisms provide further evidence of a range of acclimation potential and physiological plasticity that highlights the need for continued study of these symbioses across a larger group of host taxa.

  18. Life history and feeding biology of the deep-sea pycnogonid Nymphon hirtipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Pycnogonids (sea spiders) are commonly collected at bathyal and abyssal depths all around the world; however, little is known about species from deep-water habitats. The present study explores the life history of Nymphon hirtipes collected in northeastern Newfoundland between 700 and 1450 m depth and monitored in mesocosms for over 2 years. The pycnogonids were found in association with octocorals, hydrozoans and sea anemones. Adult females developed mature oocytes between June and August. Paired mating followed by oviposition occurred between early July and mid-October. Up to three egg masses were brooded by each male. It took a maximum of 4 months for the propagules to hatch from the egg mass. Offspring developed from walking leg-bearing larvae to early juveniles over the next ~5 months before leaving the male's protection. Mating and oviposition coincided with the highest water temperatures of the annual cycle and dispersal of juveniles occurred in spring, when phytodetritus deposition was high and as ocean temperature rose markedly. All the females died after oviposition and the males ~9 months later, after juvenile dispersal. The sex ratio of mature individuals (~55-60 mm leg span) was 2 males for 3 females. Fecundity was estimated to be 184-288 eggs per adult female. Adults of N. hirtipes were seen feeding on hydrozoan polyps, small sea anemones (Stephanauge nexilis) and nudibranchs. Larvae and early juveniles did not feed while brooded by the male. Upon dispersal, their feeding apparatus became functional and they began feeding on hydrozoan polyps. After 13 months of growth post hatching, the juveniles reached ~21 mm leg span. Curve fitting estimated that ~7 years are required to reach the adult size of 55 mm leg span.

  19. The evolution of modern corals and their early history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, George D.

    2003-02-01

    Scleractinians are a group of calcified anthozoan corals, many of which populate shallow-water tropical to subtropical reefs. Most of these corals calcify rapidly and their success on reefs is related to a symbiotic association with zooxanthellae. These one-celled algal symbionts live in the endodermal tissues of their coral host and are thought responsible for promoting rapid calcification. The evolutionary significance of this symbiosis and the implications it holds for explaining the success of corals is of paramount importance. Scleractinia stands out as one of the few orders of calcified metazoans that arose in Triassic time, long after a greater proliferation of calcified metazoan orders in the Paleozoic. The origin of this coral group, so important in reefs of today, has remained an unsolved problem in paleontology. The idea that Scleractinia evolved from older Paleozoic rugose corals that somehow survived the Permian mass extinction persists among some schools of thought. Paleozoic scleractiniamorphs also have been presented as possible ancestors. The paleontological record shows the first appearance of fossils currently classified within the order Scleractinia to be in the Middle Triassic. These earliest Scleractinia provide a picture of unexpectedly robust taxonomic diversity and high colony integration. Results from molecular biology support a polyphyletic evolution for living Scleractinia and the molecular clock, calibrated against the fossil record, suggests that two major groups of ancestors could extend back to late Paleozoic time. The idea that Scleractinia were derived from soft-bodied, "anemone-like" ancestors that survived the Permian mass extinction, has become a widely considered hypothesis. The 14-million year Mesozoic coral gap stands as a fundamental obstacle to verification of many of these ideas. However, this obstacle is not a barrier for derivation of scleractinians from anemone-like, soft-bodied ancestors. The hypothesis of the

  20. Environmental Impact of a Submarine Cable: Case Study of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/ Pioneer Seamount Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, I.; Paull, C. K.; Kuhnz, L.; von Thun, S.; Burton, E.; Greene, H. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    substrates on the continental shelf whereas much of the cable remains exposed in sediments at deeper depths. The cable is exposed in rocky environments of the nearshore region and on all of Pioneer Seamount. The main biological features associated with the cable were organisms utilizing the cable as substrate and occasionally as shelter. Considerable care was taken to count megafauna in video transects and macrofauna from the top 5 cm of push cores. Few differences were found between cable and control sites at the 95% confidence level. Anemones Metridium farcimen and Stomphia sp. colonized the cable and were more abundant in cable transects at most soft sediment sites. Coarse extrapolation of the transect data suggest that more than 5,000 M. farcimen may live on the continental shelf portion of the cable. Several other species of anemones living on the cable are common along deeper sections of the cable route. Where the cable was buried, the presence of linear rows of sea anemones proved to be a reliable indicator of the cable's position. Flatfish and rockfish apparently congregate near the cable and were as much as 1 order of magnitude more abundant near the cable at some sites.

  1. 长白山森林生态系统中的稀有和濒危多孔菌%Rare and threathened polypores in the ecosystem of Changbaishan Nature Reserve of Northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉成

    2003-01-01

    In last 10 years, extensive field inventories were carried out to investigate Polypore species, the major wood-de-caying fungi in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve of Northeastern China. The following 27 species were treated as rare or threathened species: Amylocystis lapponica ( Romell ) Singer, Anomoporth albolutescens ( Romell )Pouzar, Anomoporia bombycbza (Fr.) Pouzar, Anomoporia vesiculosa Y.C. Dai & Niemelae, Antrodia carbon-ica (Overh.) Ryvarden & Glib., Antrodia crassa (P. Karst. ) Ryvarden, Antrodiella citrinella Niemel/i & Ry-varden, Diplomitoporus flavescens (Bres.) Domdnski, DonkiopoHa excpansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar,Gloeo-phyllum carbonarium (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Ryvarden, Haploporus odorus (Sommerf.) Bondartsev & Singer, Inwmtopsis subiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, Nigroporus ussu Hensis (Bondartsev & Ljub. ) Y.C. Dai & Niemela, Oxyporus sinensis X.L. Zeng, Parmastomyces taxi(Bondartsev) Y.C. Dai & Niemela, Phellinidium sulphurascens( Pilat ) Y.C. Dai, Phellinus vaninii Ljub., Polyporus vassilievae Thorn, Pycnoporellus fulgens(Fr.) Donk, Skeletocutis brezdspora Niemela, Skeletocutis ochroalba Niemela, Nieletocut/s perennls Ryvarden, Tmchispora candidissima (Schwein.) Bondartsev & Singer, Wolfiporia dilatohypha Ryvarden & Glib., Wol fiporia curvispora Y.C. Dai, Wrightoporia avellanea ( Bres. ) Pouzar and Wrightoporia lenta ( Oveh. & J.Lowe) Pouzar. Polypores are richer in East Asia than in Europe and North America, not only because of de-structive galciations and fewer hosts in the latters, but also because of the geography. NE Asia is a link between Europe and North America. Changbaishan Nature Reserve is very rich in polypores, and over 260 species were recorded in the reserve. Some rare species in North America and Europe, for instance, Anomotoria albo-lutescens, Antrodia crassa, Diplomitoporus flavescozs, Inonotopsis subiculosa and Skeletocutis ochroalba etc.were found in Changbaishan Nature Reserve as well, and these species are in fact rare in the earth

  2. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  3. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  4. Caryological notes in some portuguese Ranunculaceae

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    Queirós, Margarida

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of fourteen portuguese laxa of Ranunculaceae are reported: Helleborus foetidus 20 = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n = 48; R. repens 2n = 32; R. bulbosus subsp. aleae var. adscendens 2n =16; R. sceleratus 2n = 32; R. paludosus 2n = 32; R. nigrescens 2n = 16; Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. dichroa 2n = 14. The chromosome numbers are in accordance with previous results.

    Se estudia el número cromosómico de algunos táxones de Ranunculaceae portugueses: Helleborus foetidus 2n = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n = 48; R. repens 2n = 32; R. bulbosus subsp. aleae var. adscendens 2n =16; R. sceleratus 2n = 32; R. paludosus 2n = 32; R. nigrescens 2n = 16; Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. dichroa 2n = 14. Estos recuentos coinciden con los obtenidos anteriormente por otros autores.

  5. 云南云龙水库库区野生药用种子植物资源调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on the Wild Resources of Medicinal Seed Plants from Yunlong Reservoir Area in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孙文; 赵昶灵; 张丽梅; 李荣春; 赵蕾; 李信

    2006-01-01

    In the area of Yunlong reservoir of Yunnan province,there are 104 species of wild resources of medicinal seed plants which belong to 56 families and 94 genera. The percentage of the medicinal seed plants to the total seed plants in the same area is 23.3%. The preponderant families of medicinal seed plants are Compositae,Labiatae,Campanulaceae,Umbelliferae,Ranunculaceae,Rosaceae,Rubiaceae and Scrophulariaceae. The preponderant genera are Anemone,Artemisia,Carpesium,Conyza and Elsholtzia. The perpendicular distribution of the medicinal seed plants is asymmetrical. The species number in the altitude of 2 070~2 080 m is the maximum,next is the 2 010~2 030 m and the third is the 2 430~2 440 m. After the water-storing of reservoir is fulfilled entirely,53.8% of the wild resources of medicinal seed plants will permanently be submerged. This research may provide a preparatory information for the protection of the entironment surrounding the reservoir and for the scientific safeguard and utilization of the wild resources of medicinal seed plants.%云南云龙水库库区共有药用种子植物104种,隶属于56科94属,占该区全部种子植物种的23.3%,优势科为Compositae,Labiatae,Campanulaceae,Umbelliferae,Ranunculaceae,Rosaceae,Rubiaceae和Scrophulariaceae,优势属为Anemone,Artemisia,Carpesium,Conyza和Elsholtzia.该区药用种子植物垂直分布不均匀,在海拔2 070~2 080 m种最多,其次是2 010~2 030 m,再次是2 430~2 440 m.水库完成蓄水后,将53.8%的药用种子植物被永久淹没.研究结果可为库区周边生态环境保护和对该区药用种子植物资源的科学保护和开发利用提供参考.

  6. A journey into the wild of the cnidarian model system Aiptasia and its symbionts

    KAUST Repository

    Voolstra, Christian R.

    2013-08-27

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems relies critically on the mutualistic relationship between calcifying cnidarians and photosynthetic, dinoflagellate endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium. Reef-corals have declined globally due to anthropogenic stressors, for example, rising sea-surface temperatures and pollution that often disrupt these symbiotic relationships (known as coral bleaching), exacerbating mass mortality and the spread of disease. This threatens one of the most biodiverse marine ecosystems providing habitats to millions of species and supporting an estimated 500 million people globally (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Our understanding of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses has improved notably with the recent application of genomic and transcriptomic tools (e.g. Voolstra et al. 2009; Bayer et al. 2012; Davy et al. 2012), but a model system that allows for easy manipulation in a laboratory environment is needed to decipher underlying cellular mechanisms important to the functioning of these symbioses. To this end, the sea anemone Aiptasia, otherwise known as a \\'pest\\' to aquarium hobbyists, is emerging as such a model system (Schoenberg & Trench 1980; Sunagawa et al. 2009; Lehnert et al. 2012). Aiptasia is easy to grow in culture and, in contrast to its stony relatives, can be maintained aposymbiotically (i.e. dinoflagellate free) with regular feeding. However, we lack basic information on the natural distribution and genetic diversity of these anemones and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. These data are essential for placing the significance of this model system into an ecological context. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thornhill et al. (2013) are the first to present genetic evidence on the global distribution, diversity and population structure of Aiptasia and its associated Symbiodinium spp. By integrating analyses of the host and symbiont, this research concludes that the current Aitpasia taxonomy probably needs revision and that two

  7. Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural features and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkol-Finkel, S; Shashar, N; Benayahu, Y

    2006-03-01

    In light of the deteriorating state of coral reefs worldwide, the need to rehabilitate marine environments has greatly increased. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been suggested as a tool for reef conservation and rehabilitation. Although successions of AR communities have been thoroughly studied, current understanding of the interactions between artificial and natural reefs (NRs) is poor and a fundamental question still to be answered is that of whether AR communities can mimic adjacent NR communities. We suggest three alternative hypotheses: Neighboring ARs and NRs will (1) achieve a similar community structure given sufficient time; (2) be similar only if they possess similar structural features; (3) always differ, regardless of age or structural features. We examined these hypotheses by comparing the community structure on a 119-year old shipwreck to a neighboring NR. Fouling organisms, including stony and soft corals, sponges, tunicates, sea anemones and hydrozoans were recorded and measured along belt transects. The ahermatypic stony coral Tubastrea micrantha dominated vertical AR regions while the soft corals Nephthea sp. and Xenia sp. dominated both artificial and natural horizontal surfaces. Our results support the second hypothesis, indicating that even after a century an AR will mimic its adjacent NR communities only if it possesses structural features similar to those of the natural surroundings. However, if the two differ structurally, their communities will remain distinct. PMID:16198411

  8. Sicily in D.H. Lawrence’s Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Comellini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available D.H. Lawrence, who spent two years in Sicily, precisely in Fontana Vecchia, near Taormina and Aetna (where the God Vulcan used to live, has always been fascinated by Italy and Sicily in particular, the places where, in his opinion, most myths are rooted. His fascination for Sicily is due both to the sculpture of The Seated Demeter or Core, that he saw in the archaeological Museum in Syracuse, and to the Sicilians, described “as handsome as Adonis”, and who seem to manifest and share the sexual energy usually connected to Pan and Dionysus. The image of Sicily recurs in D.H. Lawrence’s entire production, often indirectly suggested by images such as: the volcanoes, the mythical Sicilian monsters “Scylla and Charybdis”, and the references to the Myth of Pluto and Persephone, which took place in Enna, as told in his poem "Purple Anemones" (in Birds, Beasts and Flowers. Moreover, his novella Sun deals with the flourishing Mediterranean landscape of Sicily, with Aetna in the distance, and the memory of the Sicules, the archaic inhabitants of the island. It is also worth mentioning that D.H. Lawrence translated several works by the Sicilian Giovanni Verga: from Mastro-Don Gesualdo (1923 to Cavalleria Rusticana and Other Stories (1928.

  9. Analyses of Simulated Reconnection-Driven Solar Polar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. A.; Uritsky, V. M.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Solar polar jets are observed to originate in regions within the open field of solar coronal holes. These so called "anemone" regions are generally accepted to be regions of opposite polarity, and are associated with an embedded dipole topology, consisting of a fan-separatrix and a spine line emanating from a null point occurring at the top of the dome shaped fan surface. Previous analysis of these jets (Pariat et al. 2009,2010) modeled using the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver (ARMS) has supported the claim that magnetic reconnection across current sheets formed at the null point between the highly twisted closed field of the dipole and open field lines surrounding it releases the energy necessary to drive these jets. However, these initial simulations assumed a "static" environment for the jets, neglecting effects due to gravity, solar wind and the expanding spherical geometry. A new set of ARMS simulations taking into account these additional physical processes was recently performed. Initial results are qualitatively consistent with the earlier Cartesian studies, demonstrating the robustness of the underlying ideal and resistive mechanisms. We focus on density and velocity fluctuations within a narrow radial slit aligned with the direction of the spine of the jet, as well as other physical properties, in order to identify and refine their signatures in the lower heliosphere. These refined signatures can be used as parameters by which plasma processes initiated by these jets may be identified in situ by future missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus.

  10. Bacterial communities associated with the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Camille; Breitbart, Mya

    2012-10-01

    Residing in a phylum of their own, ctenophores are gelatinous zooplankton that drift through the ocean's water column. Although ctenophores are known to be parasitized by a variety of eukaryotes, no studies have examined their bacterial associates. This study describes the bacterial communities associated with the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its natural predator Beroe ovata in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Investigations using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that ctenophore bacterial communities were distinct from the surrounding water. In addition, each ctenophore genus contained a unique microbiota. Ctenophore samples contained fewer bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by T-RFLP and lower diversity communities by 16S rRNA gene sequencing than the water column. Both ctenophore genera contained sequences related to bacteria previously described in marine invertebrates, and sequences similar to a sea anemone pathogen were abundant in B. ovata. Temporal sampling revealed that the ctenophore-associated bacterial communities varied over time, with no single OTU detected at all time points. This is the first report of distinct and dynamic bacterial communities associated with ctenophores, suggesting that these microbial consortia may play important roles in ctenophore ecology. Future work needs to elucidate the functional roles and mode of acquisition of these bacteria. PMID:22571334

  11. Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv is a novel recombinant immunotoxin with specific toxicity against HER2/neu-positive ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinxin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Rui; Dong, Yuguo; Sun, Aiyou; Shen, Yaling; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-07-01

    Immunotoxins are a new class of antibody-targeted therapy in clinical development. Traditional immunotoxins that are constructed from the toxins of plants or bacteria need to be internalized to the cytoplasm and thus have limited antitumor efficacy. In the present study, we combined a recently reported sea anemone cytolysin Gigantoxin-4 with an anti-HER2/neu single-chain variable fragment 4D5 scFv to construct a novel immunotoxin. We fused a SUMO tag to the N-terminus of Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv and it was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form. After purification, the purity of Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv reached 96 % and the yield was 14.3 mg/L. Our results demonstrated that Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv exerted a highly cytotoxic effect on the HER2/neu-positive ovarian carcinoma SK-OV-3 cell line. And the hemolytic activity was weaker, making it safe for normal cells. The results of immunofluorescence analysis showed that this novel immunotoxin could specifically bind to SK-OV-3 cells with no recognition of human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Scanning electron microscope observations and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity indicated that it could induce necrosis in SK-OV-3 cells by disrupting the cell membrane. Moreover, it could also mediate apoptosis of SK-OV-3 cells. PMID:27063011

  12. Structural and Developmental Disparity in the Tentacles of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gold

    Full Text Available Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes are a defining trait of the cnidarians, a phylum that includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras. While cnidarian tentacles are generally characterized as structures evolved for feeding and defense, significant variation exists between the tentacles of different species, and within the same species across different life stages and/or body regions. Such diversity suggests cryptic distinctions exist in tentacle function. In this paper, we use confocal and transmission electron microscopy to contrast the structure and development of tentacles in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia species 1. We show that polyp oral tentacles and medusa marginal tentacles display markedly different cellular and muscular architecture, as well as distinct patterns of cellular proliferation during growth. Many structural differences between these tentacle types may reflect biomechanical solutions to different feeding strategies, although further work would be required for a precise mechanistic understanding. However, differences in cell proliferation dynamics suggests that the two tentacle forms lack a conserved mechanism of development, challenging the textbook-notion that cnidarian tentacles can be homologized into a conserved bauplan.

