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Sample records for anemone anemonia viridis

  1. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

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    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  2. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  3. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  4. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues

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    Aldo Nicosia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis. These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP (AvTCTP after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  5. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

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    Matteo Bulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  6. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

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    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  7. Decapod crustaceans associated with the snakelock anemone Anemonia sulcata. Living there or just passing by?

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    Ricardo Calado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies the decapod crustaceans that associate with Anemonia sulcata on the southwestern Atlantic coast of Portugal and characterises their host use pattern. It determines whether the anemone is monopolised by any species, resulting in the exclusion of conspecifics or other decapods and, under laboratory conditions, it evaluates the degree of association between each species and A. sulcata. From all sampled anemones, 79% harboured at least 1 decapod crustacean, with the majority displaying either one or two specimens (32 and 24%, respectively. The most abundant species were the shrimp Periclimenes sagittifer and the crab Inachus phalangium (representing 36 and 31% of collected specimens, respectively, which displayed lasting associations and were commonly recorded among the tentacles of the host. The species Eualus occultus, E. complex cranchii, Clibanarius erythropus, Maja brachydactyla, Pilumnus hirtellus and Polybius (Necora puber displayed short-term associations, were mainly present on the substratum near the base, and avoided the tentacles of A. sulcata. Periclimenes sagittifer and I. phalangium were only recorded alone or in heterosexual pairs, appearing to efficiently defend their host against conspecifics. The majority of recorded species only seem to temporarily associate with A. sulcata, in order to seek protection from predators when other shelters are unavailable.

  8. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

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    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  9. Structure, folding and stability of a minimal homologue from Anemonia sulcata of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK.

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    Krishnarjuna, Bankala; MacRaild, Christopher A; Sunanda, Punnepalli; Morales, Rodrigo A V; Peigneur, Steve; Macrander, Jason; Yu, Heidi H; Daly, Marymegan; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Tytgat, Jan; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S

    2018-01-01

    Peptide toxins elaborated by sea anemones target various ion-channel sub-types. Recent transcriptomic studies of sea anemones have identified several novel candidate peptides, some of which have cysteine frameworks identical to those of previously reported sequences. One such peptide is AsK132958, which was identified in a transcriptomic study of Anemonia sulcata and has a cysteine framework similar to that of ShK from Stichodactyla helianthus, but is six amino acid residues shorter. We have determined the solution structure of this novel peptide using NMR spectroscopy. The disulfide connectivities and structural scaffold of AsK132958 are very similar to those of ShK but the structure is more constrained. Toxicity assays were performed using grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp) and Artemia nauplii, and patch-clamp electrophysiology assays were performed to assess the activity of AsK132958 against a range of voltage-gated potassium (K V ) channels. AsK132958 showed no activity against grass shrimp, Artemia nauplii, or any of the K V channels tested, owing partly to the absence of a functional Lys-Tyr dyad. Three AsK132958 analogues, each containing a Tyr in the vicinity of Lys19, were therefore generated in an effort to restore binding, but none showed activity against any of K V channels tested. However, AsK132958 and its analogues are less susceptible to proteolysis than that of ShK. Our structure suggests that Lys19, which might be expected to occupy the pore of the channel, is not sufficiently accessible for binding, and therefore that AsK132958 must have a distinct functional role that does not involve K V channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anemone

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    Hao, Da-Cheng; Gu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Peigen

    2017-03-01

    The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales), comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant "omics" platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  11. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones.

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    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-04-07

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones.

  12. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

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    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer.

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of the nervous system in the tentacles of some coelenterates (Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile, Cerianthus membranaceus, Tealia felina and Hydra vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van J.

    1977-01-01

    The nervous system in the tentacles of the sea anemones Tealia felina, Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile and Cerianthus membranaceus was studied using light microscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Because of the small dimensions of the nerve cells (6—7 µm) and of the neurites (diameter

  14. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology

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    Da-Cheng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales, comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant “omics” platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  15. Survival of sea anemones in Bunder C fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicksten, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Sea anemones (Anthopleura elegantissima) can withstand submersion in Bunker C fuel oil for up to 1 h without visible adverse effects. The wet, mucus-covered tissues of the sea anemones may repel oil. During recovery, the sea anemones expand the column, evert the tentacles and reattach. A dahlia anemone (Tealia lofotensis) withstood immersion in oil for 15 min. The ability to withstand immersion in oil may confer an ecological advantage to sea anemones in contaminated areas. 5 references, 8 figures, 1 tables.

  16. Sources of nutrition in intertidal sea anemones from the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-03-06

    Mar 6, 1996 ... input of energy (Tytler & Spencer Davies 1984). In nutrient- poor tropical environments these zooxanthellae often supply. 100% or more of the host's daily metabolic carbon require- ments (Tsuchida & Potts 1994). In temperate regions, how- ever, anemones rely more on captured prey. Sea anemones.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, R.S.; Cossins, A.I.; Kem, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I) have been investigated by high-resolution H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at 300 MHz. The pH dependence of the spectra has been examined over the range 1.1-12.2 at 27 degree C. Individual pK a values have been obtained for the α-ammonium group of Ala-1 (8.6) and the side chains of Glu-8 (3.7), Tyr-36 (10.9), and Tyr-37 (10.8). For the remaining seven carboxyl groups in the molecule, four pK a values can be clearly identified. The five Lys residues titrate in the range 10.5-11, but individual pK a values could not be obtained because of peak overlap. Conformational changes associated with the protonation of carboxylates occur below pH 4, while in the alkaline pH range major unfolding occurs above pH 10. The molecule also unfolds at elevated temperatures. Exchange of the backbone amide protons has been monitored at various values of pH and temperature in the ranges pH 4-5 and 12-27 degree C. Comparison of these properties of Sh I in solution with those of the related polypeptides anthopleurin A and Anemonia sulcata toxins I and II indicates that Sh I is less stable thermally and that there are some significant differences in the ionic interactions that maintain the tertiary structure. The solvent accessibility of aromatic residues has been probed with photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization NMR at 360 MHz

  18. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

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    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

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    Anthony J. SAVIOLA, David CHISZAR, Stephen P. MACKESSY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake. Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake takes different prey at different life stages, and neonates typically prey on ectotherms, while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms. We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed, and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age. To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred, we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate, 20 subadult, and 20 adult (average SVL = 280.9, 552, 789.5 mm, respectively wild-caught C. v. viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, and house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, two endotherms (deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse, Mus musculus, and water controls were used. Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey, S. undulatus, than to all other chemical cues; however, the response to this lizard’s chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes. Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S. undulatus and P. maniculatus than to all other treatments, and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P. maniculatus than to all other chemical cues. In addition, all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M. musculus and H. frenatus. This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C. v. viridis diet. Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition, we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid

  20. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft.

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    Schnytzer, Yisrael; Giman, Yaniv; Karplus, Ilan; Achituv, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis . In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a "splitting" behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the "theft" of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs "split" their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism) it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  1. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft

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    Yisrael Schnytzer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae. These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a “splitting” behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the “theft” of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs “split” their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  2. Biological factors controlling developmental duration, growth and metamorphosis of the larval green toad, Bufo viridis viridis

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    Gamal A. Bekhet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study in a controlled laboratory setting provided important insights into both the degree of plasticity and the proximal environmental cues operating in the response of green toad tadpoles to pond drying, food level. It was concluded that timing of metamorphosis and size at metamorphosis were highly affected by pond duration. The effects of pond desiccation are reflected by shorter developmental duration and smaller size at metamorphosis as a result of increased crowding in the shallow tanks than tadpoles in the deep tanks. Bufo viridis raised on high food supplements grew faster than those raised on low food in low or high population density. In the tanks with decreased water and food levels, the tadpoles accelerate development and metamorphose earlier than tadpoles in higher food and water levels. The obtained data revealed that tadpoles grew faster under conditions of high population density than low one in either high or low food levels. Actual density had limited but significant effects on tadpole size and development. It also suggested that density regulation, acting on the tadpole stage, may be present in the population but was of less short-term importance than abiotic factors. Environmentally induced variation in developmental rates translated to changes in relative hind leg length. Hind leg length plasticity was positively correlated with growth rate plasticity. Finally, documenting the recent results of this study, B. viridis breed in temporary ponds and exhibited plasticity in developmental duration and growth rate in response to a change in water level.

  3. Sea Anemones: Quiet Achievers in the Field of Peptide Toxins

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    Peter J. Prentis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones have been understudied as a source of peptide and protein toxins, with relatively few examined as a source of new pharmacological tools or therapeutic leads. This is surprising given the success of some anemone peptides that have been tested, such as the potassium channel blocker from Stichodactyla helianthus known as ShK. An analogue of this peptide, ShK-186, which is now known as dalazatide, has successfully completed Phase 1 clinical trials and is about to enter Phase 2 trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the impediments to the exploitation of sea anemone toxins in the pharmaceutical industry has been the difficulty associated with their high-throughput discovery and isolation. Recent developments in multiple ‘omic’ technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, coupled with advanced bioinformatics, have opened the way for large-scale discovery of novel sea anemone toxins from a range of species. Many of these toxins will be useful pharmacological tools and some will hopefully prove to be valuable therapeutic leads.

  4. First observations of attempted nudibranch predation by sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Reijnen, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    On two separate occasions during fieldwork in Semporna (eastern Sabah, Malaysia), sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae were observed attempting to feed on the nudibranch species Nembrotha lineolata and Phyllidia ocellata. These are the first in situ observations of nudibranch predation by sea

  5. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mendelian inheritance and selective neutrality. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to validate whether local popula- tions of P. viridis collected from ...... between commercial and heritage turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Poultry Sci. 86, 46–49. Kimura M. and Crow J. F. 1964 The number of alleles that can be maintained in ...

  6. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, ...

  7. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  8. Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis: Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    interesting. In this study, we looked into the metal accumulation by P. viridis exposed to a 'very' high level of inorganic Hg from the dissolved solution phase of seawater since the bioavailability of ... of the Straits of Malacca ranged from 0.8 to 41 ng/L. We used .... dominance of the gill as a site of Hg uptake (George,. 1982 ...

  9. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Nan U. Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1 populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1. We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration. In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  10. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association....... amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones are cleanerfish with an unusual client, in that they appear to clean mucus and, or, necrotic tissue from the sea anemone host....

  11. Sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus--a new source of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnir, V M; Kozlovskaya, E P; Kalinovsky, A I

    1992-11-01

    A very potent non-protein toxin was isolated from the sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus with the use of chromatography on polytetrafluoroethylene, CM-Sephadex C-25 and by cation and anion exchange HPLC. The toxin was identified as palytoxin by u.v.-, i.r.- and 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Its LD50 was 0.74 +/- 0.29 micrograms/kg by i.v. injection into mice. So far, palytoxin has been associated with zoanthids only. The toxin caused the loss of haemoglobin from erythrocytes but only in about 2 hr after the beginning of incubation, which is characteristic for palytoxin from zoanthids. Sea anemone palytoxin was divided into major and minor components by HPLC. The latter proved to be a product of degradation of palytoxin.

  12. Breeding phenology of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sicilia

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 is a common species that inhabits a wide variety of habitats. The different climates characterising its broad range lead to a high degree of variability in its seasonal activity and reproductive cycle. This paper reports some observations carried out on the breeding phenology of this species over a two year period in Mediterranean temporary ponds in Sicily. The reproductive period of Sicilian green toads extends into the autumn months, making it longer than that of other Italian populations. This behaviour seems due to the impact of xeric environmental conditions on the seasonal activity of the studied populations. The present study confirms that B. viridis is an opportunistic breeder with a wide margin of variability in annual reproductive cycle patterns, as would be expected of an ecologically variable species. The duration of the reproductive season varied between populations in the same year and between different years for the same population.

  13. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Jen Liu

    Full Text Available Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  14. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria Toxins: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines, but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  15. Taxsonomical States of Lacerta viridis (LACERTIDAE) Populations from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEVİK, İ. Ethem

    2014-01-01

    In this research, , A total of 64 MM and 37 VV adult specimens from Turkish Thrace and 158 MM and 188 VV adult specimens from Anatolia were investigated comparatively as two separate populations groups to determine the subspecific status of the species in Turkey. No significant differences are discernible between the two population groups from the viewpoints of pholidosis, morphometrical measurements and rations and pattern and coloration characteıistics. So the Turkish L. viridis populations...

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the green lizard Lacerta viridis viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) and its phylogenetic position within squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, M U; Fritzsch, G; Tippmann, A; Schlegel, M; Berendonk, T U

    2007-06-01

    For the first time the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for a member of Lacertidae. Lacerta viridis viridis was sequenced in order to compare the phylogenetic relationships of this family to other reptilian lineages. Using the long-polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) we characterized a mitochondrial genome, 17,156 bp long showing a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and one major noncoding region. The noncoding region of L. v. viridis was characterized by a conspicuous 35 bp tandem repeat at its 5' terminus. A phylogenetic study including all currently available squamate mitochondrial sequences demonstrates the position of Lacertidae within a monophyletic squamate group. We obtained a narrow relationship of Lacertidae to Scincidae, Iguanidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, and Cordylidae. Although, the internal relationships within this group yielded only a weak resolution and low bootstrap support, the revealed relationships were more congruent with morphological studies than with recent molecular analyses.

  17. Parasitic anemone infects the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Møller, Lene Friis; Sundberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    We report of the first finding of parasitic sea anemone larvae infecting the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Parasitic anemone larvae are common in the native habitat of Mnemiopsis, but have not previously been reported from any of the locations where Mnemiopsis...

  18. Predation on transmission stages reduces parasitism: sea anemones consume transmission stages of a barnacle parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-06-01

    While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host. We investigate whether a sea anemone protects an associated barnacle from parasitism by Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasitic castrator. At Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California USA, 29% of barnacles were within 1 cm from an anemone at the surveyed tidal height. Barnacles associated with anemones had reduced parasite prevalence and higher reproductive productivity than those remote from sea anemones. In the laboratory, anemones readily consumed the transmission stage of the parasite. Hence, anemone consumption of parasite transmission stages may provide a mechanism by which community context regulates parasite prevalence at a local scale. Our results suggest predation may be an important process providing parasite transmission control.

  19. First record of the sea anemone Metridium senile from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oral discs fringed by abundant, feathery tentacles - features inconsistent with any previously known anemone from the region. We subsequently photographed and collected several individuals from the Alfred Basin. Fully extended anemones were salmon pink in colour, with a column approximately. 100 mm in height and ...

  20. Reinterpretation of some tentacular structures in actinodendronid and thalassianthid sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardelean, A.

    2003-01-01

    The oral disc of an actinodendronid sea anemone is drawn out into a variable number of highly branched tentacular structures that make the anemone resemble a tree. These tentacular structures have been considered either lobes or branched tentacles. The term lobe has been applied to various

  1. The greening of the coasts: review of the Perna viridis success story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis has been receiving a lot of attention from workers working in the research areas of intertidal ecology, aquaculture, pollution monitoring, biofouling, zoogeography and invasion biology. P. viridis is a remarkable species in terms of its ability to reach very high

  2. A Serological Investigation of Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) (Sauria: Lacertidae) Populations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ARIKAN, Hüseyin; ATATÜR, Mehmet K.; ÇEVIK, I. Ethem

    1999-01-01

    A total of 58 (24 MM , 34 VV ) Lacerta viridis specimens, which were collected from Turkish Thrace and the Black Sea region of Anatolia, were evaluated serologically. The analyses support the view that a single race of L. viridis (L. v. meridionalis) inhabits Turkey.

  3. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2013-08-08

    Background:Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.Methodology/Principal Findings:This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.Conclusions/Significance:Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host

  4. Parasites of prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenberger, G S; Jorgensen, N M; Woody, D D

    1989-04-01

    Three prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and two gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico (USA) were examined for parasites. One cestode (Oochoristica osheroffi), and two nematode (Kalicephalus inermis and Physoloptera retusa) species were recovered from two infected rattlesnakes. One female gopher snake was infected with two nematode (K. inermis and Rhabdias spp.) and one mite (Entonyssus halli) species.

  5. Oxygen consumption under copper and zinc stress in Perna viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhudeva, K.N.; Menon, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption by Perna viridis pre-exposed to copper and zinc was studied. Those test individuals pre-exposed to various zinc concentrations showed variability in oxygen consumption irrespective of concentrations and pre-exposure period. While those animals pre-exposed to various copper concentrations registered decrease in oxygen consumption at concentrations above 0.06 p.p.m. copper, pre-exposure to concentrations below 0.02 p.p.m. copper did not result in any clear cut cha...

  6. Taxonomy of Nephroselmis viridis sp. nov. (Nephroselmidophyceae, Chlorophyta), a sister marine species to freshwater N. olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suda, Shoichiro; Nakayama, Takeshi; Pienaar, Richard N; Chihara, Mitsuo; Inouye, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nephroselmis (Nephroselmidophyceae), which had been placed in the Prasinophyceae, is one of the primitive green flagellates that are important to our understanding of the early evolution of green plants. We studied a new species of Nephroselmis isolated from Japan, Fiji and South Africa. This species has been known for a long time as undescribed species 'N. viridis.' N. viridis possesses some ultrastructural characters shared with only the freshwater type species N. olivacea, including a disc-like structure beneath the pyrenoid and bipolar spiny body scales with 1-5-8-5-1 spines. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA also supports a sister relationship between N. viridis and N. olivacea. However, N. viridis is distinguishable from N. olivacea by the shape of its starch sheath, its scales, its pigment composition and its habitat. In this paper, we designate the formal description of N. viridis sp. nov. We also describe variability in the 18S rDNA introns of various N. viridis strains. This detailed study of N. viridis provides some insights into the evolution of Nephroselmis.

  7. Molecular cloning of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    conserved regions of PHM, we have now cloned a PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica showing 42% amino acid sequence identity with rat PHM. Among the conserved (identical) amino acid residues are five histidine and one methionine residue, which bind two Cu2+ atoms that are essential for PHM...... activity. No cDNA coding for PAL could be identified, suggesting that sea anemone PAL is coded for by a gene that is different from the sea anemone PHM gene, a situation similar to the one found in insects. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a cnidarian PHM. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec-18...

  8. DNA extraction from sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria tissues for molecular analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific DNA extraction method for sea anemones is described in which extraction of total DNA from eight species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharian was achieved by changing the standard extraction protocols. DNA extraction from sea anemone tissue is made more difficult both by the tissue consistency and the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. The technique described here is an efficient way to avoid problems of DNA contamination and obtain large amounts of purified and integral DNA which can be used in different kinds of molecular analyses.

  9. Ring sea anemones, an overview (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaña, Óscar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present observations represent a new record of species of Actiniaria that are able to attach to a gorgonian branch by surrounding it with a solid piece of tissue junction and a significant reduction of the coelenteron. Ring sea anemones are provisionally placed in the Actinostolidae. They seem to be more common at depths between 85 and 1500 m., and according to our observations they are specialized to exclusively colonize on some species of gorgonians or pennatulaceans. Parasitism best describes the relationship between ring sea anemones and their hosts. We recognize five different species of ring sea anemones, one described by Hiles (1899 as Peronanthus verrucellae, and the others named by us provisionally as Peronanthus sp1, sp2, sp3 & sp4. The strategy displayed by ring sea anemones has several advantages, such as placement economy (see above, a better attachment against any current action, exploitation of food resources inaccessible to most other Actiniarians, and it allows them avoidance of habitat competition. The impossibility to colonize any other substrate but a certain group of gorgonians and a reduction of the gastric cavity are the main disadvantages detected in the ring sea anemones’ way of life. Apparently, this group of sea anemones is widespread through the Pacific Ocean.

    Un nuevo grupo de especies de actiniarios que desarrollan un nuevo sistema para afianzarse alrededor de los ejes de gorgonias y pennatuláceos es estudiado por nosotros en el presente trabajo. Se trata de un anillo de tejido que rodea los ejes y queda perfectamente sellado por medio de uniones del tejido produciendo una reducción del celenterón. Anémonas anillo es como las hemos denominado y provisionalmente han sido incluidas dentro de la familia Actinostolidae. Parece que son comunes en profundidades comprendidas entre los 85 y los 1500 metros, colonizando solamente determinadas especies de gorgonias y de pennatuláceos. El

  10. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo González-Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  11. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    Bioactivity guided fractions of cell-free hemolymph of bacterially challenged marine mussel, Perna viridis led to the isolation of a novel quaternary alkaloid 1, which was identified by its spectral data. The isolated molecule 1 has been found...

  12. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes...

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lacerta bilineata and comparison with its closely related congener L. Viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolora, Sree Rohit; Faria, Rui; Weigert, Anne; Schaffer, Stefan; Grimm, Annegret; Henle, Klaus; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Stadler, Peter F; Nowick, Katja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Schlegel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) using Illumina technology and additional Sanger sequencing. The assembled 17 086 bp mitogenome had a GC content of 40.32% and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region (CR), with a gene order identical to the chordate consensus. In addition, we re-sequenced the mitogenome of the closely related Eastern green lizard L. viridis using the same techniques as for L. bilineata. The mitogenomes of L. bilineata and L. viridis showed a sequence identity of 94.4% and 99.9%, respectively, relative to the previously published L. viridis mitogenome. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on 17 Lacertinae mitogenomes using Anolis carolinensis as the outgroup supported L. bilineata and its sister species L. viridis as distinct lineages.

  14. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  15. Borrelia lusitaniae and green lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Pet'ko, Branislav

    2006-12-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%-94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae.

  16. Psychotria viridis: Chemical constituents from leaves and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA B.S. SOARES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The phytochemical study of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Psychotria viridis resulted in the identification of: the pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acid; the steroids, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; the glycosylated steroids 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol; a polyunsaturated triterpene, squalene; the esters of glycerol, 1-palmitoylglycerol and triacylglycerol; a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons; the aldehyde nonacosanal; the long chain fat acids hentriacontanoic, hexadecanoic and heptadenoic acid; the ester methyl heptadecanoate; the 4-methyl-epi-quinate and two indole alkaloids, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and N-methyltryptamine. The chemical structures were determined by means of spectroscopic (IR, 1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY and spectrometric (CG-MS and LCMS-ESI-ITTOF methods. The study of biologic properties of P. viridis consisted in the evaluation of the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cytotoxic activities. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, the substances 24-methylene-cycloartanol, DMT and a mixture of 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol showed cholinesterase inhibiting activity. This activity induced by chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts was higher than 90%. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibit the growth and/or induce the death of the tumor cells strains B16F10 and 4T1, without damaging the integrity of the normal cells BHK and CHO. DMT also demonstrated a marked activity against tumor cell strains B16F10 and 4T1.

  17. Mapping of HABs Contaminated In Green Shells (Perna viridis) in Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'in, Churun; Suryanti, Suryanti; Haeruddin, Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    The existence of Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) can adversely affect the water like a mass death of fish and oxygen depletion. Some types of HABs can be contaminated with seafood and contain biotoxins that are detrimental to the health of humans who consume them. Green mussels (Perna viridis) has the properties of filter feeders so vulnerable to contamination HABs. This research was conducted to produce spatially thematic maps contaminated HABs in P. viridis so providing information about risk prediction P. viridis when consumed by humans. Sampling was done purposively in three (3) stations that represent the Bay Semarang namely western boundary waters (Kendal), middle (Semarang) and the eastern boundary (Demak). Sampling done two (2) times, namely East season (June -July) and the second transitional season (September) 2016. Analysis of HABs done either in water or body tissues of P. viridis through the analysis of food habit. The results shows that P. viridis genus positive contaminated HABs phytoplankton Tricodesmium and Ceratium. Spatial distribution and abundance of Tricodesmium genus Fitoplankton is wider and taller than the HABs Phytoplankton genus Ceratium. Group HABs are found in the tissues of P. viridis no potential as biotoxin that does not cause adverse health risks.

  18. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo; ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve tendência de A. hybridus (tipo verde dominar tanto A. hybridus (tipo roxo como A. viridis, e de A. hybridus (tipo roxo dominar A. viridis. Em cultivo misto, houve casos em que as espécies estavam competindo pelos mesmos recursos, ou explorando recursos diferentes do ambiente, ou mesmo com antagonismo mútuo.The objective of this paper was to study the interspecific interference between two Amaranthus species -- A. viridis and A. hybridus --, the latter with two distinct biotypes (green and purple; both species ocurred in two localities. In the populations of each of the locations, some independent substitution trials were made in pots, and it could be concluded that the populations that germinate more readily are those which are superior in competition i.e., those that establish themselves and produce the largest number of seeds. There was a tendency for A. hybridus (green biotype to dominate both A. hybridus (purple biotype and A. viridis, and for A. hybridus (purple biotype to dominate A. viridis. In mixed stands, there were cases where the species were competing for the same resources, cases where they were exploiting different environmental resources, and even cases of mutual antagonism.

  19. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Results Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. Conclusions The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed. PMID:21281459

  20. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  1. Masquerade, mimicry and crypsis of the polymorphic sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni and its aggregations in South Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.; Crowther, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllodiscus semoni is a morphologically variable sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific with morphotypes ranging from upright and branched to low-lying and rounded. The apparent camouflage strategies of this sea anemone allow it to resemble other species or objects in its environment, such as

  2. An assemblage of the host anemone Heteractis magnifica in the northern Res Sea, and distribution of the resident anemonefish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Tychsen, Anders; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2004-01-01

    correlated with depth. The shallow waters of the anemone assemblage contained few mainly small, solitary actinians. There seemed to be a tendency for solitary actinians to cluster once they reached a certain size-range. The resident anemone¢shes Amphiprion bicinctus and Dascyllus trimaculatus were present...

  3. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5–2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  4. High mortality and poor growth of green mussels, Perna viridis, in high chlorophyll- a environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Tan Kar; Denil, Delta Jenetty; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 to estimate the stock status of P. viridis in Marudu Bay. The gonad development was monitored by histological examination, while the population parameters including asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), mortality rate ( Z, F and M), exploitation level ( E) and recruitment of P. viridis were estimated using the lengthfrequency data. Results of the current study demonstrated that P. viridis in Marudu Bay spawned throughout the year with two major peaks, one in April to May and another one in October to December. The recruitment pattern was continuous with the peak in May to June 2014, which corresponded to the first spawning peak in April. However, no significant recruitment was observed from the second spawning peak due to the difference in spawning timing between male and female populations. The estimated asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), total mortality ( Z), natural mortality ( M), fishing mortality ( F) and growth performance ( φ) of P. viridis in Marudu Bay were estimate to be 117 mm, 0.97 yr-1, 4.39 yr-1, 1.23 yr-1, 3.16 yr-1 and 4.123, respectively. The exponent b of the lengthweight relationship was 2.4 and exploitation level ( E) was 0.72. The high mortality, low condition indices and negative allometric of P. viridis in Marudu Bay is caused by a lack of suitable food in the surrounding water.

  5. Heavy metals concentration relationship with Perna viridis physical properties in Mengkabong Lagoon, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noraini; Tair, Rohana; Abdullah, Mohd Harun

    2014-01-01

    Perna viridis (P. viridis) has been identified as a good biological indicator in identifying environmental pollution, especially when there are various types of Heavy Metals Accumulations (HMA) inside its tissue. Based on the potential of P. viridis to accumulate heavy metals and the data on its physical properties, this study proffers to determine the relationships between both properties. The similarities of the physical properties are used to mathematical model their relationships, which included the size (length, width, height) and weight (wet and dry) of P. viridis, whilst the heavy metals are focused on concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn. The concentrations of metal elements are detected by using Flame Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry. Results show that the mean concentration of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, length, width, height, wet weight and dry weight are: 1.12 +/- 1.00, 2.36 +/- 1.65, 2.12 +/- 2.74, 0.44 +/- 0.41 and 16.52 +/- 10.64 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), 105.08 +/- 14.35, 41.64 +/- 4.64, 28.75 +/- 3.92 mm, 14.56 +/- 3.30 and 2.37 +/- 0.86 g, respectively. It is also found out that the relationships between the Heavy Metals Concentrations (HMA) and the physical properties can be represented using Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) models, relating that the HMA of Zinc has affected significantly the physical growth properties of P. viridis.

  6. Molecular characterization, ecology, and epidemiology of a novel Tymovirus in Asclepias viridis from Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Feldman, Tracy S; Ali, Akhtar; Wiley, Graham; Muthukumar, Vijay; Roe, Bruce A; Roossinck, Marilyn; Melcher, Ulrich; Palmer, Michael W; Nelson, Richard S

    2012-02-01

    Native virus-plant interactions require more understanding and their study will provide a basis from which to identify potential sources of emerging destructive viruses in crops. A novel tymovirus sequence was detected in Asclepias viridis (green milkweed), a perennial growing in a natural setting in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TGPP) of Oklahoma. It was abundant within and frequent among A. viridis plants and, to varying extents, within other dicotyledonous and one grass (Panicum virgatum) species obtained from the TGPP. Extracts from A. viridis containing the sequence were infectious to a limited number of species. The virus genome was cloned and determined to be closely related to Kennedya yellow mosaic virus. The persistence of the virus within the Oklahoma A. viridis population was monitored for five successive years. Virus was present in a high percentage of plants within representative areas of the TGPP in all years and was spreading to additional plants. Virus was present in regions adjacent to the TGPP but not in plants sampled from central and south-central Oklahoma. Virus was present in the underground caudex of the plant during the winter, suggesting overwintering in this tissue. The RNA sequence encoding the virus coat protein varied considerably between individual plants (≈3%), likely due to drift rather than selection. An infectious clone was constructed and the virus was named Asclepias asymptomatic virus (AsAV) due to the absence of obvious symptoms on A. viridis.

  7. Abscission zone development in Setaria viridis and its domesticated relative, Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John G; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Development of an abscission zone (AZ) is needed for dispersal of seeds, and AZ loss was a critical early step in plant domestication. The AZ forms in different tissues in different species of plants, but whether the AZ is developmentally similar wherever it occurs is unknown. AZ development in Setaria viridis was studied as a representative of the previously uncharacterized subfamily Panicoideae. One accession of the wild species S. viridis and two of its domesticate, S. italica, were studied. Strength of the AZ was measured with a force gauge. Anatomy of the AZ was studied throughout development using bright field and confocal microscopy. The force required to remove a spikelet of S. viridis from the parent plant dropped steadily during development, whereas that required to remove spikelets of S. italica increased initially before stabilizing at a high level. Despite the clear difference in tensile strength of the AZ, anatomical differences between S. viridis and S. italica were subtle, and the position of the AZ was not easy to determine in cross sections of pedicel apices. Staining with DAPI showed that nuclei were present up to and presumably through abscission in S. viridis, and acridine orange staining showed much less lignification than in other cereals. The AZ in Setaria is developmentally and anatomically different from that characterized in rice, barley, and many eudicots. In particular, no set of small, densely cytoplasmic cells is obvious. This difference in anatomy could point to differential genetic control of the structure. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Rising starlet: the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, John A; Reitzel, Adam R; Burton, Patrick M; Mazza, Maureen E; Ryan, Joseph F; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, a handful of model systems from the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria have emerged to challenge long-held views on the evolution of animal complexity. The most-recent, and in many ways most-promising addition to this group is the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. The remarkable amenability of this species to laboratory manipulation has already made it a productive system for exploring cnidarian development, and a proliferation of molecular and genomic tools, including the currently ongoing Nematostella genome project, further enhances the promise of this species. In addition, the facility with which Nematostella populations can be investigated within their natural ecological context suggests that this model may be profitably expanded to address important questions in molecular and evolutionary ecology. In this review, we explore the traits that make Nematostella exceptionally attractive as a model organism, summarize recent research demonstrating the utility of Nematostella in several different contexts, and highlight a number of developments likely to further increase that utility in the near future.

  9. Pore formation by actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojko, Nejc; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Maček, Peter; Anderluh, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    Actinoporins (APs) from sea anemones are ~20 kDa pore forming toxins with a β-sandwich structure flanked by two α-helices. The molecular mechanism of APs pore formation is composed of several well-defined steps. APs bind to membrane by interfacial binding site composed of several aromatic amino acid residues that allow binding to phosphatidylcholine and specific recognition of sphingomyelin. Subsequently, the N-terminal α-helix from the β-sandwich has to be inserted into the lipid/water interphase in order to form a functional pore. Functional studies and single molecule imaging revealed that only several monomers, 3-4, oligomerise to form a functional pore. In this model the α-helices and surrounding lipid molecules build toroidal pore. In agreement, AP pores are transient and electrically heterogeneous. On the contrary, crystallized oligomers of actinoporin fragaceatoxin C were found to be composed of eight monomers with no lipids present between the adjacent α-helices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Maur Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the new model species Setaria viridis (Poaceae: Paniceae) and its close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel J; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Species limits of the emerging model organism Setaria viridis (tribe Paniceae, subtribe Cenchrinae) are not well defined. It is thought to be related to S. adhaerens, S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis and in North America occurs with the morphologically similar S. pumila. An integrated approach was taken to evaluate its variation and relationships with the other taxa. Statistical morphology, flow cytometry, molecular phylogenetics, and growth experiments were employed to examine the group's physical variation, polyploidy, evolutionary relationships, and drought ecology, respectively. SETARIA VIRIDIS contributed one genome to the tetraploids S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis; the other genome of the latter two was contributed by S. adhaerens. Setaria pumila is unrelated. Morphologically, S. viridis is most similar to S. faberi, but all tested accessions of S. viridis were diploid, whereas those of S. faberi were all tetraploid. Principal component analysis of 70 morphological characters consistently separated S. viridis from S. faberi, largely by spikelet characters. The diagnostic morphological characters are not affected by watering. Setaria faberi is far more sensitive to drought, in terms of mortality and morphological stunting, than S. viridis or S. pumila. SETARIA VIRIDIS is a diploid species and has contributed to several polyploid derivatives. The most morphologically similar of the polyploids is S. faberi, which differs in spikelet features, phylogenetics, genome size, and ecological response to drought. Researchers using field-collected S. viridis as a model organism will benefit from the clear delimitation provided in this study.

  11. Differential accumulation of heavy metals in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima as a function of symbiotic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Alan Verde, E.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Weis, Virginia M

    2003-08-20

    The accumulation of metals by the North American Pacific Coast temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, and its dinoflagellate-algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei was examined following laboratory metal exposures. Both, naturally occurring symbiotic and symbiont-free (aposymbiotic) anemones were used in this study to investigate differences in metal uptake due to the symbiotic state of the animal. The effects of metal exposures on the anemone-algal symbiosis were determined using measures of algal cell density and mitotic index (MI). Anemones were exposed to either cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc chloride (0, 10, 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Cd, Cu and Ni; 0, 100, 1000 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Zn) for 42 days followed by a 42-day recovery period in ambient seawater. Anemones were analyzed for metal content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) at various time points during the study. Symbiotic anemones accumulated Cd, Ni and Zn to a greater extent than aposymbiotic anemones. A dramatically different pattern of Cu accumulation was observed, with aposymbiotic anemones accumulating higher levels than symbiotic anemones. Following recovery in ambient seawater, all tissue metal levels were reduced to near pre-exposure control levels in most cases. No changes in algal cell density or MI were observed in symbiotic anemone tentacle clips at any dose or time point in the Cd and Cu exposures. However, significant reductions in algal cell densities were observed in the Ni-exposed and some Zn-exposed animals, although levels returned to control values following recovery. There were no changes in mitotic index (MI) following Ni or Zn exposures. These results demonstrate that the extent of heavy metal accumulation depends upon cnidarian symbiotic state and the heavy metal in question.

  12. Molecular cloning of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    sequentially, peptidyl-glycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL). In mammals both enzymatic activities are contained within a bifunctional protein that is coded for by a single gene. Using PCR and degenerated oligonucleotides derived from...... conserved regions of PHM, we have now cloned a PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica showing 42% amino acid sequence identity with rat PHM. Among the conserved (identical) amino acid residues are five histidine and one methionine residue, which bind two Cu2+ atoms that are essential for PHM...... activity. No cDNA coding for PAL could be identified, suggesting that sea anemone PAL is coded for by a gene that is different from the sea anemone PHM gene, a situation similar to the one found in insects. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a cnidarian PHM. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec-18...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among deep-sea and chemosynthetic sea anemones: actinoscyphiidae and actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa.

  14. Defensin-neurotoxin dyad in a basally branching metazoan sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Tae Kwan; Park, Ji Been; Park, Nam Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have evolved from two independent ancestors, and that both defensins could share origins with animal toxins. Here, we purified novel sea anemone neurotoxin (BDS)-like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-Crassicorin-I and its putative homolog (Crassicorin-II)-from the pharynx extract of an anthozoan sea anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Based on structural analyses and cDNA cloning, mature Crassicorin-I represents a cationic AMP likely generated from a precursor and comprising 40 amino acid residues, including six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant Crassicorin-I produced in a heterologous bacterial-expression system displayed antimicrobial activity against both a gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica). The Crassicorin-I transcript was upregulated by immune challenge, suggesting its involvement in defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens in sea anemone. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional molecular modeling revealed that Crassicorin-I exhibits high degrees of structural similarity to sea anemone neurotoxins that share β-defensin fold which is found in vertebrate defensins and invertebrate big-defensins. Consistent with its structural similarity to neurotoxins, Crassicorin-I exhibited paralytic activity toward a crustacean. These findings motivated our investigation and subsequent discovery of antimicrobial activity from other known sea anemone neurotoxins, such as APETx1 and ShK. Collectively, our work signified that Crassicorin-I is the first AMP identified from a sea anemone and provided evidence of a functional linkage between AMPs and neurotoxins in a basally branching metazoan. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchin, A.; Shanas, U.

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  18. Heavy Metal Pb Content in the Seawater, Sediment and Green Mussel Tissue Perna Viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono, M. Gandri; Mulyanto,; Kilawati, Yuni

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metal Pb into the tissue can proceed through a food chain or environmental exposure. This study was to determine the content of heavy metals Pb in water, sediments and mussels (perna viridis). This research was conducted in March 2016, in the waters of Lekok Pasuruan at the three stations. TPI Station 1, Station 2 at the mouth of the Rejoso river and station 3 nearby PLTU 3. The water, sediments and green mussels (Perna viridis) samples were collected for Pb analysis usi...

  19. The Western Green Lizard Lacerta (viridis) bilineata Daudin, 1804 (Sauria: Lacertidae) in Slovenia and Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrtković, Nikola; Lazar, Bojan; Tome, Staša; Grbac, Irena

    1998-01-01

    Through a review of egg incubation times and the colour patterns of hatchlings of green lizards from the left side of the Soča (Isonzo) River, and the island of Cres, it has been found that they belong to a recently established species, Lacerta (viridis) bilineata Daudin 1802. It is from now on a member of the list of the herpetofauna of Slovenia and Croatia. At the same time L. viridis (Laurenti 1768) has been confirmed on the sand dunes around Đurđevac (Croatia). On the basis of the known d...

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy on the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.; Goldanskii, V.I.; Birk, A.; Parak, F.; Fritzsch, G.; Sinning, I.; Michel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins called 'reaction centers' (RC) can be isolated from many photosynthetic bacteria. They have one non-heme iron in a quinone acceptor region. The RC of Rhodopseudomonas viridis contains an additional tightly bound tetra-heme cytochrome c subunit. The electronic configuration of both cytochrome and the non-heme iron has been studied in the crystallized protein by Moessbauer spectroscopy at different redox potentials, pH-values, and with an addition of o-phenanthroline. At high potentials (E h =+500 mV) all heme irons are in the low spin Fe 3+ -state, and at low potential (E h = 1 50 mV) they are low spin Fe 2+ with the same Moessbauer parameters for all hemes independent of pH. Redox titrations change the relative area of the reduced and oxidized states in agreement with other methods. The non-heme iron shows a high spin Fe 2+ configuration independent of E h and pH with parameters comparable to those of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence for another non-heme iron species in part of the molecules with a Fe 2+ low spin configuration. Incubation with o-phenanthroline decreases the relative Fe 2+ hs-area and increases the contribution of Fe 2+ ls-area. Above 210 K the mean square displacement, 2 >, of the RC-crystals increases more than linearly with temperature. This may be correlated with the increase of the electron transfer rate and indicates that intramolecular mobility influences the functional activity of a protein. (orig.)

  1. Genomic organization of a receptor from sea anemones, structurally and evolutionary related to glycoprotein hormone receptors from mamals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibede, N; Hauser, Frank; Williamson, M

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Cnidarians (e.g., sea anemones and corals) are the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Previously, we cloned a receptor from sea anemones that showed a strong structural similarity to the glycoprotein hormone (TSH, FSH, LH/CG) receptors from mammals. Here, we determine the genomic...... organization of this sea anemone receptor. The receptor gene contains eight introns that are all localized within a region coding for the large extracellular N terminus. These introns occur at the same positions and have the same intron phasing as eight introns in the genes coding for the mammalian...

  2. Prospects of isolated microspore culture for haploid production in Anemone coronaria L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paladines, R.; Jurado, D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Quiñones, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a procedure to obtain haploid plants from microspore cultures of Anemone coronaria L., an important ornamental crop known worldwide due to its commercial value in the cut flower industry. Microspores were isolated from two genotypes of A. coronaria: ‘Blue’

  3. A Taxonomic Note on the Misidentification of Anemone tschernjaewii Regel. in Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Hassan Ganie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Anemone tschernjaewii Regel. previously misidentified as A. biflora DC. in the Kashmir Himalaya, India is reported. In this brief report, a detailed taxonomic description and photo-plates of its diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters are provided to validate this plant record for the region and to facilitate its easier field identification.

  4. The anatomy, terminology, and homology of acrorhagi and pseudoacrorhagi in sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daly, M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of the column margin is an especially important feature in the taxonomy and biology of members of the sea anemone family Actiniidae. Despite the importance of marginal structures, their anatomy and the terminology describing them is poorly delimited. Consequently, homologies of the

  5. The formation of a nanocarbon from lignocellulose with a sea anemone appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabeti, M.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2013-01-01

    A filamentous carbon nanomaterial having morphology, elemental compositions and growth conditions similar to those of a sea anemone was formed during pyrolysis of lignocellulose in the presence of water and sodium. We call the material “carbon nano-anemones” (CNAs). Well known carbon nano

  6. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns...

  7. Kleptoplasts photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxana, Paulo; Morelli, Luca; Quintaneiro, Carla; Calado, Gonçalo; Calado, Ricardo; Cruz, Sónia

    2018-04-30

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs incorporate intracellular functional algal chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) for periods ranging from a few days to several months. Whether this association modulates the photobehaviour of solar-powered sea slugs is unknown. In this study, the long-term retention species Elysia viridis showed avoidance of dark independently of light acclimation state. On the contrary, Placida dendritica , which shows non-functional retention of kleptoplasts, showed no preference over dark, low or high light. High light acclimated (HL ac ) E. viridis showed a higher preference for high light than low light acclimated (LL ac ) conspecifics. The position of the lateral folds (parapodia) was modulated by irradiance, with increasing light levels leading to a closure of parapodia and protection of kleptoplasts from high light exposure. Furthermore, closure of parapodia occurred at higher irradiances in HL ac E. viridis Our results strongly indicate that kleptoplasts photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug E. viridis . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...

  9. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative...

  10. Il rospo smeraldino Bufo viridis in Val d’Ossola (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zanghellini

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Vengono riportate le osservazioni di rospo smeraldino (Bufo viridis compiute tra il 1998 e il 2004 in Val d’Ossola (provincia del Verbano Cusio Ossola, un’area nella quale questa specie non era stata mai precedentemente segnalata.

  11. The invasive Asian green mussel Perna viridis in South Africa: all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Asian green mussel Perna viridis is an invasive Indo-Pacific species recently reported from South African harbours. To verify the invasion, a phylogenetic (and morphological) analysis of green-shelled mussels (n = 39), found in six South African harbours, was conducted using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase ...

  12. A novel DNase like compound that inhibits virus propagation from Asian green mussel, Perna viridis (Linn.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.

    with activity against bacteria and cancer cells10,17,26. In this study, we have identified potent DNases like bioactivity in CME and PPC from Perna viridis which indiscriminately digested both low molecular weight DNA (pBR 322) and high molecular weight...

  13. Sex determination in Bonellia viridis (Echiura : Bonelliidae): population dynamics and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Schembri, P. J.; Boukal S., David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2005), s. 473-484 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB1007201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bonellia viridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2005

  14. [Cutaneous lesions with papillomatous structure associated with viruses in the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1976-10-04

    Numerous papillomata affecting the skin of the dorsal part of the body occur in a population of Lacerta viridis reared in the laboratory. Electron microscopic study of three of these growths revealed the presence of viral particles belonging, from the morphological aspect, to the groups of the viruses of Herpes, Reo and Papova.

  15. Intestinal helminth communities in the green lizard, lacerta viridis, from bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserkov; Kostadinova

    1998-09-01

    A data set comprising individual host/parasite lists from 100 Lacerta viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) belonging to four isolated populations in Bulgaria was studied. A total of seven helminth species was recovered (Leptophallus nigrovenosus, Plagiorchis molini, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Spauligodon extenuatus, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni, Physaloptera clausa and Mesocestoides sp.). Lacerta viridis is a new host record for the first five of these species. Communities of intestinal helminths of L. viridis consist of a few species which resulted in a low species richness, abundance and diversity of infracommunities, which exhibit substantial homogeneity among the four samples. A similar pattern of dominance of two nematode species leading to a relatively high community similarity at both infra- and component community levels was observed. While intestinal helminth communities in lizards from 'marginal' habitats were dominated by the host generalist, O. filiformis, those in hosts from 'typical' habitats were dominated by the lizard specialist S. extenuatus. The results indicate that the characteristics of the host's habitat are important in determining the composition rather than structure of intestinal helminth communities in L. viridis.

  16. Content Heavy Metal Pb, Cd In Perna viridis And Sediments In Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, D.; Suryanti, S.; Latifah, N.

    2018-02-01

    Waste disposal from human activities, generally contain heavy metals such as Pb and Cd which derived from industrial activities. The aims of the study were to know the concentration of Pb and Cd heavy metals contained in Perna viridis tissue, sediment and water at Semarang Bay. This study was conducted in May 2017 at Semarang Bay. - Samples were collected using purposive sampling method. The heavy metal content in the water and clam was observed using- APHA method and was analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The results showed that concentration of heavy metal of Pb in the water was 0.00-50.5mg/L and the Cd content was of 26.9-51.7 mg/L, whereas the concentration of Pb in the sediment is 445.5-2.053.0mg/L and Cd 963.3-2,150.0 mg/L. Pb content in soft tissue of Perna viridis - is 67.1-1.933.9 mg/L and the concentration of Cd was 203.5-5.787.3 mg/L. The analysis of Pb and Cd in seawater, sediment and soft tissue of Perna viridis according to Enviroment Ministerial decree (KepMenLH ) number 51 of 2004 and applied by NOAA 1999 does not exceed the quality standard, that meant that the Perna viridis has been contaminated by metal Pb it is controversial with the above sentence and Cd. It concluded that the metal content of Pb and Cd in Perna viridis tissue exceeds the quality standard, so it is not suitable to be consumed, especially in high quantity

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mentha (longifolia L. and viridis) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkaddem, Mounira; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2009-09-01

    The study was aimed to investigate essential oil chemical composition (gas chromatography/flame ionization detection [GC-FID] and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS] assays) and antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeast) activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and Mentha viridis. GC-MS analysis revealed that M. longifolia was constituted by pulegone (54.41%) as a major component followed by isomenthone (12.02%), 1,8-cineole (7.41%), borneol (6.85%), and piperitenone oxide (3.19%). M. viridis was rich in carvone (50.47%), 1,8-cineole (9.14%), and limonene (4.87%). The antioxidant activity by ABTS assay showed IC(50) values of 476.3 +/- 11.7 and 195.1 +/- 4.2 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively, the DPPH assays have resulted in a moderate IC(50) (>8000 mg/L and 3476.3 +/- 133 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively). Antimicrobial activity showed that Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria were more inhibited by the 2 essential oils tested. Escherichia coli was least susceptible. A strong activity was also observed on fungi and yeasts. Carvone, thymol, and piperitone oxide have not been detected in Tunisian M. longifolia. Camphor is reported for the 1st time for M. viridis. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities were correlated to chemical composition.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  19. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON EUBLEMMA SP. (EUBLEMMINAE: A LEPIDOPTERAN PREDATOR OF COCCUS VIRIDIS (HEMIPTERA: COCCIDAE ON COFFEE PLANTS IN BANDARLAMPUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriyati .

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on Eublemma sp. (Eublemminae: a Lepidopteran predator of Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae on coffee plants in Bandarlampung, Indonesia. The objectives of this study were 1 to identify a Lepidopteran predator of the soft green scale Coccus viridis and 2 to present preliminary data on the predator’s feeding rate. Some coffee leaves where eggs of the Lepidopteran predator have been laid in C. viridis colonies were taken from the field and observed in the laboratory. The predator’s growth and development was noted and the specimens were identified up to generic level based on the caterpillar morphology. Ten coffee leaves each with certain number of C. viridis were also collected from the field, transferred to the laboratory, and each was inoculated with one starved caterpillar that had just formed its protective casing. The number of surviving C. viridis was counted daily. This study reveals that the caterpillar, identified as Eublemma sp. Is found to feed obligately on C. viridis. The predation rate of Eublemma sp. in laboratory is 97 + 11 scales / caterpillar.

  1. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  2. Proteomic profile in Perna viridis after exposed to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Zou, Ying; Weng, Hui-wen; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we compared protein profiles in gills of Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrumlima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins, and identified the differential abundances of protein spots using 2D-electrophoresis. After exposure to P. lima, the level of okadaic acid (a main component of DSP toxins) in gills of P. viridis significantly increased at 6 h, but mussels were all apparently healthy without death. Among the 28 identified protein spots by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS, 12 proteins were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in the P. lima-exposed mussels. These identified proteins were involved in various biological activities, such as metabolism, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, response to oxidative stress and detoxification. Taken together, our results indicated that the presence of P. lima caused DSP toxins accumulation in mussel gill, and might consequently induce cytoskeletonal disorganization,oxidative stress, a dysfunction in metabolism and ubiquitination/proteasome activity.

  3. Evolution of the Cytolytic Pore-Forming Proteins (Actinoporins) in Sea Anemones

    OpenAIRE

    Macrander, Jason; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach...

  4. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae.

  5. Digestion rates of prey eaten by intertidal sea anemones from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portunid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) . .I. Erp. At/ar. B",/, &01 52: IOl113. lAMER. W.E. 1986. Physiologicanemone Antltoplellnl elf!gantissillw 1. Prey capture_ absorption efficiency and grO\\\\'th. ,\\1or BioI. 92: 299 314. IAR. 1.1 r. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall.

  6. Fisiology Adaptation of Sandy Anemone (Heteractis Malu) Exposed to Elevated Temperatures: Laboratory Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Neviaty Putri

    2012-01-01

    Sandy anemone (Heteractis malu), belongs to Phylum Cnidaria, physiologically is very close to coral stone, which was a major component of coral reef ecosystems. As coral stone, Heteractis malu also has symbiotic algae (Zooxanthella). Physiologically, the alga symbiotic relationship of coral stone is almost similar with Heteractis malu. Maintaining Heteractis malu in the laboratory is relativly easier compared to that of coral stone. Advantages of the Heteractis malu vs. stone coral, its body ...

  7. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination revea...... revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen. Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species....

  8. Comparative performance of the mussels Perna perna and Perna viridis, cultivated at four different depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielyn García

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to evaluate the effect of environmental variability on the growth and survival of the subtropical and tropical mussels Perna perna and Perna viridis at four different culture depths in the Gulf of Cariaco during an annual cycle. Juveniles of P. perna (39.1±1.88 mm in shell length and P. viridis (36.7±1.87 mm were sown on nylon ropes (3/4" and suspended from a raft at 1, 3, 6 and 9 m depths. Every six weeks, three replicates of each species were sampled (10 individuals per replicate at each depth. Growth parameters were determined: mass and shell length, dry mass of soft tissues as well as fouling and survival rates. Temperature, transparency, chlorophyll a, oxygen, salinity and particulate organic and inorganic matter were recorded at each culture depth for the purpose of relating growth and survival to environmental change. The results show that the growth of both species was linked to the environment, especially with regard to the influence of the food and temperature. A period of stagnant growth of P. perna was associated with the higher temperature and lower phytoplankton biomass that is characteristic of the season with prevalent water column stratification (August-November 2007. By contrast, the growth of P. viridis did not stagnate, although it was gradual and relatively lower. At the end, P. perna achieved higher growth rates than P. viridis. Possible culture strategies to improve the production of both mussel species are discussed.

  9. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) Sumita Sharma 1* , Tanu 2 and Anil Chatterji 3 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India 2 Banasthali Universiti, Rajasthan 3 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu...

  10. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  11. Evolution of the Cytolytic Pore-Forming Proteins (Actinoporins in Sea Anemones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Macrander

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea. Our analysis identified 90 candidate actinoporins across 20 species. We also found clusters of six actinoporin-like genes in five species of sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Stomphia coccinea, Epiactis japonica, Heteractis crispa, and Diadumene leucolena; these actinoporin-like sequences resembled actinoporins but have a higher sequence similarity with toxins from fungi, cone snails, and Hydra. Comparative analysis of the candidate actinoporins highlighted variable and conserved regions within actinoporins that may pertain to functional variation. Although multiple residues are involved in initiating sphingomyelin recognition and membrane binding, there is a high rate of replacement for a specific tryptophan with leucine (W112L and other hydrophobic residues. Residues thought to be involved with oligomerization were variable, while those forming the phosphocholine (POC binding site and the N-terminal region involved with cell membrane penetration were highly conserved.

  12. Evolution of the Cytolytic Pore-Forming Proteins (Actinoporins) in Sea Anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrander, Jason; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-12-08

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea). Our analysis identified 90 candidate actinoporins across 20 species. We also found clusters of six actinoporin-like genes in five species of sea anemone ( Nematostella vectensis , Stomphia coccinea , Epiactis japonica , Heteractis crispa , and Diadumene leucolena ); these actinoporin-like sequences resembled actinoporins but have a higher sequence similarity with toxins from fungi, cone snails, and Hydra . Comparative analysis of the candidate actinoporins highlighted variable and conserved regions within actinoporins that may pertain to functional variation. Although multiple residues are involved in initiating sphingomyelin recognition and membrane binding, there is a high rate of replacement for a specific tryptophan with leucine (W112L) and other hydrophobic residues. Residues thought to be involved with oligomerization were variable, while those forming the phosphocholine (POC) binding site and the N-terminal region involved with cell membrane penetration were highly conserved.

  13. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  14. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  15. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  16. Setaria viridis as a model system to advance millet genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crop.

  17. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  18. STUDI BIOAKUMULASI MERKURI DARI JALUR AIR LAUT OLEH KERANG DARAH (ANADARA GRANOSA DAN KERANG HIJAU (PERNA VIRIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Blood cockle and green mussel are source of protein that vulnerable to contamination by mercury (Hg through bioaccumulation process. The research of Hg2+ bioaccumulation ability by bloodcockle (Anadara granosa and green mussel (Perna viridis using the radiotracer 203Hg2+ was conducted based on laboratory experiments design. Biokinetic parameters, such as the uptake and depuration rate and Concentration Factor, were determined to obtain predictions of Bioconcentration Factor (BCF and steady state conditions. The results of experiment using non-linear model showed that blood cockle and green mussel have the capability to accumulate Hg2+ by 15429.38 and 6963.68 times higher than its concentration in seawater after 51 days. Based on the BCF value obtained from the experiments, the predicted concentration of mercury in Anadara granosa and Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay was 1.327 and 0.599 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The predicted concentration of Hg2+ in Anadara granosa exceeds those required by ISO 7387:2009. On the other hand, the predicted in Perna viridis still meet the requirements of ISO 7387 2009. Keywords: Bioaccumulation, mercury, Perna viridis, Anadara granosa   ABSTRAK Kerang darah dan kerang hijau merupakan salah satu sumber protein yang rentan terkontaminasi merkuri (Hg melalui proses bioakumulasi. Penelitian kemampuan bioakumulasi Hg2+ oleh kerang darah (Anadara granosa dan kerang hijau (Perna viridis menggunakan radiotracer 203Hg2+ dilakukan dengan desain eksperimen di laboratorium. Parameter biokinetika seperti kecepatan pengambilan, kecepatan pelepasan dan Faktor Konsentrasi ditetapkan untuk memprediksi Faktor Biokonsentrasi dan kondisi steady state proses bioakumulasi. Hasil percobaan yang dimodelkan dalam persamaan non linier menunjukkan bahwa Anadara granosa maupun Perna viridis mampu mengakumulasi Hg2+ masing-masing 15429,38 dan 6963,68 kali dari konsentrasinya di dalam air laut setelah 51 hari. Berdasarkan nilai BCF masing

  19. Unconventional amino acid sequence of the sun anemone (Stoichactis helianthus) polypeptide neurotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kem, W.; Dunn, B.; Parten, B.; Pennington, M.; Price, D.

    1986-01-01

    A 5000 dalton polypeptide neurotoxin (Sh-NI) purified by G50 Sephadex, P-cellulose, and SP-Sephadex chromatography was homogeneous by isoelectric focusing. Sh-NI was highly toxic to crayfish (LD 50 0.6 μg/kg) but without effect upon mice at 15,000 μg/kg (i.p. injection). The reduced, 3 H-carboxymethylated toxin and its fragments were subjected to automatic Edman degradation and the resulting PTH-amino acids were identified by HPLC, back hydrolysis, and scintillation counting. Peptides resulting from proteolytic (clostripain, staphylococcal protease) and chemical (tryptophan) cleavage were sequenced. The sequence is: AACKCDDEGPDIRTAPLTGTVDLGSCNAGWEKCASYYTIIADCCRKKK. This sequence differs considerably from the homologous Anemonia and Anthopleura toxins; many of the identical residues (6 half-cystines, G9, P10, R13, G19, G29, W30) are probably critical for folding rather than receptor recognition. However, the Sh-NI sequence closely resembles Radioanthus macrodactylus neurotoxin III and r. paumotensis II. The authors propose that Sh-NI and related Radioanthus toxins act upon a different site on the sodium channel

  20. [Ultrastructure of primordial germ cells of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis. Comparison with Lacerta vivipara (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, J

    1974-01-01

    The ultrastructure of primordial germ cells migrating through the embryo and situated in genital crests is described in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis. It is compared with the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara previously studied. The cytoplasmic ultrastructure is the same in the three Lacertilians, but several nuclear differences are observed. The outline of the nucleus is regular and his shape is spheric in Lacerta vivipara, but in the two others Lacertilians the nucleus shows a very sinuous outline with deep cytoplasmic invaginations. There are fibrous nuclear bodies in the three Lacertilians but the germ cells of Lacerta muralis have in addition granular bodies. The nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis is very different from the annular nucleolus of the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara. It is possible to distinguish three types of nucleoli: a compact nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis, a granular cords nucleolus in Lacerta viridis, a vacuolar nucleolus in Lacerta muralis. Each type can be seen during the migration of the gonocytes or during the colonisation of the genital region. Probably there is a relationship between these different architectures and the activity of nucleolus in synthesis and liberation of ribosomal RNA. However the nuclear fibrillar area which we have previosly called "masse para nucléolaire" in Lacerta vivipara, is present in the germ cells of Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis.

  1. Isolation of pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Antho-RFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for peptides containing the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide). Using this radioimmunoassay and applying cation-exchange chromatography and HPLC, we have isolated an RFamide peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura...... elegantissima. Three different methods established that the structure of the Anthopleura RFamide peptide (Antho-RFamide) is pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. Comparison of synthetic and natural Antho-RFamide and their enzymatic breakdown products on six different HPLC columns confirmed the structure of the sea anemone...... peptide. Using synthetic Antho-RFamide as a standard in our radioimmunoassay, we measured high concentrations (3.2 nmol/g wet weight) of this peptide in extracts of Anthopleura. It is proposed that Antho-RFamide is a transmitter at neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones....

  2. Isolation of pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Antho-RFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for peptides containing the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide). Using this radioimmunoassay and applying cation-exchange chromatography and HPLC, we have isolated an RFamide peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegan...... peptide. Using synthetic Antho-RFamide as a standard in our radioimmunoassay, we measured high concentrations (3.2 nmol/g wet weight) of this peptide in extracts of Anthopleura. It is proposed that Antho-RFamide is a transmitter at neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones....

  3. P-glycoprotein expression in Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Wen-Chang; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Tao Jiang; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2014-08-01

    Bivalves naturally exposed to toxic algae have mechanisms to prevent from harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. However, quite few studies have examined the mechanisms associated, and the information currently available is still insufficient. Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is ubiquitous in aquatic invertebrates and plays an important role in defense against xenobiotics. Here, to explore the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the DSP toxins resistance in shellfish, complete cDNA of P-gp gene in the mussel Perna viridis was cloned and analyzed. The accumulation of okadaic acid (OA), a main component of DSP toxins, MXR activity and expression of P-gp in gills of P. viridis were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors PGP-4008, verapamil (VER) and cyclosporin A (CsA). The mussel P. viridis P-gp closely matches MDR/P-gp/ABCB protein from various organisms, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. After exposure to P. lima, OA accumulation, MXR activity and P-gp expression significantly increased in gills of P. viridis. The addition of P-gp-specific inhibitors PGP-4008 and VER decreased MXR activity induced by P. lima, but had no effect on the OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. However, CsA, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of ABC transporter not only decreased MXR activity, but also increased OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. Together with the ubiquitous presence of other ABC transporters such as MRP/ABCC in bivalves and potential compensatory mechanism in P-gp and MRP-mediated resistance, we speculated that besides P-gp, other ABC transporters, especially MRP might be involved in the resistance mechanisms to DSP toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased cell proliferation and mucocyte density in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida recovering from bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fransolet

    Full Text Available Recovery of coral after bleaching episodes is a critical period for the health of the reef ecosystem. While events such as symbiont (genus Symbiodinium shifting/shuffling or tissue apoptosis have been demonstrated to occur following bleaching, little is known concerning tissue recovery or cell proliferation. Here, we studied the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exposed to a transient elevation of water temperature combined with high illumination (33°C and 1900 µmol photons x m(-2 x s(-1 for 30 h. Following such treatment bleached anemones showed a significant reduction of their Symbiodinium density. Cell proliferation in the ectodermis and gastrodermis was determined by assessing the densities of cells labeled with a thymidine analogue (EdU. Cell proliferation significantly increased during the first day following stress in both tissue types. This increased cell proliferation returned to pre-stress values after one week. Although cell proliferation was higher in the ectodermis in absence of stress, it was relatively more pronounced in the gastrodermis of stressed anemones. In addition, the ratio of ectodermal mucocytes significantly increased three weeks after induced stress. These results suggest that thermal/photic stress coupled with the loss of the symbionts is able to enhance cell proliferation in both gastrodermis and ectodermis of cnidarians. While new cells formed in the gastrodermis are likely to host new Symbiodinium, the fate of new cells in the ectodermis was only partially revealed. Some new ectodermal cells may, in part, contribute to the increased number of mucocytes which could eventually help strengthen the heterotrophic state until restoration of the symbiosis.