  13. Symbiont type influences trophic plasticity of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel C; Hoadley, Kenneth; Pettay, D Tye; Grajales, Alejandro; Calado, Ricardo; Warner, Mark E

    2015-03-01

    The association between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium is a prevalent relationship in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Although the diversity of Symbiodinium provides a possible axis for niche diversification, increased functional range and resilience to physical stressors such as elevated temperature, how such diversity relates to the physiological balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy of the host animal remains unknown. Here, we experimentally show interspecific and intraspecific variability of photosynthetic carbon fixation and subsequent translocation by Symbiodinium to the model cnidarian host Aiptasia pallida. By using a clonal anemone line harboring different species of Symbiodinium, we determined that symbiont identity influences trophic plasticity through its density, capacity to fix carbon, quantity of translocated carbon and ultimately the host's capacity to ingest and digest prey. Symbiont carbon translocation and host prey ingestion were positively correlated across symbiont combinations that consisted of different isoclonal lines of Symbiodinium minutum, while a combination with type D4-5 Symbiodinium displayed lower carbon translocation, and prey capture and digestion more similar to Aiptasia lacking symbionts. The absence of a shift toward greater heterotrophy when carbon translocation is low suggests that the metabolic demand of feeding and digestion may overwhelm nutritional stores when photosynthesis is reduced, and amends the possible role of animal feeding in resistance to or recovery from the effects of climate change in more obligate symbioses such as reef-building corals. PMID:25617454

  14. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-01-01

    This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc. of anemones (the common name for these groups); the reference section comprises 845 entries. As for previous anemone catalogs, this contains taxonomic as well as nomenclatural information,  the former based on subjective opinion of working biologists, the latter objectively verifiable and unchanging (except by action of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).        Each family-group name, genus-group name, and original combination for species-group names has an entry. The entry contains the bibliographic reference to the publication in which each name was made available. This book contains for Corallimorpharia seven family names (four considered valid [57%]), 20 generic names (10 considered valid [50%] and one unavailable), and 65 species names (46 considered valid [70%]). It contains for Actiniaria 86 family names (50 considered valid [58%] and three unavailable), 447 generic names (264 considered valid [59%] and two unavailable), and 1427 species names (1101 considered valid [77%] and nine unavailable). Type specimens are inventoried from more than 50 natural history museums in Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America, including those with the largest collections of anemones; the geographic

  15. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I.-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T. C.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-10-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12 h L:12 h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates.

  16. Isolation and distribution of iridescent Cellulophaga and other iridescent marine bacteria from the Charente-Maritime coast, French Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kientz, Betty; Agogué, Hélène; Lavergne, Céline; Marié, Pauline; Rosenfeld, Eric

    2013-06-01

    An intense colored marine bacterium, identified as Cellulophaga lytica, was isolated previously from a sea anemone surface on the Charente-Maritime rocky shore (Atlantic Coast, France), and iridescence of its colonies under direct light was recently described. In addition, iridescence intensities were found to differ strongly between C. lytica strains from different culture collections. However, importantly, the occurrence and distribution of iridescent bacteria in the marine environment were still unknown. Therefore, in this study, a search was undertaken for marine iridescent bacterial strains in different biotopes of the Charente-Maritime coast. Various marine samples (water, sediment, macroalgae, other macroorganisms and detritus) were collected from seven biotopes using a direct plate inoculation method. As a result, 34 iridescent strains related to the genus Cellulophaga, as well as 63 iridescent strains affiliated to the genera Tenacibaculum and Aquimarina, were isolated. Iridescent colors were different according to the genera but iridescent marine bacteria were widely distributed. However, a majority of strains were isolated from rocky shores and, in particular, red seaweed surfaces and mollusks. The data from the study suggested that isolates with iridescent properties were well conserved in stressful environments such as the coastal shoreline. This origin may provide an insight into the ecological and biological functions of iridescence. PMID:23623798

  17. Enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway encoded in the genome of a basal metazoan, Nematostella vectensis, have microbial origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Antonio; Akthar, Shamima; Dunlap, Walter C; Shick, J Malcolm; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Long, Paul F

    2008-02-19

    The shikimic acid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many aromatic compounds by a broad range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and some protozoans. Animals are considered to lack this pathway, as evinced by their dietary requirement for shikimate-derived aromatic amino acids. We challenge the universality of this traditional view in this report of genes encoding enzymes for the shikimate pathway in an animal, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Molecular evidence establishes horizontal transfer of ancestral genes of the shikimic acid pathway into the N. vectensis genome from both bacterial and eukaryotic (dinoflagellate) donors. Bioinformatic analysis also reveals four genes that are closely related to those of Tenacibaculum sp. MED152, raising speculation for the existence of a previously unsuspected bacterial symbiont. Indeed, the genome of the holobiont (i.e., the entity consisting of the host and its symbionts) comprises a high content of Tenacibaculum-like gene orthologs, including a 16S rRNA sequence that establishes the phylogenetic position of this associate to be within the family Flavobacteriaceae. These results provide a complementary view for the biogenesis of shikimate-related metabolites in marine Cnidaria as a "shared metabolic adaptation" between the partners. PMID:18268342

  18. Unravelling the role of zooxanthellae in the uptake and depuration of an essential metal in Exaiptasia pallida; an experiment using a model cnidarian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We examined zooxanthellae and tissue zinc partitioning in Exaiptasia pallida. • Zooxanthellae density has a strong influence on whole organism metal loading. • Zooxanthellae loss through stress is likely to result in metal depuration. • There are implications for interpreting studies of metal loads in symbiotic organisms. • Studies of metal loads in symbiotic organisms must consider zooxanthellae density. - Abstract: Coral skeletons record historical trace metal levels in the environment, however, the use of coral skeletal records for biomonitoring studies mostly fail to consider the influence of metal regulation by the living components of coral and subsequent incorporation into the skeleton. This study presents Exaiptasia pallida as a representative of the living components of coral and shows metal partitioning between the tissue and zooxanthellae after chronic exposure to Zn. A strong tendency for preferential accumulation in the zooxanthellae occurred after 32 days exposure and Zn concentrations in tissue and zooxanthellae were 123.3 ± 0.7 mg kg−1 and 294.9 ± 8.5 respectively. This study shows zooxanthellae density plays an important role in controlling Zn loading in whole anemones and must be considered when investigating metal uptake and loading in zooxanthellate organisms. Further studies that investigate links between aragonite deposition rates and zooxanthellae density and incorporation pathways of metals into skeleton are warranted

  19. High contents of trimethylamine oxide correlating with depth in deep-sea teleost fishes, skates, and decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R H; Yancey, P H

    1999-02-01

    In muscles of shallow-living marine animals, the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is reportedly found (in millimoles of TMAO per kilogram of tissue wet weight) at 30-90 in shrimp, 5-50 in crabs, 61-181 in skates, and 10-70 in most teleost fish. Recently our laboratory reported higher levels (83-211 mmol/kg), correlating with habitat depth, in deep-sea gadiform teleosts. We now report the same trend in muscles of other animals, collected off the coast of Oregon from bathyal (1800-2000 m) and abyssal plain (2850 m) sites. TMAO contents (mmol/kg +/- SD) were as follows: zoarcid teleosts, 103 +/- 9 (bathyal) and 197 +/- 2 (abyssal); scorpaenid teleosts, 32 +/- 0 (shallow) and 141 +/- 16 (bathyal); rajid skates, 215 +/- 13 (bathyal) and 244 +/- 23 (abyssal); caridean shrimp, 76 +/- 16 (shallow), 203 +/- 35 (bathyal), and 299 +/- 28 (abyssal); Chionoecetes crabs, 22 +/- 2 (shallow) and 164 +/- 15 (bathyal). Deep squid, clams, and anemones also had higher contents than shallow species. Osmoconformers showed compensation between TMAO and other osmolytes. Urea contents (typically 300 mmol/kg in shallow elasmobranchs) in skates were 214 +/- 5 (bathyal) and 136 +/- 9 (abyssal). Glycine contents in shrimp were 188 +/- 17 (shallow) and 52 +/- 20 (abyssal). High TMAO contents may reflect diet, reduce osmoregulatory costs, increase buoyancy, or counteract destabilization of proteins by pressure. PMID:25575382

  20. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web. PMID:26275753

  1. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775. Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775 which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity.

  2. Strategies toward structural and functional ‘optimization’ of animal peptide toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreotti N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: venoms of a variety of animal species (i.e. scorpions, snakes, spiders, sea anemones, marine cone snails, worms, and insects are rich sources of bioactive compounds that possess obvious pharmacological, therapeutic and/or biotechnological values. A majority of these compounds are peptides that mainly target enzymes, membrane receptors or ion channels. Aim: In recent years, much efforts of researchers have been focused on characterizing and ‘improving’ the pharmacological profile of some venom toxins, mainly because of their structural/functional diversity and potential value as chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of specific human pathologies. Materials and methods: This study reviews the strategies towards optimization of animal peptide toxins. Results: These peptides are most often in a size range that allows their production in vitro by chemical synthesis or genetic engineering. Unfortunately, they rarely display the required characteristics in terms of selectivity, affinity, stability and targeting with regard to the desired application. During the last decade, a number of successful structural approaches or strategies have been developed to improve the intrinsic potential of venom peptides. Using different strategies (reviewed herein, a number of highly potent and selective toxin-derived candidate drugs were designed and produced by chemical synthesis. Conclusion: Such strategies proved to be effective as several toxin-based drugs are already marketed while an increasing number of candidate chemotherapeutics are currently being developed in clinical phase.

  3. Initiation and recovery processes of endotoxin induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC: scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of rat renal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyashima,Takanao

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the initiation, development and recovery processes of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, rat glomerular capillaries and fibrin thrombi were examined under transmission and scanning electron microscopes. DIC was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (Et., 7.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide:B, E. coli 026:B6. At 2 h after Et. injection, the endothelial surface of the glomerular capillary became irregular with projections like a sea anemone. At 4 h after Et. injection, agglomerated fibrin thrombi composed of fibrin fiber bundles with fine cross-striated fibriform structures were observed in the capillary lumen. The fibrin thrombi gradually changed into fine reticular systems suggesting a degradation process by 6 h after Et. injection, and formed a coarse granular agglomerate by 8 h after Et. injection. These fibrin thrombi disappeared within 12 h of Et. injection, but the endothelial surface remained edematous. At 24 h after Et. injection, the microstructure of the glomerular capillaries returned normal. Based on these observations, we concluded that DIC was primarily initiated by injury to the capillary endothelium, and that changes on the endothelial surface contributed to the development of DIC.

  4. Transcriptomic responses to heat stress and bleaching in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata

    KAUST Repository

    DeSalvo, MK

    2010-03-08

    The emergence of genomic tools for reef-building corals and symbiotic anemones comes at a time when alarming losses in coral cover are being observed worldwide. These tools hold great promise in elucidating novel and unforeseen cellular processes underlying the successful mutualism between corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts Symbiodinium spp. Since thermal stress triggers a breakdown in the symbiosis (coral bleaching), measuring the transcriptomic response to thermal stress-induced bleaching offers an extraordinary view of cellular processes that are specific to coral–algal symbioses. In the present study, we utilized a cDNA microarray containing 2059 genes of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral Acropora palmata to identify genes that are differentially expressed upon thermal stress. Fragments from replicate colonies were exposed to elevated temperature for 2 d, and samples were frozen for microarray analysis after 24 and 48 h. Totals of 204 and 104 genes were differentially expressed in samples that were collected 1 and 2 d after thermal stress, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicates a cellular stress response in A. palmata involving (1) growth arrest, (2) chaperone activity, (3) nucleic acid stabilization and repair, and (4) removal of damaged macromolecules. Other differentially expressed processes include sensory perception, metabolite transfer between host and endosymbiont, nitric oxide signaling, and modifications to the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. The results are compared with those from a previous coral microarray study of thermal stress in Montastraea faveolata, and point to an overall evolutionary conserved bleaching response in scleractinian corals.

  5. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  6. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms. PMID:19375827

  7. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate

  8. Expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization of APETx2, a specific inhibitor of acid sensing ion channel 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anangi, Raveendra; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Ren; Cheng, Chun-Ho; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Yuan-Ping; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2010-12-01

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are family of proteins predominantly present in the central and peripheral nervous system. They are known to play important roles in the pathophysiology of pain and ischemic stroke. APETx2 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels and was isolated from sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. To facilitate the study on the molecular determinants of ASIC3-ligand interactions, we expressed recombinant APETx2 in the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system and purified it to homogeneity. Recombinant APETx2 produced in P. pastoris inhibited the acid-evoked ASIC3 current with the IC(50) value of 37.3 nM. The potency of recombinant toxin is similar to that of native APETx2. The sequential assignment and structure analysis of APETx2 were obtained by 2D and 3D (15)N-edited NMR spectra. Our NMR data suggests that APETx2 produced in P. pastoris retained its native fold. The results presented here provide the first direct evidence that highly disulfide bonded peptide inhibitor of ASIC3, APETx2, can be expressed in P. pastoris with correct fold and high yield. We also showed that the R17A mutant exhibited a decrease in activity, suggesting the feasibility of the use of this expression system to study the interactions between APETx2 and ASIC3. These evidences may serve as the basis for understanding the selectivity and activity of APETx2. PMID:20813121

  9. Coral Reef Bleaching at Agatti Island of Lakshadweep Atolls, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramar Vinoth; Mohan Gopi; Thipramalai Thankappanpillai Ajith Kumar; Thirunavukarassu Thangaradjou; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    A survey on coral bleaching was carried out at Agatti Island of Lakshadweep from May to June 2010.Elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the region exceeded the seasonal average and delayed the onset of monsoon,which triggered widespread bleaching of corals.The Agatti reefs showed an average of 73% bleached corals with apparent bleaching-related mortality of sea anemones (87%) and giant clams (83%).The SST increased up to 34 ℃ with an average maximum SST of 32.5℃ during the study period between May and June 2010.Coral reefs on the southern side of the island are fully or partially exposed to sun light during low tide in contrast to the other side.This suggests that the mortality is more likely due to the low tide exposure than exclusively due to the elevated SST.Observations indicated a clear increase in coral bleaching during April 2010,at levels higher than that in normal summer.