  5. Extraction of Anticoagulant Compound from Persian Gulf sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdeah Tahmasebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The marine environment is anexceptional reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of them exhibit structural/chemical features that not found in terrestrial natural products.Glycosaminoglycans are one of this various bioactive compounds. Heparin, as a well known glycosaminoglycan, is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that has natural anticoagulant properties. Heparin and heparin-like compounds are used as anticoagulants in many aspects of medicine. However, for two main reasons: 1. Contamination in heparin samples obtained from pig intestine or bovine lung pathogens and other pathogens, 2 .resource for use of heparin is limited and there are a lot of requirements for new compounds from natural resources. According to GAGs importance and widespread using of heparin in medicine, in the present study, GAGs compounds extracted from sea anemones and anticoagulant properties of the human blood is investigated. Materials and Methods: GAGs compound was extracted by using cetylpyridinium chloride. Anticoagulation activity of extracted GAGs (the extracted tentacle was tested in human blood plasma, using manual procedures, and assay system, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. Results: In this study the amount of the crude GAGs was 24 mg per gram of tentacle dry weight. The results ofanticoagulant activity extracted on human blood plasma showed that these compounds prolonged clotting time compared to the control. In APTT and PT assay of the extracted GAGs from the sea anemone also clotting time prolonged in compared to the control. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that anticoagulant compounds existed in the tentacle of the sea anemone, and although their effects is weaker than the heparin, but they can be substituted for heparin, at least in laboratory conditions.

  6. The isolation of a toxin from the dahlia sea anemone, Tealia felina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R C; Konya, R S; Vickneshwara, K

    1986-01-01

    Gel chromatography with Dyematrex blue B gel and ion exchange chromatography with a methylcellulose cation exchange column have been used to isolate a toxin present in partially purified saline extracts of the dahlia sea anemone Tealia felina. Toxin activity was assessed by its histaminolytic activity. A ten-fold increase in activity per mg protein was achieved in these two steps. Final purification on a Sephacryl column yielded an apparently pure protein with a molecular weight of 7800. The amino acid composition of this compound was determined.

  7. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail: gkbielmyer@valdosta.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  8. A taxonomic review of the dry-fruited species of Anemone (Ranunculaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three dry-fruited species of Anemone sect. Pulsatilloides subsect. Alchemillifoliae (Ranunculaceae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, including complete synonomy, taxonomic history with nomenclatural corrections, ecological notes, and distribution. A. tenuifolia (L.f. DC. from the Cape Floristic Region is segregated as ser. Pinnatifoliae from the two summer rainfall species, A. caffra (Eckl. & Zeyh. Harv. and A. fanninnii Harv. ex Masters, which remain in ser. Alchemillifoliae, emphasising the strong vegetative differences between the two series.

  9. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Three New Indole Diterpenoids from the Sea-Anemone-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Yi; Meng, Ling-Hong; Li, Xin; Yang, Sui-Qun; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-05-12

    Three new indolediterpenoids, namely, 22-hydroxylshearinine F ( 1 ), 6-hydroxylpaspalinine ( 2 ), and 7- O -acetylemindole SB ( 3 ), along with eight related known analogs ( 4 - 11 ), were isolated from the sea-anemone-derived fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by a detailed interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD calculations ( 1 and 2 ) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction ( 3 ). Some of these compounds exhibited prominent activity against aquatic and human pathogenic microbes.

  11. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Ismail; Yap Chee Kong

    1999-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  12. Nidovirus-Associated Proliferative Pneumonia in the Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervas, Eva; Hepojoki, Jussi; Laimbacher, Andrea; Romero-Palomo, Fernando; Jelinek, Christine; Keller, Saskia; Smura, Teemu; Hepojoki, Satu; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo

    2017-08-09

    In 2014 we observed a noticeable increase in sudden deaths of green tree pythons ( Morelia viridis ). Pathological examination revealed accumulation of mucoid material within airways and lung, associated with enlargement of the entire lung. We performed full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterise the pathogenesis of this "mucinous" pneumonia. By histology we could show a marked hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and of faveolar type II pneumocytes. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung samples of a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing (NGS). From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome <85% identical to nidoviruses previously identified in ball pythons and Indian pythons. We then employed RT-PCR to demonstrate the presence of the novel nidovirus in all diseased snakes. To attempt virus isolation, we established primary cell cultures of Morelia viridis liver and brain, which we inoculated with lung homogenates of infected individuals. Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus, Morelia viridis nidovirus (MVNV). We then generated an antibody against MVNV nucleoprotein, which we used alongside RNA in situ hybridisation to demonstrate viral antigen and RNA in the affected lungs. This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover. Importance Fairly recently novel nidoviruses associated with severe respiratory disease were identified in ball pythons and Indian pythons. Herein we report isolation and identification of a further nidovirus from green tree pythons ( Morelia viridis ) with fatal pneumonia

  13. Peucetia viridis (Blackwall, 1858), caracteres y discusión (Aranae, Oxyopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos Alfageme, José Antonio

    1991-01-01

    New records of the type-species of the genus Peucetia from the south of the Iberian Peninsula, near the Mediterranean Sea, confirm its presence in Europe. P. viridis has been recently the subject of taxonomical confussion. In this paper a more complete description of the species is proposed, illustraded with drawings of its general aspect and genital organs. Algunas citas nuevas de la banda mediterránea, en el sur de la Península Ibérica, confirman la presencia en Europa de la especie-tipo...

  14. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  15. Propagação Assexuada de Chacrona (Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavon) Via Estaquia Foliar

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Moisés Pereira Galvão; Universidade de Taubaté - UNITAU; Furlan, Marcos Roberto; Universidade de Taubaté; Aoyama, Elisa Mitsuko; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES; Rodrigues, Eliana; Universidade Federal de São Paulo; Cruz, Lilian Pereira; Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the asexual propagation of Psychotria viridis by leaf cuttings. The treatments were: A - Whole leaf cuttings, B - leaf cuttings with the top third cut off; C - with the lower third of the cuttings removed; D - with cuts on the primary vein of leaf cuttings, and E - poles with cuts on the leaf ’s secondary veins. The cuttings were immersed in distilled water for a period of 70 days. In all the treatments, the rooting was observed to occur in the region of the cut, or...

  16. High speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb in the phloem of Tradescantia viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penot, M.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of the rooted shoots of Tradescantia viridis showed a high speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb applied to a leaf for short periods of time (5 to 2.5 min). The speed of this translocation (between 840 and 1.440 cm h/sup -1/) speaks for the existence of a very rapid phloem component translocating ions to an active sink, represented here by the growing roots. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (48 h, 50 mg 1/sup -1/) decreases the quantity of this long distance transport but not the velocity.

  17. Response of the regenerating telencephalon of Lacerta viridis to nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, P; Minelli, G

    1980-01-01

    To identify the nature of the dividing cells during the regenerative process of the telencephalon, the authors administered nerve growth factor (NGF) to Lacerta viridis with a wedge of telencephalon removed. Some known centers of cell proliferation were unresponsive to the treatment, whereas the ventral end of the telencephalic ventricle underwent an increase of up to 200% in proliferation rate. On the basis of this observation and data in the literature, the authors propose that the cell proliferation beginning in the medial area during the regeneration of the telencephalic ventricle is due to catecholaminergic neuroblasts still present in the adult.

  18. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O'Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-10-10

    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate change in the wild. Here, we report hormonal and fitness responses of individual wild fish to a recent large-scale sea warming event that caused widespread bleaching on coral reefs. This 14-month monitoring study shows a strong correlation between anemone bleaching (zooxanthellae loss), anemonefish stress response, and reproductive hormones that decreased fecundity by 73%. These findings suggest that hormone stress responses play a crucial role in changes to population demography following climate change and plasticity in hormonal responsiveness may be a key mechanism enabling individual acclimation to climate change.Elevated temperatures can cause anemones to bleach, with unknown effects on their associated symbiotic fish. Here, Beldade and colleagues show that climate-induced bleaching alters anemonefish hormonal stress response, resulting in decreased reproductive hormones and severely impacted reproduction.

  19. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and zinc or nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Christina G; Picariello, Codie R; Thomason, Rachel K; Patel, Krina S; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO 2 , as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni). After exposure to four concentrations (nominal values=control, 10, 50, 100μg/L) of Zn or Ni over 7days, both metals accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. Anemones exposed to elevated CO 2 (1000ppm) accumulated significant tissue burdens of Zn or Ni faster (by 48h) than those exposed to the same metal concentrations at ambient CO 2 . No differences were observed in catalase activity due to Zn exposure; however, 50μg/L Ni caused a significant increase in catalase activity at ambient CO 2 . No significant effect on catalase activity from CO 2 exposure alone was observed. Glutathione reductase activity was affected by increased Zn or Ni exposure and those effects were influenced by increased CO 2 . Results of this study provide insight into the toxic mechanisms and environmental implications of CO 2 and Zn or Ni exposure to the cnidarian E. pallida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gladkikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI. These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO generation.

  1. Sphingolipid Metabolism of a Sea Anemone Is Altered by the Presence of Dinoflagellate Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Poole, Angela Z; Weis, Virginia M

    2017-12-01

    In host-microbe interactions, signaling lipids function in interpartner communication during both the establishment and maintenance of associations. Previous evidence suggests that sphingolipids play a role in the mutualistic cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Exogenously applied sphingolipids have been shown to alter this partnership, though endogenous host regulation of sphingolipids by the sphingosine rheostat under different symbiotic conditions has not been characterized. The rheostat regulates levels of pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and pro-apoptotic sphingosine (Sph) through catalytic activities of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and S1P phosphatase (SGPP). The role of the rheostat in recognition and establishment of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis was investigated in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida by measuring gene expression, protein levels, and sphingolipid metabolites in symbiotic, aposymbiotic, and newly recolonized anemones. Comparison of two host populations showed that symbiotic animals from one population had lower SGPP gene expression and Sph lipid concentrations compared to aposymbiotic animals, while the other population had higher S1P concentrations than their aposymbiotic counterparts. In both populations, the host rheostat trended toward host cell survival in the presence of symbionts. Furthermore, upregulation of both rheostat enzymes on the first day of host recolonization by symbionts suggests a role for the rheostat in host-symbiont recognition during symbiosis onset. Collectively, these data suggest a regulatory role of sphingolipid signaling in cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis and symbiont uptake.

  2. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  3. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-09-24

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation.

  4. Bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke; Grathoff, Annette; Gedde, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This paper provides first information on organ-like bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile. The specimens were collected from waters near Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) and the Orkney Islands. Tentacles were prepared for morphological inspection by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as for the phylogenetic analysis of endocytic bacteria. Bacterial aggregates are located in caverns of the tentacles’ epidermis. The aggregates are enwrapped in thin envelopes, which contain coccoid and/or rod-shaped tightly packed bacteria of different division states. Most of the bacterial cells are connected by fine filamentous structures. The phylogenetic determination is based on the sequence data of the 16S rDNA derived from tentacle material. Sequence analysis revealed three different subgroups of intratentacular proteobacteria. The dominant band, detected in all of the samples tested, showed a close relationship (98%) to a gram-negative Endozoicimonas elysicola. Two bands, only detected in tentacles of M. senile from Helgoland were assigned to Pseudomonas saccherophilia (99%), a knallgas bacterium, and to Ralstonia pickettii (100%). The bacteria represent a specific bacterial community. Their DGGE profiles do not correspond to the profiles of the planktonic bacteria generated from seawater close to the habitats of the anemones. The allocation of DNA sequences to the different morphotypes, their isolation, culturing and the elucidation of the physiological functions of intratentacular bacteria are in progress.

  5. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  6. Review of the genus Qinshuiacris (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from China with proposal of Caryanda viridis-species group and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ben-Yong; Niu, Yao; Zheng, Zhe-Min; Scott, Matthew B

    2015-07-07

    Based on an examination of type and additional material, Qinshuiacris viridis Zheng & Mao, 1996 and some allied species in the genus Caryanda are reviewed. Q. viridis Zheng & Mao, 1996 is transferred to Caryanda as a new combination: C. viridis (Zheng & Mao, 1996) comb. nov.. The female of C. viridis is described for the first time and sixty-two topotypes are designated. The genus Qinshuiacris Zheng & Mao, 1996 is synonymized with Caryanda Stål, 1878 because of the transfer of the type species. C. yini Mao & Ren, 2006 is proposed as a new junior synonym of C. dehongensis Mao, Xu & Yang, 2003. A new species, C. eshana Mao sp. nov., is also described and illustrated. Additionally, the conception of the Caryanda viridis-species group is proposed to contain the four allied species with falciform cerci: C. albomaculata Mao, Ren & Ou, 2007, C. dehongensis Mao, Xu & Yang, 2003, C. eshana Mao sp. nov., and C. viridis (Zheng & Mao, 1996) comb. nov.. A key to the species of C. viridis-species group is provided. Type specimens are deposited in the Biological Science Museum, Dali University (BMDU), Yunnan Province, China, in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University (IZSNU), Shaanxi Province, China and in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS).

  7. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  8. Brassinosteroids Modulate Meristem Fate and Differentiation of Unique Inflorescence Morphology in Setaria viridis[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Shuiyi; Jiang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture is a key determinant of yield potential in many crops and is patterned by the organization and developmental fate of axillary meristems. In cereals, flowers and grain are borne from spikelets, which differentiate in the final iteration of axillary meristem branching. In Setaria spp, inflorescence branches terminate in either a spikelet or a sterile bristle, and these structures appear to be paired. In this work, we leverage Setaria viridis to investigate a role for the phytohormones brassinosteroids (BRs) in specifying bristle identity and maintaining spikelet meristem determinacy. We report the molecular identification and characterization of the Bristleless1 (Bsl1) locus in S. viridis, which encodes a rate-limiting enzyme in BR biosynthesis. Loss-of-function bsl1 mutants fail to initiate a bristle identity program, resulting in homeotic conversion of bristles to spikelets. In addition, spikelet meristem determinacy is altered in the mutants, which produce two florets per spikelet instead of one. Both of these phenotypes provide avenues for enhanced grain production in cereal crops. Our results indicate that the spatiotemporal restriction of BR biosynthesis at boundary domains influences meristem fate decisions during inflorescence development. The bsl1 mutants provide insight into the molecular basis underlying morphological variation in inflorescence architecture. PMID:29263085

  9. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  10. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  11. INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE CORALLIMORPHARIAN CORYNACTIS CALIFORNICA (CNIDARIA: ANTHOZOA): EFFECTS ON SYMPATRIC CORALS AND SEA ANEMONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Nanette E

    1987-08-01

    Corallimorpharians are sessile cnidarians that are morphologically similar to the actiniarian sea anemones and scleractinian corals. This study describes for the first time the behavioral mechanism and effects of aggression by a corallimorpharian. Polyps of the temperate clonal corallimorpharian Corynactis californica extruded their mesenteries and associated filaments onto members of certain species of sea anemones and corals. They did not exhibit this behavior intraspecifically, and members of different clones of C. californica remained expanded upon contact. In contrast, members of four species of corals and zoanthids responded to contact with C. californica by contracting their tentacles, and members of three sea anemone species bent or moved away, detached from the substrate, or attacked using their aggressive structures. When interspecific contact was prolonged, individuals of C. californica extruded filaments onto, and killed polyps of, the sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Metridium senile within 3 weeks, and the corals Astrangia lajollaensis and Balanophyllia elegans within 4-10 months under laboratory conditions. The use of extruded mesenterial filaments by C. californica to attack members of other anthozoan species is similar to the aggressive behavior exhibited by many scleractinian reef corals. Field observations suggest that C. californica may use this agonistic behavior during interspecific competition for space on hard marine substrate.

  12. An assemblage of the host anemone Heteractis magnifica in the northern Red Sea, and distribution of the resident anemonefish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Tychsen, Anders; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2004-01-01

    correlated with depth. The shallow waters of the anemone assemblage contained few mainly small, solitary actinians. There seemed to be a tendency for solitary actinians to cluster once they reached a certain size-range. The resident anemonefishes Amphiprion bicinctus and Dascyllus trimaculatus were present...

  13. Study the antimicrobial activity of six marine sponges and three parts of sea anemone on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hamayeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of six different species of marine sponges and one species of sea anemone that were collected from the Persian Gulf on the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans. Methods: Sea anemone and six different sponges were gathered from the Persian Gulf and extracted by methanol macerated with dichloromethane solvents. The activity of each extracts against C. albicans was determined by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Also, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of each extract were determined. Results: The finding of current research confirmed that all sponge extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of sponge type 2 and 5 had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans and their zones of inhibition were 45 mm and 38 mm, respectively. The tentacle of sea anemone had the best inhibitory effect against C. albicans compared to other part of the body and its zone of inhibition was 41 mm. Besides, the sponge type 5 extracts had the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values with 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the crude extracts of six different sponges and sea anemone have high potential to produce broad spectral antifungal activity with minimal concentration against different pathogenic fungi.

  14. First documentation and molecular confirmation of three trematode species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) infecting the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Annelida: Spionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Krystin; Blakeslee, April M H; Krause, Maureen; Williams, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Polychaete worms are hosts to a wide range of marine parasites; yet, studies on trematodes using these ecologically important species as intermediate hosts are lacking. During examination of the spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis collected on the north shore of Long Island, New York, putative trematode cysts were discovered in the body cavity of these polychaetes. In order to verify these cysts as metacercariae of trematodes, specimens of the eastern mudsnail Ilyanassa obsoleta (a very common first intermediate host of trematodes in the region) were collected for molecular comparison. DNA barcoding using cytochrome C oxidase I regions confirmed the presence of three species of trematodes (Himasthla quissetensis, Lepocreadium setiferoides, and Zoogonus lasius) in both M. viridis and I. obsoleta hosts. Brown bodies were also recovered from polychaetes, and molecular testing confirmed the presence of L. setiferoides and Z. lasius, indicating an immune response of the polychaete leading to encapsulation of the cysts. From the 125 specimens of M. viridis collected in 2014, 95 (76.8 %) were infected with trematodes; of these 95 infected polychaetes, 86 (90.5 %) contained brown bodies. This is the first confirmation that trematodes use M. viridis as a second intermediate host and that this intermediate host demonstrates a clear immune response to metacercarial infection. Future research should explore the role of these polychaetes in trematode life cycles, the effectiveness of the immune response, and transmission pathways to vertebrate definitive hosts.

  15. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  16. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Investigations on the effect of oils on the oxidative stress and antioxidant molecules in gills of Perna viridis were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. For this purpose water accommodate fraction of diesel oil at 0.5 arid 5% were...

  17. Microsporidia in a woodland pool I. Lanatospora costata sp. n. (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia), parasite of Megacyclops viridis (Crustacea, Copepoda): fine structure and molecular phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Refardt, D.; Larsson, J.I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2016), s. 269-280 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microsporidian parasite * Megacyclops viridis * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2016

  18. Development and characterization of new polymorphic microsatellite markers in four sea anemones: Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla gigantea, and Stichodactyla mertensii

    KAUST Repository

    Gatins, Remy

    2016-10-08

    Relatively few studies have investigated the genetic population structure of sea anemones. This is particularly true for sea anemones that host some of the most iconic fishes on coral reefs, the anemonefishes. One of the main reasons for this knowledge gap is the lack of appropriate genetic markers. We developed and characterized a total of 47 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for four host sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific: Entacmaea quadricolor (n = 16 microsatellite markers), Heteractis magnifica (n = 8), Stichodactyla mertensii (n = 13), and Stichodactyla gigantea (n = 10). Here, we report genetic diversity statistics from two different sampling locations for each anemone species. Overall, we found that most markers were highly polymorphic. On average, we found a mean of seven alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities displayed high variation among loci, ranging from 0.033 to 0.980 and from 0.038 to 0.927, respectively. Only four loci showed deviations of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in both populations and were identified as having null alleles. Additionally, two pairs of loci were identified to be in linkage disequilibrium in only one population. Host anemones are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade and are susceptible to thermal bleaching. Although most studies focus on their obligate symbionts (the anemonefish), genetic analyses of host sea anemones can expand our understanding of the biology, connectivity, and population structure of these organisms and potentially help develop conservation strategies that will aid both the host and its symbionts.

  19. Analgesic and CNS Depressant Activities of Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora Nematocyst Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, Sengapillai; Bragadeeswaran, Subramanian; Srikumaran, Natarajah; Suguna, Anbukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms are the excellent sources for biologically active compounds. Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable materials used for biomedical research and drug development. The present work was carried out to analyse haemolytic, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of sea anemone Heteractis aurora. In haemolytic assay, among the five different RBC blood cells, the chicken blood exhibited maximum hemolytic activity of 64 Hemolytic Unit (HU). The maximum Analgesic Ratio (AR) of 5 recorded at 15 and 30 min interval and minimum was recorded after 45, 60 and 120 min time intervals. In jumping response activity, the maximum of 5 AR recorded at 15, 30 & 45 min and minimum was recorded at 90 & 120 min time intervals. The maximum decrease of depressant activity of 45.07% was determined in CNS depressant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity showed significant inhibition by crude extract of Heteractis aurora.

  20. Dangerous reef aquaristics: Palytoxin of a brown encrusting anemone causes toxic corneal reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Yasmin; Fuchs, Joan; Beuschel, Ralf; Tschopp, Markus; Goldblum, David

    2015-11-01

    Although frequently observed in domestic saltwater aquariums, literature on exposure to palytoxin (PTX) of encrusting anemones (Zoanthidea) kept in aquariums is rare. Handling these animals for propagation purposes or during cleaning work can lead to dermal, ocular or respiratory contact with the PTX generated by some Zoanthids. The present study describes a case of ocular exposure to liquid from a Zoanthid, which led to corneal ulcers. The patient also suffered from systemic symptoms of dyspnea and shivering and a suspected rhabdomyolysis, which required monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit. After symptomatic treatment provided insufficient results, the corneal ulcers improved with an amniotic membrane transplantation. A review of the literature regarding ocular exposures to this diverse order of Hexacorallia reveals that severe and systemic symptoms can develop with minimal contact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Edwardsiella andrillae, a New Species of Sea Anemone from Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Marymegan; Rack, Frank; Zook, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI) remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project’s geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing) program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat. PMID:24349517

  2. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2017-05-02

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  3. Edwardsiella andrillae, a new species of sea anemone from Antarctic ice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marymegan Daly

    Full Text Available Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project's geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat.

  4. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Maas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species.

  5. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  6. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cangkang Kerang Hijau (Perna Viridis Menjadi Kitin Sebagai Biokoagulan Air Sungai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsidar HS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimum weight of chitin that used as biocoagulant of river water. The water sample is taken from Kajenjeng river and the chitin used for research are isolated from green mussels (Perna viridis shell powder through three steps such as deproteination by NaOH 3%, demineralization by HCl 1,25 N and depigmentation by NaOCl 4%. Then, the obtained chitin are contacted into water with variation of 0,25 gram; 0,5 gram; 0,75 gram and 1 gram in an hour. The result showed that optimum weight of chitin for COD determination, total hardness, calcium and turbidity is 0,75 gram, while optimum weight of chitin for magnesium determination is 0,5 gram.

  7. Lipophilic compounds from the femoral gland secretions of male Hungarian green lizards, Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, only a few studies have examined the role of specific chemical compounds as sexual signals. The secreted chemicals vary widely between species but whether this variation reflects phylogenetic or environmental differences remains unclear. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 40 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male green lizards (Lacerta viridis), including several steroids, alpha-tocopherol, and esters of n-C16 to n-C20 carboxylic acids, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C20, squalene, three lactones and one ketone. We compared these chemicals with those previously found in other closely related green lizard species, and discussed how phylogenetical differences and/or environmental conditions could be responsible for the differential presence of chemicals in different lizard species.

  8. Preliminary study of the regenerative processes of the dorsal cortex of the telencephalon of Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, G; del Grande, P; Mambelli, M C

    1977-01-01

    The authors removed from Lacerta viridis specimens part of the dorsal hippocampus of one telencephalic hemisphere. The animals were sacrificed 110 and 260 days after the operation; 24 hours before the operation on the encephalon, each was dosed with 6--3H thymidine. An examination of the historadiographic slides showed a clear remedial process in the operated area which, 260 days after has renewed in thickness but was still minus its characteristic cellular layer. The area of the telencephalon affected by the remedial process was examined by the authors and they have put forward the hypothesis that in relation to the type of operation performed, said area is localized prevalently in the dorsal hippocampus of the caudal half of the telencephalic hemispherg. The authors have also shown that the remedial procress, though attenuated is still in progress. 260 days after the operation.

  9. Functional anatomy of the lungs of the green lizard, Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meban, C

    1978-02-01

    The gas-exchange area in the lung of Lacerta viridis has been studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The interior of the lung in this species is partitioned into air sacs by radially disposed septa. The surfaces of each septum are covered by a continuous epithelium, the cells of which are termed 'pneumonocytes'. Deep to the epithelium there is a close-meshed plexus of capillaries. The middle layer of the septum contains smooth muscle and fibrous tissue. Two varieties of pneumonocytes can be identified. The type I cells are squamous and give off attenuated sheets of cytoplasm which spread widely over the septal surface; these sheets contain few organelles. The type II cells are more compact and possess many organelles; their osmiophilic inclusion bodies are especially conspicuous. The pulmonary capillaries of Lacerta are evaginated into the air sacs and often display marked attenuation of their endothelium. The possible functional significance of these features is discussed.

  10. An hypothesis on the influence of the temperature on the telencephalic reparative processes in Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, G; Del Grande, P

    1980-01-01

    The authors removed a simple plug from the dorsal hippocampus, or from the dorsal hippocampus and part of the medial hippocampus in a telencephalic hemisphere in specimens of Lacerta viridis. The specimens were sacrificed some time after the operation after administration of 6-3 H thymidina. The examination of the emulsified slides showed that in these experimental condition no reparative process is observed, except for an impressive proliferation of cells and fibres which, from the meninx, bridges the cortical gap and, penetrating the telencephalic ventricle, attaches itself to the surrounding nerve tissue. The authors also described a limited cellular proliferation in the ependima of the telencephalic ventricles as a result of resection of the medial hippocampus; this observation is interpreted as a phenomenum connected to compensatory hypertrophy.

  11. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  12. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes on Green Mussels (Perna viridis and Cockle Shell (Anadara granosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiati Puji Rahayu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis and cockle shell (Anadara granosa are one of many sources of animalprotein which is many cultivated in Indonesia because their price is relatively affordable. This study wasconducted to identify the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 27 samples of green mussels and 3 samplesof cockle shells using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR and biochemical methods. Thetarget gene for amplification in real-time PCR was an hlyA gene because this gene was a determinant ofvirulence genes that produce listeriolysin O. Primers used in this study were forward primer DG69 (GTGCCG GGT AAA AGA CCA TA and reverse primer DG74 (CGC CAC TGA GAT ACT AT and fluorescencesignals indicator using SYBR Green I. The results of analysis using real-time PCR were negative Listeriamonocytogenes in all samples, while using biochemical methods there was one of 30 samples contaminatedby Listeria welshimeri.

  13. Characterization of circadian behavior in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Hendricks

    Full Text Available Although much is known about how circadian systems control daily cycles in the physiology and behavior of Drosophila and several vertebrate models, marine invertebrates have often been overlooked in circadian rhythms research. This study focuses on the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, a species that has received increasing attention within the scientific community for its potential as a model research organism. The recently sequenced genome of N. vectensis makes it an especially attractive model for exploring the molecular evolution of circadian behavior. Critical behavioral data needed to correlate gene expression patterns to specific behaviors are currently lacking in N. vectensis.To detect the presence of behavioral oscillations in N. vectensis, locomotor activity was evaluated using an automated system in an environmentally controlled chamber. Animals exposed to a 24 hr photoperiod (12 hr light: 12 hr dark exhibited locomotor behavior that was both rhythmic and predominantly nocturnal. The activity peak occurred in the early half of the night with a 2-fold increase in locomotion. Upon transfer to constant lighting conditions (constant light or constant dark, an approximately 24 hr rhythm persisted in most animals, suggesting that the rhythm is controlled by an endogenous circadian mechanism. Fourier analysis revealed the presence of multiple peaks in some animals suggesting additional rhythmic components could be present. In particular, an approximately 12 hr oscillation was often observed. The nocturnal increase in generalized locomotion corresponded to a 24 hr oscillation in animal elongation.These data confirm the presence of a light-entrainable circadian clock in Nematostella vectensis. Additional components observed in some individuals indicate that an endogenous clock of approximately 12 hr frequency may also be present. By describing rhythmic locomotor behavior in N. vectensis, we have made important progress in developing

  14. Evidence for two populations of hair bundles in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Shelcie S; Watson, Glen M

    2017-06-01

    Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length. Immediately after CD treatment, when only CD-resistant hair bundles are present, nematocyst discharge is normal into targets touched to tentacles in the absence of vibrations (i.e., baseline) but fails to increase normally in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz, a key frequency. After CD treatment, the abundance of hair bundles recovers to control levels within three hours. At 2h after CD treatment, when CD-resistant and CD-sensitive hair bundles are both present, but a full-recovery is not yet complete, somewhat enhanced discharge of nematocysts occurs into targets touched to tentacles in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz (at least as compared to the response of CD-treated animals to contact with test probes in the absence of vibrations). Additionally, at 2h after CD-treatment, prey capture recovers to normal. Thus, two populations of hair bundles may be present on tentacles of sea anemones: those that are CD-resistant and those that are CD-sensitive. The functions of these hair bundles may be distinct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth of the Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae and predation by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lloyd S.; Brockington, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Growth rates in Antarctic marine ectotherms have been demonstrated to be slowed by two to five times compared to shallow-water temperate species, with no previous reports for octocorals. Here growth rates were estimated in the single axis, non-branching Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae using repeated in situ length measures covering both summer and winter periods, for tagged colonies from three sites at Signy Island over a two year period. Mean rates of length increase at the different sites ranged from 0.96 mm yr-1 to 55.3 mm yr-1. The fastest individual colony growth rate at any site ranged from 2.55 mm yr-1 to 175.6 mm yr-1. The mean of the fastest growth rates across all sites was 33.0 mm yr-1±14.7 (s.e.). Growth was significantly different between sites, and also between seasons and years. The mean overall increase in diameter of the average sized colony in the study (222.5 mm in axis length) was 0.053 mm yr-1. This is the slowest reported growth rate of any octocoral to date, and is five times slower than growth in most cold water octocorals. During the study it was noted that colonies were being attacked and consumed by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus. At one of the sites studied, between 5% and 8% of colonies surveyed were attacked each month. Anemone dispersal was via whole body inflation and drifting to new prey colonies that were attached to using tentacle-like column protuberances.

  16. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. (Soroka Medical Center, Beersheva (Israel) Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  17. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of Azya luteipes Mulsant fed on Coccus viridis (Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nais

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of nursery seedlings of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae. The main predators of this species are beetles of the family Coccinellidae, especially Azya luteipes Mulsant. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of A. luteipes feeding on C. viridis on coffee plants were examined under laboratory conditions. Tests were conducted in room temperature at 28 ± 2 ºC. A. luteipes oviposits on the underside of the scale's body, laying two to four eggs per insect. The eggs have a subelliptical form and a white-clear color, and the incubation period is 8.3 ± 1.2 days. The number of eggs laid per female per day varies between eight and ten. A. luteipes undergoes four larval instars with durations of 2.0 ± 0, 3.2 ± 0.5, 3.6 ± 0.5 and 4.6 ± 0 days for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars, respectively. The average durations of the prepupal and pupal stages were 2.0 ± 0 and 10.9 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The viability of the larvae during each instar was 91.9, 89.3, 90.2 and 96.4 %, respectively, and the viabilities of prepupae and pupae were 99.1 and 98.2 %. The average duration of the egg-adult cycle was 34.3 ± 2.6 days, and the sex ratio was 0.52 %. Females presented a gray-colored head, while males presented a yellow head.

  18. Physicochemical properties, immunomodulation and antitumor activities of polysaccharide from Pavlova viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqin; Chu, Jinling; Sun, Zhongliang; Chen, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides synthesized by microalgae can be used as the functional ingredients of food or drugs. Here, we investigated the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of the polysaccharide from microalgae Pavlova viridis, and indicated the structure-activity relationship. The polysaccharides (PPS0) were degraded with H2O2-vitamin C assisted by ultrasonic waves. The functional group content, monosaccharide composition, and average molecular weight (avg-MW) were detected by chemical or chromatographic method. The immunomodulatory activities were evaluated in vitro by detecting nitric oxide (NO) emission, neutral red uptake and macrophage proliferation. Antitumor activities of degraded fragments were detected using S180-tumor-bearing mouse model by intragastric administration. Degraded polysaccharides PPS1 and PPS2 were obtained at avg-MW of 386.96 and 54.99 kDa. The sulfate group content of polysaccharide was 16%, and the uronic acid content was 5.88 and 8.48%. PPS mainly consisted of fructose, glucose and mannose. All the degraded PPSs could increase phagocytosis and proliferation of macrophages, and stimulated NO emission in a dose-dependently way. PPS2 in Low-MW fragments had the strongest immunoenhancing activities. Different doses of PPS all could inhibit the growth of implanted S180 tumor. At dose of 200 mg/kg/day, the tumor inhibition rate of PPS2 was 57.06%, about 23.6% less than that of CTX-treated group. Different-MW PPS significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation. At 200 mg/L, the proliferation index of PPS2 was 1.37, 2.03 times higher than that of CTX-treated group. The polysaccharides of Pavlova viridis had potential antitumor activities by improving immune response. Moreover, the bioactivities depend on their molecular weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MODULACIÓN DE LA SINTESIS DE METALOTIONINAS EN Perna viridis PREEXPUESTOS A COBRE Y EXPUESTOS A CADMIO | MODULATION OF METALLOTHIONEIN SYNTHESIS IN Perna viridis PRE EXPOSED TO COPPER AND EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Lemus,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The metallothioneins (Mts have been used as biomarkers because toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, Cu can induce their synthesis; however, environmental factors and the presence of other xenobiotics can determine the magnitude of the response in future exposures to metal ions. Metallothionein concentration was determinate in the soft tissue of Perna viridis juveniles pre-exposed to Cu and exposed to Cd (Cu/Cd for 21 days. For this, three experimental groups were established: exposed to Cd, pre-exposed to Cu and exposed to Cd and the control group (no metal. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of P. viridis was significantly higher in pre-exposed organisms to Cu, with an average value of 6.6 ± 1.9 mg/g, while in those exposed to Cd, was 4.7 ± 2.4 mg/g. Mts concentrations were also higher in the Cu/Cd experimental group, with a value of 1.36 ± 0.52 mg/g in relation to those exposed to Cd which had a value of 0.79 ± 0.47 mg/g. The relationship between Mts and bioaccumulation of Cd was significant in the group exposed to Cd, but not in the exposed Cu/Cd. These results suggest that Cu possibly acted as an inducer of Mts in the body, which led to increased accumulation of Cd in P. viridis and increase in Mts concentration. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd in P. viridis was determined by previous exposure of the organism and hence its response on levels of MTs also depends on it.

  20. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.

  1. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae from eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crowther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 680-960 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911. The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-west Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia.

  2. Bases débiles minoritarias de la raíz de Rauvolfia viridis Roem. et Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Martínez Pérez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio químico de la raíz de la especie Rauvolfia viridis Roem. et Schult. que crece en Cuba, con el objetivo de profundizar en este tema. Se aislaron, purificaron y caracterizaron diferentes alcaloides correspondientes a las bases débiles, entre los que se encuentran la ajmalidina, la a-yohimbina, la quebrachidina, la reserpinina y la yohimbina. Se descarta la presencia de reserpina.It was conducted a chemical study of the root of the species Rauwolfia viridis Roem. et Schult. that grows in Cuba aimed at depening in this topic. Different alkaloids corresponding to the weak bases, such as ajmaline, a-yohimbin, quebrachidine, reserpine and yohimbin, were isolated, purified and characterized. The presence of reserpine is discarded.

  3. Reproductive biology of the sea anemone shrimp Periclimenes rathbunae (Caridea, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae, from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Azofeifa-Solano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps are a highly diverse group and many species form symbiotic relationships with different marine invertebrates. Periclimenes rathbunae is a brightly colored shrimp that lives predominantly in association with sea anemones. Information about the reproductive ecology of the species is scarce. Therefore, we collected 70 ovigerous females inhabiting the sun sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in coral reefs from the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Females produced on average 289 ± 120 embryos. The volume of recently-produced embryos was on average 0.038 mm3, and embryo volume increased by 192% during the incubation period. The average embryo mortality during embryogenesis was 24%. The reproductive output was 0.24 ± 0.094, considerably higher than in many other pontoniine shrimps. Females carrying embryos close to hatching showed fully developed ovaries, suggesting consecutive spawning. We assume that the sheltered habitat, living on sea anemones, allows P. rathbunae to allocate more energy in embryo production than most other free-living caridean shrimps. This is the first record of P. rathbunae for Costa Rica.

  4. Abundance of anemone fishes in North Bay Island and mass culture of live food organisms for their larval rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram Rajendran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transect survey for abundance of anemone fishes and other living organisms is important to asses reef associated fish diversity in North Bay island. The percentage distribution of 10 different substratum from the disturbed, semi-disturbed and undisturbed areas was recorded during the survey in North Bay islands during November 2009 to April 2010. The survey observations reveal that the fishes were the dominant groups followed by mollusks, lobsters and octopus. There are 5 different anemone fishes were collected during the transect survey and their distribution is more in undisturbed area. We are standardizing the different mass culture techniques for production of phytoplankton and zooplankton for the nutritional source for the anemone fish larvae. Monitoring the water quality parameters and culture the phytoplankton and zooplankton used in different culture media with 2 adjustment studies like with and without salinity adjustment. The results of this experiment indicate that zooplankton was rich in protein and fat content and it will be used as high nutritional source for feeding fish larvae.

  5. Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768) in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

    OpenAIRE

    Miglena V. Valkanova; Ivelin A. Mollov; Bogdan N. Nikolov

    2009-01-01

    The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis) in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42), the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases), followed by killing by humans (usually children) – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2%) and domestic cats (2%) has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans) affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant differenc...

  6. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release from Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan W.; Carvalho, Benjamin J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Singh, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. Here, we describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis, that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Usi...

  7. Ecology,ethology and variability of european green lizard Lacerta viridis in Natural reservation Tiché údolí

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The european green lizard, Lacerta viridis is a critically endangered reptile species which is in the region of Bohemia present only in relict isolated populations. These populations are closely linked to slopes with a southern exposition in deeply engorged river valleys. These valleys exhibit a unique climatic effect also known as the river phenomenon which allows numerous animal and plant species to survive far beyond their standard northern range. The chosen locality in Tiché údolí is a su...

  8. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  9. Fine-scale population structure of two anemones (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea

    KAUST Repository

    Gatins, Remy

    2014-12-01

    Anemonefish are one of the main groups that have been used over the last decade to empirically measure larval dispersal and connectivity in coral reef populations. A few species of anemones are integral to the life history of these fish, as well as other obligate symbionts, yet the biology and population structure of these anemones remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure the genetic structure of these anemones within and between two reefs in order to assess their reproductive mode and dispersal potential. To do this, we sampled almost exhaustively two anemones species (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) at two small islands in Kimbe Bay (Papua New Guinea) separated by approximately 25 km. Both the host anemones and the anemonefish are heavily targeted for the aquarium trade, in addition to the populations being affected by bleaching pressures (Hill and Scott 2012; Hobbs et al. 2013; Saenz- Agudelo et al. 2011; Thomas et al. 2014), therefore understanding their biology is crucial for better management strategies. Panels of microsatellite markers were developed for each species using next generation sequencing tools. Clonality analyses confirm six pairs of identical genotypes for S. gigantea (n=350) and zero for H. magnifica (n=128), indicating presence/absence of asexual reproduction in this region. S. gigantea showed low structure between islands (FST= 0.003, p-value= 0.000), however, even if the majority of the individuals were unrelated (r~0), 81 families that shared 50% of their genetic material formed from two to four members were found. Out of these families, 45% were found with individuals only within Tuare Island, 11% only in Kimbe Island, and 44% were sharing individuals among islands. In comparison, H. magnifica showed no structure (FST= 0.002, p-value= 0.278), mean relatedness indicated the majority of individuals were unrelated, and 31 families were identified. Families again consisted from two to four members and

  10. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Towanda

    2012-05-01

    Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO2 on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO2 and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO2, pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO2, pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O2 g−1 h−1. Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2% than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6% but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%. The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO2. Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO2.

  11. Nomenclator Actinologicus seu Indices Ptychodactiariarum, Corallimorphariarum et Actiniarianum comprising indexes of the taxa, synonyms, authors and geographical distributions of the sea anemones of the world included in Professor Oskar Carlgren's 1949 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1949, the late Professor Oskar Carlgren of Lund, Sweden, published a bibliographical survey of the sea anemones of the world, comprising 42 families, 201 genera and 848 species. The survey is an essential starting point for any taxonomic or zoogeographical work on sea anemones. However, the

  12. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Philippe; Moya, Aurélie; Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the

  13. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  14. The coronary vasoconstrictor action of extract IV from the dahlia sea anemone Tealia felina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, R S; Elliott, R C

    1996-02-01

    Extract IV, a partially purified preparation of the toxin from the sea anemone Tealia felina, produced marked bradycardia and arrhythmias in the rat in vivo. In the Langendorff rat heart preparation perfused at constant pressure extract IV (0.0224 AU/ml) reduced the force of contraction by 81.3 +/- 7.2%, n = 6, and the coronary flow by 82.0 +/- 4.7%, n = 5. When the preparation was perfused at constant flow rate, extract IV (0.072 AU/ml) increased the coronary circulation resistance from 3.76 +/- 1.09 (control) to 36.94 +/- 12.26 mmHg/ml/min. The force of contraction was also markedly reduced. The extract produced bradycardia in preparations perfused at constant pressure but not in those perfused at constant flow rate. The extract did not affect isolated atria preparations. It was concluded that the bradycardia produced in vivo and in preparations perfused in vitro at constant pressure was probably secondary to the coronary vasospasm produced, which could contribute to the cardiotoxicity of the extract.

  15. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  16. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Amy E; Jones, Ian T; Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-01-15

    In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  18. Diffusion Limitation and Hyperoxic Enhancement of Oxygen Consumption in Zooxanthellate Sea Anemones, Zoanthids, and Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, J M

    1990-08-01

    Depending on their size and morphology, anthozoan polyps and colonies may be diffusion-limited in their oxygen consumption, even under well-stirred, air-saturated conditions. This is indicated by an enhancement of oxygen consumption under steady-state hyperoxic conditions that simulate the levels of O2 produced photosynthetically by zooxanthellae in the hosts' tissues. Such hyperoxia in the tissues of zooxanthellate species negates the effect of the diffusive boundary layer, and increases the rate of oxygen consumption; thus, in many cases, the rate of respiration measured under normoxia in the dark may not be representative of the rate during the day when the zooxanthellae are photosynthesizing and when the supply of oxygen for respiration is in the tissues themselves, not from the environment. These results have implications in respirometric methodology and in calculating the rate of gross photosynthesis in energetic studies. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase is higher in aposymbiotic than in zooxanthellate specimens of the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, and this may indicate a compensation for the relative hypoxia in the tissues of the former, enhancing the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria from the environment.

  19. Germ-layer commitment and axis formation in sea anemone embryonic cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Anastasia; Genikhovich, Grigory; Pukhlyakova, Ekaterina; Demilly, Adrien; Kraus, Yulia; Technau, Ulrich

    2018-02-20

    Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a combination of microsurgery and transgenic reporter gene expression, we show that, facing a new developmental context, the aggregates of dissociated embryonic cells of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis take an alternative developmental trajectory. The self-organizing aggregates rely on Wnt signals produced by the cells of the original blastopore lip organizer to form body axes but employ morphogenetic events typical for normal development of distantly related cnidarians to re-establish the germ layers. The reaggregated cells show enormous plasticity including the capacity of the ectodermal cells to convert into endoderm. Our results suggest that new developmental trajectories may evolve relatively easily when highly plastic embryonic cells face new constraints. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2015-08-31

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal–algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal–algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome.

  1. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S. marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A. pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The sea anemone Bunodactis octoradiata (Anthozoa: Actiniaria from southern Patagonia: morphological study and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Garese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunodactis Verril, 1899 comprises at present 19 nominal species of sea anemones. The validity of the genus is under discussion. The description of the species, Bunodactis octoradiata Carlgren, 1899, is insufficient for reliable identification, and although subsequent works have provided additional information on the species, its description still needs to be complemented. Herein we describe B. octoradiata based on histological sections of the internal anatomy, and give a complete and detailed description of the external anatomy. The cnidom is composed of spirocysts, basitrichs and microbasic p-mastigophores; their distribution in the organism, sizes and relative abundances are provided. The presence of zooxanthellae is reported for the first time. Bunodactis octoradiata is distributed in groups that vary from 5.6 to 45 ind./m² in the field. Additionally, our data extends the distribution of the species along the coast of southern Patagonia (47°44'36"-49°15'13"S and 65°50'26"-67°39'45"W.

  3. Genomic organization and splicing variants of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Hauser, F; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    the structure of its gene (CP1). CP1 is >12 kb in size and contains 15 exons and 14 introns. The last coding exon (exon 15) contains a stop codon, leaving no room for PAL and, thereby, for a bifunctional PAM enzyme as in mammals. Furthermore, we found a CP1 splicing variant (CP1-B) that contains exon-9 instead...... of PHM are conserved between CP1-A, -B and the PHM part of rat PAM. Furthermore, eight introns in CP1 occur in the same positions and have the same intron phasing as eight introns in the rat PAM gene, showing that the sea anemone PHM is not only structurally, but also evolutionarily related to the PHM......Cnidarians are primitive animals that use neuropeptides as their transmitters. All the numerous cnidarian neuropeptides isolated, so far, have a carboxy-terminal amide group that is essential for their actions. This strongly suggests that alpha-amidating enzymes are essential for the functioning...

  4. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldine R. Amiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  5. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  6. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  7. Phytolith Analysis for Differentiating between Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant. PMID:21573069

  8. Williamsia spongiae sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the marine sponge Amphimedon viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Souza, Wallace Rafael de; Parma, Márcia; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2017-05-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B138T, was isolated from the marine sponge, Amphimedon viridis, which was collected from Praia Guaecá (São Paulo, Brazil), and its taxonomic position was established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Williamsia and it formed a distinct phyletic line in the Williamsia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was most closely related to Williamsia serinedens DSM 45037T and Williamsia deligens DSM 44902T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Williamsia maris DSM 44693T (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), but was distinguished readily from these strains by the low DNA-DNA relatedness values (62.3-64.4 %) and by the discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B138T (=CBMAI 1094T=DSM 46676T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Williamsia, for which the name Williamsia spongiae sp. nov. is proposed.

  9. The effect of Euglena viridis on immune response of rohu, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Basanta Kumar; Pradhan, Jyotirmayee; Sahu, Swagatika

    2009-06-01

    The study evaluated the effect of dietary doses of Euglena viridis on the immune response and disease resistance of Labeo rohita fingerlings against infection with the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. L. rohita fingerlings were fed with diet containing 0 (Control), 0.1 g, 0.5 g, 1.0 g Euglena powder kg(-1) dry diet for 90 days. Biochemical (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio), haematological (WBC, RBC, haemoglobin content) and immunological (superoxide anion production, lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity) parameters of fish were examined after 30, 60 and 90 days of feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila 90 days post-feeding and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-infection. The results demonstrate that fish fed with Euglena showed increased levels of superoxide anion production, lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum protein and albumin (P Euglena kg(-1) dry diet showed the highest percentage survival (75%). These results indicate that Euglena stimulates the immunity and makes L. rohita more resistant to A. hydrophila infection.

  10. Kelayakan Kualitas Perairan Sekitar Mangrove Center Tuban Untuk Aplikasi Alat Pengumpul Kerang Hijau (Perna viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Hikmah Julinda Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, East Java is a potential habitat for the green mussel (Perna viridis L.. Therefore, the water quality of this area need to be assessment. The study was aimed to determine the feasibility of water quality in coastal water f Mangrove Center Tuban for application collecting gear of green mussels. The sampling was conducted by set up three stations randomly in studied area. Parameters was measured including temperature, pH, salinity, DO, depth, turbidity, BOD and TSS. The results showed that the coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, owned temperature that ranged from 29.10 to 30.67 0C, the pH ranged from 8.23 to 8.37, salinity ranged from 26.87 to 30.30 ‰, DO fall in the range of 6,63- 6.87 mg / L, the water depth at the time of measurement ranges from 40-85 cm. TSS ranged from 206.2 mg / L to 353.7 mg / L, BOD value between 4.05 to 12.2 mg / L, while the turbidity ranged from 134 to 400 NTU. Parameters that below the standard namely temperature, pH, DO, salinity and BOD, while TSS and turbidity were exceed the threshold quality standards set by the government.

  11. Responses of European green lizards Lacerta viridis following administration of Leishmania agamae promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G A; Molyneux, D H

    1984-12-01

    European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) were injected intraperitoneally, subcutaneously or orally with viable Leishmania agamae promastigotes. Neither promastigotes nor amastigotes were later found in blood and tissue impression smears, or in blood and selected organ cultures. However, by the use of an immunoperoxidase technique, parasite antigens were detected in the liver, stomach, small intestine, kidney, gonad, heart, lung and skin but not in the bone marrow, brain or spleen. Non-precipitating antibodies with beta 2-electrophoretic mobility were induced against L. agamae. They were detected in the sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 3-7 days post-infection. The titres increased significantly above background levels (P less than 0.001) and reached maxima after 6-7 weeks, with 27 out of 29 lizards producing antibodies. The mean serum protein concentration significantly increased after infection (P less than 0.005) with no significant differences in mean values between male and female animals. Lizard sera separated into 7 components on cellulose acetate membranes with migration rates comparable to albumin, alpha- and beta-globulins of human serum; gamma-globulins were absent. Significant decreases occurred (P less than 0.05) in the albumin fraction, with significant increases in the beta-globulin region of anti-L. agamae sera. C-reactive protein was not detected in either normal or immune lizard sera.

  12. The sensory component of the facial nerve of a reptile (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, V L

    1979-04-01

    The sensory fibers of the facial nerve in Lacerta viridis have been studied with a silver impregnation method to follow the course of axonal degeneration. Destruction of the geniculate ganglion demonstrated the degenerated sensory component of the facial nerve adjacent to the anterior vestibular root. Within the lateral vestibular area the facial sensory fibers consist of numerous rootlets separated by vestibular fibers and cells. These rootlets may join to form a main or paired sensory tract that passes through the vestibular nuclei to enter the tractus solitarius and divide into a small ascending prefacial component and a major descending prevagal division. A few fibers continue into the postvagal part of tractus solitarius and extend caudally to terminate in the nucleus commissura infima. Prefacial fibers terminate along the periventricular gray while prevagal fibers terminate within the tractus solitarius on the dendrites of cells of nucleus tractus solitarius and near the periphery of the dorsal motor nucleus of X. There was no noticeable degeneration in the descendens tractus trigemini. Terminal degeneration to descendens nucleus trigemini and motor nucleus of VII followed the tractus solitarius course. Most facial sensory fibers are probably related to taste and other visceral information.

  13. The mucosubstance coating the pneumonocytes in the lungs of Xenopus laevis and Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meban, C

    1975-01-01

    The layer of mucosubstance that is associated with the free surface membranes of the pneumonocytes in the lungs of the toad Xenopus laevis and the lizard Lacerta viridis was demonstrated by electron microscopy using iron oxide stain. The form and staining reactions of the mucosubstance layer were similar in both animals. In electron micrographs the mucosubstance was represented by a band of densely stained material (25-50 nm thick) which coated the entire free surface of the pneumonocytes. It appeared to be firmly attached to the outer leaflet of the superficial plasma membrane. Short lengths of osmiophilic membranes, presumed to be fragments of pulmonary surfactant, were often observed lying free in the air spaces but they did not show any affinity for iron stain. Incubation of lung sections in a solution of neuraminidase produced a marked decrease in the intensity of the surface staining; no change was detected after incubation in trypsin, papain, hyaluronidase, N-acetyl cysteine, or phosphate buffer. It is, therefore, concluded that the pneumonocyte surface coat consists mainly of a sialomucin.

  14. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-12-23

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male-male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male-male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success.

  15. The primary humoral immune response of European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to Leishmania agamae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G A; Molyneux, D H

    1983-01-01

    European green lizards, Lacerta viridis, produced relatively thermostable, dithiothreitol-sensitive, non-precipitating, agglutinins and complement-fixing antibodies (CFA) to Leishmania agamae administered subcutaneously (SC), intraperitoneally (IP) or orally (OR). Antibodies were also detected by the immobilization test (IMM) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most sensitive method for the detection of stimulated immunoglobulins was ELISA. Antibodies were detected as early as 3 days post-infection with ELISA and between 5 and 7 for CFA, direct agglutination (DA) and indirect haemagglutination (IHA). In the case of IMM, the times of first detection varied from 14 to 28 days. Maximum CFA (2(-8)), DA (2(-8)), IHA (2(-11)) and ELISA (2(-16)) titres were reached from 42 to 49 days with significantly higher values occurring in the OR and IP groups. With IMM, maxima occurred after 5 or 6 weeks. Following exposure, two- to five-fold significant increases in serum lysozyme levels were demonstrated but the concentrations in sera following SC, IP or OR routes of antigen administration were not significantly different when the groups were compared with each other. The highest lysozyme values (approximately 12.3 - 12.5 micrograms ml(-1)) were found in the SC and OR groups when compared to the IP (7.40 micrograms ml(-1)).

  16. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  17. Establishing the thermal threshold of the tropical mussel Perna viridis in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, B P L; Lai, C H

    2014-08-30

    With increasing recognition that maximum oxygen demand is the unifying limit in tolerance, the first line of thermal sensitivity is, as a corollary, due to capacity limitations at a high level of organisational complexity before individual, molecular or membrane functions become disturbed. In this study the tropical mussel Perna viridis were subjected to temperature change of 0.4 °C per hour from ambient to 8-36 °C. By comparing thermal mortality against biochemical indices (hsp70, gluthathione), physiological indices (glycogen, FRAP, NRRT) and behavioural indices (clearance rate), a hierarchy of thermal tolerance was therein elucidated, ranging from systemic to cellular to molecular levels. Generally, while biochemical indices indicated a stress signal much earlier than the more integrated behavioural indices, failure of the latter (indicating a tolerance limit and transition to pejus state) occurred much earlier than the other indices tending towards thermal extremities at both ends of the thermal spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Visible-light-assisted SLCs template synthesis of sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites with high electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li

    2018-03-01

    Sea anemone-like palladium (Pd)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via visible-light-assisted swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) template method. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The electrocatalytic properties of Pd/PANI nanocomposites modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) for methane oxidation were investigated by cycle voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Those dispersed sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites had an average diameter of 320 nm. The obtained Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 45 nm were uniformly distributed in PANI matrix. Sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxidation of methane (CH4).

  19. Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae Variabilidad térmica intrapoblacional y respuesta fisiológica en el pez intermareal Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M PULGAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning approximately 1,200 km. Southern fishes acclimatized to 25 °C showed higher metabolic rates than those from other localities and thermal treatments. On the other hand, southern fishes in natural conditions showed higher condition factor than northern fishes. This evidence is sufficient to indicate that slight latitudinal differences in tidepool seawater temperature associated to differential food availability induced an energetic constraint in this species. Moreover, southern population of S. viridis may suffer important effects on energetic allocation if seawater temperature increases slightly, with repercussions on its geographic distribution in southern Pacific OceanDeterminar las condiciones del ambiente que generan variabilidad fisiológica, representa un conocimiento básico para comprender el sentido de la respuesta de los animales a los cambios en su habitat. El pez costero Scartichthys viridis habita las pozas bajas del intermareal a lo largo de la costa chilena. Debido a que el agua de mar se renueva en cada ciclo de marea en las pozas bajas, esta zona está caracterizada por una baja variación térmica y abundante alimento entre localidades. Nosotros evaluamos si las condiciones térmicas y la

  20. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    the precursor protein for this metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones. The precursor protein is 514-amino acid residues long and contains 10 copies of the immature, authentic neuropeptide (Gln-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-Gly). All neuropeptide copies are preceded by Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequences...... a polyp, a medusa, and a planula larva stage. Recently, a neuropeptide, sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a hydropolyp [Leitz, T., Morand, K. & Mann, M. (1994) Dev. Biol. 163, 440-446]. Here, we have cloned...

  1. A new cytolytic protein from the sea anemone Urticina crassicornis that binds to cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razpotnik, Andrej; Krizaj, Igor; Kem, William R; Macek, Peter; Turk, Tom

    2009-06-01

    A new pore-forming cytolytic protein was isolated from the Northern red sea anemone, Urticina crassicornis. Its biochemical properties were characterized and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. The cytolysin, named UcI, has a molecular mass of around 30kDa and lacks phospholipase A(2) activity. UcI lyses bovine erythrocytes at nanomolar concentrations. Hemolysis is a result of a colloid-osmotic shock caused by the opening of toxin-induced ionic pores and can be prevented by osmotic protectants of size >600Da. The functional radius of an average pore was estimated to be about 0.66nm. A more detailed study of the cytolytic activity of UcI was performed with lipid vesicles and monolayers. The toxin binds to monolayers and efficiently permeabilizes small lipid vesicles composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. However, the cytolytic activity is not prevented by preincubation with either pure cholesterol or sphingomyelin dispersions. We conclude that the presence of both sphingomyelin and cholesterol, key components of lipid rafts, greatly enhances toxin binding to membranes and probably facilitates pore formation. Alignment of the toxin partial amino acid sequence with sequences of cytolysins belonging to the actinoporin family reveals no sequence homology. We conclude that partial sequence of UcI resembles only the N-terminal part of UpI, a cytolytic protein isolated from a related sea anemone species, Urticina piscivora. The two proteins most probably belong to a separate family of sea anemone cytolysins that are worthy of further characterization.

  2. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  3. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, II: further studies of differences amongst sample means and their taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Lengths of cnidae, sampled from fresh tissue (tentacles, acontia or column from the sea anemones Metridium senile (Linnaeus, Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant, Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, Sagartia troglodytes (Price, Anthopleura thallia (Gosse and Urticina eques (Gosse, were measured. The mean, mode, median, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum and range of each sample were calculated. Lengths of nematocysts (basitrichs and microbasic p-mastigophores and spirocysts had normal (Gaussian frequency distributions, and there was no important within-sample variability. A between-sample (same specimen difference was detected between mean lengths of microbasic p-mastigophores from acontia in Sagartia elegans. Intraspecific (between-specimen differences amongst mean lengths of basitrichs from column ectoderm were detected amongst four specimens of Urticina eques, and a difference occurred between the mean lengths of microbasic p-mastigophores from the acontia of two specimens of Sagartia elegans. However, for each of the species U. eques and S. elegans, there was no direct correlation between the sizes of the anemones examined and the mean lengths of their nematocysts. Overall, the results confirm that cnida size, when taken in isolation, is not a reliable taxonomic character for sea anemones. For other purposes, mean cnida measurements may be useful and a rapid sample range test is suggested for analysing differences between them. Methods are also presented for estimating means and standard deviations from data in publications that provide only ranges of cnida sizes and the number of cnidae measured. The present results and conclusions supplement those of Williams (1996, Scientia Marina, 60: 339-351.

  4. Crecimiento y supervivencia de los mejillones Perna perna, Perna viridis y de un morfotipo indefinido bajo cultivo suspendido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron el crecimiento y la influencia de factores ambientales bajo condiciones de cultivo suspendido del mejillón Perna perna L., P. viridis L. y una variante o morfotipo indefinido, que comparte sustrato y características morfológicas y de color de ambas especies. El estudio fue conducido durante 10 meses en la localidad de Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Las tres poblaciones experimentales, sembradas con una talla inicial homogénea (45–50 mm presentaron un patrón de crecimiento similar; sin embargo, P. viridis mostró tasas de crecimiento significativamente menores a las de P. perna y del morfotipo, alcanzando al final del estudio 71.2, 77.0 y 77.8 mm de longitud dorso-ventral de la concha, respectivamente. Los análisis de correlatividad de los factores ambientales y el crecimiento no mostraron una modulación definida del crecimiento somático debido a factores ambientales; no obstante, la actividad reproductiva, especialmente cuando se inicia por primera vez, puede actuar como factor endógeno negativo. Aunque los resultados muestran similar respuesta fisiológica de los mejillones, se observó mayor similitud entre P. perna y el morfotipo y diferencias suficientes entre éstas y P. viridis, sugiriendo que las dos primeras pueden estar más relacionadas genéticamente. Sin embargo, existieron diferencias entre el morfotipo y P. perna, en cuanto a las características fenotípicas de la concha, supervivencia e índice gonadosomático, que pueden establecer diferencias genéticas definidas. La mayor producción gonádica en la variante sugiere su selección para el cultivo.

  5. Intraspecific competition, stealing and placement of the symbiotic sea anemone Calliactis tricolor by the hermit crab Dardanus pedunculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The hermit crab Dardanus pedunculatus and the sea anemone Calliactis tricolor engage in a mutualistic relationship in the tropical reef ecosystem of Mo’orea, French Polynesia. This mutualism is shaped by the pressures on D. pedunculatus individuals to acquire actively and compete for C. tricolor in the wild. D. pedunculatus exhibits a consistent trend in behavior when competing for and placing C. tricolor on its gastropod shell. Since C. tricolor seems to be a valuable resource to D. peduncul...

  6. Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768 in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena V. Valkanova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42, the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases, followed by killing by humans (usually children – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2% and domestic cats (2% has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant difference between the mortalities of the two sexes was detected.

  7. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3...... of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon....... Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons....

  8. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative genome scan detects host-related divergent selection in the grasshopper Hesperotettix viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Jennifer L; Grace, Tony; Joern, Anthony; St Amand, Paul; Wisely, Samantha M

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we used a comparative genome scan to examine patterns of population differentiation with respect to host plant use in Hesperotettix viridis, a Nearctic oligophagous grasshopper locally specialized on various Asteraceae including Solidago, Gutierrezia, and Ericameria. We identified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci with significantly elevated F(ST) (outlier loci) in multiple different-host and same-host comparisons of populations while controlling for geographic distance. By comparing the number and identities of outlier loci in different-host vs. same-host comparisons, we found evidence of host plant-related divergent selection for some population comparisons (Solidago- vs. Gutierrezia-feeders), while other comparisons (Ericameria- vs. Gutierrezia-feeders) failed to demonstrate a strong role for host association in population differentiation. In comparisons of Solidago- vs. Gutierrezia-feeding populations, a relatively high number of outlier loci observed repeatedly in different-host comparisons (35% of all outliers and 2.7% of all 625 AFLP loci) indicated a significant role for host-related selection in contributing to overall genomic differentiation in this grasshopper. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data revealed a star-shaped phylogeny with no host- or geography-related structure, low nucleotide diversity, and high haplotype diversity, suggesting a recent population expansion. mtDNA data do not suggest a long period of isolation in separate glacial refugia but are instead more compatible with a single glacial refugium and more recent divergence in host use. Our study adds to research documenting heterogeneity in differentiation across the genome as a consequence of divergent natural selection, a phenomenon that may occur as part of the process of ecological speciation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovičová, Martina; Černíková, Alena

    2015-06-01

    The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  12. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis.