  10. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants. PMID:15270076

  11. Rapid identification of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in a marine extract by HPLC-MS using data-dependent acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael C; Dunn, Simon R; Altvater, Jens; Dove, Sophie G; Nette, Geoffrey W

    2012-07-17

    The collision-induced dissociation (CID) of a range of deprotonated fatty acid standards was studied using linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Neutral losses of 78, 98, and 136 Da were consistently observed for fatty acids with five or more double bonds. Comparison of the MS/MS spectra of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and universally (13)C-labeled DHA allowed the molecular formulas for these neutral losses to be determined as C(6)H(6), C(5)H(6)O(2), and C(8)H(8)O(2). Knowledge of fatty acid fragmentation processes was then applied to identify fatty acids from a sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella, and dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium sp. extract. Using HPLC-MS, fatty acids were separated and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in data-dependent acquisition mode. Neutral loss chromatograms for 78, 98, and 136 Da allowed the identification of long-chain fatty acids with five or more double bonds. On the basis of precursor ion m/z ratios, chain length and degree of unsaturation for these fatty acids were determined. The application of this technique to an Aiptasia sp.-Symbiodinium sp. lipid extract enabled the identification of the unusual, long-chain fatty acids 24:6, 26:6, 26:7, 28:7, and 28:8 during a single 40 min HPLC-MS analysis. PMID:22816781

  12. Tox-Prot, the toxin protein annotation program of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungo, Florence; Bairoch, Amos

    2005-03-01

    The Tox-Prot program was initiated in order to provide the scientific community a summary of the current knowledge on animal protein toxins. The aim of this program is to systematically annotate all proteins which act as toxins and are produced by venomous and poisonous animals. Venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, insects, cone snails, sea anemones, lizards, some fish, and platypus are equipped with a specialized organ to inject venom in their prey. In contrast, poisonous animals such as some fish or worms, lack such organs. Each toxin is annotated according to the quality standards of Swiss-Prot. This means providing a wealth of information that includes the description of the function, domain structure, subcellular location, tissue specificity, variants, similarities to other proteins, keywords, etc. In the framework of this program, particular care has been made to capture what is known on the function and mode of action, posttranslational modifications and 3D structural data which are all relatively abundant in the field of protein toxins. Researchers are welcome to contribute their knowledge to the scientific community by submitting relevant findings to Swiss-Prot concerning toxins at Tox-Prot@isb-sib.ch. More information on Tox-Prot can be found at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/tox-prot. PMID:15683867

  13. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%, whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9% and inorganic matter (67.1%. The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  14. Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1, an unusual hemolysin from the nematocyst venom of Hydra magnipapillata which belongs to an extended gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Eliezra; Rachamim, Tamar; Aharonovich, Dikla; Sher, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Cnidarians rely on their nematocysts and the venom injected through these unique weaponry systems to catch prey and protect themselves from predators. The development and physiology of the nematocysts of Hydra magnipapillata, a classic model organism, have been intensively studied, yet the composition and biochemical activity of their venom components are mostly unknown. Here, we show that hydra actinoporin-like toxins (HALTs), which have previously been associated with Hydra nematocysts, belong to a multigene family comprising six genes, which have diverged from a single common ancestor. All six genes are expressed in a population of Hydra magnipapillata. When expressed recombinantly, HALT-1 (Δ-HYTX-Hma1a), an actinoporin-like protein found in the stenoteles (the main penetrating nematocysts used in prey capture), reveals hemolytic activity, albeit about two-thirds lower than that of the anemone actinoporin equinatoxin II (EqTII, Δ-AITX-Aeq1a). HALT-1 also differs from EqTII in the size of its pores, and likely does not utilize sphingomyelin as a membrane receptor. We describe features of the HALT-1 sequence which may contribute to this difference in activity, and speculate on the role of this unusual family of pore-forming toxins in the ecology of Hydra. PMID:24768765

  15. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A.; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment. PMID:27582179

  16. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  17. Domain combination of the vertebrate-like TLR gene family: implications for their origin and evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baojun Wu; Tianxiao Huan; Jing Gong; Pin Zhou; Zengliang Bai

    2011-12-01

    Domain shuffling, which is an important mechanism in the evolution of multi-domain proteins, has shaped the evolutionary development of the immune system in animals. Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Draft genome sequences provide the opportunity to compare the Toll/TLR gene repertoire among representative metazoans. In this study, we investigated the combination of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains of metazoan Toll/TLRs. Before Toll with both domains occurred in Cnidaria (sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis), through domain combinations, TIR-only and LRR-only proteins had already appeared in sponges (Amphimedon queenslandica). Although vertebrate-like TIR (V-TIR) domain already appeared in Cnidaria, the vertebrate-like TLR (V-TLR) with both domains appeared much later. The first combination between V-TIR domain and vertebrate-like LRR (V-LRR) domain for V-TLR may have occurred after the divergence of Cnidaria and bilateria. Then, another combination for V-TLR, a recombination of both domains, possibly occurred before or during the evolution of primitive vertebrates. Taken together, two rounds of domain combinations may thus have co-shaped the vertebrate TLRs.

  18. A novel astaxanthin-binding photooxidative stress-inducible aqueous carotenoprotein from a eukaryotic microalga isolated from asphalt in midsummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Mizuguchi, Keisuke; Sato, Masaru; Kono, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Hirofumi

    2013-07-01

    Water-soluble orange carotenoid proteins (OCPs) that bind 3'-hydroxyechinenone are found in cyanobacteria, and are thought to play a key role in photoprotection. The distribution of OCPs in eukaryotes remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified a novel OCP that predominantly binds astaxanthin from a eukaryotic microalga, strain Ki-4, isolated from a dry surface of heated asphalt in midsummer. A purified astaxanthin-binding OCP, named AstaP, shows high solubility in water with an absorption peak at 484 nm, and possesses a heat-stable activity that quenches singlet oxygen. The deduced amino acid sequence of AstaP comprises an N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, fasciclin domains found in secreted and cell surface proteins, and N-linked glycosylation sites, the first example of a carotenoprotein among fasciclin family proteins. AstaP homologs of unknown function are distributed mainly in organisms from the hydrosphere, such as marine bacteria, cyanobacteria, sea anemone and eukaryotic microalgae; however, AstaP exhibits a unique extraordinarily high isoelectric point (pI) value among homologs. The gene encoding AstaP, as well as the AstaP peptide, is expressed abundantly under conditions of dehydration and salt stress in conjunction with high light exposure. As a unique aqueous carotenoprotein, AstaP will provide a novel function of OCPs in protection against extreme photooxidative stresses. PMID:23737502

  19. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A; Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Voolstra, Christian R; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment. PMID:27582179

  20. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  1. Deep-sea food web analysis using cross-reacting antisera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Robert J.; Zagursky, Gregory; Day, Elizabeth A.

    1985-04-01

    The high incidence of unrecognizable prey in the stomachs of deep-sea predators prompted the application of serological methods for identification of trophic connections. Antisera to whole-organism extracts of estuarine taxa cross-reacted with antigenic protein extracts of mid-water and deep-sea taxa along phylogenetically correct lines, indicating their potential as tools for gut contents immunoassay. Stomach, intestine, and rectum contents of grenadiers ( Coryphaenoides armatus) trapped at 2500 m in the North Atlantic were analyzed visually and with 32 antisera representing taxa from 10 common deep-sea phyla. While visual analysis only revealed the presence of fluids, parasites, crustacean exoskeletons, and gastropod opercula, the immunoassay indicated the presence of antigenic proteins from holothurian, anemone, gastropod, decapod, and foraminiferan prey in the same samples. This qualitative serological identification of prey at non-specific taxonomic levels provides evidence that benthic predation may be important within deep-sea communities. The immunoassay technique, although not a panacea for elucidating food web dynamics in remote environments, may be useful when other methods fail to identify trophic pathways.

  2. The membranotropic activity of N-terminal peptides from the pore-forming proteins sticholysin I and II is modulated by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as well as lipid composition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uris Ros; Lohans Pedrera; Daylín Díaz; Juan C De Karam; Tatiane P Sudbrack; Pedro A Valiente; Diana Martínez; Eduardo M Cilli; Fabiola Pazos; Rosangela Itri; Maria E Lanio; Shirley Schreier; Carlos Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    The sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus produces two pore-forming proteins, sticholysins I and II (St I and St II). Despite their high identity (93%), these toxins exhibit differences in hemolytic activity that can be related to those found in their N-terminal. To clarify the contribution of the N-terminal amino acid residues to the activity of the toxins, we synthesized peptides spanning residues 1–31 of St I (StI1-31) or 1–30 of St II (StII1-30) and demonstrated that StII1-30 promotes erythrocyte lysis to a higher extent than StI1-31. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the peptide activity, here we studied their binding to lipid monolayers and pemeabilizing activity in liposomes. For this, we examined the effect on peptide membranotropic activity of including phospatidic acid and cholesterol in a lipid mixture of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. The results suggest the importance of continuity of the 1–10 hydrophobic sequence in StII1-30 for displaying higher binding and activity, in spite of both peptides’ abilities to form pores in giant unilamellar vesicles. Thus, the different peptide membranotropic action is explained in terms of the differences in hydrophobic and electrostatic peptide properties as well as the enhancing role of membrane inhomogeneities.

  3. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  4. A thrombospondin in the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis is associated with the nervous system and upregulated during regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Tucker

    2012-12-01

    Thrombospondins are multimeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins that play important roles in development, synaptogenesis and wound healing in mammals. We previously identified four putative thrombospondins in the genome of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. This study presents the first analysis of these thrombospondins, with the goals of understanding fundamental roles of thrombospondins in the Eumetazoa. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that each of the N. vectensis thrombospondins (Nv85341, Nv22035, Nv168100 and Nv30790 is transcribed. Three of the four thrombospondins include an RGD or KGD motif in their thrombospondin type 3 repeats at sites equivalent to mammalian thrombospondins, suggesting ancient roles as RGD integrin ligands. Phylogenetic analysis based on the C-terminal regions demonstrated a high level of sequence diversity between N. vectensis thrombospondins. A full-length cDNA sequence was obtained for Nv168100 (NvTSP168100, which has an unusual domain organization. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody to NvTSP168100 revealed labeling of neuron-like cells in the mesoglea of the retractor muscles and the pharynx. In situ hybridization and quantitative PCR showed that NvTSP168100 is upregulated during regeneration. Immunohistochemistry of the area of regeneration identified strong immunostaining of the glycocalyx, the carbohydrate-rich matrix coating the epidermis, and electron microscopy identified changes in glycocalyx organization during regeneration. Thus, N. vectensis thrombospondins share structural features with thrombospondins from mammals and may have roles in the nervous system and in matrix reorganization during regeneration.

  5. Palytoxin found in Palythoa sp. zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia sold in the home aquarium trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Deeds

    Full Text Available Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50 in mice 300 ng/kg, but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant colonies using boiling water. To assess the availability and potential exposure of palytoxin to marine aquarium hobbyists, we analyzed zoanthid samples collected from local aquarium stores for palytoxin using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry and attempted to identify the specimens through genetic analysis of 16S and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI markers. We found four specimens of the same apparent species of zoanthid, that we described previously to be responsible for a severe respiratory reaction in a home aquarium, to be available in three aquarium stores in the Washington D.C. area. We found all of these specimens (n = 4 to be highly toxic with palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds (range 0.5-3.5 mg crude toxin/g zoanthid. One of the most potent non-protein compounds ever discovered is present in dangerous quantities in a select species of zoanthid commonly sold in the home aquarium trade.

  6. Identification of a membrane-bound prepore species clarifies the lytic mechanism of actinoporins

    CERN Document Server

    Morante, Koldo; Gil-Cartón, David; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Sot, Jesús; Scheuring, Simon; Valle, Mikel; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Caaveiro, Jose M M

    2016-01-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFT) are cytolytic proteins belonging to the molecular warfare apparatus of living organisms. The assembly of the functional transmembrane pore requires several intermediate steps ranging from a water-soluble monomeric species to the multimeric ensemble inserted in the cell membrane. The non-lytic oligomeric intermediate known as prepore plays an essential role in the mechanism of insertion of the class of $\\beta$-PFT. However, in the class of $\\alpha$-PFT like the actinoporins produced by sea anemones, evidence of membrane-bound prepores is still lacking. We have employed single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to identify, for the first time, a prepore species of the actinoporin fragaceatoxin C (FraC) bound to lipid vesicles. The size of the prepore coincides that of the functional pore, except for the transmembrane region, which is absent in the prepore. Biochemical assays indicated that, in the prepore species, the N-terminus is not inserte...

  7. Signatures of interchange reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations combined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME on 17 October 2007 from an active region (AR inside a coronal hole (CH into the heliosphere. This particular combination of "open" and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with "open" magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an "anemone" structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of interchange reconnection between closed loops of the CME originating from the AR and "open" field lines of the surrounding CH.

  8. Signatures of Interchange Reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode Observations Combined

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, D; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Demoulin, P; Harra, L K; Lavraud, B; Davies, J A; Optiz, A; Luhmann, J G; Sauvaud, J A; Galvin, A B

    2009-01-01

    Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on the 17th of October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of `open' and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with `open' magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an `anemone' structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of i...

  9. [Dangerous marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer). PMID:11315406

  10. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210

  11. Biological and Geological Characteristics of the Gakkel Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, T. M.; Bailey, J.; Edmonds, H.; Forte, P.; Helmke, E.; Humphris, S.; Kemp, J.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) is one of the slowest (1.0 cm per yr), deepest (5000 m axial depth), and most hydrographically and tectonically isolated mid-ocean ridge systems on earth. This isolation from the global ridge system should have profound implications for the evolution and ecology of resident chemosynthetic fauna. The July 2007 Arctic GAkkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) sought to define this Arctic biogeographic province and the relationship of Arctic vent fauna to Atlantic, Pacific, and hydrocarbon seep fauna through the use of an new under- ice vehicle `Camper', a fiber-optic video-guided sampling system drift towed 1 to 3 m above the seafloor. The imaging, sampling, and sensing capabilities were used to obtain high-resolution seafloor imagery to identify and collect benthic samples with a clamshell `grab' sampler and a suction 'slurp' sampler. Imagery from five video cameras, including obliquely-mounted video and downlooking digital high-definition color cameras were used to construct maps of seafloor features and faunal composition during 3 dives in the peridotite-hosted 7°E region and 13 dives in the volcanic 85°E region. The 7°E site was dominated by an almost continuous cover of pelagic sediment with abundant animal tracks, brittle stars, anemones, and shrimp. The explored 85°E area was dominated by relatively diverse and young lava morphologies- from large pillows hosting delicate surface ornamentation to lobates, long lava tubes, and fresh sheet flows, all with the upper surfaces covered (often cm thick) of fresh volcanic glass 'sediment' suggestive of explosive volcanic activity in the `recent' past. Fauna in these areas consisted mainly of sponges, anemones, amphipods and shrimp. Characterization of the newly-discovered Asgard volcanic chain, including `Oden', `Thor', and `Loke' volcanoes, in the 85°E axial valley revealed extensive microbial mats in the form of: 1) yellow `fluffy' material (often >5 cm thick) in places; and 2) yellow

  12. Patrones asociados a la conducta de desplazamiento local en Phymactis clematis Drayton (Anthozoa: Actiniidae Patterns of local movement behavior in Phymactis clematis Drayton (Anthozoa: Actiniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO M. RIVADENEIRA

    2001-12-01

    species of sea anemone along the South American coast. Likewise other sea anemone species, the adults of the P. clematis would have an active ability to make local movements. However, these have not been properly described, and causal factors are unknown. In this work we try to describe some of the basic patterns associated to the local movement behavior in P. clematis, assessed indirectly from the presence of bare rock halos around individuals in two rocky intertidal sites in the coast of northern Chile (Cavancha and Colorado Chico. Movements were more frequent and had a higher intensity at Colorado Chico, where over 50 % of individuals showed movements, although they were mainly lower than 60 mm in length. At Colorado Chico, movements would occur in individuals larger than 40 mm of pedal diameter, whereas their intensity would decrease with body size. We discussed that causes of higher movement activity at Colorado Chico could be associated to the higher abundance and lower inter-individual spacing, which would produce physical interference among individuals. In this way, we suggested that the patterns associated to the individual's body size would arise secondarily, being dependent on the levels of local abundance. Despite local movements of P. clematis at Colorado Chico occurred at a scale of a few centimeters, they could be affecting significantly the inter-individual spacing, increasing the average nearest neighbor distance. We argue that local movements could be an effective mechanism reducing the intraspecific competition in P. clematis

  13. Are Hox genes ancestrally involved in axial patterning? Evidence from the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria.

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    Roxane Chiori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early evolution and diversification of Hox-related genes in eumetazoans has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses concerning the evolutionary conservation of their role in axial patterning and the pre-bilaterian origin of the Hox and ParaHox clusters. The diversification of Hox/ParaHox genes clearly predates the origin of bilaterians. However, the existence of a "Hox code" predating the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and supporting the deep homology of axes is more controversial. This assumption was mainly based on the interpretation of Hox expression data from the sea anemone, but growing evidence from other cnidarian taxa puts into question this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hox, ParaHox and Hox-related genes have been investigated here by phylogenetic analysis and in situ hybridisation in Clytia hemisphaerica, an hydrozoan species with medusa and polyp stages alternating in the life cycle. Our phylogenetic analyses do not support an origin of ParaHox and Hox genes by duplication of an ancestral ProtoHox cluster, and reveal a diversification of the cnidarian HOX9-14 genes into three groups called A, B, C. Among the 7 examined genes, only those belonging to the HOX9-14 and the CDX groups exhibit a restricted expression along the oral-aboral axis during development and in the planula larva, while the others are expressed in very specialised areas at the medusa stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cross species comparison reveals a strong variability of gene expression along the oral-aboral axis and during the life cycle among cnidarian lineages. The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations.

  14. Response of megabenthic assemblages to different scales of habitat heterogeneity on the Mauritanian slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O. B.; Brewer, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    The topographically complex deep seabed on the Mauritanian slope, from 990 to 1460 m water depth, was imaged with video in an extensive quantitative survey of 17,199 m2 of seafloor using a Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV). This study investigated the influence of habitat heterogeneity at two scales on the megafaunal assemblages observed by ROV. Changes in megafaunal assemblages on the Mauritanian slope were assessed at a broad scale, within depth zones, and at a finer scale, in response to changes in local geomorphology associated with submarine landslides. Geomorphology was determined by classification of habitat parameters (slope, aspect, bathymetric position, curvature, fractal dimension and ruggedness) derived from an autonomous underwater vehicle-based multibeam bathymetry survey. Habitat parameters were classified by Iterative Self Organizing Clustering into six major geomorphological groups, four of which were assessed in the ROV video survey. A total of 29 megafaunal taxa were observed along the entire survey, with an overall average faunal density of 0.344 ind m-2. Megafaunal assemblage density, species richness and evenness varied significantly across the depth range of the survey in the most common geomorphological zone (sedimentary plains of low slope and complexity). Characteristic species inhabited the shallow areas (asteroid, ophiuroid, anemone, small macrourid), intermediate areas (Benthothuria funabris, black cerianthid, squat lobster) and deeper areas (the holothurians Enypniastes eximia and Elipidia echinata). Megafaunal density, species richness and evenness were not significantly different between geomorphogical groups within one depth zone (1300-1400 m). However, the steepest zone, on the edge of a major headwall feature, had four unique taxa (Parapagurus pilosimanus, a comatulid crinoid, a gorgonian and its associated ophiuroid).