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    Gergely Horváth

    Full Text Available Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality or across multiple (behavioural syndrome behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis. We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome, (ii behavioural type (individual mean behaviour and (iii behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation. Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age. Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  13. Biological Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Process Using Marine Phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Bivalve Perna viridis

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    Sirichai Dharmvanij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.

  14. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Expansion of tandem repeats in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis proteome: A source for gene novelty?

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    Linial Michal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete proteome of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, provides insights into gene invention dating back to the Cnidarian-Bilaterian ancestor. With the addition of the complete proteomes of Hydra magnipapillata and Monosiga brevicollis, the investigation of proteins having unique features in early metazoan life has become practical. We focused on the properties and the evolutionary trends of tandem repeat (TR sequences in Cnidaria proteomes. Results We found that 11-16% of N. vectensis proteins contain tandem repeats. Most TRs cover 150 amino acid segments that are comprised of basic units of 5-20 amino acids. In total, the N. Vectensis proteome has about 3300 unique TR-units, but only a small fraction of them are shared with H. magnipapillata, M. brevicollis, or mammalian proteomes. The overall abundance of these TRs stands out relative to that of 14 proteomes representing the diversity among eukaryotes and within the metazoan world. TR-units are characterized by a unique composition of amino acids, with cysteine and histidine being over-represented. Structurally, most TR-segments are associated with coiled and disordered regions. Interestingly, 80% of the TR-segments can be read in more than one open reading frame. For over 100 of them, translation of the alternative frames would result in long proteins. Most domain families that are characterized as repeats in eukaryotes are found in the TR-proteomes from Nematostella and Hydra. Conclusions While most TR-proteins have originated from prediction tools and are still awaiting experimental validations, supportive evidence exists for hundreds of TR-units in Nematostella. The existence of TR-proteins in early metazoan life may have served as a robust mode for novel genes with previously overlooked structural and functional characteristics.

  16. The dynamically evolving nematocyst content of an anthozoan, a scyphozoan, and a hydrozoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamim, Tamar; Morgenstern, David; Aharonovich, Dikla; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar; Sher, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Nematocytes, the stinging cells of cnidarians, are the most evolutionarily ancient venom apparatus. These nanosyringe-like weaponry systems reach pressures of approximately 150 atmospheres before discharging and punching through the outer layer of the prey or predator at accelerations of more than 5 million g, making them one of the fastest biomechanical events known. To gain better understanding of the function of the complex, phylum-specific nematocyst organelle, and its venom payload, we compared the soluble nematocyst's proteome from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis, the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, and the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, each belonging to one of the three basal cnidarian lineages which diverged over 600 Ma. Although the basic morphological and functional characteristics of the nematocysts of the three organisms are similar, out of hundreds of proteins identified in each organism, only six are shared. These include structural proteins, a chaperone which may help maintain venon activity over extended periods, and dickkopf, an enigmatic Wnt ligand which may also serve as a toxin. Nevertheless, many protein domains are shared between the three organisms' nematocyst content suggesting common proteome functionalities. The venoms of Hydra and Aurelia appear to be functionally similar and composed mainly of cytotoxins and enzymes, whereas the venom of the Anemonia is markedly unique and based on peptide neurotoxins. Cnidarian venoms show evidence for functional recruitment, yet evidence for diversification through positive selection, common to other venoms, is lacking. The final injected nematocyst payload comprises a mixture of dynamically evolving proteins involved in the development, maturation, maintenance, and discharge of the nematocysts, which is unique to each organism and potentially to each nematocyst type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved

  17. Biology of a deep-water sea anemone (Anthozoa: Actiniidae) from eastern Canada: Spawning, development, and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Daly, Marymegan; Macrander, Jason; Hamel, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the general biology and reproductive ecology of deep-water species can help predict their resilience to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. The present study centers on live specimens of a deep-water sea anemone which were collected at bathyal depths between 1100 and 1400 m and kept in a mesocosm for over 6 years. Morphology and DNA sequencing confirmed that the species belongs to the genus Urticina. Male and female (9-10 cm pedal disk diameter, 90 tentacles) spawned 4 years post collection, in early spring (March). Both sexes released gametes through the mouth. The negatively buoyant oocytes (550-600 μm in diameter) quickly settled on the rocks and soft sediments surrounding the female. Lecithotrophic embryonic and larval development occurred on the substratum. Fully developed planula larvae were detected after 17-21 days. Planulae started to crawl and swim around but remained demersal. Metamorphosis and settlement occurred after 30-35 days, exclusively on hard substrata and preferentially on undersurfaces. Offspring grew slowly, developing 8 tentacles after 5 months and 24 tentacles after 12 months (3-4 mm pedal disk diameter). After 2.6 years of growth, the captive-born sea anemones reached 12-16 mm in pedal disk diameter and possessed 48-54 tentacles.

  18. Experimentally Induced Bleaching in the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Supports Glucose as a Main Metabolite Associated with Its Symbiosis

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    Víctor Hugo Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of carbon exchange between partners in the Symbiodinium-cnidarian symbioses is still limited, even though studies employing carbon isotopes have made us aware of the metabolic complexity of this exchange. We examined glycerol and glucose metabolism to better understand how photosynthates are exchanged between host and symbiont. The levels of these metabolites were compared between symbiotic and bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones, assaying enzymes directly involved in their metabolism. We measured a significant decrease of glucose levels in bleached animals but a significant increase in glycerol and G3P pools, suggesting that bleached animals degrade lipids to compensate for the loss of symbionts and seem to rely on symbiotic glucose. The lower glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase but higher glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase specific activities measured in bleached animals agree with a metabolic deficit mainly due to the loss of glucose from the ruptured symbiosis. These results corroborate previous observations on carbon translocation from symbiont to host in the sea anemone Exaiptasia, where glucose was proposed as a main translocated metabolite. To better understand photosynthate translocation and its regulation, additional research with other symbiotic cnidarians is needed, in particular, those with calcium carbonate skeletons.

  19. Staining protocol for the histological study of sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria with recommendations for anesthesia and fixation of specimens

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    Carlos Spano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the characteristics used in sea anemone taxonomy can only be examined through histological sections. Since there is no standardized procedure for this purpose, various anesthesia and fixation techniques applied to specimens of the intertidal species Anthopleura hermaphroditica and Bunodactis hermafroditica are discussed. Additionally, further modifications are proposed to the Masson's trichrome method according to the results obtained on these species. The combined effect of the short application of menthol crystals, together with small doses of MgCl2 were the most satisfactory anesthetics for maintaining the specimens expanded. The best preparations were obtained from samples fixed for several months in 8% seawater formalin; however, in order to achieve a good differentiation of the tissue, mordanting the samples with Bouin's fixative was necessary. Besides being a fast method, the modified Masson's trichrome gives very good contrasts between the epithelia and the mesoglea, and allows controlling the timing of differentiation during staining. The present paper includes suggestions and precautions and thus offers practical help for the histological study of sea anemones.

  20. Meandrina meandrites and Emblemariopsis diaphana, first record of an association between a stony coral and a fish, similar to anemone/fish relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Wapstra, Marlies; Dijk, van Eric

    1980-01-01

    An association is described between a Caribbean stony coral, Meandrina meandrites, and a chaenopsid fish, Emblemariopsis diaphana. Like in anemone/fish associations the coral tentacles provide shelter for the fish. Some observations were made, both in the field and in the laboratory, of the

  1. Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of English populations of a small (<2 cm long), burrowing athenarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935 (= N. pellucida Crowell, 1946), which lives in soft mud in salt marshes and creeks, are described. Objectives were to ascertain

  2. An unusual sea anemone from slope depths of the tropical west Pacific: range extension and redescription of Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918 (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Actinernidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fautin, D.G.; Hartog, den J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The sea anemone species Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918, and Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, which were described in new monotypic genera from few specimens collected in southern Japan, are synonymized, based on many more specimens from the South Pacific. As well as the geographic

  3. HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN BEBERAPA POPULASI KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SEKUEN CYTROCROME B mtDNA

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    Achmad Sudradjat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan stok kerang hijau (Perna viridis di beberapa perairan Indonesia sebagai informasi dasar bagi program pemuliaan. Sampel kerang hijau yang berasal dari populasi alam perairan Tanjung Kait, Kamal, Panimbang, Cirebon, Pasuruan, Kenjeran, dan Pangkep diambil secara acak. Amplifikasi PCR dan sekuensing mitokondria daerah cytochrome B adalah HCO (F: 5’-TAA ACT TCA GGG TGA CCA AAA AAT CA-3’ (26 bp dan LCO (R: 5’-GGT CAA CAA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTG G-3’ (25 bp. Sekuen DNA yang diperoleh digunakan untuk analisis homologi, analisis genetic distance dan analisis kekerabatan. Hasil analisis homologi susunan nukleotida berdasarkan BLAST-N terhadap sekuen mtDNA Perna viridis yang tersimpan di Genebank menunjukkan similaritas 97%. Hasil analisis didapatkan jarak genetik yang terdekat adalah populasi Tanjung Kait dengan Kenjeran sedangkan jarak genetik terjauh adalah populasi Cirebon dengan Kamal. Hubungan kekerabatan yang ditunjukkan dengan dendrogram diperoleh 2 kelompok yaitu 6 populasi membentuk satu kelompok dan populasi Cirebon membentuk kluster tersendiri. Sekuens tersebut mungkin dapat digunakan sebagai penanda dalam program breeding kerang hijau di Indonesia

  4. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. helped to define the origin of green pythons (Morelia viridis) confiscated in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Pantchev, Nikola; Herrmann, Daland C; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Öfner, Sabine; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. represent apicomplexan parasites. They usually have a heteroxenous life cycle. Around 200 species have been described, affecting a wide range of animals worldwide, including reptiles. In recent years, large numbers of reptiles have been imported into Europe as pets and, as a consequence, animal welfare and species protection issues emerged. A sample of pooled feces from four confiscated green pythons (Morelia viridis) containing Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts was investigated. These snakes were imported for the pet trade and declared as being captive-bred. Full length 18S rRNA genes were amplified, cloned into plasmids and sequenced. Two different Sarcocystis spp. sequences were identified and registered as Sarcocystis sp. from M. viridis in GenBank. Both showed a 95-97% sequence identity with the 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis singaporensis. Phylogenetic analysis positioned these sequences together with other Sarcocystis spp. from snakes and rodents as definitive and intermediate hosts (IH), respectively. Sequence data and also the results of clinical and parasitological examinations suggest that the snakes were definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. that circulate in wild IH. Thus, it seems unlikely that the infected snakes had been legally bred. Our research shows that information on the infection of snakes with Sarcocystis spp. may be used to assess compliance with regulations on the trade with wildlife species.

  5. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  6. ARCTIC-ANTARCTIC DISJUNCTIONS IN THE BENTHIC SEAWEEDS ACROSIPHONIA-ARCTA (CHLOROPHYTA) AND DESMARESTIA-VIRIDIS-WILLII (PHAEOPHYTA) ARE OF RECENT ORIGIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, MJH; OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT; VANDENHOEK, C; WIENCKE, C

    Two examples of the most extreme biogeographic disjunctions in benthic marine algae are found in Acrosiphonia arcta (Chlorophyta) and Desmarestia viridis/willii (Phaeophyta). Both species are members of the Arctic and Antarctic boreal and subboreal marine floras. Although both genera have temperate

  7. [Effects of ablation of the hindlimb on the organization of the ventral horn of the spinal cord in the lumbar region of green lizard embryos (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Clairambault, P

    1978-01-01

    After extirpation of an hind limb in embryos of Lacerta viridis, numerous motor neuroblasts degenerate on the operated side, in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the corresponding motor column is reduced or disappears. The lumbar spinal ganglia are affected and reduced on the operated side.

  8. [Ultrastructural characteristics of several constituants of limb buds in the embryos of the slowworm (Anguis fragilis L.) and the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-06-09

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells of the apical crest, of the mesoblast and of the ventral processes of somites, in the anlage of the anterior limb buds of embryos of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) are described at early stages of the development. Differences between the two species studied are brought to light.

  9. N2 fixing alder (Alnus viridis spp.fruticosa) effects on soil properties across a secondary successional chronosequence in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Mitchell; Roger W. Ruess

    2009-01-01

    Green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. fruticosa) is a dominant understory shrub during secondary successional development of upland forests throughout interior Alaska, where it contributes substantially to the nitrogen (N) economy through atmospheric N2 fixation. Across a replicated 200+ year old vegetation...

  10. Sédentarité, déplacements et répartition des individus dans une population de Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) (Lacertilia, Lacertidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girons, Saint H.; Bradshaw, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    A mark-and-recapture study was undertaken in August 1983, May and September 1987, and May 1988 of a small discrete population of Lacerta viridis occupying an area of 260 x 11—25 m, along the length of a canal in western France. A total of 21 recaptures, over periods of time varying from four months

  11. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Arnold (Institute for Advanced Study)

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  12. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leaf oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures Reflect Drought Resistance and Water Use Efficiency in the C4 Grass, Setaria viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, P.; Cousins, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Low water availability is a major constraint in crop production, especially as agriculture is pushed to marginal lands. Therefore, improving drought resistance such as increasing water use efficiency (WUE) through plant breeding is needed to expand the range of soil water availability adequate for food production. With the goal of finding the genomic basis for WUE in C4 grasses, Setaria viridis makes an ideal model species because of its small size, short lifespan, and sequenced genome. Also it is part of the panicoid grass clade, which is one of the most important clades for food and biofuel production. In plant breeding programs, large numbers of genotypes must be quickly screened for drought resistance traits, but there is no well-defined method of screening for WUE in C4 grasses. However, bulk leaf oxygen (Δ18OBL) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic signatures have shown potential as recorders of transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs), and combined with biomass production potentially serve as a measure of WUE. Values of Δ18OBL record differences in transpiration rate because leaf water becomes more enriched as transpiration rate decreases, and leaf tissue records the isotopic composition of leaf water in which it is synthesized. Additionally, in C4 plants δ13C values decrease as gs decreases but the change in δ13C in response to gs may not be adequate to tease apart differences in WUE. In this study, we grew S. viridis plants under well-watered and water-limited conditions to determine if Δ18OBL and δ13C could be used as proxies for E and gs, and be used to screen S. viridis for differences in WUE in breeding programs. The Δ18OBL and δ13C were significantly different between well-watered and water-limited plants and correlated with each other and with E, gs, and instantaneous water use efficiency (Anet/gs). Therefore, Δ18OBL and δ13C can be useful proxies to screen genotypes for drought resistance by recording differences in E, gs, and WUE

  14. Componentes bioquímicos de los tejidos de Perna perna y P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, en relación al crecimiento en condiciones de cultivo suspendido Biochemical components of the tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, in relation to the growth under conditions of suspended cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Acosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó los cambios ocurridos en carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos de la glándula digestiva, músculo y lóbulos gonadales de los mejillones Perna perna y P. viridis bajo condiciones de cultivo suspendido en el Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Paralelamente, se llevaron registros de la condición reproductiva de ambas especies y de temperatura, clorofila a y seston. Los resultados muestraron que en los tejidos analizados de ambas especies, los lóbulos gonadales presentaron las mayores variaciones de los sustratos energéticos estudiados. La variación de los sustratos energéticos se explicó en ambos mejillones mediante desarrollo gonádico y la disponibilidad de alimento, particularmente clorofila a para P. perna y seston total para P. viridis. La temperatura fue un factor que afectó negativamente a P. viridis. Los contenidos de los diferentes sustratos energéticos observados en P. perna fueron más altos que en P. viridis, a lo largo de casi todo el periodo experimental, lo que indicó que esta especie mostró una mayor capacidad para explotar de manera más eficiente los recursos alimenticios presentes en las condiciones de cultivo suspendido.In the organisms, the variations of the biochemical composition of reproductive and somatic tissues in the growth permit to infer about its adaptative to environment. In the present study, we evaluate the changes observed in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins of digestive gland, muscle and gonad tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis, growing in suspended culture at Cariaco Gulf , Venezuela. The reproductive condition of both mussels and environmental factors (temperature, chlorophyll a and of the seston were determinate. The results show that, in both species, the gonadic lobes showed the highest variations in the biochemical component. The variations in the biochemical components were direct explained by the variations in the gonad development and the food availability, particularly chlorophyll a

  15. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325

  16. For she that hath, to her shall be given…Implications of flowering in Anemone nemorosa L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Peter Milan; Philipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We looked for life-history trade-offs between flowering, vegetative growth and somatic maintenance in the common woodland herb Anemone nemorosa. A. nemorosa forms a horizontal rhizome system consisting of previously formed annual segments and terminated by a flowering or non-flowering shoot....... Resources acquired by the aboveground parts are used for flowering, seed production, storage and growth of the annual segments. Resources stored in the rhizome during the growing period are used for preformation of buds, somatic maintenance between two growing periods and development of aboveground parts...... in the following spring. We hypothesised that the decision to invest in flower buds depends on the amount of resources stored in the recently formed annual segment. We also hypothesised a trade-off between flowering and segment growth and, finally, as a consequence, we expected individual rhizomes to alternate...

  17. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

    2015-02-28

    Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Shi Qiong; Zhao Xiaokui

    1997-10-01

    Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125 I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis), has been studied. The results showed that concentration capacity of every part in smaller mussels was higher than that in larger ones. Concentration factors of 125 I in byssus (about 0.5 x 10 3 ∼1.5 x 10 3 ), the highest in all parts of the mussels, were 30∼200 times as that in soft tissues, 200∼600 times as that in feet, 600∼1000 times as that in shells. Although wet weight of byssus was no more than 1% of whole body's wet weight, the content of 125 I accumulated in it accounted for as high as 75% of total 125 I content. The relationship between concentration factor of 125 I in byssus and whole body's wet weight (or shell length) can be described as a negative power function. (16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.)

  19. Qualitative Assessment and Management of Microplastics in Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis Cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Phillipines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ryan Argamino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (> 5 mm have gained popularity in research and the public eye in recent years. This is due to the fact that they contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs which pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Bivalves, which are filter feeders, are considered to be good indicators of marine pollution. In this preliminary study, Asian green mussel (Perna viridis, an example of edible bivalve, cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines was subjected to qualitative analysis to determine the presence of microplastics. Through microscopic analysis, microplastics were found present in the acid-digested mussel soft tissue. A management program is suggested for policy makers and stakeholders to reduce the negative impact of microplastic pollution to both humans and the marine environment.

  20. Lectin cytochemical localisation of glycoconjugates in the olfactory system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, V; Lazzari, M; Ciani, F

    2000-07-01

    To investigate the presence of defined carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface of the olfactory and vomeronasal receptor cells and the projections of the latter into the olfactory bulbs, a lectin binding study was performed on the olfactory system of the lizards: Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula. Both lizards showed a high lectin binding for N-acetyl-glucosamine in the sensory neurons. The lectin binding patterns in Lacerta indicated that the main olfactory system possessed a moderate density of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues and detectable levels of galactose ones. The vomeronasal system on the other hand contained a high density of N-acetyl-galactosamine moieties and a moderate density of glucosamine ones. In Podarcis the main olfactory system and vomeronasal organ contained respectively detectable and moderate levels of galactose residues. The expression of specific glycoconjugates may be associated with outgrowth, guidance and fasciculation of olfactory and vomeronasal axons.

  1. Genetic tools link long-term demographic and life-history traits of anemonefish to their anemone hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Salles, Océane C.

    2016-07-26

    The life-history traits and population dynamics of species are increasingly being attributed to the characteristics of their preferred habitats. While coral reef fish are often strongly associated with particular habitats, long-term studies establishing the demographic and life-history consequences of occupying different reef substrata are rare and no studies have monitored individuals in situ over their lifetime and determined the fate of their offspring. Here, we documented a quasi-turnover and local reproductive success for an entire population of orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, by taking bi-annual samples of DNA over a 10-yr period (2003–2013). We compared demographic and life-history traits of individuals living on two host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica and Stichodactyla gigantea, including female size, adult continued presence (a proxy for relative longevity range), early post-settlement growth, the number of eggs per clutch and ‘local’ reproductive success (defined for each adult as the number of offspring returning to the natal population). Our results indicate that while the relative longevity of adults was similar on both host anemone species, females living in H. magnifica were larger than females in S. gigantea. However, despite females growing larger and producing more eggs on H. magnifica, we found that local reproductive success was significantly higher for clownfish living in S. gigantea. Life-history traits also exhibited local spatial variation, with higher local reproductive success recorded for adults living on S. gigantea on the eastern side of the island. Our findings support a ‘silver-spoon’ hypothesis that predicts individuals that are fortunate enough to recruit into good habitat and location will be rewarded with higher long-term reproductive success and will make a disproportionate contribution to population renewal. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  2. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.La fauna de anémonas de mar es prácticamente desconocida para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (Costa Rica. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la especie Telmatactis panamensis. Individuos de esta anémona de mar fueron colectados en el intermareal de Bahía Chatham y a 15m de profundidad en Punta Ulloa, en ambos casos adheridas a rocas; durante la expedición UCR-UNA-COCO-I en Abril de 2010. Se proveen fotografías de ejemplares vivos, datos de su anatomía externa y un inventario del cnidae de los especímenes estudiados. Posiblemente esta especie se extienda a mayor profundidad, tal como fue observado por otros autores para ejemplares de las Islas Galápagos.

  3. Lophotrochozoan neuroanatomy: An analysis of the brain and nervous system of Lineus viridis(Nemertea using different staining techniques

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    Loesel Rudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The now thriving field of neurophylogeny that links the morphology of the nervous system to early evolutionary events relies heavily on detailed descriptions of the neuronal architecture of taxa under scrutiny. While recent accounts on the nervous system of a number of animal clades such as arthropods, annelids, and molluscs are abundant, in depth studies of the neuroanatomy of nemerteans are still wanting. In this study, we used different staining techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal the architecture of the nervous system of Lineus viridis with high anatomical resolution. Results In L. viridis, the peripheral nervous system comprises four distinct but interconnected nerve plexus. The central nervous system consists of a pair of medullary cords and a brain. The brain surrounds the proboscis and is subdivided into four voluminous lobes and a ring of commissural tracts. The brain is well developed and contains thousands of neurons. It does not reveal compartmentalized neuropils found in other animal groups with elaborate cerebral ganglia. Conclusions The detailed analysis of the nemertean nervous system presented in this study does not support any hypothesis on the phylogenetic position of Nemertea within Lophotrochozoa. Neuroanatomical characters that are described here are either common in other lophotrochozoan taxa or are seemingly restricted to nemerteans. Since detailed descriptions of the nervous system of adults in other nemertean species have not been available so far, this study may serve as a basis for future studies that might add data to the unsettled question of the nemertean ground pattern and the position of this taxon within the phylogenetic tree.

  4. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  5. Identification of a new 6-bromo-5,9-eicosadienoic acid from the anemone Condylactis gigantea and the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, N M; Reyes, M

    1995-11-01

    A new brominated fatty acid, 6-bromo-5,9-eicosadienoic acid [1] was identified in the phospholipids (mainly phosphatidylethanolamine) of the anemone Condylactis gigantea and the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum. The delta 5,9 fatty acids, 5,9-octadecadienoic acid, 5,9-eicosadienoic acid, 5,9-docosadienoic acid, and 5,9-tetracosadienoic acid, were also identified in both organisms. Structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic and chemical means. Our results further corroborate that delta 5,9 phospholipid fatty acids are not unique to sponges, as recognized previously, but can be found in other marine invertebrates such as anemones and zoanthids. An improved procedure for the synthesis of picolinyl esters is also described.

  6. New records of the deep-sea anemone Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973 (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Hormathiidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, M E; Hinojosa-Corona, A; Ayón-Parente, M

    2016-10-20

    Specimens of a deep-sea anemone were observed in photographs and video footage taken with the Remotely Operated Vehicle JASON (WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in May 2008. Comparison of our material with photographs and description of this species available in literature indicate that the sea anemones filmed during the JASON survey are most likely to represent Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973. This species has previously been reported from a locality in the Gulf of California near the present record. During the JASON survey, 28 specimens of P. callicyclus were spotted in 27 locations during six dives. The specimens occurred on angular rock outcrops along the escarpments of the transform faults of the Gulf of California, between depths of 993-2543 m and at temperatures ranging from 2.3 to 4.5°C. Based on these new records, Phelliactis callicyclus appears to be widely spread in the Gulf of California.

  7. The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria.

  8. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  9. A case of massive infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata by castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758):

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero, Miguel A.; Gomes, Veronika; Žagar, Anamarija

    2013-01-01

    Infestation by ticks affects several vertebrate groups, including reptiles. Castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread tick species. Here we report an impressive tick infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata found in 2012 in the vicinity of Bilpa cave in the Kolpa valley, Slovenia. Lizards as tick hosts can play an important role in the life cycle of I. ricinus and may also be potential vectors of Lyme disease. Zaprarazitiranost s klopi je pogost pojav pri v...

  10. [Electron microscopic study of the penetration and distribution of somitic cells in the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptiles (Anguis fragilis and Lacerta viridis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-09-29

    Based on characteristics of mitochondria and on the amount of lipid inclusions, a distinction between somitic cells and mesoblastic somatopleural cells is possible, at the early stages of the development of the limb bud in Reptiles (Anguis fragilis and Lacerta viridis). The dislocation of the ventral processes of the somites and the localisation of the somitic cells in the mesoblast of the anterior limb buds could be studied.

  11. Autekologie lokální populace ještěrky zelené (\\kur{Lacerta viridis}) v Českém krasu.

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽEK, David

    2013-01-01

    European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) is critically endangered species. Bohemian populations are usually isolated and with lower degree of genetical variability, which gives them a higher degree of vulnerability. Isolated populations are interesting because animals often live there under ultimate possible life conditions for given species, usually in original environment. For the sake of an effective protection of the species morfological, ethological and ecological data are necessary, as w...

  12. OCCURRENCE IN THE SOIL AND DISPERSAL OF Lecanicillium lecanii, A FUNGAL PATHOGEN OF THE GREEN COFFEE SCALE (Coccus viridis AND COFFEE RUST (Hemileia vastatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug William Jackson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Lecanicillium lecanii attacks the green scale (Coccus viridis, a pest of coffee, and is also a hyperparasite of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix. Knowledge of the epizootiology of this fungus is potentially important for conservation biological control in coffee agroecosystems. The presence of viable propagules of L. lecanii in the soil, a possible environmental reservoir, was assessed using two baiting methods: the standard Galleria mellonella bait method and a C. viridis bait method. Infectious propagules of L. lecanii were detected in soil samples taken from a 45 ha study plot, both nearby and far from recent epizootics of L. lecanii. To test the potential for the transmission of L. lecanii conidia from the soil via rain splash or wind, coffee seedlings with populations of C. viridis were placed near L. lecanii-inoculated soil and then subjected to artificial rain and wind treatments. Rain splash was shown to be a potential transmission mechanism. Dispersal of L. lecanii conidia by the ant Azteca instabilis was tested using field and laboratory ant-exclusion experiments. Azteca instabilis was shown to transport conidia of L. lecanii; however, dispersal by A. instabilis may not be important under field conditions.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  14. Sub-lethal effects of cadmium and copper on RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserves in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to test if RNA/DNA ratio and various energy reserve parameters (i.e., glycogen, lipid, protein content and total energy reserves) are sensitive biomarkers for indicating stresses induced by metal contaminants in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, a common organism for biomonitoring in Southeast Asia. This study was, therefore, designed to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on these potential biomarkers in two major energy storage tissues, adductor muscle (AM) and hepatopancreas (HP), of P. viridis after sub-lethal exposure to either metal for 10 days. The results showed that neither Cd nor Cu treatments affected the RNA/DNA ratio, glycogen and protein contents in AM and HP. As the most sensitive biomarker in P. viridis, the total lipid content in both AM and HP was significantly decreased in the treatment of 5μg Cu/L and 0.01-0.1μgCd/L, respectively. However, soft-tissue body burdens of Cu or Cd did not significantly correlate with each of the four biomarkers regardless of the tissue type. In addition, AM generally stored more glycogen than HP, whereas HP stored more lipids than AM. We proposed that multiple biomarkers may be employed as an integrated diagnostic tool for monitoring the health condition of the mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-11-30

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Aika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphostasis of traits in different species is necessary for reconstructing the evolutionary history of complex characters. Studies that place these species into a molecular phylogenetic context test hypotheses about the transitional stages that link divergent character states. For instance, the transition from a phagotrophic mode of nutrition to a phototrophic lifestyle has occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition. Phototrophic euglenids form a clade that is nested within lineages of phagotrophic euglenids and that originated through a secondary endosymbiosis with green algae. Although it is clear that phototrophic euglenids evolved from phagotrophic ancestors, the morphological disparity between species representing these different nutritional modes remains substantial. Results We cultivated a novel marine euglenid, Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. ("green grasper", and a green alga, Tetraselmis sp., from the same environment. Cells of R. viridis were comprehensively characterized with light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences. Ultrastructural and behavioral observations demonstrated that this isolate habitually consumes a specific strain of Tetraselmis prey cells and possesses a functional chloroplast that is homologous with other phototrophic euglenids. A novel feeding apparatus consisting of a reduced rod of microtubules facilitated this first and only example of mixotrophy among euglenids. R. viridis also possessed a robust photoreception apparatus, two flagella of unequal length, euglenoid movement, and a pellicle consisting of 16 strips and one (square-shaped whorl of posterior strip reduction. The molecular phylogenetic data demonstrated that R. viridis branches as the nearest sister lineage to phototrophic euglenids

  17. [Effects of cytosine-arabinofuranoside on the development of reptilian embryos (Lacerta viridis, Laur. and Anguis fragilis, L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A

    1982-01-01

    Administered into the yolk sac of eggs of Lacerta viridis as a single dose of 17 to 40 micrograms, cytosine-arabinoside (Ara-C) was compatible with survival of the embryo, from the sixth day of incubation, for at least 20 to 25 days. The LD50 was 40 to 50 micrograms per egg. Doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C introduced in the yolk sac of eggs of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) cultured in vitro, at stages of the allantoid bud of 0,5 mm to 2,5 mm long, killed the embryo in 4 to 8 days (possibly due to alterations of capillary blood vessels of allantois and area vasculosa). In the two species, these doses caused cytotoxic effects on embryonic proliferating tissues, growth inhibition and a variety of developmental defects. In young embryos of Anguis fragilis, similar doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C caused, in 2 to 4 days, death of many cells in the anlagen of growing organs: neural tube, sensory organs, bronchi, mesoderm of the limb bud, subcutaneous mesenchyme, anlage of dorsal skeletal structures, etc.; followed by growth inhibition and malformations. On the other hand, in the limb bud, the apical ridge was less retrogressed than in control embryos; the limb buds showed slightly better development in treated embryos than in controls, but, Ara-C induced severe damage in their mesoderm. In all embryos of Lacerta viridis, treated at the stage of 6 days or of 10 days of incubation by doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C and killed 15 to 35 days later, there was a general reduction of size and of weight and external and internal malformations, more or less severe, were present: modifications of the form of the head, shortening of the lower jaw, labial clefts, microphthalmia, micromelia and other limbs defects, developmental defects of the tail. In some embryos, the only external defects observed were missing fingers and toes; in three of these embryos, the same digits were missing in the four limbs. Modifications of limb morphogenesis induced by Ara-C are

  18. PhcrTx2, a New Crab-Paralyzing Peptide Toxin from the Sea Anemone Phymanthus crucifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alexei Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones produce proteinaceous toxins for predation and defense, including peptide toxins that act on a large variety of ion channels of pharmacological and biomedical interest. Phymanthus crucifer is commonly found in the Caribbean Sea; however, the chemical structure and biological activity of its toxins remain unknown, with the exception of PhcrTx1, an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC inhibitor. Therefore, in the present work, we focused on the isolation and characterization of new P. crucifer toxins by chromatographic fractionation, followed by a toxicity screening on crabs, an evaluation of ion channels, and sequence analysis. Five groups of toxic chromatographic fractions were found, and a new paralyzing toxin was purified and named PhcrTx2. The toxin inhibited glutamate-gated currents in snail neurons (maximum inhibition of 35%, IC50 4.7 µM, and displayed little or no influence on voltage-sensitive sodium/potassium channels in snail and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, nor on a variety of cloned voltage-gated ion channels. The toxin sequence was fully elucidated by Edman degradation. PhcrTx2 is a new β-defensin-fold peptide that shares a sequence similarity to type 3 potassium channels toxins. However, its low activity on the evaluated ion channels suggests that its molecular target remains unknown. PhcrTx2 is the first known paralyzing toxin in the family Phymanthidae.