  15. Na+ channels as sites of action of the cardioactive agent DPI 201-106 with agonist and antagonist enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the interaction of the cardiotonic agent 4-[3-(4-diphenylmethyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1H-indole-2-carbonitrile (DPI 201-106) and its optic enantiomers R-DPI (205-429) and S-DPI (205-430) with the Na+ channel of a variety of excitable cells. Voltage-clamp experiments show that DPI 201-106 acts on neuroblastoma cells and rat cardiac cells. S-DPI (205-430) increases the peak Na+ current, slows down the kinetics of Na+ channel inactivation, and is cardiotonic on heart cells. Conversely, R-DPI (205-429) reduces the peak Na+ current and blocks Na+ channel activity and cardiac contractions. Binding experiments using radioactively labeled toxins indicate that DPI 201-106 and its enantiomers do not interact with sites already identified for tetrodotoxin or sea anemone and scorpion toxins. DPI 201-106 and its enantiomers inhibit binding of a 3H-labeled batrachotoxin derivative, [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-α-benzoate, to brain membranes. The dissociation constant of the complex formed between the Na+ channel and both R-DPI and S-DPI is K/sub d/ ∼ 100 nM. 22Na+ uptake experiments using different cell types have shown that R and S enantiomers of DPI 201-106 are active on the different Na+ channel subtypes with similar IC50 values. These results are discussed in relation with the cardiotonic properties of DPI 201-106 that are not accompanied by cardiotoxic effects

  16. Mutations in Nature Conferred a High Affinity Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate-binding Site in Vertebrate Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiong-Yao; Larry, Trevor; Hendra, Kalen; Yamamoto, Erica; Bell, Jessica; Cui, Meng; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Boland, Linda M

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrate inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels are activated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) (Logothetis, D. E., Petrou, V. I., Zhang, M., Mahajan, R., Meng, X. Y., Adney, S. K., Cui, M., and Baki, L. (2015) Annu. Rev. Physiol. 77, 81-104; Fürst, O., Mondou, B., and D'Avanzo, N. (2014) Front. Physiol. 4, 404-404). Structural components of a PIP2-binding site are conserved in vertebrate Kir channels but not in distantly related animals such as sponges and sea anemones. To expand our understanding of the structure-function relationships of PIP2 regulation of Kir channels, we studied AqKir, which was cloned from the marine sponge Amphimedon queenslandica, an animal that represents the phylogenetically oldest metazoans. A requirement for PIP2 in the maintenance of AqKir activity was examined in intact oocytes by activation of a co-expressed voltage-sensing phosphatase, application of wortmannin (at micromolar concentrations), and activation of a co-expressed muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. All three mechanisms to reduce the availability of PIP2 resulted in inhibition of AqKir current. However, time-dependent rundown of AqKir currents in inside-out patches could not be re-activated by direct application to the inside membrane surface of water-soluble dioctanoyl PIP2, and the current was incompletely re-activated by the more hydrophobic arachidonyl stearyl PIP2. When we introduced mutations to AqKir to restore two positive charges within the vertebrate PIP2-binding site, both forms of PIP2 strongly re-activated the mutant sponge channels in inside-out patches. Molecular dynamics simulations validate the additional hydrogen bonding potential of the sponge channel mutants. Thus, nature's mutations conferred a high affinity activation of vertebrate Kir channels by PIP2, and this is a more recent evolutionary development than the structures that explain ion channel selectivity and inward rectification. PMID:25957411

  17. CoralWatch Data Analysis at Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A.; Hodgson, P.

    2015-12-01

    CoralWatch is a conservation organization that is based at the University of Queensland in Australia. Their development of the "Coral Health Chart" standardized the colour of corals for the further investigation of coral health and bleaching. The location of this project is in the NE part of Hong Kong in New Territories. The location faces ShenZhen, a heavily industrialized city, which is known for its pollution of the Pearl River. This area is protected by the Hong Kong Government and the WWF since 1996.Human activities have caused large amounts of greenhouse gasses to be released into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has caused the global temperature to rise and made ocean waters more acidic due to ocean respiration. The ocean is a carbon sink for mankind and the effect of severe acidification is negatively affecting marine life. The increase of temperature diminishes the amount of diversity of marine life; the decreasing acidity of the water has eliminated many species of shellfish and sea anemone; the increase of marine exploitation has decreased the diversity of marine life. The release of toxic waste, mainly mercury, waste and plastic products has also polluted the oceans which negatively impact coral reefs and endanger marine life.The data has been collected by observing the colours and discolouration (bleaching) of the corals of approximately 40 colonies per month. The species of coral in Hoi Ha Wan include, Favites flexuosa, Goniopora columna,Leptastrea purpurea, Lithophyllon undulatum, Pavona decussata. and Platygyra acuta (AFCD,1). The evaluation of four years of coralwatch data has shown the bleaching of hard boulder corals in Hoi Ha Wan, Hong Kong, has halted and the reefs are being to show signs of regeneration. Local marine biologists credited the improved situation of the corals to protected status of the area.

  18. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns

  19. Impact of grazing management with large herbivores on forest ground flora and bramble understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytvanck, Jan; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether grazing management with large herbivores is appropriate to reduce expanding bramble ( Rubus sp.) in an ancient forest in Flanders (N. Belgium). We further studied interaction effects of four years (all year-round) grazing and Rubus cover on the presence, cover, and flowering of five forest ground flora species (unpalatable: Anemone nemorosa and Primula elatior; palatable: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Vinca minor and Hedera helix). We collected data on eight transects and in 412 plots in adjacent grazed and ungrazed forest and used baseline datasets of 1996 and 2002 in the same area (i.e. before grazing). In a field experiment, we simulated grazing (by clipping) and trampling (by pressing a weight) in eight homogeneous A. nemorosa vegetation stands. Large Rubus thickets had a clear negative impact on cover and flowering of A. nemorosa due to competition for light. Four years of cattle grazing reduced bramble cover by more than 50%, but then the limiting factor for A. nemorosa cover and flowering shifted to trampling damage. We also found lower cover and flowering of H. non-scripta in grazed plots, as a consequence of direct grazing. The evergreen species V. minor and H. helix totally disappeared from the grazed forest. Simulated once-only effects of grazing and trampling had a small and short term negative impact on cover of A. nemorosa, but flowering was strongly reduced. Grazing reduced biomass with 25-30% in the following years. Year-round grazing with large herbivores is an appropriate measure for bramble control in forests, but negative effects on ground flora are possible if grazing pressure is high. A low or moderate grazing pressure (<0.25 animal units ha -1 y -1) should be maintained in landscape mosaics with grassland and forest; or intermittent periods of non-grazing should be provided to maintain forest ground flora diversity.

  20. Identification Of Some Strains Of Dinoflagellates Based On Morphology And Molecular Analysis

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    Hikmah Thoha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are the important primary producers in aquatic environments. In oceans, they play interesting role in ecological functions such as red tide forming organisms, symbiont of coral reef or sea anemone and DSP (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning or PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning producing organisms. Morphology and molecular analysis of dinoflagellates were conducted on November 2002 to March 2003. The phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA analyses, sequence have begun to appear more frequently in the literature, as attention has turned to relationships within the major eukaryotic lineages, particular importance for the taxonomy of the armored and unarmored genera of dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium sp., Cachonina sp., Gymnodinium sp., Amphidinium sp., because many of the genera cause extensive plankton blooms, fish kills and other harmful events, were studied used to amplify 18S rDNA, present in the total DNA extracted from algal pellet. The amplify approximately 1400 bp of the nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA gene using terminal primeirs DIR, products were cheked by 1.0 % agarose gel electrophoresis, then cloning with TA cloning KIT. Sequencing were analyzed by the GENETIX Mac Software, Homology search by Blast and Phylogenetic analysis. Results of hylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA are: Strain no. 10893 (un identified from the genera, it is belonging Gymnodinium or Polarella. Strain no. 10795 is closely related other species Cachonina hallii. We tentatively named strain no 11151 and 11160 similar to Gyrodinium or Gymnodinium based on morphology, but these strain indepently position in this tree and is not a real of Gymnodinium sensu stricto. It is possible, we can establish the new genera for strain no. 11151; 11160 because this not cluster any other unarmored species.

  1. Current-Voltage Relationship for Late Na(+) Current in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that the slowly inactivating component of the Na(+) current (INa-L) in the mammalian heart is a significant regulator of the action potential waveform. This insight has led to detailed studies of the role of INa-L in a number of important and challenging pathophysiological settings. These include genetically based ventricular arrhythmias (LQT 1, 2, and 3), ventricular arrhythmias arising from progressive cardiomyopathies (including diabetic), and proarrhythmic abnormalities that develop during local or global ventricular ischemia. Inhibition of INa-L may also be a useful strategy for management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Many important biophysical parameters that characterize INa-L have been identified; and INa-L as an antiarrhythmia drug target has been studied extensively. However, relatively little information is available regarding (1) the ion transfer or current-voltage relationship for INa-L or (2) the time course of its reactivation at membrane potentials similar to the resting or diastolic membrane potential in mammalian ventricle. This chapter is based on our preliminary findings concerning these two very important physiological/biophysical descriptors for INa-L. Our results were obtained using whole-cell voltage clamp methods applied to enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. A chemical agent, BDF 9148, which was once considered to be a drug candidate in the Na(+)-dependent inotropic agent category has been used to markedly enhance INa-L current. BDF acts in a potent, selective, and reversible fashion. These BDF 9148 effects are compared and contrasted with the prototypical activator of INa-L, a sea anemone toxin, ATX II. PMID:27586292

  2. A framework for the establishment of a cnidarian gene regulatory network for "endomesoderm" specification: the inputs of ß-catenin/TCF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Röttinger

    Full Text Available Understanding the functional relationship between intracellular factors and extracellular signals is required for reconstructing gene regulatory networks (GRN involved in complex biological processes. One of the best-studied bilaterian GRNs describes endomesoderm specification and predicts that both mesoderm and endoderm arose from a common GRN early in animal evolution. Compelling molecular, genomic, developmental, and evolutionary evidence supports the hypothesis that the bifunctional gastrodermis of the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor is derived from the same evolutionary precursor of both endodermal and mesodermal germ layers in all other triploblastic bilaterian animals. We have begun to establish the framework of a provisional cnidarian "endomesodermal" gene regulatory network in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, by using a genome-wide microarray analysis on embryos in which the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway was ectopically targeted for activation by two distinct pharmaceutical agents (lithium chloride and 1-azakenpaullone to identify potential targets of endomesoderm specification. We characterized 51 endomesodermally expressed transcription factors and signaling molecule genes (including 18 newly identified with fine-scale temporal (qPCR and spatial (in situ analysis to define distinct co-expression domains within the animal plate of the embryo and clustered genes based on their earliest zygotic expression. Finally, we determined the input of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway into the cnidarian endomesodermal GRN using morpholino and mRNA overexpression experiments to show that NvTcf/canonical Wnt signaling is required to pattern both the future endomesodermal and ectodermal domains prior to gastrulation, and that both BMP and FGF (but not Notch pathways play important roles in germ layer specification in this animal. We show both evolutionary conserved as well as profound differences in endomesodermal GRN structure compared

  3. Analysis of karyotype diversity of 40 Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Ming-Li ZHU; Si-Lan DAI

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic differences in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) cultivars,we selected 40 typical and stable cultivars on which to carry out cytological studies using karyotype analysis.The results showed that 67.5% of these cultivars were hexaploid-based aneuploid and that the proportion of hexaploid decreased with passing time.Moreover,35% of the cultivars had 1-4 satellite chromosome(s).The probability of satellite chromosomes rose with increasing chromosome number.Most of the karyotypes were 2A and 2B.The probability of types 2A and 2C also increased with increasing ploidy of the cultivars.The mean of long-/short-arm ratio and the variation of long-/short-ann ratio were positively correlated (r2 =0.72).There was no obvious difference in the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes,but the discrepancy in the variance of karyotype asymmetry index and relative length of chromosomes was quite distinct.In terms ofkaryotype parameters,the petal types of chrysanthemums were classified to five groups as flat,tubular,spoon,abnormal,and anemone.We did not observe any obvious orderliness among flower head types.Considering the relationship between karyotype parameters and phenotypic characters,variation of long-/short-arm ratio and asymmetry coefficient ofkaryotypes had the greatest relevance toward most phenotypic characters.The above results indicate that karyotype parameters possess great values for cultivar identification,classification,and genetic analysis in chrysanthemums.

  4. Global transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Centruroides noxius: new toxin families and evolutionary insights from an ancestral scorpion species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rendón-Anaya

    Full Text Available Scorpion venoms have been studied for decades, leading to the identification of hundreds of different toxins with medical and pharmacological implications. However, little emphasis has been given to the description of these arthropods from cellular and evolutionary perspectives. In this report, we describe a transcriptomic analysis of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann, performed with a pyrosequencing platform. Three independent sequencing experiments were carried out, each including three different cDNA libraries constructed from RNA extracted from the whole body of the scorpion after telson removal, and from the venom gland before and after venom extraction. Over three million reads were obtained and assembled in almost 19000 isogroups. Within the telson-specific sequences, 72 isogroups (0.4% of total unique transcripts were found to be similar to toxins previously reported in other scorpion species, spiders and sea anemones. The annotation pipeline also revealed the presence of important elements of the small non-coding RNA processing machinery, as well as microRNA candidates. A phylogenomic analysis of concatenated essential genes evidenced differential evolution rates in this species, particularly in ribosomal proteins and proteasome components. Additionally, statistical comparison of transcript abundance before and after venom extraction showed that 3% and 2% of the assembled isogroups had higher expression levels in the active and replenishing gland, respectively. Thus, our sequencing and annotation strategies provide a general view of the cellular and molecular processes that take place in these arthropods, allowed the discovery of new pharmacological and biotechnological targets and uncovered several regulatory and metabolic responses behind the assembly of the scorpion venom. The results obtained in this report represent the first high-throughput study that thoroughly describes the universe of genes that are expressed in

  5. The role of marine reserves in the replenishment of a locally-impacted population of anemonefish on the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Bonin, Mary C.

    2015-11-21

    The development of parentage analysis to track the dispersal of juvenile offspring has given us unprecedented insight into the population dynamics of coral reef fishes. These tools now have the potential to inform fisheries management and species conservation, particularly for small fragmented populations under threat from exploitation and disturbance. In this study we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for a population of the anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus in the Keppel Islands (southern Great Barrier Reef). Habitat loss and fishing appear to have impacted this population and a network of no-take marine reserves currently protects 75% of the potential breeders. Using parentage analysis, we estimate that 21% of recruitment in the island group was generated locally, and that breeding adults living in reserves were responsible for 79% (31 out of 39) of these of locally-produced juveniles. Overall, the network of reserves was fully connected via larval dispersal; however one reserve was identified as a critical source of larvae for the island group. The population in the Keppel Islands also appears to be well-connected to other source populations at least 60 km away, given that 79% (145 out of 184) of the juveniles sampled remained unassigned in the parentage analysis. We estimated the effective size of the A. melanopus metapopulation to be 745 (582-993 95% CI) and recommend continued monitoring of its genetic status. Maintaining connectivity with populations beyond the Keppel Islands and recovery of local recruitment habitat, potentially through active restoration of host anemone populations, will be important for its long-term persistence.

  6. Molecular cloning and in silico characterization of knottin peptide, U2-SCRTX-Lit2, from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Gabriel Otto; de Resende Lara, Pedro Túlio; Scott, Luis Paulo Barbour; Braz, Antônio Sérgio Kimus; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Soares, Eduardo Mendonça; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Chaim, Olga Meiri

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor cystine knots (ICKs) are a family of structural peptides with a large number of cysteine residues that form intramolecular disulfide bonds, resulting in a knot. These peptides are involved in a variety of biological functions including predation and defense, and are found in various species, such as spiders, scorpions, sea anemones, and plants. The Loxosceles intermedia venom gland transcriptome identified five groups of ICK peptides that represent more than 50 % of toxin-coding transcripts. Here, we describe the molecular cloning of U2-Sicaritoxin-Lit2 (U2-SCRTX-Lit2), bioinformatic characterization, structure prediction, and molecular dynamic analysis. The sequence of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 obtained from the transcriptome is similar to that of μ-Hexatoxin-Mg2, a peptide that inhibits the insect Nav channel. Bioinformatic analysis of sequences classified as ICK family members also showed a conservation of cysteine residues among ICKs from different spiders, with the three dimensional molecular model of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 similar in structure to the hexatoxin from μ-hexatoxin-Mg2a. Molecular docking experiments showed the interaction of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 to its predictable target-the Spodoptera litura voltage-gated sodium channel (SlNaVSC). After 200 ns of molecular dynamic simulation, the final structure of the complex showed stability in agreement with the experimental data. The above analysis corroborates the existence of a peptide toxin with insecticidal activity from a novel ICK family in L. intermedia venom and demonstrates that this peptide targets Nav channels. PMID:27488102

  7. Comparative study on the fauna composition of intertidal invertebrates between natural and artificial substrata in the northeastern coast of Jeju Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bae; Song, Ji-Na; Kim, In-Soo; Seo, Jeong-Bin; Kwoun, Chul-Hwi

    2013-12-01

    This study was carried out to learn about differences in the sessile macrobenthic fauna communities between the artificial and natural habitats. There were some differences in terms of species composition and dominant species and community structure between two habitat types. The dominant species include Pollicipes mitella and Granuilittorina exigua in natural rocky intertidal zones; Monodonta labio confusa, Ligia exotica, Tetraclita japonica in the artificial rocky intertidal zones. Among all the species, L. exotica and T. japonica occurred only in the artificial rocky intertidal zone. The results of cluster analysis and nMDS analysis showed a distinct difference in community structure between artificial and natural rocky intertidal zones. The fauna in the natural rocky intertidal zones were similar to each other and the fauna in the artificial rocky intertidal zones were divided depending on the slope of the substratum. In the case of a sloping tetrapod, M. labio confusa and P. mitella were dominant, but at the vertical artificial seawall, Cellana nigrolineata, L. exotica T. japonica were dominant. The analysis of the species presented in natural and artificial rocky intertidal areas showed the exclusive presence of 10 species on natural rocks and 12 species on artificial rocks. The species in the natural rocky intertidal area included mobile gastropods and cnidarians (i.e. rock anemones), and the species in the artificial rocky intertidal area mostly included non-mobile attached animals. The artificial novel structure seems to contribute to increasing the heterogeneity of habitats for marine invertebrate species and an increase the species diversity in rocky coastal areas.

  8. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri; N; Utkin

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom ofthese animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  9. SECOM: A novel hash seed and community detection based-approach for genome-scale protein domain identification

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2012-06-28

    With rapid advances in the development of DNA sequencing technologies, a plethora of high-throughput genome and proteome data from a diverse spectrum of organisms have been generated. The functional annotation and evolutionary history of proteins are usually inferred from domains predicted from the genome sequences. Traditional database-based domain prediction methods cannot identify novel domains, however, and alignment-based methods, which look for recurring segments in the proteome, are computationally demanding. Here, we propose a novel genome-wide domain prediction method, SECOM. Instead of conducting all-against-all sequence alignment, SECOM first indexes all the proteins in the genome by using a hash seed function. Local similarity can thus be detected and encoded into a graph structure, in which each node represents a protein sequence and each edge weight represents the shared hash seeds between the two nodes. SECOM then formulates the domain prediction problem as an overlapping community-finding problem in this graph. A backward graph percolation algorithm that efficiently identifies the domains is proposed. We tested SECOM on five recently sequenced genomes of aquatic animals. Our tests demonstrated that SECOM was able to identify most of the known domains identified by InterProScan. When compared with the alignment-based method, SECOM showed higher sensitivity in detecting putative novel domains, while it was also three orders of magnitude faster. For example, SECOM was able to predict a novel sponge-specific domain in nucleoside-triphosphatase (NTPases). Furthermore, SECOM discovered two novel domains, likely of bacterial origin, that are taxonomically restricted to sea anemone and hydra. SECOM is an open-source program and available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. © 2012 Fan et al.

  10. Host–symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral–dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Smith, Robin; Walther, Mariana; Pinzón, Jorge; Pettay, Daniel T.; McGinley, Michael; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L.; Pérez, Andrés López; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Warner, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally ‘sensitive’ symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1Aiptasia, genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral–algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities

  11. Selective Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibition prevents Ca2+ overload-induced triggered arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Kormos, Anita; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szebeni, Áron; Szepesi, Judit; Pollesello, Piero; Levijoki, Jouko; Acsai, Károly; Virág, László; Nánási, Péter P; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Tóth, András

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Augmented Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity may play a crucial role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis; however, data regarding the anti-arrhythmic efficacy of NCX inhibition are debatable. Feasible explanations could be the unsatisfactory selectivity of NCX inhibitors and/or the dependence of the experimental model on the degree of Ca2+i overload. Hence, we used NCX inhibitors SEA0400 and the more selective ORM10103 to evaluate the efficacy of NCX inhibition against arrhythmogenic Ca2+i rise in conditions when [Ca2+]i was augmented via activation of the late sodium current (INaL) or inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump. Experimental Approach Action potentials (APs) were recorded from canine papillary muscles and Purkinje fibres by microelectrodes. NCX current (INCX) was determined in ventricular cardiomyocytes utilizing the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Ca2+i transients (CaTs) were monitored with a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye, Fluo-4. Key Results Enhanced INaL increased the Ca2+ load and AP duration (APD). SEA0400 and ORM10103 suppressed INCX and prevented/reversed the anemone toxin II (ATX-II)-induced [Ca2+]i rise without influencing APD, CaT or cell shortening, or affecting the ATX-II-induced increased APD. ORM10103 significantly decreased the number of strophanthidin-induced spontaneous diastolic Ca2+ release events; however, SEA0400 failed to restrict the veratridine-induced augmentation in Purkinje-ventricle APD dispersion. Conclusions and Implications Selective NCX inhibition – presumably by blocking revINCX (reverse mode NCX current) – is effective against arrhythmogenesis caused by [Na+]i-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, without influencing the AP waveform. Therefore, selective INCX inhibition, by significantly reducing the arrhythmogenic trigger activity caused by the perturbed Ca2+i handling, should be considered as a promising anti-arrhythmic therapeutic strategy. PMID:25073832

  12. Symbiotic association between symbiodinium and the gastropod Strombus gigas: larval acquisition of symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ramos, Maribel; Banaszak, Anastazia T

    2014-04-01

    The importance of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. was studied in the early life stages of the gastropod Strombus gigas. This dinoflagellate was not found in the eggs or the gelatinous mass surrounding the eggs of the mollusk; therefore, Symbiodinium is not inherited directly. To determine whether the planktonic veligers can acquire these algae from the environment, they were exposed to freshly isolated Symbiodinium from adult S. gigas (homologous). The optimal stage for Symbiodinium inoculation was found at 48 h post-hatching. Survival and growth rates of veligers and juveniles were higher when inoculated with freshly isolated Symbiodinium in conjunction with daily feeding of Isochrysis spp. Veligers inoculated with Symbiodinium freshly isolated from three host species elicited distinct responses: (1) veligers did not take up Symbiodinium isolated from the hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis suggesting that there is discrimination on contact prior to ingestion, (2) veligers did take up Symbiodinium isolated from the anemone Bartholomea annulata, but the algae did not persist in the host tissue suggesting that selection against this type took place after ingestion or that the algae did not divide in the host, and (3) veligers did take up Symbiodinium isolated from Pterogorgia anceps where it persisted and was associated with metamorphosis of the larvae. In contrast, the Symbiodinium freshly isolated from S. gigas were not associated with metamorphosis and required an inducer such as the red alga Laurencia poitei. These data present a significant advancement for the establishment of a new approach in the aquaculture of this important but declining Caribbean species. PMID:24037186

  13. 铁线莲属一新分类系统%A new system of classification of the genus Clematis(Ranunculaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采; 李良千

    2005-01-01

    提出毛茛科Ranunculaceae铁线莲属Clematis一新分类系统.首先,简要回顾了此属的分类学研究历史,继对此属的营养器官和生殖器官的重要形态特征和花粉特征进行了分析,揭示出一系列演化趋势.这些趋势,尤其是萼片和雄蕊的演化趋势说明在现存的铁线莲属植物中,绣球藤Clematis montana与其少数近缘种的花构造最接近比铁线莲属原始的银莲花属Anemone,因此,包括绣球藤等植物的绣球藤组sect.Cheirpsis被认为是铁线莲属的原始群.主要根据花构造对铁线莲属现存的15组的亲缘关系进行了分析,发现它们是在4条演化干(绣球藤干、欧洲铁线莲干、尾叶铁线莲干、长瓣铁线莲干)的演化过程中先后形成的.本文将此4条演化干处理为亚属.最后做出属下各级分类群的系统排列,并给出简要的形态特征.

  14. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée

    2006-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis. PMID:16972986

  15. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Micha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria, in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera. Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida. This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis.

  16. Host-symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral-dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJeunesse, Todd C; Smith, Robin; Walther, Mariana; Pinzón, Jorge; Pettay, Daniel T; McGinley, Michael; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Pérez, Andrés López; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Warner, Mark E

    2010-10-01

    Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally 'sensitive' symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1(Aiptasia), genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral-algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities. PMID

  17. Temporal dynamics in a shallow coastal benthic food web: Insights from fatty acid biomarkers and their stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Ulrike; Provoost, Pieter; Sabbe, Koen; Soetaert, Karline; Middelburg, Jack J; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the temporal variation of pelagic and benthic food sources in the diet of benthic taxa at a depositional site in the Southern Bight of the North Sea by means of fatty acid (FA) biomarkers and compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA). The taxa were the non-selective deposit feeding nematodes (Sabatieria spp. and 'other nematodes'), and three dominant macrobenthic species: two true suspension-deposit feeders (the bivalve Abra alba and the tube dwelling polychaete Owenia fusiformis) and the suspected predatory mud-dwelling anemone Sagartia sp. These species make up on average 16% (Abra alba), 17% (Sagartia sp.) and 20% (Owenia fusiformis) of the biomass in the Abra alba-Kurtiella bidentata community in this area. Phytoplankton dynamics in the suspended particulate matter of the water column as inferred from cell counts, chlorophyll-a and organic carbon content were clearly visible in sediment and animal FA abundance as well, whereas phytodetritus dynamics in the sediment FA composition were less clear, probably due to patchy distribution or stripping of FA by macrofauna. Nematodes appeared to assimilate mainly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) from their sedimentary environment and were further non-selectively accumulating more (Sabatieria spp.) or less ('other nematodes') FA from the deposited phytodetritus. In contrast, Abra alba FA composition was consistent with a diatom-dominated diet and consumption of Phaeocystis was observed in Owenia fusiformis, whereas Sagartia sp. showed evidence of a predatory behaviour. While the total FA content in Owenia fusiformis remained constant throughout the year, Sagartia sp. doubled and Abra alba increased its FA level more than 10-fold in response to the organic matter deposition from the phytoplankton bloom. This leads to the conclusion that there is no resource partitioning between non-selective deposit feeding nematodes and the suspension-deposit feeding macrobenthic organisms, suggesting they

  18. Effect of mexiletine on long QT syndrome model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHong-Wei; ZHENGYan-Qian; 等

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To make a LQT3 model(one form of the long QT syndromes)and to investigate the effect of mexiletine on LQT3.METHODS:Sea anemone toxin(ATX Ⅱ)was used to produce the LQT3 model.The Effect of mexiletine on LQT3 was performed on single Na channel,action potential,and electrocardiography in guinea pigs,RESULTS.With the binding of ATXⅡto the Na+ channels,the probability of being in the open state and the open time constant of single Na+ channel with long opening mode increased significantly.Action potential duration APD50,APD90,and the maximal upstroke velocity of phase 0 were increased by 25.8%,26.1%,and 12%,respectively.The QT interval and QTc,a rectifed QT interval,increased by 12.8% and 16.9%.On the contrary,after application of mexiletine,the open probability of single Na+ channel was reduced greatly.In the presence of ATXⅡ(40nmol/L),mexiletine(1,5,15,45,70μmol/L)shortened the APD50 by 0.5%,6.7%,14.4%,19.45,and 18.8%,respectively,and decreased the APD90and Vmax accordingly.In the experiments with ECG,mexiletine reversed the ATX0Ⅱ-produced prolongation effects on QTc in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSION:Mexiletine may be an effective drug in the treatment of LQT3.

  19. Development of the aboral domain in Nematostella requires β-catenin and the opposing activities of Six3/6 and Frizzled5/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Bause, Markus; Sinigaglia, Chiara; Steger, Julia; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of the oral pole in cnidarians and the posterior pole in bilaterians is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling, whereas a set of transcription factors, including Six3/6 and FoxQ2, controls aboral development in cnidarians and anterior identity in bilaterians. However, it is poorly understood how these two patterning systems are initially set up in order to generate correct patterning along the primary body axis. Investigating the early steps of aboral pole formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, we found that, at blastula stage, oral genes are expressed before aboral genes and that Nvβ-catenin regulates both oral and aboral development. In the oral hemisphere, Nvβ-catenin specifies all subdomains except the oral-most, NvSnailA-expressing domain, which is expanded upon Nvβ-catenin knockdown. In addition, Nvβ-catenin establishes the aboral patterning system by promoting the expression of NvSix3/6 at the aboral pole and suppressing the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8 at the oral pole. NvFrizzled5/8 expression thereby gets restricted to the aboral domain. At gastrula stage, NvSix3/6 and NvFrizzled5/8 are both expressed in the aboral domain, but they have opposing activities, with NvSix3/6 maintaining and NvFrizzled5/8 restricting the size of the aboral domain. At planula stage, NvFrizzled5/8 is required for patterning within the aboral domain and for regulating the size of the apical organ by modulation of a previously characterized FGF feedback loop. Our findings suggest conserved roles for Six3/6 and Frizzled5/8 in aboral/anterior development and reveal key functions for Nvβ-catenin in the patterning of the entire oral-aboral axis of Nematostella. PMID:26989171

  20. Development and short-term dynamics of macrofouling assemblages on fish-cage nettings in a tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, John; Chong, V. C.; Basri, Badrulnizam

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted at a fish culture farm in the Jaha River estuary, Malaysia, to examine the structure and development of macrofouling assemblages on floating net-cages. The study was conducted during the dry (August-October 2001) and wet (December-February 2002) seasons. Biofouling on 1.6 cm mesh net panels (size 0.2 m × 2 m) suspended inside (P, T) and outside (O) experimental net-cages was monitored every week until net openings were completely occluded by macrofouling organisms (8 wk and 12 wk for dry and wet seasons respectively). Seven species (6 phyla) of sessile organisms and 23 species (3 phyla) of non-sessile associates were recorded. Macro-colonization of net panels began with the hydroid Plumularia sp. irrespective of season and treatment (P, T, and O), while other species only appeared after 1 or 2 weeks of immersion. Inside net-cages where water flow was slow (mean macroalgae ( Polysiphonia sp.), anthozoans (unidentified anemone), barnacles ( Balanus amphitrite), amphipods ( Gammaropsis sp. & Photis sp.), and tanaids ( Leptognathia sp.) were dominant on the net panels during the dry season. In the wet season, hydroid ( Plumularia sp.), mussel ( Xenostrobus mangle), and nematode abundance were however significant. With stronger water flow (mean ≈ 20 cm s -1) as occurring outside the net-cages, macrofouling assemblages for both seasons comprised mainly Plumularia sp. and Gammaropsis sp. The macrofouling assemblage showed a clear succession of species that occupied different layers of the net panels. The study shows that while organic enrichment and retarded water flow together enhance the development of macrofouling assemblages, salinity, depth, substrate (net) area and species competition specifically influence community structure, colonization, and depth distribution of the macrofouling organisms.

  1. Metabolite profiling of symbiont and host during thermal stress and bleaching in a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Katie E; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Bôas, Silas; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Bleaching (dinoflagellate symbiont loss) is one of the greatest threats facing coral reefs. The functional cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, which forms coral reefs, is based on the bi-directional exchange of nutrients. During thermal stress this exchange breaks down; however, major gaps remain in our understanding of the roles of free metabolite pools in symbiosis and homeostasis. In this study we applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to explore thermally induced changes in intracellular pools of amino and non-amino organic acids in each partner of the model sea anemone Aiptasia sp. and its dinoflagellate symbiont. Elevated temperatures (32 °C for 6 days) resulted in symbiont photoinhibition and bleaching. Thermal stress induced distinct changes in the metabolite profiles of both partners, associated with alterations to central metabolism, oxidative state, cell structure, biosynthesis and signalling. Principally, we detected elevated pools of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the symbiont, indicative of modifications to lipogenesis/lysis, membrane structure and nitrogen assimilation. In contrast, reductions of multiple PUFAs were detected in host pools, indicative of increased metabolism, peroxidation and/or reduced translocation of these groups. Accumulations of glycolysis intermediates were also observed in both partners, associated with photoinhibition and downstream reductions in carbohydrate metabolism. Correspondingly, we detected accumulations of amino acids and intermediate groups in both partners, with roles in gluconeogenesis and acclimation responses to oxidative stress. These data further our understanding of cellular responses to thermal stress in the symbiosis and generate hypotheses relating to the secondary roles of a number of compounds in homeostasis and heat-stress resistance. PMID:26685173

  2. Overview on the diversity of sounds produced by clownfishes (Pomacentridae: importance of acoustic signals in their peculiar way of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orphal Colleye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clownfishes (Pomacentridae are brightly colored coral reef fishes well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with tropical sea anemones. These fishes live in social groups in which there is a size-based dominance hierarchy. In this structure where sex is socially controlled, agonistic interactions are numerous and serve to maintain size differences between individuals adjacent in rank. Clownfishes are also prolific callers whose sounds seem to play an important role in the social hierarchy. Here, we aim to review and to synthesize the diversity of sounds produced by clownfishes in order to emphasize the importance of acoustic signals in their way of life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recording the different acoustic behaviors indicated that sounds are divided into two main categories: aggressive sounds produced in conjunction with threat postures (charge and chase, and submissive sounds always emitted when fish exhibited head shaking movements (i.e. a submissive posture. Both types of sounds showed size-related intraspecific variation in dominant frequency and pulse duration: smaller individuals produce higher frequency and shorter duration pulses than larger ones, and inversely. Consequently, these sonic features might be useful cues for individual recognition within the group. This observation is of significant importance due to the size-based hierarchy in clownfish group. On the other hand, no acoustic signal was associated with the different reproductive activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Unlike other pomacentrids, sounds are not produced for mate attraction in clownfishes but to reach and to defend the competition for breeding status, which explains why constraints are not important enough for promoting call diversification in this group.