  19. How does environment influence fighting? The effects of tidal flow on resource value and fighting costs in sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Alexandre V; Velasque, Mariana; Santos, Sandro; Briffa, Mark

    2017-05-01

    An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina , exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles would alter decisions in fighting A. equina We exposed some individuals to still water and others to simulated tidal cycles. To gain insights into V, we measured their startle responses before and after exposure to the treatments, before staging dyadic fights. Individuals exposed to flow present shorter startle responses, suggesting that flowing water indicates high V compared with still water. A higher probability of winning against no-flow individuals and longer contests between flow individuals suggests that increased V increases persistence. However, encounters between flow individuals were less likely to escalate, suggesting that C is not directly related to V. Therefore, predictable environmental cycles alter V and C, but in complex ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Comparative analysis and culturing of the microbial community of Aiptasia pallida, A Sea Anemone Model for Coral Biology

    KAUST Repository

    Binsarhan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Recent works has highlighted the contribution of microbes to animal function. In this regard, the microbial community associated with corals has become a growing field of research in order to understand how microbes contribute to the host organisms’ response to environmental changes. It has been shown that microbes associated with corals have important functions in the coral holobiont such as immunity and nutrient assimilation. However, corals are notoriously difficult to work with. To this end, the sea anemone Aiptasia is becoming a model organism for coral symbiosis. Given the importance of host-­microbiome interactions, the topic of this thesis is to assess microbial structure of Aiptasia, culture prominent bacterial members, and compare bacterial community structure to corals. Different molecular methods have been applied using 16S rRNA bacterial gene fragments to characterize the microbial composition of Aiptasia. 16S rRNA gene sequence derived from cultured bacteria was compared to 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from native Red Sea Aiptasia. Inter-­individual as well as methodological differences were found to account for variance in microbiome composition. However, all approaches showed a highly abundant microbial taxon belonging to the genus Alteromonas in all samples. The Alteromonas species was successfully isolated for further research targeting microbiome selection mechanisms in Aiptasia. Future investigations by using different molecular tools will help to define the functions and relationship between the Aiptasia and its complex microbiome.

  1. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) structure and function: Insights from spider, snake and sea anemone venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Rash, Lachlan D

    2017-12-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that are expressed in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. As proton-gated channels, they have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions where pH is perturbed. Venom derived compounds represent the most potent and selective modulators of ASICs described to date, and thus have been invaluable as pharmacological tools to study ASIC structure, function, and biological roles. There are now ten ASIC modulators described from animal venoms, with those from snakes and spiders favouring ASIC1, while the sea anemones preferentially target ASIC3. Some modulators, such as the prototypical ASIC1 modulator PcTx1 have been studied in great detail, while some of the newer members of the club remain largely unstudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge on venom derived ASIC modulators, with a particular focus on their molecular interaction with ASICs, what they have taught us about channel structure, and what they might still reveal about ASIC function and pathophysiological roles. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequence-specific H NMR assignments and secondary structure in the sea anemone polypeptide Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogh, R.H.; Mabbutt, B.C.; Kem, W.R.; Norton, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Sequence-specific assignments are reported for the 500-MHz H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the 48-residue polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I). Spin systems were first identified by using two-dimensional relayed or multiple quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy, double quantum spectroscopy, and spin lock experiments. Specific resonance assignments were then obtained from nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivities between protons from residues adjacent in the amino acid sequence. Of a total of 265 potentially observable resonances, 248 (i.e., 94%) were assigned, arising from 39 completely and 9 partially assigned amino acid spin systems. The secondary structure of Sh I was defined on the basis of the pattern of sequential NOE connectivities. NOEs between protons on separate strands of the polypeptide backbone, and backbone amide exchange rates. Sh I contains a four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet encompassing residues 1-5, 16-24, 30-33, and 40-46, with a β-bulge at residues 17 and 18 and a reverse turn, probably a type II β-turn, involving residues 27-30. No evidence of α-helical structure was found

  3. The making of an embryo in a basal metazoan: Proteomic analysis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Shimrit; Sher, Noa; Brekhman, Vera; Ziv, Tamar; Lubzens, Esther; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are widely distributed basal metazoans that play an important role in the marine ecosystem. Their genetic diversity and dispersal depends on successful oogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis. To understand the processes that lead to successful embryogenesis in these basal organisms, we conducted comparative proteomics on the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We examined four developmental stages from oocyte maturation through early embryogenesis, as well as the oocyte jelly sac in which fertilization and embryogenesis take place. Our analysis revealed 37 stage-specifically expressed proteins, including cell cycle, cellular energy related and DNA replication proteins and transcription regulators. Using in situ hybridization, we show that within the mesenteria, two cell types support successful oocyte development and embryogenesis. Large somatic supporting cells synthesize vitellogenin, the most abundant egg yolk protein within the oocyte, whereas mesenteria gland cells synthesize mucin 5B, which was found to be the main component of the jelly sac. These findings shed light on the sexual reproduction program in cnidarians and suggest a high conservation with proteins governing oogenesis in Bilateria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Studies on the comparison of pollen morphology and viability of four naturally distributed and commercial varieties of anemone coronaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candan, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study presents a comparison of the pollen morphology and viability of naturally distributed four varieties of Anemone coronaria L. These are A. coronaria var. coccinea (Jord.) Burn, A. coronaria var. rosea (Hanry) Batt, A. coronaria var. cyanea, A. coronaria var. alba Goaty and Pens) and its commercial cultivars. The four varieties were collected from areas near the road side along the Kirkagac-Soma highway in the State of Manisa. The commercial cultivars were obtained from the commercial flower growers in the Urla region of zmir. Pollen viability levels decreased in all commercial cultivars of A. coronaria. The highest reduction in pollen viability was recorded in A. coronaria pink cultivars of de Caen group. The general pollen type is prolate spheroidal in all pure forms, but there are some pollen morphological features which were not observed in the natural ones, although encountered in all commercial cultivars. On the other hand, various non-viable pollen types like wrinkled pollens, with abnormally shaped pollens or pollinia were found in the commercial cultivars. It was concluded that pesticides used to produce more flowers with rapid growth are the major cause for his reduction. Another reason could be the use of tetraploid F1 hybrids of A. coronaria cultivars of de Caen group as commercial samples. (author)

  5. Natural Variation in Responses to Acute Heat and Cold Stress in a Sea Anemone Model System for Coral Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Emily S; Denver, Dee R

    2017-10-01

    Rising ocean temperatures disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their microalgae, accelerating global decline of coral reef ecosystems. Because of the difficulty of performing laboratory experiments with corals, the sea anemone Aiptasia has emerged as an important model system for molecular studies of coral bleaching and symbiosis. Here, we investigate natural variation in bleaching responses among different genetic lineages of Aiptasia. Both heat- and cold-induced paths to symbiosis breakdown were analyzed. Significant genetic variation in response to acute heat stress was observed, with severe bleaching of two Aiptasia strains from Hawaii but minimal bleaching of strains from the U.S. South Atlantic, including the strain used to generate the Aiptasia reference genome. Both strains from Hawaii hosted Symbiodinium type B1, whereas strains from the U.S. South Atlantic hosted type A4 or B2. In contrast to the results from exposures to acute heat stress, negligible variation was observed in response to a pulsed cold shock despite moderate bleaching across all strains. These results support our hypothesis that bleaching responses to distinct stressors are independent. Our findings emphasize the role of stress regime when predicting adaptive responses of symbiotic cnidarians to changing climates, because genetic variation may exist for some forms of stress-induced bleaching but not others.

  6. Sublethal effects of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin on oxidative stress parameters in green toad (Bufotes viridis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Tijana B; Nasia, Mohammed; Krizmanić, Imre I; Prokić, Marko D; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2017-10-01

    Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides widely used in agriculture, public health, and veterinary medicine. Deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, has attracted particular attention because of its frequent use. The mechanisms of the toxicity of most pesticides (including pyrethroids) in nontarget organisms is linked to the production of free radicals, oxidative stress induction, increased lipid peroxidation, and disruption of the total antioxidant potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute toxicity of 3 different concentrations (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg body wt) of orally applied deltamethrin after 96 h of treatment. Some of the front-line oxidative stress parameters as well as cholinesterase (ChE) activity and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the liver, muscle, skin, and gastrointestinal tissue of the adult green toad Bufotes viridis were determined. Compared with the control group, the activity of catalase and glutathione reductase was increased in the liver and skin, while the concentration of sulfhydryl groups was reduced. In the liver and muscle, concentrations of thiobarbituric reactive substances were increased, as well as liver CYP1A expression. In the muscle and skin, glutathione-S-transferase activity was higher in treated toads. The oxidative stress parameters examined were affected by different deltamethrin concentrations. We conclude that the assessed parameters represent good biomarkers of pesticide-induced oxidative stress. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2814-2822. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Study of the behavior of Euglena viridis, Euglena gracilis and Lepadella patella cultured in all-glass microaquarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwin, Agnieszka; Kubicki, Wojciech; Dziuban, Jan A

    2017-09-01

    In the paper, the microaquarium fabricated in a form of entirely glass lab-on-a-chip for culturing and microscale study of microorganisms has been presented. A new approach towards cellular studies that brings a significant improvement over commonly utilized - polymer-based solutions has been shown. For the first time, all-borosilicate glass chip was applied for the culturing of the selected microorganisms and enabled notable population growth and behaviorism investigation. The chip fabrication method in comparison to typical glass chip technology was notably simplified, including quick patterning and low temperature bonding in 80 °C. In the studies, both a single-cell (Euglena gracilis and Euglena viridis) and multi-cell microorganisms (Lepadella patella) were cultured in the microaquarium. Behaviorism of the selected microorganisms was investigated by supplying various proportions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and air into the chip. Tests included studies of microorganisms chemotaxis, viability (mostly based on photosynthesis process) and coexistence in the lab-on-a-chip environment. The experiments confirmed that the developed chip is a tool that fits the requirements for the culturing and behavioral studies of microorganisms and constitute ground-works to propel its further application in broadly defined cellular study field.

  8. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  9. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatree Ritthong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis. Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms for field study. The result revealed that survival and growth rates of transplanted mussels at all 3 stations were in close to each other but significantly lower than that from the reference site. Hg concentrations in the tissues of transplanted mussels ranged from less than 0.010 to 0.173 µg/g, and Hg concentrations in mussel tissues from all stations were significantly increased within 2 months, while Hg levels in mussel tissues from reference site were not changed. Hg levels of transplanted mussels increased with increasing depths of the water. The transplanted mussels showed no signs of any physical anomalies, indicating that transplanted mussels could be maintained for up to 3 months in an un-natural habitat, such as petroleum production platforms, where food is much less abundant.

  10. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Rinehart, K L; Jacob, E

    1990-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH2, we have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3......-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH2 showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neurons of sea...

  12. Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Julia E; Foy, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of antivenom administration on mortality, hospitalization duration, and cost of hospitalization for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis. Retrospective study (January 2004-December 2012). Private veterinary emergency and referral center. One hundred thirteen dogs with confirmed C. viridis envenomation. None. Dogs were divided into groups treated with either supportive care only (group 1) or supportive care plus antivenin crotalidae polyvalent (group 2). A modified snakebite severity score was used to compare patients from group 1 and group 2. Patients in group 2 received one 10 mL vial of antivenin crotalidae polyvalent over 4-6 hours. The mortality rate was 1.8% (2/113).  Group 1 had a median duration of hospitalization of 20 hours (range, 8-50 hours), while group 2 had a median duration of hospitalization of 24 hours (range, 1.5-74 hours). Group 1 had a median cost of hospitalization of 1050.00 USD (range, 423.52-2266.09 USD) while group 2 had a median cost of hospitalization of 2002.19 USD (range, 1139.91-6908.01 USD). Both the duration of hospitalization (P dogs receiving antivenom. Both the cost and the duration of hospitalization were significantly greater in the group of dogs that received antivenom. The difference in cost between the groups was approximately the cost of the antivenom vial and administration. Amongst the parameters evaluated, no significant benefit was associated with antivenom administered to dogs envenomated by C. viridis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  13. Deciphering the growth, organic acid exudations, and ionic homeostasis of Amaranthus viridis L. and Portulaca oleracea L. under lead chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Akram, Muhammad Sohail; Habib, Noman; Tanwir, Kashif; Ali, Qasim; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Gul, Huma; Iqbal, Naeem

    2018-01-01

    Lead (Pb) stress adversely affects in planta nutrient homeostasis and metabolism when present at elevated concentration in the surrounding media. The present study was aimed at investigation of organic acid exudations, elemental contents, growth, and lipid peroxidation in two wild plants (Amaranthus viridis L. and Portulaca oleracea L.), exhibiting differential root to shoot Pb translocation, under Pb stress. Plants were placed in soil spiked with lead chloride (PbCl 2 ) concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 mg Pb/kg soil, in rhizoboxes supplied with nylon nets around the roots. The plant mucilage taken from root surfaces, mirroring the rhizospheric solution, was analyzed for various organic acids. Lead stress resulted in a release of basified root exudates from both plants. Exudates of P. oleracea roots showed a higher pH. In both plants, the pH rising effect was diminished at the highest Pb treatment level. The exudation of citric acid, glutamic acid (in both plants), and fumaric acid (in P. oleracea only) was significantly increased with applied Pb levels. In both plant species, root and shoot Pb contents increased while nutrients (Ca, Mg, and K) decreased with increasing Pb treatment levels, predominantly in A. viridis. At 60 mg Pb/kg soil, shoot Na content of A. viridis was significantly higher as compared to untreated control. Higher Pb treatment levels decreased plant fresh and dry masses as well as the quantity of photosynthetic pigments due to enhanced levels of plant H 2 O 2 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in both species. Photosynthetic, growth, and oxidative stress parameters were grouped into three distinct dendrogram sections depending on their similarities under Pb stress. A positive correlation was identified between Pb contents of studied plants and secretion of different organic acids. It is concluded that Pb stress significantly impaired the growth of A. viridis and P. oleracea as a result of nutritional ion imbalance, and the

  14. Effects of the invasive polychaete, Marenzelleria viridis, on the fate of sediment associated pollutants – a microcosm study with 14C-labelled pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Hedman, Jenny Elisabet

    on the fate of deeply buried sediment-associated pollutants in the historically polluted Baltic Sea. We report here the results of an experimental microcosm study examining the fate of 14C radiolabelled pyrene (a 4-ring PAH) in sediment microcosms with and without Marenzelleria viridis. We also investigated......The deep burrowing, invasive spionid polychaete, Marenzelleria spp. (3 sibling species), is rapidly expanding its range in the Baltic Sea ecosystem, increasing the depth of the bioturbated zone dramatically relative to the native benthic community. One concern is the effect of this invasion...

  15. Different visible colors and green fluorescence were obtained from the mutated purple chromoprotein isolated from sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins have been studied with the aim of developing fluorescent proteins. Since the property of color variation is understudied, we isolated a novel GFP-like chromoprotein from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla haddoni, termed shCP. Its maximum absorption wavelength peak (λ(max)) is located at 574 nm, resulting in a purple color. The shCP protein consists of 227 amino acids (aa), sharing 96 % identity with the GFP-like chromoprotein of Heteractis crispa. We mutated aa residues to examine any alteration in color. When E63, the first aa of the chromophore, was replaced by serine (E63S), the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-E63S was shifted to 560 nm and exhibited a pink color. When Q39, T194, and I196, which reside in the surrounding 5 Å of the chromophore's microenvironment, were mutated, we found that (1) the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-Q39S was shifted to 518 nm and exhibited a red color, (2) shCP-T194I exhibited a purple-blue color, and (3) an additional mutation at I196H of the mutated protein shCP-E63L exhibited green fluorescence. In contrast, when the aa located neither at the chromophore nor within its microenvironment were mutated, the resultant proteins shCP-L122H, -E138G, -S137D, -T95I, -D129N, -T194V, -E138Q, -G75E, -I183V, and -I70V never altered their purple color, suggesting that mutations at the shCP chromophore and the surrounding 5 Å microenvironment mostly control changes in color expression or cause fluorescence to develop. Additionally, we found that the cDNAs of shCP and its mutated varieties are faithfully and stably expressed both in Escherichia coli and zebrafish embryos.

  16. Spatial gene expression quantification: a tool for analysis of in situ hybridizations in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botman Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial gene expression quantification is required for modeling gene regulation in developing organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is the model system most widely applied for spatial gene expression analysis due to its unique embryonic properties: the shape does not change significantly during its early cleavage cycles and most genes are differentially expressed along a straight axis. This system of development is quite exceptional in the animal kingdom. In the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis the embryo changes its shape during early development; there are cell divisions and cell movement, like in most other metazoans. Nematostella is an attractive case study for spatial gene expression since its transparent body wall makes it accessible to various imaging techniques. Findings Our new quantification method produces standardized gene expression profiles from raw or annotated Nematostella in situ hybridizations by measuring the expression intensity along its cell layer. The procedure is based on digital morphologies derived from high-resolution fluorescence pictures. Additionally, complete descriptions of nonsymmetric expression patterns have been constructed by transforming the gene expression images into a three-dimensional representation. Conclusions We created a standard format for gene expression data, which enables quantitative analysis of in situ hybridizations from embryos with various shapes in different developmental stages. The obtained expression profiles are suitable as input for optimization of gene regulatory network models, and for correlation analysis of genes from dissimilar Nematostella morphologies. This approach is potentially applicable to many other metazoan model organisms and may also be suitable for processing data from three-dimensional imaging techniques.

  17. Understanding the Differential Response of Setaria viridis L. (green foxtail) and Setaria pumila Poir. (yellow foxtail) to Pyroxsulam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchivi, Norbert M; deBoer, Gerrit J; Bell, Jared L

    2017-08-30

    Green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L) Beauv.] and yellow foxtail [Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.] are among the most abundant and troublesome annual grass weeds in cereal crops in the Northern Plains of the United States and the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the differential responses of both weed species to foliar applications of the new triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide, pyroxsulam, and to determine the mechanism(s) of differential weed control. Foliar applications of pyroxsulam resulted in >90% control of yellow foxtail at rates between 7.5 and 15 g ai ha -1 , whereas the same rates resulted in a reduced efficacy on green foxtail (≤81%). The absorption and translocation of [ 14 C]pyroxsulam in green and yellow foxtail were similar and could not explain the differential whole-plant efficacy. Studies with [ 14 C]pyroxsulam revealed a higher percentage of absorbed pyroxsulam was metabolized into an inactive metabolite in the treated leaf of green foxtail than in the treated leaf of yellow foxtail. Metabolism studies demonstrated that, 48 h after application, 50 and 35% of pyroxsulam in the treated leaf was converted to 5-hydroxy-pyroxsulam in green and yellow foxtail, respectively. The acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibition assay showed that ALS extracted from green foxtail was more tolerant to pyroxsulam than the enzyme extracted from yellow foxtail was. The in vitro ALS assay showed IC 50 values of 8.39 and 0.26 μM pyroxsulam for green and yellow foxtail, respectively. The ALS genes from both green and yellow foxtail were sequenced and revealed amino acid differences; however, the changes are not associated with known resistance-inducing mutations. The differential control of green and yellow foxtail following foliar applications of pyroxsulam was attributed to differences in both metabolism and ALS sensitivity.

  18. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B; Srisuksawad, K.; Permnamtip, V.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of 210 Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209 Po as an internal tracer. The 210 Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210 Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210 Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210 Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210 Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210 Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210 Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  19. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release fromDunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan W; Carvalho, Benjamin J; Jones, Howland D T; Singh, Seema

    Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. Here, we describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis , that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Using this method, the cultures were evaluated to elucidate the overlapping roles of photosynthetic and osmotic adaptation on the accumulation and compositional variation of the biomass, photosynthetic productivity, and physiological biomarkers, as well as spectroscopic and morphological details at the single-cell level. Correlation matrices defining the relationships among the observables and based on variation of the illumination intensity and salinity were constructed for predicting bioproduct yields for varying culture conditions. Following maintenance of stable cultures for 6-week intervals, phenotypic responses to photo-osmotic drift were explored using a combination of single-cell hyperspectral fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. In addition to morphological changes, release of lipid microparticles from the cells that is disproportionate to cell lysis was observed under hypotonic drift, indicating the existence of a reversible membrane permeation mechanism in Dunaliella . This phenomenon introduces the potential for low-cost strategies for recovering lipids and pigments from the microalgae by minimizing the requirement for energy intensive harvesting and dewatering of the biomass. The results should be applicable to outdoor culture, where seasonal changes resulting in variable solar flux and precipitation and evaporation rates are anticipated.

  20. Biophysical and biochemical strategies to understand membrane binding and pore formation by sticholysins, pore-forming proteins from a sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos; Ros, Uris; Valle, Aisel; Pedrera, Lohans; Soto, Carmen; Hervis, Yadira P; Cabezas, Sheila; Valiente, Pedro A; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, Maria E

    2017-10-01

    Actinoporins constitute a unique class of pore-forming toxins found in sea anemones that are able to bind and oligomerize in membranes, leading to cell swelling, impairment of ionic gradients and, eventually, to cell death. In this review we summarize the knowledge generated from the combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to the study of sticholysins I and II (Sts, StI/II), two actinoporins largely characterized by the Center of Protein Studies at the University of Havana during the last 20 years. These approaches include strategies for understanding the toxin structure-function relationship, the protein-membrane association process leading to pore formation and the interaction of toxin with cells. The rational combination of experimental and theoretical tools have allowed unraveling, at least partially, of the complex mechanisms involved in toxin-membrane interaction and of the molecular pathways triggered upon this interaction. The study of actinoporins is important not only to gain an understanding of their biological roles in anemone venom but also to investigate basic molecular mechanisms of protein insertion into membranes, protein-lipid interactions and the modulation of protein conformation by lipid binding. A deeper knowledge of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in Sts-cell interaction, as described in this review, will support the current investigations conducted by our group which focus on the design of immunotoxins against tumor cells and antigen-releasing systems to cell cytosol as Sts-based vaccine platforms.

  1. Ultrastructural evidence for two-cell and three-cell neural pathways in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Jane A; Elliott, Carol F; Carlin, Ryan W

    2002-01-01

    Sensory and ganglion cells in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were traced in serial transmission electron micrographs to their synaptic contacts on other cells. Sensory cell synapses were found on spirocytes, muscle cells, and ganglion cells. Ganglion cells, in turn, synapsed on sensory cells, spirocytes, muscle cells, and other neurons and formed en passant axo-axonal synapses. Axonal synapses on nematocytes and gland cells were not traced to their cells of origin, i.e., identified sensory or ganglion cells. Direct synaptic contacts of sensory cells with spirocytes and sensory cells with muscle cells suggest a local two-cell pathway for spirocyst discharge and muscle cell contraction, whereas interjection of a ganglion cell between the sensory and effector cells creates a local three-cell pathway. The network of ganglion cells and their processes allows for a through-conduction system that is interconnected by chemical synapses. Although the sea anemone nervous system is more complex than that of Hydra, it has similar two-cell and three-cell effector pathways that may function in local responses to tentacle contact with food. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis

  3. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...

  4. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binupriya, A.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sathishkumar, M., E-mail: cvemuthu@nus.edu.sg [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Yun, S.-I., E-mail: siyun@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  5. Relationship of leaf oxygen and carbon isotopic composition with transpiration efficiency in the C4 grasses Setaria viridis and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Ellsworth, Patrícia V; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-06-15

    Leaf carbon and oxygen isotope ratios can potentially provide a time-integrated proxy for stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E), and can be used to estimate transpiration efficiency (TE). In this study, we found significant relationships of bulk leaf carbon isotopic signature (δ13CBL) and bulk leaf oxygen enrichment above source water (Δ18OBL) with gas exchange and TE in the model C4 grasses Setaria viridis and S. italica. Leaf δ13C had strong relationships with E, gs, water use, biomass, and TE. Additionally, the consistent difference in δ13CBL between well-watered and water-limited plants suggests that δ13CBL is effective in separating C4 plants with different availability of water. Alternatively, the use of Δ18OBL as a proxy for E and TE in S. viridis and S. italica was problematic. First, the oxygen isotopic composition of source water, used to calculate leaf water enrichment (Δ18OLW), was variable with time and differed across water treatments. Second, water limitations changed leaf size and masked the relationship of Δ18OLW and Δ18OBL with E. Therefore, the data collected here suggest that δ13CBL but not Δ18OBL may be an effective proxy for TE in C4 grasses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Zancolli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX. Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  7. [Cytophotometric studies on the levels of proteins and RNA in the nuclei of the apical crest ane the epiblast of the limb bud of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) and the blindworm (Anguis fragilis L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Jeanny, J C; Gontcharoff, M

    1975-06-16

    Cytophotometric determinations establish that in the limb buds of young embryos of the slow worm (Anguis fragilis L.) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) the level of nuclear proteins and RNA is higher in the cells of the apical crest than in the cells of the epiblast on either side of the crest. This relative increase is progressively y reduced.

  8. The role of complement in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ePoole

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1 characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone A. pallida, (2 investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3 examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggests that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together these results indicate functional divergence between Ap

  9. Quantification of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the sea anemone Aiptasia sp. to simulate the sea-to-air flux from coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Filippo; Steinke, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is poorly quantified in tropical reef environments but forms an essential process that couples marine and terrestrial sulfur cycles and affects climate. Here we quantified net aqueous DMS production and the concentration of its cellular precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the sea anemone Aiptasia sp., a model organism to study coral-related processes. Bleached anemones did not show net DMS production whereas symbiotic anemones produced DMS concentrations (mean ± standard error) of 160.7 ± 44.22 nmol g-1 dry weight (DW) after 48 h incubation. Symbiotic and bleached individuals showed DMSP concentrations of 32.7 ± 6.00 and 0.6 ± 0.19 µmol g-1 DW, respectively. We applied these findings to a Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate that net aqueous DMS production accounts for only 20 % of gross aqueous DMS production. Monte Carlo-based estimations of sea-to-air fluxes of gaseous DMS showed that reefs may release 0.1 to 26.3 µmol DMS m-2 coral surface area (CSA) d-1 into the atmosphere with 40 % probability for rates between 0.5 and 1.5 µmol m-2 CSA d-1. These predictions were in agreement with directly quantified fluxes in previous studies. Conversion to a flux normalised to sea surface area (SSA) (range 0.1 to 17.4, with the highest probability for 0.3 to 1.0 µmol DMS m-2 SSA d-1) suggests that coral reefs emit gaseous DMS at lower rates than the average global oceanic DMS flux of 4.6 µmol m-2 SSA d-1 (19.6 Tg sulfur per year). The large difference between simulated gross and quantified net aqueous DMS production in corals suggests that the current and future potential for its production in tropical reefs is critically governed by DMS consumption processes. Hence, more research is required to assess the sensitivity of DMS-consumption pathways to ongoing environmental change in order to address the impact of predicted degradation of coral reefs on DMS production in tropical coastal ecosystems and its impact on

  10. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    cleavage sites, and therefore, are also likely to be produced from the precursor. Thus, there are at least 37 closely related neuropeptides localized on the precursor protein, making this precursor one of the most productive preprohormones known so far. This report also shows that unusual processing sites......Neuropeptides are an important group of hormones mediating or modulating neuronal communication. Neuropeptides are especially abundant in evolutionarily "old" nervous systems, such as those of cnidarians, the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Cnidarians often have a life cycle including...... the precursor protein for this metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones. The precursor protein is 514-amino acid residues long and contains 10 copies of the immature, authentic neuropeptide (Gln-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-Gly). All neuropeptide copies are preceded by Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequences...

  11. Present levels of heavy metals in some molluscs of the Upper Gulf of Thailand. [Pernia viridis; Crassostrea commercialis; Anadara granosa; Paphia undulata; Amusium pleuronectes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungspreugs, M.; Yuangthong, C.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was carried out as part of Thailand's participation in the global 'Mussel Watch' program. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the green mussel, Perna viridis, oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, and the cockle, Anadara granosa, were studied from July 1982 to November 1982. Comparison was made with the previous study in August 1981 which also included the short necked clam, Paphia undulata and moon scallop, Amusium pleuronectes. It was found that the metal levels were sufficiently low that the molluscs could be consumed without any danger to health. The salinity of the water appeared to influence the uptake as higher levels of metals were found during the flood season when salinity was lower.

  12. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  13. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (order Actiniaria are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae. Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein. We also erect subgroups within these two newly

  14. Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Brugler, Mercer R.; Crowley, Louise M.; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders

  15. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, III: ranges and other measures of statistical dispersion, their interrelations and taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a series of papers examining the taxonomic relevance of some statistical treatments of measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Actiniaria. Some cnida lengths from fresh tissue samples (column ectoderm, tentacles or acontia from Nematostella vectensis, Haliplanella lineata, Sagartia elegans, Metridium senile, Cereus pedunculatus, Sagartia troglodytes, Anthopleura thallia, Urticina eques and Sagartiogeton lacerates were measured. Five measures of statistical dispersion (sample standard deviation, coefficient of variation, observed sample range, standard range, and 99% probable maximum value of the standard range were calculated, and their interrelations and potential applications were appraised. It has long been the convention to use the largest and smallest cnida sizes (observed sample range from tissue samples in attempts to establish differences between actiniarian taxa. However, such data do not reflect the true extremes of a population range. In the present study, the 99% probable maximum value of the standard range for a standard abundance of 1,000 gave the greatest and, therefore, the most cautious estimate of a population range of cnida sizes for a species. This maximum standard range is the only measure of dispersion of cnida sizes that may be used validly to demonstrate that anemone specimens are of different species, and then only if there is no overlap between the extreme cnida sizes being compared. However, partial or complete overlaps of cnida size extremes do not necessarily indicate that specimens are conspecific; other taxonomic characters must also be considered. Coefficients of variation may provide valuable clues as to the homogeneity or heterogeneity of samples of cnida measurements. This paper should be read in conjunction with the first two in this series, which address the taxonomic relevance of differences between mean cnida sizes (Williams, 1996, Sci. Mar., 60: 339-351; 1998, Sci. Mar., 62: 361-372.

  16. Tolerancia a la anoxia y defensas antioxidantes en el mejillón verde Perna viridis (Linneus, 1758 bajo exposición aguda al cadmio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Zapata-Vívenes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la sobrevivencia a la anoxia del mejillón verde Perna viridis después de siete días de exposición a 50 μg L-1 de cadmio (Cd, seguido de un período de recuperación en el mar durante 21 días. En la glándula digestiva de los organismos experimentales se determinó los niveles de Cd acumulados, y marcadores de estrés oxidativo tales como: metalotioneínas (MT, glutatión reducido (GSH, peroxidación lipídica (TBARS y las actividades de las enzimas catalasa (CAT, glutatión reductasa (GR y glutatión-S-transferasa (GST. Los organismos expuestos a Cd mostraron una menor tolerancia al tratamiento anóxico, sin embargo una vez recuperados en el mar presentaron valores de sobrevivencia relativamente mayores en comparación a sus controles. Los organismos expuestos a Cd revelaron un incremento en la concentración de MT y la actividad de CAT, correlacionado al ingreso corporal de Cd. Los organismos transplantados al mar mostraron una disminución del metal acumulado, manteniendo niveles de MT incrementados. Los mejillones tratados y controles no exhibieron diferencias significativas en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo determinados (TBARS, GSH, GR y GST. El Cd acumulado posiblemente afectó algunas estrategias bioquímicas relacionadas con la tolerancia a la anoxia de P. viridis. Sin embargo, los altos niveles de MT en organismos pre-expuestos y posteriormente recuperados, podría condicionar la protección contra la toxicidad del Cd e indirectamente una mayor tolerancia a la anoxia.

  17. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  18. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  19. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wangning; Liu, Weina; Huang, Huoqing; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yuying; Li, Kangjia; Xie, Xiangming; Jin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0) and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C), and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0). SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO) in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  20. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.

  1. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch

  2. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Alexandra B; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Link, Andrea S; Namer, Barbara; Kutsche, Lisa K; Schuy, E Theresa; Sittl, Ruth; Hoffmann, Tali; Alzheimer, Christian; Huth, Tobias; Carr, Richard W; Lampert, Angelika

    2012-09-15

    Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) and how this may translate into human sensations. In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM) enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch-like paraesthesias), suggesting that it mediates its effects mainly

  3. A sea anemone of many names: a review of the taxonomy and distribution of the invasive actiniarian Diadumene lineata (Diadumenidae, with records of its reappearance on the Texas coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Hancock

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diadumene lineata (Actiniaria: Diadumenidae is a prolific invader of coastal environments around the world. First described from Asia, this sea anemone has only been reported once from the western Gulf of Mexico at Port Aransas, Texas. No subsequent sampling has located this species at this locality. The first record of the reappearance of D. lineata on the Texas coast from three locations in the Galveston Bay area is provided, and its geographic distribution and taxonomic history reviewed.

  4. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  5. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  6. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  7. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.T.; Douglas, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  8. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  9. Primary structure of the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (less than Glu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Schmutzler, C; Diekhoff, D

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptides containing the carboxylterminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 are found throughout the animal kingdom and are important substances mediating neuronal communication. Here, we have cloned the cDNA coding for the precursor protein of the sea anemone neuropeptide (Antho-RFamide) less than Glu......-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. This precursor is 334 amino acids in length and contains 19 copies of unprocessed Antho-RFamide (Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-Gly), which are tandemly arranged in the C-terminal part of the protein. Paired basic residues (Lys-Arg) or single basic residues (Arg) occur at the C-terminal side of each Antho...... or glutamic acid residues. Such processing is, to our knowledge, hitherto unknown for peptidergic neurons. The Antho-RFamide precursor also contains two copies of the putative Antho-RFamide-related peptide Phe-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 and one copy of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Arg-Tyr-NH2. In addition, the precursor protein...

  10. The Effect of Cholesterol on the Long-Range Network of Interactions Established among Sea Anemone Sticholysin II Residues at the Water-Membrane Interface

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    Sara García-Linares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinoporins are α-pore forming proteins with therapeutic potential, produced by sea anemones. Sticholysin II (StnII from Stichodactyla helianthus is one of its most extensively characterized members. These proteins remain stably folded in water, but upon interaction with lipid bilayers, they oligomerize to form a pore. This event is triggered by the presence of sphingomyelin (SM, but cholesterol (Chol facilitates pore formation. Membrane attachment and pore formation require changes involving long-distance rearrangements of residues located at the protein-membrane interface. The influence of Chol on membrane recognition, oligomerization, and/or pore formation is now studied using StnII variants, which are characterized in terms of their ability to interact with model membranes in the presence or absence of Chol. The results obtained frame Chol not only as an important partner for SM for functional membrane recognition but also as a molecule which significantly reduces the structural requirements for the mentioned conformational rearrangements to occur. However, given that the DOPC:SM:Chol vesicles employed display phase coexistence and have domain boundaries, the observed effects could be also due to the presence of these different phases on the membrane. In addition, it is also shown that the Arg51 guanidinium group is strictly required for membrane recognition, independently of the presence of Chol.

  11. Individual marking of soft-bodied subtidal invertebrates in situ - A novel staining technique applied to the giant plumose anemone Metridium farcimen (Tilesius, 1809.

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    Christopher D Wells

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize individuals and track growth over time is crucial to population dynamics research as well as studies of animal behavior. Invertebrates are particularly difficult to track as they often molt, have regenerative capabilities, or lack hard parts to attach markers. We tested, in laboratory and field studies, a new way of marking sea anemones (order Actiniaria by injection of three vital stains (i.e., neutral red, methylene blue, and fluorescein. Neutral red and methylene blue did not affect growth or survival, but fluorescein was lethal at high concentrations. Marked individuals could be identified up to seven months after injection with neutral red, six weeks with methylene blue, and three days with low concentrations of fluorescein. Neutral red could be used for long-term monitoring of growth and survival in the field, and in combination with methylene blue could be used to mark individuals in distinguishable patterns for short-term studies such as examining predator-prey interactions, movement of individuals, and recruitment survival.

  12. Anthopleura radians, a new species of sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Actiniidae from northern Chile, with comments on other species of the genus from the South Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sea anemone, Anthopleura radians n. sp., is described from the intertidal zone of northern Chile and the taxonomic status of the other Anthopleura species from the South Pacific are discussed. A. radians n. sp. is characterized by a yellow-whitish and brown checkerboard-like pattern on the oral disc, adhesive verrucae along the entire column and a series of marginal projections, each bearing a brightly-colored acrorhagus on the oral surface. This is the seventh species of Anthopleura described from the South Pacific Ocean; each one distinguished by a particular combination of differences related to their coloration pattern, presence of zooxanthellae, cnidae, and mode of reproduction. Some of these species have not been reported since their original description and thus require to be taxonomically validated. A. hermaphroditica and A. aureoradiata are synonyms considering the lack of differences seen between live specimens, museum collections and published records. A. radians could also be a junior synonym of A. minima, however, no type material was found for testing this hypothesis. Furthermore, it is crucial to designate neotypes for A. inconspicua, A. rosea and A. minima since there are no name-bearing types reported for these species.

  13. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depuration Study of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in Green Mussels Perna viridis through Continues-discontinues and Acid Extraction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Bakri, Ridla; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Handayani, Sri; Ade Kurnia Putri, Rizki; Tamala, Riska

    2018-01-01

    Green mussel or Perna viridis is filter feeder, which is very susceptible to heavy metals. It takes an effort to release heavy metal contents on the green shell, one of method that can be used to release heavy metal from green shell is depuration proccess. In this research, the depuration process was conducted by continues method of depuration, discontinues method by using various kind of water and acid extraction. The optimum time of continues depuration method is 1.5 hours, with circulation speed 250 L/h and result of Pb metal content decreased is equal to 30.048% and 29.748% for Cu. In the discontinues method, the optimum result was reached at 100oC by using PAM water as the media at 3 h immersion period with decrease of Pb metal content 35.001% and Cu metal content 39.015%. In the acid extraction method, the optimum condition was achieved by 11% acetic acid solvent with decreasing of Pb and Cu levels are 88.224% and 76.298%. For the determination of protein content, the decrease of protein content obtained by treatment with 11% acetic acid extract showed decrease of protein content 36.656% with Kjeldahl method.

  15. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Priscilla T.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang Yu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Mak, Sarah S.T.; Ng, W.C. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Leung, Kenneth M.Y., E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-09-15

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  16. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology &

  17. Evidence for participation of GCS1 in fertilization of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: Implication of a common mechanism of sperm–egg fusion in plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebchuqin, Eerdundagula; Yokota, Naoto; Yamada, Lixy [Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Sugashima, Toba 517-0004 (Japan); Yasuoka, Yuuri [Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Akasaka, Mari [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Arakawa, Mio; Deguchi, Ryusaku [Department of Biology, Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845 (Japan); Mori, Toshiyuki [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Sawada, Hitoshi, E-mail: hsawada@bio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Sugashima, Toba 517-0004 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • GCS1 is a sperm transmembrane protein that is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. • The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals. • NvGCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and GCS1 protein exists in sperm of a sea anemone. • Anti-GCS1 antibodies inhibited the fertilization, showing the participation in fertilization. - Abstract: It has been reported that GCS1 (Generative Cell Specific 1) is a transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed in sperm cells and is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals, implying the occurrence of a common or ancestral mechanism of GCS1-mediated gamete fusion. In order to elucidate the common mechanism, we investigated the role of GCS1 in animal fertilization using a sea anemone (Cnidaria), Nematostella vectensis. Although the existence of the GCS1 gene in N. vectensis has been reported, the expression of GCS1 in sperm and the role of GCS1 in fertilization are not known. In this study, we showed that the GCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and that GCS1 protein exists in sperm by in situ hybridization and proteomic analysis, respectively. Then we made four peptide antibodies against the N-terminal extracellular region of NvGCS1. These antibodies specifically reacted to NvGCS1 among sperm proteins on the basis of Western analysis and potently inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that sperm GCS1 plays a pivotal role in fertilization, most probably in sperm–egg fusion, in a starlet sea anemone, suggesting a common gamete-fusion mechanism shared by eukaryotic organisms.

  18. Crecimiento del mejillón verde Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae bajo sistema de cultivo de fondo en la ensenada de Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela

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    Vanessa Acosta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos representan uno de los grupos más importantes desde el punto de vista económico en la acuicultura marina, debido a los bajos costos de producción y a su alta rentabilidad. En este estudio se planteó probar la hipótesis de un mayor crecimiento de Perna viridis en cultivo de fondo, por un mejor aprovechamiento de alimento presente en el medio, lo cual permitirá descartarla o no como especie de cultivo para el Golfo de Cariaco. En este sentido, se evaluó el crecimiento y la supervivencia del mejillón verde P. viridis en condiciones de cultivo de fondo entre julio 2007 y febrero 2008. Las semillas del mejillón (35.81±1.41mm de longitud fueron obtenidas en la localidad de Guaca (costa norte del estado Sucre y trasladadas hasta la Estación Hidrobiológica de Turpialito, golfo de Cariaco, estado Sucre-Venezuela, en donde se sembraron en cestas “españolas”. Mensualmente se determinó supervivencia así como la longitud máxima de la concha, la masa seca del músculo, resto de tejidos y de la gónada. Los parámetros ambientales (temperatura del agua, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, clorofila a, seston total y su fracción orgánica, en la zona de cultivo se determinaron cada 15 días. Mensualmente se realizaron determinaciones de proteínas, lípidos y carbohidratos al seston. Durante todo el estudio el mejillón mantuvo un crecimiento continuo, alcanzando al final una longitud máxima de 78.7±4.43mm. Sin embargo, la tasa de crecimiento de la masa seca de los tejidos somáticos (músculo, resto de tejido y reproductivo, mostraron variabilidad a lo largo del estudio, produciéndose al final un incremento significativo en dichos tejidos. Las variaciones observadas en la tasa de crecimiento de la masa del tejido reproductivo, dependió de las reservas acumuladas y del alimento ofertado por el medio ambiente. El seston orgánico durante toda la experiencia mostró una independencia de la temperatura y de la clorofila a

  19. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

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    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  20. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

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    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  1. Kunitz-Type Peptide HCRG21 from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is a Full Antagonist of the TRPV1 Receptor

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    Margarita Monastyrnaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemone venoms comprise multifarious peptides modulating biological targets such as ion channels or receptors. The sequence of a new Kunitz-type peptide, HCRG21, belonging to the Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG peptide subfamily was deduced on the basis of the gene sequence obtained from the Heteractis crispa cDNA. HCRG21 shares high structural homology with Kunitz-type peptides APHC1–APHC3 from H. crispa, and clusters with the peptides from so named “analgesic cluster” of the HCGS peptide subfamily but forms a separate branch on the NJ-phylogenetic tree. Three unique point substitutions at the N-terminus of the molecule, Arg1, Gly2, and Ser5, distinguish HCRG21 from other peptides of this cluster. The trypsin inhibitory activity of recombinant HCRG21 (rHCRG21 was comparable with the activity of peptides from the same cluster. Inhibition constants for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin were 1.0 × 10−7 and 7.0 × 10−7 M, respectively. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that rHCRG21 inhibits 95% of the capsaicin-induced current through transient receptor potential family member vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 and has a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 6.9 ± 0.4 μM. Moreover, rHCRG21 is the first full peptide TRPV1 inhibitor, although displaying lower affinity for its receptor in comparison with other known ligands. Macromolecular docking and full atom Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the rHCRG21–TRPV1 complex allow hypothesizing the existence of two feasible, intra- and extracellular, molecular mechanisms of blocking. These data provide valuable insights in the structural and functional relationships and pharmacological potential of bifunctional Kunitz-type peptides.

  2. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

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    Adam G Marsh

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis. Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to

  3. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

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    Ayoka Oladele Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity.

  4. Seasonal variation in antioxidative responses and acetylcholinesterase activity in Perna viridis in eastern oceanic and western estuarine waters of Hong Kong

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    Lau, P. S.; Wong, H. L.; Garrigues, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    A year-round study was conducted to assess the seasonal variations and potential influence of the riverine discharge from the Pearl River on biomarker responses in Hong Kong waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), a Phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the neural transmitter enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the green mussel, Perna viridis, were monitored from three coastal sites, Port Shelter, Tung Chung and Tai O, stretching from the east to the west of Hong Kong. Despite of the seasonal variations, the total protein profiles suggested that mussels from the three sites had a growth cycle that was in phase with each other. This implied that intrinsic variation between sites due to a different phase of growth was minimal. Seasonal variations of the biomarker responses in the mussels were found to be significant (Tukey multiple comparison test, pbiomarker responses at Tai O in relation to the extreme low salinity of 8‰. Mussels from the western site also revealed a higher oxidative stress than those from the eastern side throughout the year (Tukey multiple comparison test, pbiomarker responses. Gill tissues of the mussels were more advantageous for biomarker studies or monitoring because their protein levels were less sensitive to seasonal variations and they yielded a higher protein normalized biomarker response than the whole body tissues. This increases their discrimination ability for site comparisons. The feasibility of biomarker monitoring in areas of sub-lethal or low chemical contamination will also be discussed.

  5. De novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analysis of the foot from Chinese green mussel (Perna viridis in response to cadmium stimulation.

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    Xinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The Chinese green mussel, Perna viridis, is a marine bivalve with important economic values as well as biomonitoring roles for aquatic pollution. Byssus, secreted by the foot gland, has been proved to bind heavy metals effectively. In this study, using the RNA sequencing technology, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis on the mussel feet with or without inducing by cadmium (Cd. Our current work is aiming at providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of byssus binding to heavy metal ions. The transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26.13-Gb raw data. After a careful assembly of clean data, we obtained a primary set of 105,127 unigenes, in which 32,268 unigenes were annotated. Based on the expression profiles, we identified 9,048 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Cd treatment (50 or 100 μg/L at 48 h and the control, suggesting an extensive transcriptome response of the mussels during the Cd stimulation. Moreover, we observed that the expression levels of 54 byssus protein coding genes increased significantly after the 48-h Cd stimulation. In addition, 16 critical byssus protein coding genes were picked for profiling by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Finally, we reached a primary conclusion that high content of tyrosine (Tyr, cysteine (Cys, histidine (His residues or the special motif plays an important role in the accumulation of heavy metals in byssus. We also proposed an interesting model for the confirmed byssal Cd accumulation, in which biosynthesis of byssus proteins may play simultaneously critical roles since their transcription levels were significantly elevated.

  6. Who knows not where an anemone does wear his sting? Could polypeptides released from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum induce apoptosis in the ZF-L cell line?

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    Bastos, Claudio L Q; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Ferreira, Shana Pires; Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Boyle, Robert Tew

    2016-12-15

    We provide ultrastructural and cytological evidence that the tentacles of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum does not contain cytotoxic venom. However, we show that the stimulated secretion of an apparent mixture of biomolecules containing polypeptides from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum is apparently a potent inducer of apoptosis in the zebrafish cell line, ZF-L. Microscopic fluorescence, cell morphology and flow cytometric assays confirm the apoptotic activity. Crude vesicle venom was partially purified by size exclusion chromatography. PAGE analysis shows that this venom contains low weight polypeptides but no measurable protein. The apoptotic activity is heat labile, and the observed peptides concurrent with this activity have a molecular weight of approximately 2000 Da. This manuscript is the first report of biologically active molecules and peptides associated with columnar vesicles of anemones, and the first to confirm that the tentacles of B. cangicum do not contain cytotoxic venom, and express spirocytes exclusively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A diverse array of creatine kinase and arginine kinase isoform genes is present in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a cnidarian model system for studying developmental evolution.

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    Uda, Kouji; Ellington, W Ross; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2012-04-15

    Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases (PK) constitute a family of homologous phosphotransferases catalyzing the reversible transfer of the high-energy phosphoryl group of ATP to naturally occurring guanidine compounds. Prior work has shown that PKs can be phylogenetically separated into two distinct groups- an arginine kinase (AK) subfamily and a creatine kinase (CK) subfamily. The latter includes three CK isoforms- cytoplasmic CK (CyCK), mitochondrial CK (MiCK) and three-domain flagellar CK (fCK). In the present study we identified six unique PK genes from the draft genome sequence of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a well-known model organism for understanding metazoan developmental evolution. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) methods, full length cDNAs were amplified for all of these PKs. These cDNAs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as 6x His-tagged fusion proteins. The six PKs were identified as the three typical CK isoforms (CyCK, MiCK and fCK), two unusual AKs (a two-domain AK (2DAK) and a three-domain AK (3DAK)) and a PK which phosphorylated arginine. The latter enzyme had a very low AK activity (its apparent V(max) value being less than 0.2% that of 3DAK), lacks several key residues necessary for AK enzyme activity, and was tentatively designated as AK1. As far as we know, this constitutes the first report of an AK with the three fused AK domains. The Bayesian tree suggested that the third domain of 3DAK likely evolved from the gene for domain 2 of typical two-domain AK found widely in cnidarians. Construction of phylogenetic trees and comparison of exon-intron organizations of their respective genes indicated that the N. vectensis three-domain fCK and 3DAK evolved independently, and both enzymes are likely to be targeted to cell membranes since they have a myristoylation signal at their respective N-termini. These results complement prior work on other basal invertebrates showing that multiple CK and AK

  8. Different Principles of ADP-Ribose-Mediated Activation and Opposite Roles of the NUDT9 Homology Domain in the TRPM2 Orthologs of Man and Sea Anemone

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    Frank Kühn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A decisive element in the human cation channel TRPM2 is a region in its cytosolic C-terminus named NUDT9H because of its homology to the NUDT9 enzyme, a pyrophosphatase degrading ADP-ribose (ADPR. In hTRPM2, however, the NUDT9H domain has lost its enzymatic activity but serves as a binding domain for ADPR. As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated. Since ADPR is produced after oxidative DNA damage, hTRPM2 mediates Ca2+ influx in response to oxidative stress which may lead to cell death. In the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (nv, a preferred model organism for the evolution of key bilaterian features, a TRPM2 ortholog has been identified that contains a NUDT9H domain as well. Heterologous expression of nvTRPM2 in HEK-293 cells reveals a cation channel with many close similarities to the human counterpart. Most notably, nvTRPM2 is activated by ADPR, and Ca2+ is a co-agonist. However, the intramolecular mechanisms of ADPR gating as well as the role of NUDT9H are strikingly different in the two species. Whereas already subtle changes of NUDT9H abolish ADPR gating in hTRPM2, the region can be completely removed from nvTRPM2 without loss of responses to ADPR. An alternative ADPR binding site seems to be present but has not yet been characterized. The ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase (ADPRase function of nvNUDT9H has been preserved but can be abolished by numerous genetic manipulations. All these manipulations create channels that are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide which fails to induce channel activity in wild-type nvTRPM2. Therefore, the function of NUDT9H in nvTRPM2 is the degradation of ADPR, thereby reducing agonist concentration in the presence of oxidative stress. Thus, the two TRPM2 orthologs have evolved divergently but nevertheless gained analogous functional properties, i.e., gating by ADPR with Ca2+ as co-factor. Opposite roles are played by the respective NUDT9H domains, either binding of ADPR and mediating

  9. Vitamin B1 thiazole derivative reduces transmembrane current through ionic channels formed by toxins from black widow spider venom and sea anemone in planar phospholipid membranes.

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    Shatursky, Oleg Ya; Volkova, Tatyana M; Romanenko, Olexander V; Himmelreich, Nina H; Grishin, Eugene V

    2007-02-01

    The vitamin B1 (thiamine) structural analogue 3-decyloxycarbonylmethyl-4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl) thiazole chloride (DMHT) (0.1 mM) reversibly reduced transmembrane currents in CaCl2 and KCl solutions via ionic channels produced by latrotoxins (alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LT) and alpha-latroinsectotoxin (alpha-LIT)) from black widow spider venom and sea anemone toxin (RTX) in the bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). Introduction of DMHT from the cis-side of BLM bathed in 10 mM CaCl2 inhibited transmembrane current by 31.6+/-3% and by 61.8+/-3% from the trans-side of BLM for alpha-LT channels. Application of DMHT in the solution of 10 mM CaCl2 to the cis-side of BLM decreased the current through the alpha-LIT and RTX channels by 52+/-4% and 50+/-5%, respectively. Addition of Cd2+ (1 mM) to the cis- or trans-side of the membrane after the DMHT-induced depression of Ca2+-current across the alpha-LT channels caused its further decrease by 85+/-5% that coincides favorably with the intensity of Cd2+ blocking in control experiments without DMHT. These data suggest that DMHT inhibiting is not specific for latrotoxin channels only and DMHT may exert its action on alpha-LT channels without considerable influence on the ionogenic groups of Ca2+-selective site inside the channel cavity. The binding kinetics of DMHT with the alpha-LT channel shows no cooperativity and allows to expect that the DMHT binding site of the toxin is formed by one ionogenic group as the slopes of inhibition rate determined in log-log coordinates are 1.25 on the trans-side and 0.68 on the cis-side. Similar pK of binding (5.4 on the trans-side and 5.7 on the cis-side) also suggest that DMHT may interact with the same high affinity site of alpha-LT channel on either side of the BLM. The comparative analysis of effective radii measured for alpha-LT, alpha-LIT and RTX channels on the cis-side (0.9 nm, 0.53 nm and 0.55 nm, correspondingly) and for alpha-LT channel on the trans-side (0.28+/-0.18 nm) with the

  10. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oltmannsiellopsis viridis reveals a distinctive quadripartite architecture in the chloroplast genome of early diverging ulvophytes

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    Lemieux Claude

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. The basal position of the Prasinophyceae has been well documented, but the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae is currently debated. The four complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences presently available for representatives of these classes have revealed extensive variability in overall structure, gene content, intron composition and gene order. The chloroplast genome of Pseudendoclonium (Ulvophyceae, in particular, is characterized by an atypical quadripartite architecture that deviates from the ancestral type by a large inverted repeat (IR featuring an inverted rRNA operon and a small single-copy (SSC region containing 14 genes normally found in the large single-copy (LSC region. To gain insights into the nature of the events that led to the reorganization of the chloroplast genome in the Ulvophyceae, we have determined the complete cpDNA sequence of Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, a representative of a distinct, early diverging lineage. Results The 151,933 bp IR-containing genome of Oltmannsiellopsis differs considerably from Pseudendoclonium and other chlorophyte cpDNAs in intron content and gene order, but shares close similarities with its ulvophyte homologue at the levels of quadripartite architecture, gene content and gene density. Oltmannsiellopsis cpDNA encodes 105 genes, contains five group I introns, and features many short dispersed repeats. As in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA, the rRNA genes in the IR are transcribed toward the single copy region featuring the genes typically found in the ancestral LSC region, and the opposite single copy region harbours genes characteristic of both the ancestral SSC and LSC regions. The 52 genes that were transferred from the ancestral LSC to SSC region include 12 of those observed in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA. Surprisingly, the overall gene organization of

  11. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

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    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  12. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

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    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  13. Distribution patterns of Chilean shallow-water sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia; with a discussion of the taxonomic and zoogeographic relationships between the actinofauna of the South East Pacific, the South West Atlantic and the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Häussermann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete zoogeographical analysis of Chilean shallow water sea anemones (Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia and their taxonomic relations with neighbouring faunas is provided, based on extensive recent sampling in combination with a literature review. Between 1994 and 2004, we collected more than 1000 specimens of 32 distinct species of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia at more than 100 sites along the Chilean coast between Arica (18°30’S; 70°19’W and the Straits of Magellan (53°36’S 70°56’W. Sampling was done in the intertidal during low tides and in the subtidal by means of SCUBA diving down to depths of 40 m. The northern part of the Chilean fjord region showed the highest number of species (23. Our results contradict an abrupt general change in the marine faunal composition at 42°S, instead showing the continuation of species of the exposed coast and the joining of fjord species due to the availability of additional habitats in the richly structured fjord region south of 42°S, and also to eurybathy. The southern distribution limits of the species we found in northern and central Chile show only one significant concentration around the Peninsula Taitao (approx. 48°S. This either indicates a zoogeographic barrier for shallow water species at the Peninsula Taitao, or is a sampling artifact caused by poor data from the region between the Peninsula Taitao and the Straits of Magellan. According to the literature, 18 of the 63 described Chilean sea anemones (Pacific Ocean can also be found in Argentina (Atlantic Ocean and 13 in the Antarctic. However, many records and statuses of the common species of the South East Pacific and the South West Atlantic/Antarctic are uncertain or doubtful and need revision or confirmation.

  14. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  15. [Demonstration, by means of electron microscopy, of the penetration of somitic cells into the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptile embryos (Anguis fragilis, Lacerta viridis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscopic study of the components of anterior limb buds of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) (embryos of Anguis whose allantoic bud reach 0,7 to 4 mm of length; embryos of Lacerta 2 to 7 days old) provides data on the cytological characteristics of the components of the limb bud at these early stages. 1. The cells of the distal extremity of the somitic processes extending in the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta, are elongated cells with ovoid nuclei containing large nucleolus; they possess mitochondria always thin and with dense matrix; they are rich in lipid droplets; they possess cilia; they are devoid of myofilaments; endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and polyribosomes are abundant. Golgi networks display signs of activity. These characteristics are also observed in the cells of the "dermatome" layer of the dermo-myotome; and so, it appears probable that the cells of the "dermatome". Furthermore, in Anguis embryos, the cells of the distal extremities of the somitic processes possess numerous lysosomes and a certain number of cells among them, degenerate early. 2. The somatopleural mesoblastic cells of the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta embryos keep the characters of the cells of the mesodermic layer of lateral plate from which they originate; they have rounded nuclei, cilia, and their mitochondria are always larger and more transparent to electrons, than the ones of cells of the somitic processes and of cells of the epiblastic apical crest. Golgi networks are well developped, endoplasmic reticulum is abundant, lipid droplets are rare. 3. The processes of somites which extend in the dorsal part of the limb bud of Anguis embryos are cords of cells with thin lumina; at the stage of the allantoic bud of 0,6 to 0,8 mm long, the distal extremity of these processes dislocate in group of cells which afterwards dissociate, releasing individual somitic cells which are integrated among the mesoblastic somatopleural

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF LEPTOPELIS VIRIDIS CINNAMOMEUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (BOCAGE) WITH NOTES ON ITS SYSTEMATIC POSITION. IAN LINDEN. Dept. of Bi%gy, University of Ma/awi. The taxonomic studies of J. Poynton (1964a, 1964b and 1966) and A. Schiotz (1967) indicate a remarkable parallel between the speciation of the genus Leptope/is in West, South and East. Mrica. The tree, ground ...

  17. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  18. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  19. Phytoextraction assessment of green amaranth ( Amaranthus viridis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disposal of sewage sludge is the major challenge facing wastewater treatment facilities. Several reports claimed that land application is the best option to manage sludge disposal. However, there is perception that sludge contains heavy metals that are potentially harmful to the living organisms. Thus, the study assessed ...

  20. Actiniarian Sea anemone fauna of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  1. Tertiary Structural studies of Myotoxin a from Crotalus viridis viridis Venom by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    electrophorus electri... 47 47 47 Sw:Ibb2SWheat P09864 wheat (triticum aestivum). proteina ... 46 46 51 Sw:Pa29$Pseau P20253 mulga snake (pseudechis...Sw:Pa2bSPsepo P20259 red-bellied black snake (pseudechis... 34 46 37 Sw:IbblSWheat P09863 wheat (triticum aestivum). proteina ... 46 46 52 Sw:Pa2a$Psepo P20258 red

  2. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  3. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Olax viridis OLIV. (Fam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 1-kg portion of the pulverized crude drug was defatted using n-hexane (F1) and subsequently extracted with methanol in soxhlet, and the methanol extract (F2) fractionated into F3-F8. All the fractions were screened for activity against some clinical strains of bacteria and fungi. Their phytochemical composition was, ...

  4. Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a 'very' high level of inorganic Hg, it has a high bioaccumulative capability and a high tolerance to inorganic Hg. The mussel byssus was found to have the highest depuration rate coefficient, indicating that it could act as one of the excretion routes for Hg and it can be proposed as a sensitive biomonitoring material for Hg.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of anemone fishes of the Persian Gulf using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... 1Department of Marine Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Hesarak, Tehran, Iran. 2Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pajouhesh BLV, Tehran,. Iran. ³Aquatic Animals Health and Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ...

  6. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  7. Blocking actions of the sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also found to block acetylcholine (ACh) – induced contractions of the ileum of grass cutter (90 + 6.2% inhibition + SEM) and the contractile action induced by ACh (0.2mg and 0.4mg) (89 + 5.8% inhibition + SEM) and histamine (0.075mg and 0.15mg) on the rabbit ileum (80 + 4.6% inhibition + SEM) . The antagonism ...

  8. Tiny sea anemone from the Lower Cambrian of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abundant fossils from the Ediacaran and Cambrian showing cnidarian grade grossly suggest that cnidarian diversification occurred earlier than that of other eumetazoans. However, fossils of possible soft-bodied polyps are scanty and modern corals are dated back only to the Middle Triassic, although molecular phylogenetic results support the idea that anthozoans represent the first major branch of the Cnidaria. Because of difficulties in taxonomic assignments owing to imperfect preservation of fossil cnidarian candidates, little is known about forms ancestral to those of living groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have analyzed the soft-bodied polypoid microfossils Eolympia pediculata gen. et sp. nov. from the lowest Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation in southern China by scanning electron microscopy and computer-aided microtomography after isolating fossils from sedimentary rocks by acetic acid maceration. The fossils, about a half mm in body size, are preserved with 18 mesenteries including directives bilaterally arranged, 18 tentacles and a stalk-like pedicle. The pedicle suggests a sexual life cycle, while asexual reproduction by transverse fission also is inferred by circumferential grooves on the body column. CONCLUSIONS: The features found in the present fossils fall within the morphological spectrum of modern Hexacorallia excluding Ceriantharia, and thus Eolympia pediculata could be a stem member for this group. The fossils also demonstrate that basic features characterizing modern hexacorallians such as bilateral symmetry and the reproductive system have deep roots in the Early Cambrian.