  3. Elevated temperature inhibits recruitment of transferrin-positive vesicles and induces iron-deficiency genes expression in Aiptasia pulchella host-harbored Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Po-Ching; Wu, Tsung-Meng; Hong, Ming-Chang; Chen, Ming-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Coral bleaching is the consequence of disruption of the mutualistic Cnidaria-dinoflagellate association. Elevated seawater temperatures have been proposed as the most likely cause of coral bleaching whose severity is enhanced by a limitation in the bioavailability of iron. Iron is required by numerous organisms including the zooxanthellae residing inside the symbiosome of cnidarian cells. However, the knowledge of how symbiotic zooxanthellae obtain iron from the host cells and how elevated water temperature affects the association is very limited. Since cellular iron acquisition is known to be mediated through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis, a vesicular trafficking pathway specifically regulated by Rab4 and Rab5, we set out to examine the roles of these key proteins in the iron acquisition by the symbiotic Symbiodinium. Thus, we hypothesized that the iron recruitments into symbiotic zooxanthellae-housed symbiosomes may be dependent on rab4/rab5-mediated fusion with vesicles containing iron-bound transferrins and will be retarded under elevated temperature. In this study, we cloned a novel monolobal transferrin (ApTF) gene from the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and confirmed that the association of ApTF with A. pulchella Rab4 (ApRab4) or A. pulchella Rab5 (ApRab5) vesicles is inhibited by elevated temperature through immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the iron-deficient phenomenon by demonstrating the induced overexpression of iron-deficiency-responsive genes, flavodoxin and high-affinity iron permease 1, and reduced intracellular iron concentration in zooxanthellae under desferrioxamine B (iron chelator) and high temperature treatment. In conclusion, our data are consistent with algal iron deficiency being a contributing factor for the thermal stress-induced bleaching of symbiotic cnidarians. PMID:25997368

  4. Ontogenetic changes in responses to settlement cues by Anemonefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, D. L.; Munday, P. L.; Pratchett, M.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Population connectivity for most marine species is dictated by dispersal during the pelagic larval stage. Although reef fish larvae are known to display behavioral adaptations that influence settlement site selection, little is known about the development of behavioral preferences throughout the larval phase. Whether larvae are attracted to the same sensory cues throughout their larval phase, or exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in sensory preference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate an ontogenetic shift in olfactory cue preferences for two species of anemonefish, a process that could aid in understanding both patterns of dispersal and settlement. Aquarium-bred naïve Amphiprion percula and A. melanopus larvae were tested for olfactory preference of relevant reef-associated chemical cues throughout the 11-day pelagic larval stage. Age posthatching had a significant effect on the preference for olfactory cues from host anemones and live corals for both species. Preferences of olfactory cues from tropical plants of A. percula, increased by approximately ninefold between hatching and settlement, with A. percula larvae showing a fivefold increase in preference for the olfactory cue produced by the grass species. Larval age had no effect on the olfactory preference for untreated seawater over the swamp-based tree Melaleuca nervosa, which was always avoided compared with blank seawater. These results indicate that reef fish larvae are capable of utilizing olfactory cues early in the larval stage and may be predisposed to disperse away from reefs, with innate olfactory preferences drawing newly hatched larvae into the pelagic environment. Toward the end of the larval phase, larvae become attracted to the olfactory cues of appropriate habitats, which may assist them in identification of and navigation toward suitable settlement sites.

  5. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

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    Alex D Rogers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  6. Spatial differences in East scotia ridge hydrothermal vent food webs: influences of chemistry, microbiology and predation on trophodynamics.

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    William D K Reid

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp. and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp. but their food webs are unknown. Vent fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three vent sites (E2, E9N and E9S at distances of tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres apart with contrasting vent fluid chemistries to describe trophic interactions and identify potential carbon fixation pathways using stable isotopes. δ(13C of dissolved inorganic carbon from vent fluids ranged from -4.6‰ to 0.8‰ at E2 and from -4.4‰ to 1.5‰ at E9. The lowest macroconsumer δ(13C was observed in peltospiroid gastropods (-30.0‰ to -31.1‰ and indicated carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle by endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria. Highest δ(13C occurred in Kiwa sp. (-19.0‰ to -10.5‰, similar to that of the epibionts sampled from their ventral setae. Kiwa sp. δ(13C differed among sites, which were attributed to spatial differences in the epibiont community and the relative contribution of carbon fixed via the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA and CBB cycles assimilated by Kiwa sp. Site differences in carbon fixation pathways were traced into higher trophic levels e.g. a stichasterid asteroid that predates on Kiwa sp. Sponges and anemones at the periphery of E2 assimilated a proportion of epipelagic photosynthetic primary production but this was not observed at E9N. Differences in the δ(13C and δ(34S values of vent macroconsumers between E2 and E9 sites suggest the relative contributions of photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (rTCA v CBB entering the hydrothermal vent food webs vary between the sites.

  7. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls and ridges in water depths from 1230 to 3150 m. In particular the deeper sites (Chapopopte and Mictlan knolls) were characterized by asphalt deposits accompanied by extrusion of liquid oil in form of whips or sheets, and in some places (Tsanyao Yang, Mictlan, and Chapopote knolls) by gas emission and the presence of gas hydrates in addition. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of gaseous hydrocarbons suggest their primarily thermogenic origin. Relatively fresh asphalt structures were settled by chemosynthetic communities including bacterial mats and vestimentiferan tube worms, whereas older flows appeared largely inert and devoid of corals and anemones at the deep sites. The gas hydrates at Tsanyao Yang and Mictlan Knolls were covered by a 5-to-10 cm-thick reaction zone composed of authigenic carbonates, detritus, and microbial mats, and were densely colonized by 1-2 m-long tube worms, bivalves, snails, and shrimps. This study increased knowledge on the occurrences and dimensions of asphalt fields and associated gas hydrates at the Campeche Knolls. The extent of all discovered seepage structure areas indicates that emission of complex hydrocarbons is a widespread, thus important feature of the southern Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Moytirra: Discovery of the first known deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A. J.; Murton, B.; Copley, J.; Lim, A.; Carlsson, J.; Collins, P.; Dorschel, B.; Green, D.; Judge, M.; Nye, V.; Benzie, J.; Antoniacomi, A.; Coughlan, M.; Morris, K.

    2013-10-01

    Geological, biological, morphological, and hydrochemical data are presented for the newly discovered Moytirra vent field at 45oN. This is the only high temperature hydrothermal vent known between the Azores and Iceland, in the North Atlantic and is located on a slow to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge uniquely situated on the 300 m high fault scarp of the eastern axial wall, 3.5 km from the axial volcanic ridge crest. Furthermore, the Moytirra vent field is, unusually for tectonically controlled hydrothermal vents systems, basalt hosted and perched midway up on the median valley wall and presumably heated by an off-axis magma chamber. The Moytirra vent field consists of an alignment of four sites of venting, three actively emitting "black smoke," producing a complex of chimneys and beehive diffusers. The largest chimney is 18 m tall and vigorously venting. The vent fauna described here are the only ones documented for the North Atlantic (Azores to Reykjanes Ridge) and significantly expands our knowledge of North Atlantic biodiversity. The surfaces of the vent chimneys are occupied by aggregations of gastropods (Peltospira sp.) and populations of alvinocaridid shrimp (Mirocaris sp. with Rimicaris sp. also present). Other fauna present include bythograeid crabs (Segonzacia sp.) and zoarcid fish (Pachycara sp.), but bathymodiolin mussels and actinostolid anemones were not observed in the vent field. The discovery of the Moytirra vent field therefore expands the known latitudinal distributions of several vent-endemic genera in the north Atlantic, and reveals faunal affinities with vents south of the Azores rather than north of Iceland.

  9. Glypican1/2/4/6 and sulfated glycosaminoglycans regulate the patterning of the primary body axis in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bause, Markus; van der Horst, Roddy; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2016-06-01

    Glypicans are members of the heparan sulfate (HS) subfamily of proteoglycans that can function in cell adhesion, cell crosstalk and as modulators of the major developmental signalling pathways in bilaterians. The evolutionary origin of these multiple functions is not well understood. In this study we investigate the role of glypicans in the embryonic and larval development of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a member of the non-bilaterian clade Cnidaria. Nematostella has two glypican (gpc) genes that are expressed in mutually exclusive ectodermal domains, NvGpc1/2/4/6 in a broad aboral domain, and NvGpc3/5 in narrow oral territory. The endosulfatase NvSulf (an extracellular modifier of HS chains) is expressed in a broad oral domain, partially overlapping with both glypicans. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of NvGpc1/2/4/6 leads to an expansion of the expression domains of aboral marker genes and a reduction of oral markers at gastrula stage, strikingly similar to knockdown of the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8. We further show that treatment with sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sulfation, phenocopies knockdown of NvGpc1/2/4/6 at gastrula stage. At planula stage, knockdown of NvGpc1/2/4/6 and sodium chlorate treatment result in alterations in aboral marker gene expression that suggest additional roles in the fine-tuning of patterning within the aboral domain. These results reveal a role for NvGpc1/2/4/6 and sulfated GAGs in the patterning of the primary body axis in Nematostella and suggest an ancient function in regulating Frizzled-mediated Wnt signalling. PMID:27090806

  10. Modelling climate change effects on benthos: Distributional shifts in the North Sea from 2001 to 2099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Michael; Mathis, Moritz; Kröncke, Ingrid; Neumann, Hermann; Pohlmann, Thomas; Reiss, Henning

    2016-06-01

    In the marine realm, climate change can affect a variety of physico-chemical properties with wide-ranging biological effects, but the knowledge of how climate change affects benthic distributions is limited and mainly restricted to coastal environments. To project the response of benthic species of a shelf sea (North Sea) to the expected climate change, the distributions of 75 marine benthic species were modelled and the spatial changes in distribution were projected for 2099 based on modelled bottom temperature and salinity changes using the IPCC scenario A1B. Mean bottom temperature was projected to increase between 0.15 and 5.4 °C, while mean bottom salinity was projected to moderately increase by 1.7. The spatial changes in species distribution were modelled with Maxent and the direction and extent of these changes were assessed. The results showed a latitudinal northward shift for 64% of the species (maximum 109 km; brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis) and a southward shift for 36% (maximum 101 km; hermit crab Pagurus prideaux and the associated cloak anemone Adamsia carciniopados; 105 km). The relatively low rates of distributional shifts compared to fish or plankton species were probably influenced by the regional topography. The environmental gradients in the central North Sea along the 50 m depth contour might act as a 'barrier', possibly resulting in a compression of distribution range and hampering further shifts to the north. For 49 species this resulted in a habitat loss up to 100%, while only 11 species could benefit from the warming in terms of habitat gain. Particularly the benthic communities of the southern North Sea, where the strongest temperature increase was projected, would be strongly affected by the distributional changes, since key species showed northward shifts and high rates of habitat loss, with potential ramifications for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  11. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DHANEESH Kottila Veettil; AJITH KUMAR Thipramalai Thankappan; SWAGAT Ghosh; BALASUBRAMANIAN Thangavel

    2012-01-01

    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater.We designed an indoor program of A.percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1,during which the impacts of feed type,water temperature,and light intensity,on the efficiency of its reproduction,were revealed.The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency.Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276±22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp.rather than clam (204±16.4eggs),trash fish (155±12 eggs) and formulated feed (110±10 eggs).The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature,28.74±0.55℃) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature,24.55±0.45℃) on average of 1 spawning per month.Among three light intensities (100,500,and 900 Ix) set to evaluate larval survival rate,larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 Ix.The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach,will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  12. Gene discovery in the threatened elkhorn coral: 454 sequencing of the Acropora palmata transcriptome.

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    Nicholas R Polato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cnidarians, including corals and anemones, offer unique insights into metazoan evolution because they harbor genetic similarities with vertebrates beyond that found in model invertebrates and retain genes known only from non-metazoans. Cataloging genes expressed in Acropora palmata, a foundation-species of reefs in the Caribbean and western Atlantic, will advance our understanding of the genetic basis of ecologically important traits in corals and comes at a time when sequencing efforts in other cnidarians allow for multi-species comparisons. RESULTS: A cDNA library from a sample enriched for symbiont free larval tissue was sequenced on the 454 GS-FLX platform. Over 960,000 reads were obtained and assembled into 42,630 contigs. Annotation data was acquired for 57% of the assembled sequences. Analysis of the assembled sequences indicated that 83-100% of all A. palmata transcripts were tagged, and provided a rough estimate of the total number genes expressed in our samples (~18,000-20,000. The coral annotation data contained many of the same molecular components as in the Bilateria, particularly in pathways associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage repair, and provided evidence that homologs of p53, a key player in DNA repair pathways, has experienced selection along the branch separating Cnidaria and Bilateria. Transcriptome wide screens of paralog groups and transition/transversion ratios highlighted genes including: green fluorescent proteins, carbonic anhydrase, and oxidative stress proteins; and functional groups involved in protein and nucleic acid metabolism, and the formation of structural molecules. These results provide a starting point for study of adaptive evolution in corals. CONCLUSIONS: Currently available transcriptome data now make comparative studies of the mechanisms underlying coral's evolutionary success possible. Here we identified candidate genes that enable corals to maintain genomic integrity despite

  13. Extraction systems for isolating esterases having interfacial adsorption

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    Alberto del Monte Martínez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el presente trabajo se optimizaron las condiciones de extracción de esterasas con actividad en interfaces, a partir de la anémona marina Stichodactyla helianthus y del camarón peneido Litopenaeus vannamei. Las esterasas interfaciales, cuya presencia en estas especies había sido informada previamente, presentan características funcionales que las hacen muy atractivas para su empleo industrial. Los homogenados de los animales se trataron con los detergentes Tritón X-100, Tween 20 y Tween 80 en dos concentraciones cada uno: la Concentración Micelar Crítica (CMC y la mitad de ésta. Además se empleó NaCl 0,5 mol/L y n-butanol a las proporciones 5, 10 y 20%. Cada variante fue comparada con el método tradicional de extracción con agua destilada, que fue tomado como control. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron empleando n-butanol al 20%, para recuperar las actividades esterasa y fosfolipasa, y al 10%, en el aislamiento de la actividad lipasa. La efectividad de este solvente en el aislamiento de estas enzimas con afinidad por las interfaces lípido/agua, pudiera estar dada por su capacidad para romper los agregados entre estas moléculas y causar la desorción de las mismas a los restos de membrana y tejidos presentes en la preparación.Palabras clave: activación interfacial, esterasas interfaciales, lipasas, Stichodactyla helianthus, Litopenaeus vannamei.interfacial activation, interfacial esterase, lipase, Stichodactyla helianthus, Litopenaeus vannamei.Abstract: Interfacial esterases present great functional versatility, making them very attractive molecules for industrial applications. The conditions for extracting interfacial esterases previously detected in the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus and the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were optimised in this work. Animal homogenates were treated with Triton X-100, Tween 20 and Tween 80 detergents at two different concentrations: critical micellar concentration (CMC and half

  14. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  15. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  16. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

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    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM homeobox (Lhx transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. Results We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. Conclusions The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In

  17. Development and field application of a 6-bottle serial gas-tight fluid sampler for collecting seafloor cold seep and hydrothermal vent fluids with autonomous operation capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Ding, K.; Yang, C.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Tan, C.; Schaen, A. T.; Luhmann, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    A 6-bottle serial gas-tight sampler (so-called "six-shooter") was developed for application with deep-sea vent fluids. The new device is composed of a custom-made 6-channel valve manifold and six sampling bottles which are circularly distributed around the valve manifold. Each valve channel consists of a high-pressure titanium cartridge valve and a motor-driven actuator. A sampling snorkel is connected to the inlet of the manifold that delivers the incoming fluid to different bottles. Each sampling bottle has a 160 ml-volume chamber and an accumulator chamber inside where compressed nitrogen is used to maintain the sample at near in-situ pressure. An electronics chamber that is located at the center of the sampler is used to carry out all sampling operations, autonomously, if desired. The sampler is of a compact circular configuration with a diameter of 26 cm and a length of 54 cm. During the SVC cruise AT 26-12, the sampler was deployed by DSV2 Alvin at a cold seep site MC036 with a depth of 1090 m in the Gulf of Mexico. The sampler collected fluid samples automatically following the tidal cycle to monitor the potential impact of the tide cycle on the fluid chemistry of cold seep in a period of two day. During the cruise AT 26-17, the sampler was used with newly upgraded DSV2 Alvin three times at the hydrothermal vent sites along Axial Seamount and Main Endeavor Field on Juan de Fuca Ridge. During a 4-day deployment at Anemone diffuse site (Axial Caldera), the sampler was set to work in an autonomous mode to collect fluid samples according to the preset interval. During other dives, the sampler was manually controlled via ICL (Inductively Coupled Link) communication through the hull. Gas-tight fluid samples were collected from different hydrothermal vents with temperatures between 267 ℃ and 335 ℃ at the depth up to 2200 m. The field results indicate unique advantages of the design. It can be deployed in extended time period with remote operation or working

  18. Comparative sensitivity of the cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and a standard toxicity test suite: testing whole effluents intended for ocean disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, P L; Reichelt-Brushett, A J; Krassoi, R; Micevska, T

    2015-09-01

    The sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (formally Aiptasia pulchella) has been identified as a valuable test species for tropical marine ecotoxicology. Here, the sensitivities of newly developed endpoints for E. pallida to two unidentified whole effluents were compared to a standard suite of temperate toxicity test species and endpoints that are commonly used in toxicological risk assessments for tropical marine environments. For whole effluent 1 (WE1), a 96-h lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) of 40 (95 % confidence intervals, 30-54) % v/v and a 12-day LC50 of 12 (9-15) % v/v were estimated for E. pallida, exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity than standard sub-lethal endpoints in Allorchestes compressa (96-h effective concentration 50 % (EC50) of >100 % v/v for immobilisation) and Hormosira banksii (72-h EC50 of >100 % v/v for germination), and a similar sensitivity to Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis larval development with a 48-h LC50 of 29 (28-30) % v/v. Sub-lethal effects of whole effluent 2 (WE2) on E. pallida pedal lacerate development resulted in an 8-day EC50 of 7 (3-11) % v/v, demonstrating comparable sensitivity of this endpoint to standardised sub-lethal endpoints in H. banksii (72-h EC50 of 11 (10-11) % v/v for germination), M. edulis galloprovincialis (48-h EC50 for larval development of 12 (9-14) % v/v) and Heliocidaris tuberculata (1-h EC50 of 13 (12-14) % v/v for fertilisation; 72-h EC50 of 26 (25-27) % v/v for larval development) and a significantly higher sensitivity than A. compressa immobilisation (96-h EC50 of >100 % v/v). The sensitivity of E. pallida compared to a standard test species suite highlights the value in standardising the newly developed toxicity test methods for inclusion in routine toxicological risk assessment of complex whole effluents. Importantly, this species provides an additional taxonomic group to the test species that are currently available for tropical marine ecotoxicology and

  19. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project, Duxbury Reef, Bolinas, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Prescutti, K.; Ball, O.; Chang, E.; Darakananda, K.; Jessup, K.; Poutian, J.; Schwalbe, H.; Storm, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B), and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities of aggregating anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima, for seasonal abundance variations as well as long-term population trends. We will also follow the seasonal and long-term population fluctuations of red algal turf, Endocladia muricata and Gelidium coulteri, and black turban snails, Tegula funebralis. Comparing populations of turf algae and the herbivorous black turban snails gathered before and after the November 7, 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill shows very little impact on the Duxbury Reef intertidal inhabitants. Future analyses will

  20. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riedel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups. Most atypical (stress behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (2 L−1, the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (2 L−1, the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (2 L−1 and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and

  1. Baseline seabed habitat and biotope mapping for a proposed marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sonny T M; Kelly, Michelle; Langlois, Tim J; Costello, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Seabed mapping can quantify the extent of benthic habitats that comprise marine ecosystems, and assess the impact of fisheries on an ecosystem. In this study, the distribution of seabed habitats in a proposed no-take Marine Reserve along the northeast coast of Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, was mapped using underwater video combined with bathymetry and substratum data. As a result of the boundary extending to the 12 nautical mile Territorial Limit, it would have been the largest coastal Marine Reserve in the country. Recreational and commercial fisheries occur in the region and would be expected to affect species' abundance. The seabed of the study area and adjacent coastal waters has been trawled up to five times per year. Benthic communities were grouped by multivariate cluster analysis into four biotope classes; namely (1) shallow water macroalgae Ecklonia sp. and Ulva sp. on rocky substrata (Eck.Ulv); and deeper (2) diverse epifauna of sponges and bryozoans on rocky substrata (Por.Bry), (3) brittle star Amphiura sp. and sea anemone Edwardsia sp. on muddy sand (Amph.Edw), and (4) hydroids on mud (Hyd). In biotopes Por.Bry, Amph.Edw and Hyd, there where boulders and rocks were present, and diverse sponge, bryozoan and coral communities. Fifty species were recorded in the deep water survey including significant numbers of the shallow-water hexactinellid glass sponges Symplectella rowi Dendy, 1924 and Rossella ijimai Dendy, 1924, the giant pipe demosponge Isodictya cavicornuta Dendy, 1924, black corals, and locally endemic gorgonians. The habitats identified in the waters to the northeast of Great Barrier Island are likely to be representative of similar depth ranges in northeast New Zealand. This study provides a baseline of the benthic habitats so that should the area become a Marine Reserve, any habitat change might be related to protection from fishing activities and impacts, such as recovery of epifauna following cessation of trawling. The habitat map may

  2. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  3. Discovery of a distinct superfamily of Kunitz-type toxin (KTT from tarantulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kuntiz-type toxins (KTTs have been found in the venom of animals such as snake, cone snail and sea anemone. The main ancestral function of Kunitz-type proteins was the inhibition of a diverse array of serine proteases, while toxic activities (such as ion-channel blocking were developed under a variety of Darwinian selection pressures. How new functions were grafted onto an old protein scaffold and what effect Darwinian selection pressures had on KTT evolution remains a puzzle. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the presence of a new superfamily of ktts in spiders (TARANTULAS: Ornithoctonus huwena and Ornithoctonus hainana, which share low sequence similarity to known KTTs and is clustered in a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree of KTT evolution. The representative molecule of spider KTTs, HWTX-XI, purified from the venom of O. huwena, is a bi-functional protein which is a very potent trypsin inhibitor (about 30-fold more strong than BPTI as well as a weak Kv1.1 potassium channel blocker. Structural analysis of HWTX-XI in 3-D by NMR together with comparative function analysis of 18 expressed mutants of this toxin revealed two separate sites, corresponding to these two activities, located on the two ends of the cone-shape molecule of HWTX-XI. Comparison of non-synonymous/synonymous mutation ratios (omega for each site in spider and snake KTTs, as well as PBTI like body Kunitz proteins revealed high Darwinian selection pressure on the binding sites for Kv channels and serine proteases in snake, while only on the proteases in spider and none detected in body proteins, suggesting different rates and patterns of evolution among them. The results also revealed a series of key events in the history of spider KTT evolution, including the formation of a novel KTT family (named sub-Kuntiz-type toxins derived from the ancestral native KTTs with the loss of the second disulfide bridge accompanied by several dramatic sequence modifications

  4. Specific retention of the protostome-specific PsGEF may parallel with the evolution of mushroom bodies in insect and lophotrochozoan brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohno Keigo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene gain and subsequent retention or loss during evolution may be one of the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the diversity of metazoan nervous systems. However, the causal relationships acting therein have not been studied extensively. Results We identified the gene PsGEF (protostome-specific GEF, which is present in all the sequenced genomes of insects and limpet but absent in those of sea anemones, deuterostomes, and nematodes. In Drosophila melanogaster, PsGEF encodes a short version of a protein with the C2 and PDZ domains, as well as a long version with the C2, PDZ, and RhoGEF domains through alternative splicing. Intriguingly, the exons encoding the RhoGEF domain are specifically deleted in the Daphnia pulex genome, suggesting that Daphnia PsGEF contains only the C2 and PDZ domains. Thus, the distribution of PsGEF containing the C2, PDZ, and RhoGEF domains among metazoans appears to coincide with the presence of mushroom bodies. Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils involved in the processing of multiple sensory inputs as well as associative learning in the insect, platyhelminth, and annelid brains. In the adult Drosophila brain, PsGEF is expressed in mushroom bodies, antennal lobe, and optic lobe, where it is necessary for the correct axon branch formation of alpha/beta neurons in mushroom bodies. PsGEF genetically interacts with Rac1 but not other Rho family members, and the RhoGEF domain of PsGEF induces actin polymerization in the membrane, thus resulting in the membrane ruffling that is observed in cultured cells with activated forms of Rac. Conclusion The specific acquisition of PsGEF by the last common ancestor of protostomes followed by its retention or loss in specific animal species during evolution demonstrates that there are some structural and/or functional features common between insect and lophotrochozoan nervous systems (for example, mushroom bodies, which are absent in all deuterostomes

  5. Biofouling community pattern on various metallic surfaces in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, Southwestern Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . 100 cm-2. The major fouling organisms such as, barnacle, green mussel and ascidian constituted ∼ 70-80% of the total fouling. In the present study, sequence of fouling succession was as follows, barnacle - hydroid - sea anemone - ascidian and finally green mussel (Perna viridis Linn. 1758). The paper also discusses species diversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness) in detail. (author)

  6. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between the species composition of flower visitors and plants in the semi-natural xerothermic grasslands in southern and central Poland. Thirty 10 × 10 m permanent plots were laid out in total, mainly in nature reserves. The vegetation units studied were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet system; these were phytocoenoses of the Festuco-Brometea classes Inuletum ensifoliae, Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati and the transitional plant community. Entomological research was performed using the Pollard method within the same plots. A particular site was visited only once and different sites were studied between April and August 2008. We applied, among others, co-correspondence-analysis Co-CA, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and redundancy analysis (RDA to investigate the co-occurrence patterns of plants and flower visitors and their biotopic requirements. We found that the species composition of flower visitors cannot be predicted by floristic composition when the duration of the study is restricted to one day (but under similar weather conditions; however, there is a positive relationship between the species richness of insects and plants and a positive relationship between the number of plant species and the abundance of flower visitors. The Ellenberg moisture index and the cover of meadow species significantly explained the species composition of insects. The three various vegetation units and five dominant xerothermic species, i.e. Adonis vernalis, Anemone sylvestris, Inula ensifolia, Linum hirsutum and Carlina onopordifolia that were studied across time differed in the species richness of insects. Our results demonstrate that possible patterns in the species composition and the assembly rules of flower visitors are not apparent when the Pollard method is applied. Based on the data obtained using this method, the flower visiting assemblages seem not to be driven by competition and they primarily

  7. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  8. The evolutionary diversification of LSF and Grainyhead transcription factors preceded the radiation of basal animal lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Les

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factors of the LSF/Grainyhead (GRH family are characterized by the possession of a distinctive DNA-binding domain that bears no clear relationship to other known DNA-binding domains, with the possible exception of the p53 core domain. In triploblastic animals, the LSF and GRH subfamilies have diverged extensively with respect to their biological roles, general expression patterns, and mechanism of DNA binding. For example, Grainyhead (GRH homologs are expressed primarily in the epidermis, and they appear to play an ancient role in maintaining the epidermal barrier. By contrast, LSF homologs are more widely expressed, and they regulate general cellular functions such as cell cycle progression and survival in addition to cell-lineage specific gene expression. Results To illuminate the early evolution of this family and reconstruct the functional divergence of LSF and GRH, we compared homologs from 18 phylogenetically diverse taxa, including four basal animals (Nematostella vectensis, Vallicula multiformis, Trichoplax adhaerens, and Amphimedon queenslandica, a choanoflagellate (Monosiga brevicollis and several fungi. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses of these sequences indicate that (1 the LSF/GRH gene family originated prior to the animal-fungal divergence, and (2 the functional diversification of the LSF and GRH subfamilies occurred prior to the divergence between sponges and eumetazoans. Aspects of the domain architecture of LSF/GRH proteins are well conserved between fungi, choanoflagellates, and metazoans, though within the Metazoa, the LSF and GRH families are clearly distinct. We failed to identify a convincing LSF/GRH homolog in the sequenced genomes of the algae Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the amoebozoan Dictyostelium purpureum. Interestingly, the ancestral GRH locus has become split into two separate loci in the sea anemone Nematostella, with one locus encoding a DNA binding

  9. Ancestral gene and "complementary" antibody dominate early ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Peter

    2013-05-01

    According to N.K. Jerne the somatic generation of immune recognition occurs in conjunction with germ cell evolution and precedes the formation of the zygote, i.e. operates before clonal selection. We propose that it is based on interspecies inherent, ancestral forces maintaining the lineage. Murine oogenesis may be offered as a model. So in C57BL/10BL sera an anti-A reactive, mercapto-ethanol sensitive glycoprotein of up to now unknown cellular origin, but exhibiting immunoglobulin M character, presents itself "complementary" to a syngeneic epitope, which encoded by histocompatibility gene A or meanwhile accepted ancestor of the ABO gene family, arises predominantly in ovarian tissue and was detected statistically significant exclusively in polar glycolipids. Reports either on loss, pronounced expressions or de novo appearances of A-type structures in various conditions of accelerated growth like germ cell evolution, wound healing, inflammation and tumor proliferation in man and ABO related animals might show the dynamics of ancestral functions guarantying stem cell fidelity in maturation and tissue renewal processes. Procedures vice versa generating pluripotent stem cells for therapeutical reasons may indicate, that any artificially started growth should somehow pass through the germ line from the beginning, where according to growing knowledge exclusively the oocyte's genome provides a completely channeling ancestral information. In predatory animals such as the modern-day sea anemone, ancestral proteins, particularly those of the p53 gene family govern the reproduction processes, and are active up to the current mammalian female germ line. Lectins, providing the dual function of growth promotion and defense in higher plants, are suggested to represent the evolutionary precursors of the mammalian immunoglobulin M molecules, or protein moiety implying the greatest functional diversity in nature. And apart from any established mammalian genetic tree, a common vetch

  10. Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Steven P; Meesters, Erik H; Dryden, Charlie S; Williams, Stacey M; Sanchez, Cristina; Mumby, Peter J; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2015-11-01

    There has been ongoing flattening of Caribbean coral reefs with the loss of habitat having severe implications for these systems. Complexity and its structural components are important to fish species richness and community composition, but little is known about its role for other taxa or species-specific responses. This study reveals the importance of reef habitat complexity and structural components to different taxa of macrofauna, total species richness, and individual coral and fish species in the Caribbean. Species presence and richness of different taxa were visually quantified in one hundred 25-m(2) plots in three marine reserves in the Caribbean. Sampling was evenly distributed across five levels of visually estimated reef complexity, with five structural components also recorded: the number of corals, number of large corals, slope angle, maximum sponge and maximum octocoral height. Taking advantage of natural heterogeneity in structural complexity within a particular coral reef habitat (Orbicella reefs) and discrete environmental envelope, thus minimizing other sources of variability, the relative importance of reef complexity and structural components was quantified for different taxa and individual fish and coral species on Caribbean coral reefs using boosted regression trees (BRTs). Boosted regression tree models performed very well when explaining variability in total (82·3%), coral (80·6%) and fish species richness (77·3%), for which the greatest declines in richness occurred below intermediate reef complexity levels. Complexity accounted for very little of the variability in octocorals, sponges, arthropods, annelids or anemones. BRTs revealed species-specific variability and importance for reef complexity and structural components. Coral and fish species occupancy generally declined at low complexity levels, with the exception of two coral species (Pseudodiploria strigosa and Porites divaricata) and four fish species (Halichoeres bivittatus, H

  11. Investigation into extremely acidic hydrothermal fluids off Kueishan Tao, Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chentung A; WANG Bingjye; HUANG Jungfu; LOU Jiannyuh; KUO Fuwen; TU Yuehyuan; TSAI Hsienshiow

    2005-01-01

    Kueishan Tao (24°51'N, 121 °55′E) is located at a tectonic junction of the fault system extension of Taiwan and the southern rifting end of the Okinawa Trough. A cluster of over 30 vents, at a water depth of about 10~20 m off the eastern tip of the tao emits hydrothermal fluids and volcanic gases such as H2S. A sulfur chimney or mound, formed by condensation of the sulfur contained in the hydrothermal fluid, can usually be seen around the vents. The tallest chimney reaches 6 m. Vents discharging a yellowish fluid have temperatures between 92 and 116 ℃ and flow rates as high as 158 t/h; vents discharging a whitish fluid have lower temperatures of between 48 and 62 ℃ and lower flow rates of about 7.0 t/h. These world-record, breaking low pH (as low as 1.52) fluids are totally different from those found in the black and white-chimneys of the mid-ocean ridges. Magnesium and SiO2 data indicate that these hydrothermal fluids probably originate from a depth of 915~1 350 m below the surface.While the ratios of major ions relative to the sodium of these hydrothermal fluids are quite similar to open ocean water, the ratios of SO4 and chloride to sodium seem to be higher for some of the vents. It is suggested that the volcanic gases contribute SO4 and ohlorine to the fluids, hence increasing their ratios relative to sodium. Some hydrothermal fluids, however, are found to be depleted of the major elements which can have been caused by phase separation. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the fluids are much lower than those found in the mid-ocean ridges, while the aluminium content is higher. Four species of benthos (Xenograpsus testudinatus, a snail, a sea anemone, and a Sipuncala), 1 species of algae (Corallinaceae), and 1 species of fish (Siganus fusescens) were recorded near the hydrothermal vents. A mitoehondria DNA sequence comparison of Xenograpsus testudinatus with 6 other decapod species shows the greatest number of nitrogen base differences in the

  12. A tarantula-venom peptide that antagonises the TRPA1 nociceptor ion channel by binding to the S1-S4 gating domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Junhong; Liu, Boyi; Cao, Guan; Lipchik, Andrew M.; Perez, Minervo; Dekan, Zoltan; Mobli, Mehdi; Daly, Norelle L.; Alewood, Paul F.; Parker, Laurie L.; King, Glenn F.; Zhou, Yufeng; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The venoms of predators such as spiders, scorpions, cone snails, sea anemones, and snakes, have been an excellent source of pharmacological diversity for drug discovery and as pharmacological tools for elucidating the structure, function, and physiological properties of ion channels. Here we describe the first known peptide antagonist of the nociceptor ion channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). Results We constructed a recombinant cDNA library encoding ∼100 diverse GPI-anchored peptide toxins (t-toxins) derived from spider venoms and screened this library by co-expression in Xenopus oocytes with TRPA1. This screen resulted in identification of protoxin-I (ProTx-I), a 35-residue peptide from the venom of the Peruvian green-velvet tarantula, Thrixopelma pruriens, as the first known high-affinity peptide TRPA1 antagonist. Interestingly, ProTx-I was previously identified as an antagonist of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels. To identify the surfaces of ProTx-I by which it binds to these distinct ion channel types, we constructed a t-toxin library of ProTx-I alanine-scanning mutants and screened this library against NaV1.2 and TRPA1. This revealed distinct partially overlapping surfaces of ProTx-I by which it binds to these two ion channels, and whose specific chemical features explain its higher affinity for NaV1.2 than for TRPA1. Importantly, this mutagenesis yielded two novel ProTx-I variants that are only active against either TRPA1or NaV1.2, but not both. By testing its activity against chimeric channels, we identified the extracellular loops of the TRPA1 S1-S4 gating domain as the ProTx-I binding site. Conclusions These studies establish screening of t-toxin libraries of native and mutated toxins, which we term “toxineering”, as a generally applicable method for isolation of novel ion channel modifiers and for design of ion channel modifiers with altered target selectivity. They also suggest that ProTx-I will be a valuable

  13. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-01-01

    LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural

  14. The Genome of Aiptasia and the Role of MicroRNAs in Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs form marine-biodiversity hotspots of enormous ecological, economic, and aesthetic importance that rely energetically on a functional symbiosis between the coral animal and a photosynthetic alga. The ongoing decline of corals worldwide due to anthropogenic influences heightens the need for an experimentally tractable model system to elucidate the molecular and cellular biology underlying the symbiosis and its susceptibility or resilience to stress. The small sea anemone Aiptasia is such a model organism and the main aims of this dissertation were 1) to assemble and analyze its genome as a foundational resource for research in this area and 2) to investigate the role of miRNAs in modulating gene expression during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis. The genome analysis has revealed numerous features of interest in relation to the symbiotic lifestyle, including the evolution of transposable elements and taxonomically restricted genes, linkage of host and symbiont metabolism pathways, a novel family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might function in host-microbe interactions and evidence for horizontal gene transfer within the animal-alga pair as well as with the associated prokaryotic microbiome. The new genomic resource was used to annotate the Aiptasia miRNA repertoire to illuminate the role of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in regulating endosymbiosis. Aiptasia encodes a majority of species-specific miRNAs and first evidence is presented that even evolutionary conserved miRNAs are undergoing recent differentiations within the Aiptasia genome. The analysis of miRNA expression between different states of Symbiodinium infection further revealed that species-specific and conserved miRNAs are symbiotically regulated. In order to detect functional miRNA-mRNA interactions and to investigate the downstream effects of such miRNA action, a protocol for cross-linking immunoprecipitations of Argonaute, the central protein of the mi

  15. 九种蔷薇科植物叶片的傅里叶红外光谱与亲缘关系分析%Analysis of Leave FTIR of Nine Kinds of Plants from Rosaceae with Genetic Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱璐; 李晓勇; 刘鹏; 范树国; 谢美华; 刘仁明; 周林宗; 王静

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of nine kinds of plants from three subfamily of Rosaceae were used as materials .Genetic relationship was ana-lyzed and species were identified through studying FTIR of nine kinds of plants .Leaves mainly contain large amounts of carbohy-drates ,proteins ,lipids ,nucleic acids and other substances .The peaks of carbohydrates are mainly between 1 440 and 775 cm -1 . The vibration peaks of the cellulose and lignin are between 1 440 and 1 337 cm -1 .The peaks between 1 000 and 775 cm -1 are stretching vibration of ribose .The vibration peaks of protein are between 1 620 and 1 235 cm-1 .The peak at 1 620 cm -1 is sen-sitive to CO stretching vibration of protein amide Ⅰ .The peak at 1 523 cm -1 is assigned to N -H and C-N stretching vi-bration of protein amide Ⅱ .Peaks of lipids mainly appeared between 2 930 and 1 380 cm-1 .The peak at 2 922 cm -1 is CH2 stretching vibration of fat .The peak at 1 732 cm-1 is CO stretching vibration of fatty acids .The mark peak of the nucleic acid appears in the region between 1 250 and 1 000 cm -1 .The peak at 1 068 cm -1 is due to the symmetric stretching vibration of PO2 - group of the phosphodiester-deoxyribose backbone ,and the peak at 1 246 cm -1 is associated to the asymmetric stretch vi-bration of PO2 - group .The results showed that the cluster model is established by smoothing ,standardizing ,the second deriva-tive ,principal component analysis and Hierarchical cluster analysis .It is accordant with the traditional classification .The result of cluster shows that Prunus armeniaca L .and Prunus seudocerasus Lindl .were clustered into one (Prunoideae) . Potentilla fulgens Wall.Rosachinensis Jacdand Fragaria ananassa Duchesnevar.were clustered into the second(Rosoideae).Pyracan-tha fortuneana Li ,Malus pumila Mill .Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook .f .and Malus hallianna Koehne were clustered into the third (Pomoideae) .The correct rate of cluster at subfamily is 100% .The correct rate of cluster at genus is 55.56% .The

  16. Influence of Overstory on Seasonal Variability of Understory Herbs in Primary Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forest of Changbai Mountain%长白山原始阔叶红松林林下草本植物多样性格局及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏富才; 潘春芳2; 赵秀海2; 何海燕3; 周海城3

    2012-01-01

    于2009年生长季(5~9月份)对布置在1.0 hm2的原始阔叶红松林样地内的100个草本样方(1m×1 m)进行物种及其植株高度、盖度以及土壤因子、光照环境进行调查,分析不同层片与土壤因子、光照环境的相关性以及乔木层、灌木层、土壤因子、光照环境对草本层多样性格局的影响,以阐明长白山阔叶红松林林下草本层多样性格局及其影响因素.结果表明:(1)阔叶红松林下的草本植物存在明显的季节动态变化,其中,5月份黑水银莲花(Anemone amurensis)、延胡索(Corydalis ambigua)等早春短命植物占优势,6月份部分早春短命植物和早夏植物、晚夏植物同时出现,物种丰富度最高,7月份是夏季植物的生长旺季,物种多样性最高,8~9月份草本植物逐渐枯萎.(2)灌木层的多样性与草本层的多样性呈极显著正相关,灌木层的株数密度与不同月份的草本层盖度呈正相关、与草本层多样性呈负相关,而乔木层对草本层盖度和多样性的影响均不显著.(3)土壤速效钾、光照和土壤水分是关联乔木层和草本层的重要环境因子.研究认为,阔叶红松林下的乔木层通过影响光照、降水及枯落物的含量而间接影响草本层的多样性格局.%The relationships among the vertical layers (tree-, shrub- and herb-layer) of a temperate forest and the power of environmental and spatial factors were investigated to explain the variation in two attributes of herb-layer;cover and diversity. In the 1. 0 hm2 study site,a total of 100 1-m2 sub-plots (each 20 mX 20 m has 4 1-m2 sub-plots) were monitored monthly from May to September in 2009. Among the environmental factors, tree-and shrub-layer related factors (density, canopy cover and Shannon-diversity) , soil attributes (soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, soil water and pH) and light regime (LAI,PPFD and canopy presence) were studied. The results

  17. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C. Winter

    2006-06-01

    of Gammaridea (Crustacea. The sea anemone C. tricolor was the most frequent species and probably it is used as a mechanism of camouflage by crabs. Macroepizoites on L. ferreirae are related to its age or size, therefore, bigger or older crabs had greater incidence of macroepizoites. However, the density of macroepizoites is about three per crab. There is not a relationship between macroepizoism and sex of the host, but ovigerous females use this resource more frequently than non-ovigerous ones. Due to larger setting area, macroepizoites colonize mainly the carapace of the host; bryozoans predominate in hosts' pereiopods.

  18. A conserved cluster of three PRD-class homeobox genes (homeobrain, rx and orthopedia in the Cnidaria and Protostomia

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    Mazza Maureen E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeobox genes are a superclass of transcription factors with diverse developmental regulatory functions, which are found in plants, fungi and animals. In animals, several Antennapedia (ANTP-class homeobox genes reside in extremely ancient gene clusters (for example, the Hox, ParaHox, and NKL clusters and the evolution of these clusters has been implicated in the morphological diversification of animal bodyplans. By contrast, similarly ancient gene clusters have not been reported among the other classes of homeobox genes (that is, the LIM, POU, PRD and SIX classes. Results Using a combination of in silico queries and phylogenetic analyses, we found that a cluster of three PRD-class homeobox genes (Homeobrain (hbn, Rax (rx and Orthopedia (otp is present in cnidarians, insects and mollusks (a partial cluster comprising hbn and rx is present in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. We failed to identify this 'HRO' cluster in deuterostomes; in fact, the Homeobrain gene appears to be missing from the chordate genomes we examined, although it is present in hemichordates and echinoderms. To illuminate the ancestral organization and function of this ancient cluster, we mapped the constituent genes against the assembled genome of a model cnidarian, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, and characterized their spatiotemporal expression using in situ hybridization. In N. vectensis, these genes reside in a span of 33 kb with the same gene order as previously reported in insects. Comparisons of genomic sequences and expressed sequence tags revealed the presence of alternative transcripts of Nv-otp and two highly unusual protein-coding polymorphisms in the terminal helix of the Nv-rx homeodomain. A population genetic survey revealed the Rx polymorphisms to be widespread in natural populations. During larval development, all three genes are expressed in the ectoderm, in non-overlapping territories along the oral-aboral axis, with distinct

  19. Previously unsuspected dietary habits of hydrothermal vent fauna: the bactivorous shrimp Rimicaris hybisae can be carnivorous or even cannibalistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, Emma; Van Dover, Cindy; Coleman, Max

    2014-05-01

    Most hydrothermal vents support productive communities, with chemosynthetic bacteria at the base of the food web. They form a potentially important link in global geochemical cycles. However, few data yet exist on their significance in ocean biogeochemistry and related ecological processes. We present results on the structure of part of the food web around hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR), revealing previously unknown life-history traits of the alvinocarid shrimp species Rimicaris hybisae. We also demonstrate that stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) are an excellent tracer of trophic positions in these ecosystems, in spite of recent findings arguing otherwise. Two hydrothermal vent fields have been described at the ultra-slow spreading ridge of the MCR. These include the world's deepest hydrothermal vents (Piccard field ~4985 m), which support a food web, which includes bactivorous shrimp and carnivorous anemones. The nearby Von Damm vent field (~2300 m) supports a more complex food web, with more primary producers, and probably some influx of photosynthetically produced carbon. Rimicaris hybisae is abundant at both known MCR vent fields and shows a high degree of spatial variability in population structure and reproductive features. In previous work it has been considered bactivorous. Large variations in tissue δ13C values remained largely unexplained, and it has been argued that δ13C values are not a good food web tracer in hydrothermal vent ecosystems. We observed that shrimp tended to be either in dense aggregations on active chimneys or more sparsely distributed, peripheral shrimp in ambient or near-ambient temperatures. With the hypothesis that varying δ13C values show real differences in food sources between individuals and that shrimp in different locales might have different diets, we collected shrimp from both environments at the Von Damm site during E/V Nautilus (NA034, August 2013) and examined their gut contents. Stomach

  20. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    on meadows. Nectaries are secretory structures that synthesize and release nectar, a multi-component carbohydrate-rich aqueous solution. The relative location of nectaries within a flower is under pressure to maximize relations with pollinators, and hence to ensure the deposition of pollen on the stigma by pollinators. Nectaries are common in Ranunculaceae. Location, morphology and structure of the floral nectaries differ among Ranunculaceae representatives. Nectaries are tubular in Helleborus spp. or situated in nectary spurs (Aconitum, Aquilegia. Nectaries consist of an external epidermis, a photosynthesizing parenchyma, large branches of vascular tissue, a nectar-producing parenchyma, and an internal epidermis (Vesprini et al. 2008. Nectar production is generally associated with mutualistic relations with animals that rely on sugar secretions in their nutrition. Interspecies differences in the amount of nectar produced and nectar chemistry are noted among Ranunculaceae species. Significant variations in nectar carbohydrate composition between male and female sexual phases occur both in the protandrous and protogynous flowers. In Aconitum carmichaelii, male-phase flowers produced 2.4-fold more nectar than femalephase flowers. Nectar sugar composition can differ between species within genera. The nectar can be sucrose-dominant, e.g. in Aconitum carmichaelii or sucrose-rich and lacking glucose in A. lycoctonum (Antoń & Denisow 2014. Variability in nectar production and/or carbohydrate composition in an individual plant may be considered to be evolutionarily significant. It can modify insect movements between flowers and plants, impact on visitation rates, reduce geitonogamy and thus increase plant fitness by cross-pollination. The floral morphology and the type of the floral attractant in Anemone sylvestris is an example of the inbetween form from entomophily to anemophily (lack of nectar, papillous stigma, dense hairs situated between single carpels, small pollen

  1. Benthic survey of natural and artificial reefs off Mar del Plata, Argentina, southwestern Atlantic Estudios del bentos de arrecifes naturales y artificiales de Mar del Plata, Argentina, Atlántico sudoccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genzano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the macrofaunal assemblages of subtidal rocky reefs off Mar del Plata in order to compare the macro invertebrate assemblages settled on shipwrecks with those of nearby reef sand to characterize the fish fauna associated with natural (NR and artificial (AR reefs. Topographic characterizations and surveys of invertebrates and fishes were performed in November and December 2005, using SCUBA diving. A non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to analyze the environmental and biological data. The reefs were mainly distinguished by their depth and the position of the substrate. The red calcareous algae, Corallina officinalis, dominated the shallowest NR, whereas conspicuous mytilid assemblages of Mytilus platensis were present at depths over 3 m, sea anemones, Anthothoe chilensis, were more abundant between 6 and 10 m, and the soft coral, Tripalea clavaria, was found at nearly 20 m depth. No differences were found between horizontal ARs and the adjacent NRs. The greatest differences were found between the communities of vertical and horizontal substrates, both in NRs and ARs. Fifteen fish species were recorded in the analyzed area. Species having strong site fidelity, e.g., Acanthistius brasilianus and Pseudopercis semifasciata, were clearly more abundant and/or frequent in ARs (shipwrecks than in NRs. This pioneer study in the surveyed area showed that reef sallow the settlement of diverse benthic assemblages. ARs also provide refuge for fishes. As sport fishing and diving are activities being carried out in Mar del Plata, where tourism is one of the main economic resources, the protection of such areas should be considered in conservation plans.Se describió la macrofauna de los arrecifes rocosos sublitorales, frente a Mar del Plata, para comparar las asociaciones de macro-invertebrados de los pecios con las de los arrecifes aledaños y caracterizar la fauna de peces tanto en los arrecifes naturales (NR como artificiales (AR

  2. 青岛海鸥浮码头冬季污损生物调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Fouling Organisms in Qingdao Seagulls Floating Dock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马士德; 王在东; 刘会莲; 赵君; 段继周; 许健平; 韩文; 王静; 刘传安

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]In order to investigate the ecological change of Qingdao Port,and find basic bio-fouling information for the evaluation of ecological change in Jiaozhou Bay,an inves-tigation of “Seagulls”floating dock is taken during its 5.5 years’service period in Qingdao Zhonggang Port.[Methods]This paper analyzed and identified the stable community struc-ture and distribution of fouling organisms in winter.[Results]Through comparing the current and 50 years ago data,it shows that the basic structure of stable community in winter is fixed type organisms.The bottom layer,which contains Ostrea gigas thun b erg and Balanus sp.,is attached by Pyrosomella verticilliata ,Mytilidae and Bryozoa .The upper layer is filled with carpet type organisms.Except Balanus sp., Ostrea gigas thun b erg and Mytilidae , the maximum weight of the floating dock per unit area during the 5.5 years is 1.0 kg/m2 .[Conclu-sion]The structure of stable winter fouling com-munity and adhesion quantities have significantly changed over 50 years,suggesting the research of fouling organisms in Jiaozhou Bay need to be employed in the Jiaozhou Bay ecological research of marine ecosystems.%【目的】为给胶州湾生态评价提供污损生物的基本信息,调查青岛中港服役5.5年海鸥浮码头水中钢结构的生物污损状况。【方法】分析鉴定该浮码头冬季污损生物的稳定群落结构及其分布,并与50年前的调查结果进行对比。【结果】青岛中港冬季稳定群落基本结构为多年生固着生物,牡蛎(Ostrea gigas thun berg )和藤壶(Balanus sp.)为底层,其上为附着型的海鞘(Pyrosomella verticilliata )、贻贝(Mytilidae )和苔藓虫(Bryozoa ),表层为地毯式复海鞘、苔藓虫、海绵(Reniclona sp.)、水螅(Hydra )和海葵(Sea anemone )等;去除多年生固着生物(藤壶、牡蛎)及附着型的扇贝,服役5.5年浮码头最大单位面积污损重量不足1.0 kg/m2。【结论】相比50年前,青岛中