  9. Mechanisms of tentacle morphogenesis in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ashleigh E; Ikmi, Aissam; Seidel, Christopher; Paulson, Ariel; Gibson, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Evolution of the capacity to form secondary outgrowths from the principal embryonic axes was a crucial innovation that potentiated the diversification of animal body plans. Precisely how such outgrowths develop in early-branching metazoan species remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that three fundamental processes contribute to embryonic tentacle development in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. First, a pseudostratified ectodermal placode forms at the oral pole of developing larvae and is transcriptionally patterned into four tentacle buds. Subsequently, Notch signaling-dependent changes in apicobasal epithelial thickness drive elongation of these primordia. In parallel, oriented cell rearrangements revealed by clonal analysis correlate with shaping of the elongating tentacles. Taken together, our results define the mechanism of embryonic appendage development in an early-branching metazoan, and thereby provide a novel foundation for understanding the diversification of body plans during animal evolution.

  10. ETUDE THEORIQUE ET EXPERIMENTALE DU SECHAGE SOLAIRE DES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE (MENTHA VIRIDIS).

    OpenAIRE

    BOUMEDIENE, TOUATI

    2014-01-01

    LES PLANTES MÉDICINALES ET AROMATIQUES ET EN PARTICULIER LES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE ONT BEAUCOUP D'IMPORTANCE POUR LA PHARMACOPÉE, LA PARFUMERIE ,LA CONFISERIE ET LA LIQUORISTE RIE . CE TRAVAIL ENTRE DANS LE CADRE DE LA VALORISATION DE CETTE PLANTE PRODUITE EN GRANDE QUANTITÉ DANS LE SUD ET LE SUD-OUEST ALGÉRIEN .IL S'AGIT RÉÉTUDIER LE SÉCHAGE DE CETTE PLANTE ET DE DÉVELOPPER L'UTILISATION DE L’ÉNERGIE POUR SE'CHER LA MENTHE VIRIDES.

  11. Preparation of Nanoparticles by Electroagulation From Soluble Exopolysaccharide Produced by Claviceps viridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flieger, Miroslav; Kantorová, Michaela; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sobotka, Miroslav; Cvak, Jan; Votruba, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2004), s. 234-236 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/1283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : electroagulation * exopolysaccharides * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2004

  12. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Development, New Delhi, for financial assistance. References Bakus GT (1981) Chemical defence mechanisms and fish behaviour on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Science 211:497–499 Bakus GT, Green (1974) Toxicity in sponges and holothurians: A geo- graphic...

  13. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    ) Chromosome number and karyotype of Donax trunculus L. (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Tellinacea). Genetica 82(2):93–97 Cross I, Dı´az E, Sa´nchez I, Rebordinos L (2005) Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of Crassostrea angulata chromo- somes. Aquaculture 247... maximus and Mimachlamys varia (Bivalvia: Pectinidae). Genetica 126(3):291–301 Justo CC, Murofushi, Maida K, Hanyu I (1991) Karyological studies on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquacul- ture 97:327–334 Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg AA (1964...

  14. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A

    .5-34.2 and 3.1-21.2% respectively. Major biochemical constituents were found to be influenced by phytoplankton abundance and were also found to vary with maturation and spawning cycle. The caloric potential in the raft-grown mussel varied from 3.33 to 4.9 K cal...

  15. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    ) represent various forms of oxygen centered molecules (1). In living beings, ROS are formed endogenously during normal cellular metabolism. Exogenously ROS is obtained during exposure to ionization radiations and many xenobiotic substances (1). In cellular... atherogenicity. New England Journal of Medicine, 320: 915-924. 6. Muramatsu, H., Kogawa, K., Tanaka, M., Okumura, K., Koike, K. and Kuga, T. (1995) Superoxide dismutase in SAS human tongue carcinoma cell line is a factor defining invasiveness and cell motility...

  16. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A.; Chatterji, A.

    , in these fractions, was done using the matrigel bi-dimensional models. Bi-dimensional Angiogenesis Assay In the bi-dimensional model (matrigel which is a standardized cancer cell extra-cellular matrix), the endothelial cells were seeded on the matrigel..., are useful in cancer therapy. Anti-angiogenic substances can be used to inhibit the growth of tumour mass by preventing neo-vascularization of an early developing tumour. Therefore, such substances are of importance, not only to prevent the development...

  17. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , and mixtures of B[a]P and Aroclor 1254. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46, 1285–1293. Sweetman, S.F., Strain, J.J., McKelvey-Martin, V.J., 1997. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on DNA damage and repair in human lymphoblastoid cells. Nutrit. Cancer 27, 122...

  18. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    , heavy metals, etc. Some of these chemicals are known genotoxicants and can cause damage to the genetic material of the exposed organism (Shugart, 1990). Damaged DNA may potentiate subsequent deleterious cellular events such as disease (e.g., cancer...

  19. Biomarkers of petroleum contamination in the digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Desai, S.R.; Das, P.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, DNA integrity, and hydrogen peroxide in WAF-exposed specimens are indicative of oxidative damage due to dissolved petroleum extracts. A consistent increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase...

  20. Growth parameters in the cultured green mussel Perna viridis L. from the Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    inverse relationship. In contrast, growth expressed in terms of weight was significantly influencEd. by chl-a and DO. It was also observed that chl-a either singly or in combination with particulate organic matter had significant effect on growth...

  1. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    There was a great variation in the relative toxicity of different oil dispersants. Dispersant IB 2/80 was most toxic and dispersant IB 11/80 was not lethal at the highest concentration tested. The ranking order of the emulsions (oil dispersant...

  2. Tumours of reptiles 4. Multiple osteomas in the lizard Laceria viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1958-01-01

    Whereas in fishes several osteomas (Bell, 1793; Gervais, 1875; Bland-Sutton, 1885 ; Plehn, 1906 ; Schroeders, 1908 ; Fiebiger, 1909 ; Williamson, 1913 ; Beatti, 1916 ; Kazama, 1924 ; Sagawa, 1925; Williams, 1929; Takahashi, 1929; Thomas, 1932, 1933; Lucké and Schlumberger, not published, see the

  3. [Chemically induced ectropodia in the Lacerta viridis embryo and formation of styliform limbs in reptiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Clergue-Gazeau, M

    1984-01-01

    Administered into the eggs of Lacerta virifis on days 10 and 11 of incubation (at 25 degrees C), Cytosine-arabinofuranoside induces ectropodia in embryos, with a high frequency, which may reach 66%. The resulting styliform limbs display a general structure similar to that of the limbs of several species of serpentiform Reptilia.

  4. Growth of the green mussel, Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    parameters did not show any marked correlation with growth rate, which was chiefly influenced by the availability of food. A significant relationship was noted between the shell length and total weight of the mussel, i.e. W = 3.7522 L sup(1.3007). The maximum...

  5. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumaran, S.P.; Kutty, B.C.; Chatterji, A.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Mishra, K.P.

    studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that pre incubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from Gamma-radiation mediated killing Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes...

  6. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body con...

  7. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    lipid peroxidation in mussels Perna perna exposed to different metals, Mar.Poll.Bull. 49 (2004) 386-392. [27] K. D. Oakes, G. J. V.D. Kraak, Utility of the TBARS assay in detecting oxidative stress in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni...

  8. Digestion rates of prey eaten by intertidal sea anemones from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the various prey categories tested, amphipods tended to be the most rapidly digested group, while molluscs and echinoderms usually remained in the coelenteron the longest. Mean gut retention times in B. reynaudi, the only species found both in False Bay (1 TC) and on the cold west coast (12'C) were markedly longer ...

  9. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect on the transcriptome of Anemone coronaria following infection with rust (Tranzschelia discolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Marina; Borghi, Cristina; Bobbio, Valentina; Allavena, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand plant/pathogen interaction, the transcriptome of uninfected (1S) and infected (2I) plant was sequenced at 3'end by the GS FLX 454 platform. De novo assembly of high-quality reads generated 27,231 contigs leaving 37,191 singletons in the 1S and 38,393 in the 2I libraries. ESTcalc tool suggested that 71% of the transcriptome had been captured, with 99% of the genes present being represented by at least one read. Unigene annotation showed that 50.5% of the predicted translation products shared significant homology with protein sequences in GenBank. In all 253 differential transcript abundance (DTAs) were in higher abundance and 52 in lower abundance in the 2I library. 128 higher abundance DTA genes were of fungal origin and 49 were clearly plant sequences. A tBLASTn-based search of the sequences using as query the full length predicted polypeptide product of 50 R genes identified 16 R gene products. Only one R gene (PGIP) was up-regulated. The response of the plant to fungal invasion included the up-regulation of several pathogenesis related protein (PR) genes involved in JA signaling and other genes associated with defense response and down regulation of cell wall associated genes, non-race-specific disease resistance1 (NDR1) and other genes like myb, presqualene diphosphate phosphatase (PSDPase), a UDP-glycosyltransferase 74E2-like (UGT). The DTA genes identified here should provide a basis for understanding the A. coronaria/T. discolor interaction and leads for biotechnology-based disease resistance breeding.

  11. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  12. Distribution, habitat use and ecology of deepwater Anemones (Actiniaria) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Archie W.; Daly, Marymegan

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of deepwater Actiniaria is poorly known. Rarely are these organisms identified to family, as this requires both well-preserved specimens and taxonomic expertise. Ecological information is similarly lacking. From the results of a comprehensive surveying program in the deep Gulf of Mexico, we report the occurrence of nine species of Actiniaria. For the most abundant four of these, we plot distributions and discuss habitat use, morphological variation, and feeding strategies. Actiniaria in the Gulf appear to have broad, basin-wide distributions with little depth preference. Faunal biomass is highest in the NE Gulf within submarine canyons or at the base of slope escarpments. Attachment mode is mostly opportunistic on various types of hard substrata, including trash. Sediment-dwelling forms are very abundant at an organically rich site within a large submarine canyon.

  13. Aphid resistance in florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) induced by sea anemone equistatin overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valizadeh, M.; Deraison, C.; Kazemitabar, S.K.; Rahbé, Y.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the Asteraceae family and represents the second most important floricultural crop in the world. Most genotypes are sensitive to aphids and infestations can lower quality and cause transmission of viruses. The protease inhibitor Sea

  14. Tentacle cnidae of the sea anemone Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Östman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tentacle cnidae of Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761 were examined by light microscopy. In addition to spirocysts, feeding-tentacles had 3 nematocyst categories grouped into medium and small size-classes, including 5 types. Spirocysts dominated, especially distally, followed by medium b-mastigophores. The density of cnidae decreased towards the tentacle base. Early cnidoblasts were numerous on the tentacle tip. Late cnidoblasts appeared in a moderate number on the mid-tentacle. Catch-tentacles, found in two Metridium specimens, had a maturity gradient of isorhizas and gland cells along their length. Their tip had two distinct types of mature isorhizas in great numbers and large gland cells, but lacked spirocysts. Mature isorhizas and gland cells decreased in number towards the tentacle base. On the mid-tentacle differentiating ages of isorhizas were numerous. Ordinary feeding-tentacle cnidae, abundant at the tentacle base, decreased in number distally along the tentacle.

  15. Development and epithelial organisation of muscle cells in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nematostella vectensis, a member of the cnidarian class Anthozoa, has been established as a promising model system in developmental biology, but while information about the genetic regulation of embryonic development is rapidly increasing, little is known about the cellular organization of the various cell types in the adult. Here, we studied the anatomy and development of the muscular system of N. vectensis to obtain further insights into the evolution of muscle cells. Results The muscular system of N. vectensis is comprised of five distinct muscle groups, which are differentiated into a tentacle and a body column system. Both systems house longitudinal as well as circular portions. With the exception of the ectodermal tentacle longitudinal muscle, all muscle groups are of endodermal origin. The shape and epithelial organization of muscle cells vary considerably between different muscle groups. Ring muscle cells are formed as epitheliomuscular cells in which the myofilaments are housed in the basal part of the cell, while the apical part is connected to neighboring cells by apical cell-cell junctions. In the longitudinal muscles of the column, the muscular part at the basal side is connected to the apical part by a long and narrow cytoplasmic bridge. The organization of these cells, however, remains epitheliomuscular. A third type of muscle cell is represented in the longitudinal muscle of the tentacle. Using transgenic animals we show that the apical cell-cell junctions are lost during differentiation, resulting in a detachment of the muscle cells to a basiepithelial position. These muscle cells are still located within the epithelium and outside of the basal matrix, therefore constituting basiepithelial myocytes. We demonstrate that all muscle cells, including the longitudinal basiepithelial muscle cells of the tentacle, initially differentiate from regular epithelial cells before they alter their epithelial organisation. Conclusions A wide range of different muscle cell morphologies can already be found in a single animal. This suggests how a transition from an epithelially organized muscle system to a mesenchymal could have occurred. Our study on N. vectensis provides new insights into the organisation of a muscle system in a non-bilaterian organism. PMID:25009575

  16. New records on sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Rodríguez, E.; Gili, J.-M.; Segonzac, M.

    2003-01-01

    During several cruises carried out by the Ifremer (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer) with the submersile “Nautile” at different hydrothermal sites and cold seeps, an important collection of anthozoans - mainly actiniarians - was sampled. Additional material was collected

  17. A redescription of the Sea Anemone Bunodosoma Biscayensis (Fischer, 1874) (Actiniaria, Actiniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Bunodes biscayensis Fischer, 1874, a species of Actiniaria described from Moulleau, Arcachon, south-western coast of France, and never recorded since, was rediscovered in July 1985 and found again in 1986 and 1987 in several localities along the French "Côte Basque" between the mouth of the river

  18. Asexual reproduction and molecular systematics of the sea anemone Anthopleura krebsi (Actiniaria: Actiniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Braga Gomes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use allozyme analyses to demonstrate that individuals in Anthopleura krebsi aggregates are monoclonal. Additionally, sympatric samples of the red and the green colour-morphs of A. krebsi from Pernambuco, Brazil were genetically compared and no significant differences were observed between them (gene identity= 0.992, indicating that they do not belong to different biological species. All individuals within aggregates of the green colour-morph were found to be identical over the five polymorphic loci analysed. Such results would be extremely unlikely (PEn el presente trabajo se utilizó análisis de aloenzimas para demostrar que los individuos en los agregados de la especie Anthopleura krebsi son monoclonales. Además, muestras simpátricas de las variedades roja y verde fueron comparadas genéticamente y ninguna diferencia significativa fue observada entre ellas (Identidad génica= 0.992, indicando que ellas no pertenecen a especies biológicamente distintas. Todos los individuos dentro de un agregado de la variedad roja resultaron ser idénticos para los cinco loci polimórficos analizados. Tal resultado sería extremadamente improbable (p<10 -11 si los individuos analizados hubiesen sido generados a través de reproducción sexual, confirmando así la presencia de reproducción asexual en esta especie.

  19. Influence of rearing water temperature on induced gonadal development and spawning behaviour of tropical green mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parathattil Rathan Sreedevi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: According to the present study temperature induced spawning method is very simple and cost effective and can accelerate the production of mussel seeds in hatchery units and further stock improvement through genetic manipulation.

  20. BUDIDAYA KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis L. DENGAN METODE DAN KEPADATAN BERBEDA DI PERAIRAN PESISIR KUALA LANGSA, ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sagita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kerang hijau merupakan komoditas budidaya laut yang sangat prospektif untuk dikembangkan pada suatu sistem budidaya, karena dapat dilakukan dengan biaya produksi yang rendah namun menghasilkan profitabilitas yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui metode dan kepadatan yang paling optimal untuk budidaya kerang hijau di perairan pesisir Kuala Langsa, Aceh. Metode penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial yang terdiri atas faktor metode (long line dan stick dan faktor kepadatan (20, 30, dan 40 individu/kantong 5,30 L, masing-masing diulang sebanyak empat kali. Berdasarkan sidik ragam data Specific Growth Rate (SGR dari panjang (SGL L dan bobot (SGR W menunjukkan semua perlakuan metode, kepadatan dan interaksi berbeda signifikan pada taraf uji 5% (P<0,05, di mana perlakuan yang paling optimal yaitu perlakuan metode long line dengan kepadatan 20 individu/kantong 5,30 L diperoleh rata-rata nilai SGR (L sebesar 0,86 ± 0,01%/hari dan SGR (W sebesar 1,18 ± 0,04%/hari dengan sintasan mencapai 92,50 ± 2,89%. Parameter kualitas perairan selama periode budidaya masih sesuai untuk mendukung kehidupan kerang hijau di mana suhu berkisar 27,5-34,0°C; salinitas 28,5-33,0 ppt; pH 7,8-8,6; dan oksigen terlarut 4,5-6,5 mg/L; serta kecepatan arus 0,1-0,3 m/s. Budidaya kerang hijau dengan metode long line pada kepadatan 20 individu/kantong 5,30 L merupakan pola budidaya yang paling optimal untuk diterapkan di perairan pesisir Kuala Langsa, Aceh. Green mussel is a very prospective marine aquaculture commodity due to its low cost production but with high profitability. This research aimed to determine the most optimal method and densities for green mussel culture in coastal waters of Kuala Langsa, Aceh. The research used a completely randomized factorial design consisting of methods factor (long line and stick and densities factor (20, 30, and 40 individuals/basket 5.30 L, each repeated four times. Based on the variance analysis of specific growth rate (SGR data of the length (SGR L and weight (SGR W, all treatments of different methods and densities as well as their interactions were significant different (P<0.05. This study suggested that long line method with a densities of 20 individuals/basket 5.30 L was found to be the most optimal treatment for green mussel culture in coastal waters of Kuala Langsa. With this long line method an average SGR (L value of 0.86 ± 0.01%/day, SGR (W value of 1.18 ± 0.04%/day, and survival rate of 92.50 ± 2.89% were obtained. Water quality parameters during the culture period are still within the suitable range for green mussel culture, with the range of temperature 27.5-34.0°C, salinity 28.5-33.0 ppt, pH 7.8-8.6, dissolved oxygen 4.5-6.5 mg/L, and current velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s.

  1. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    as nmol TBARS formed per mg protein. 2.6.Antioxidant enzymes The activity of total SOD was determined by the method of Paoletti et al. (1990) by monitoring rate of oxidation of NADH. One unit of SOD activity was defined as 50 % inhibition of oxidation...) and endogenous factors such as reproductive cycle (Filho et al., 2001). It is difficult therefore to draw exact conclusion as to which parameter is most effective to bring the changes in the antioxidant observed. However it is clear from the data...

  2. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    of India (Figure 1) and the samples were immediately taken for morphometric measurements. This involves the measurement of Shell Length (LT), Height (HT), Width (WI), Volume (VL), Shell weight (empty shell weight without organism) (WT), Wet weight... (weight of the organism alone) (WW), Total weight (weight of shell and organism) (TW) and Dry weight (weight of dried organism) (DW) of the two mussel species. LT, HT and WI were measured in the laboratory using the vernier calipers accurate to 0.01cm...

  3. Strategi Pemanfaatan Perairan Pesisir untuk Budi Daya Kerang Hijau (Perna viridis L. di Kuala Langsa, Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sagita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of green mussel culture currently still requires the determination of strategies in accordance with the potential and conditions of coastal areas as well as management culture system. This research aims to formulate strategies of the utilization coastal waters for green mussel culture in coastal Kuala Langsa, Aceh Province. Data collected to identify internal factors and external, including primary and secondary data, while the determination of respondents using purposive sampling method. SWOT Analysis is used for strategy determined while prioritizing strategy using Quantitative Strategies Planning Matrix (QSPM analysis. Based on SWOT analysis, identified 9 strength factors, 4 weakness factors, 6 opportunity factors, and 5 threat factors and 8 strategies, then the priority of strategies is determined with QSPM analysis, the sequence of the most important priority is: counseling and training to improve the management of green mussel culture for coastal communities (WO1; green mussel culture can be integrated with the involvement of coastal communities as stakeholders (WO2; optimization of coastal waters for green mussel culture is supported by ecology conditions (SO1; green mussel culture can be done with longline method with a density of 20 individuals/basket 5.30 l (SO3; site selection for culture and spat collection of green mussel should consider coastal oceanographic factors (ST1; controlling the level of waste disposal from the mainland so as not to pollute coastal areas (ST2; and to formulate practical guidance of management of green mussel culture based on the food security principle.

  4. Responses of neurons of lizard's, Lacerta viridis, vestibular nuclei to electrical stimulation of the ipsi- and contralateral VIIIth nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Precht, W; Ozawa, S

    1975-03-22

    Field and intracellular potentials were recorded in the vestibular nuclei of the lizard following stimulation of the ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nerves. The field potentials induced by ipsilateral VIIIth nerve stimulation consisted of an early negative or positive-negative wave (presynaptic component) followed by a slow negativity (transsynaptic component). The spatial distribution of the field potential complex closely paralleled the extension of the vestibular nuclei. Mono- and polysynaptic EPSPs were recorded from vestibular neurons after ipsilateral VIIIth nerve stimulation. In some neurons early depolarizations preceded the EPSPs. These potentials may be elicited by electrical transmission. Often spikelike partial responses were superimposed on the EPSPs. It is assumed that these potentials represent dendritic spikes. Contralateral VIIIth nerve stimulation generated disynaptic and polysynaptic IPSPs in some neurons and EPSPs in others. The possible role of commissural inhibition in phylogeny is discussed. In a group of vestibular neurons stimulation of the ipsilateral VIIIth nerve evoked full action potentials with latencies ranging from 0.25-1.1msec. These potentials are caused by antidromic activation of neurons which send their axons to the labyrinth.

  5. Effect of polypeptides from sea anemone Heteractis crispa on the rodent blood pressure, heart rate, and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobtsova, L A; Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2016-09-01

    АРНС1-3 peptides, modulators of TRPV1 receptors, have been administered to SD rats to study their influence on the animal hemostatic system, heart rate, and blood pressure. None of АЗРС1-3 polypeptides have any effect on the hemostatic system. Both АРНС1 and АРНС2 polypeptides increased significantly the heart rate, but they did not affect blood pressure, which was probably caused by an ability of these polypeptides to modify animal thermoregulation.

  6. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanon, A.; Beguiristain, T.; Sylla, S.; Berthelin, J.; Duponnois, R.

    2009-01-01

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  7. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Warren R.; Siu, William H.L.; Jack, Ralph W.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  8. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  9. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Warren R. [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: warren.davies@rmit.edu.au; Siu, William H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jack, Ralph W. [Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel.

  10. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20 My of divergence.

  11. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SITE SELECTION OF GREEN MUSSEL, Perna viridis, MARICULTURE IN LADA BAY, PANDEGLANG, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel is one of important species cultured in Lada Bay, Pandeglang. To provide a necessary guidance regarding green mussel mariculture development, finding suitable site is an important step. This study was conducted to identify suitable site for green mussel mariculture development using geographic information system (GIS based models. Seven important parameters were grouped into two submodels, namely environmental (water temperature, salinity, suspended solid, dissolve oxygen, and bathymetry and infrastructural (distance to settlement and pond aquaculture. A constraint data was used to exclude the area from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to develop green mussel mariculture, including area of floating net fishing activity and area near electricity station. Analyses of factors and constraints indicated that about 31% of potential area with bottom depth less than 25 m had the most suitable area. This area was shown to have an ideal condition for green mussel mariculture in this study region. This study shows that GIS model is a powerful tool for site selection decision making. The tool can be a valuable tool in solving problems in local, regional, and/or continent areas.

  12. Divergent Host Plant Adaptation Drives the Evolution of Sexual Isolation in the Grasshopper Hesperotettix viridis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the Absence of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beginning stages of lineage divergence can be difficult to detect, as correlations between altered genotypic and phenotypic attributes are often weak early in the process. Shifts in host plant use and divergence in mating signals can lead to sexual isolation and ultimately speciation. To underst...

  13. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Warren R; Siu, William H L; Jack, Ralph W; Wu, Rudolf S S; Lam, Paul K S; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel.

  14. Excitability parameters and sensitivity to anemone toxin ATX-II in rat small diameter primary sensory neurones discriminated by Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin IB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Alistair; Pittaway, James F; Baker, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Sensory neurone subtypes (ATX-II might also discriminate neurones and report that 1 microm has negligible or small effects on action potentials in IB4 +ve, but dramatically increased action potential duration in IB4 ve, neurones. The toxin did not act on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) Na(V)1.8 currents; discrimination was based on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) Na(+) channel expression. We also explored the effects of varying the holding potential on current threshold, and the effect of repetitive activation on action currents in IB4 +ve and ve neurones. IB4 +ve neurones became more excitable with depolarization over the range 100 to 20 mV, but IB4 ve neurones exhibited peak excitability near 55 mV, and were inexcitable at 20 mV. Eliciting action potentials at 2 Hz, we found that peak inward action current in IB4 +ve neurones was reduced, whereas changes in the current amplitude were negligible in most IB4 ve neurones. Our findings are consistent with relatively toxin-insensitive channels including Na(V)1.7 being expressed in IB4 +ve neurones, whereas toxin sensitivity indicates that IB4 ve neurones may express Na(V)1.1 or Na(V)1.2, or both. The retention of excitability at low membrane potentials, and the responses to repetitive stimulation are explained by the known preferential expression of Na(V)1.8 in IB4 +ve neurones, and the reduction in action current in IB4 +ve neurones with repetitive stimulation supports a novel hypothesis explaining the slowing of conduction velocity in C-fibres by the build-up of Na(+) channel inactivation.

  15. The effects of asexual reproduction and inter-genotypic aggression on the genotypic structure of populations of the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, D J

    1983-03-01

    Genotype frequencies of adult and juvenile Actinia tenebrosa from 2 populations showed that settlement and recruitment predominantly involved the localised asexual (ameiotic) proliferation of established genotypes. However, there is strong indirect evidence that the genotypic variation was generated by sexual reproduction. Genotypic structuring of these populations was detected at 2 levels. First, coarse clumping of genotypically identical adults and juveniles occurred on a scale consistent with the pattern of asexual dispersal. Second, fine-scale clustering of genotypically identical adults and juveniles occurred on a scale consistent with predicted effects of inter-genotypic aggression. Inter-genotypic aggression seems certain to play an important role in inter-genotypic competition for recruitment space and should reduce the input of genotypic variation into established populations. The applicability of the Strawberry-Coral Model to the life history of this species is discussed.

  16. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne RL; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish...

  17. The proteomic profile of Stichodactyla duerdeni secretion reveals the presence of a novel O-linked glycopeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Sea anemones represent one of the emerging groups of interest concerning venomous animals in toxinology and the goal of the present work was the prospection, and the structural and functional characterization of the compounds present in the secretion of the sea anemone Stichodactyla...... of analysis is perfectly suitable to other sea anemone secretions and animal venoms. Moreover, new peptide structures can arise contributing to the knowledge of the diversity of these animal peptides....

  18. Vth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ownby, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    ..., cardiotoxins, and antihemorrhagic factors. Presentations on plant and microbial toxins include work done on ricin, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, cone snail peptides, sea anemone toxins, proteinase inhibitors and maitotoxin...

  19. Invertebrate medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewbart, G.A

    2012-01-01

    .... Coverage includes sponges, jellyfish, anemones, corals, mollusks, starfish, sea urchins, crabs, crayfish, lobsters, shrimp, hermit crabs, spiders, scorpions, and many more, with chapters organized by taxonomy...

  20. Distribution of virulent and pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in three molluscan shellfish species (Meretrix meretrix, Perna viridis, and Anadara granosa) and their association with foodborne disease in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Soboon, Supatinee; Sunghiran, Wattanee; Kaewpiboon, Sukhon; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Ishibashi, Masanori; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2006-11-01

    Distribution of pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood, particularly in molluscan shellfish, and their serological and molecular relationships to clinical strains were examined from Hat Yai City in southern Thailand. During 2000 to 2002, virulent strains (tdh+ or trh+) were isolated from 13 of 230 molluscan shellfish samples using alkaline peptone water enrichment followed by immunomagnetic separation. The isolates included 12 pandemic strains (tdh+, trh-, group-specific PCR positive) from five Oriental hard clam samples, five green mussel samples, and one bloody clam sample. Among the pandemic strains, eight belonged to serogroup O3:K6, three belonged to O1:K25, and one was O1:K untypeable. One hundred eighty-seven strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical specimens obtained from a hospital in this city during 2000 to 2001. The pandemic strains comprised 64 and 68% of the isolates in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Among the serotypes of the pandemic strains, O3:K6 was dominant at 73% in 2000 and 76% in 2001 followed by O1:K25 at 20% in 2000 and 13% in 2001. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the pandemic strains from molluscan shellfish were indistinguishable or very similar to those of patient isolates. Similarity of the serotype distribution and DNA fingerprints occurring between the molluscan shellfish strains and clinical strains suggests that molluscan shellfish may be an important source of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus infection in southern Thailand. For public health, proper cooking of molluscan shellfish in this area is strongly recommended.

  1. Biofouling community pattern on various metallic surfaces in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, Southwestern Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Gouri; Satpathy, K.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Bindu, V.K.

    2015-01-01

    . 100 cm -2 . The major fouling organisms such as, barnacle, green mussel and ascidian constituted ∼ 70-80% of the total fouling. In the present study, sequence of fouling succession was as follows, barnacle - hydroid - sea anemone - ascidian and finally green mussel (Perna viridis Linn. 1758). The paper also discusses species diversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness) in detail. (author)

  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 428318141 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GNDMICGTNRRGFQPPSHSSSRLKPTENSSDDAAGNDMICGTNRRGFQPPSHSSSRLKPTENSSETDVDQLTLQSSFRGLSL ...10 179408:410 ... hypothetical protein Osc7112_3223 Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MWWQLLRIMPKFAPNLSPDDAT

  3. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  4. 76 FR 65985 - Importation of Litchi and Longan Fruit From Vietnam Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... ombrodelta. Non-Lepidopteran Insect Pests: Bactrocera cucurbitae. Bactrocera dorsalis. Ceroplastes rubens... ombrodelta. Non-Lepidopteran Insect Pests: Bactrocera dorsalis. Ceroplastes rubens. Coccus viridis...

  5. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  6. Chemical and biological characterization of a crude venom extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sea-anemones, in common with other members of the phylum cnidaria (coelenterate) possess numerous tentacles containing specialized stinging cells of cnidocysts. Our main objective is to elucidate the chemical character and biological properties of this Nigerian species of sea anemone Bunodosoma ...

  7. Antiproliferative heparin (glycosaminoglycans) isolated from giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heparin was isolated from two bivalve mollusks, Tridacna maxima (giant clam) and Perna viridis (green mussel). The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2 g/kg (in crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (in purified samples) in T. maxima and P. viridis, ...

  8. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ROŞU; Iulian GHERGHEL

    2005-01-01

    In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus). Within the region we identi...

  9. Marine protected area restricts demographic connectivity: Dissimilarity in a marine environment can function as a biological barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Honda, Kentaro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Baslot, Darwin I; Genovia, Tom G; Nakamura, Yohei; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Pantallano, Allyn Duvin S; Lian, Chunlan; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes ( Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion ) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  = .032). The parentage analysis also showed that lower numbers of fishes were recruited from the fishing zones and outside of the study area into each anemone in the MPA than into each anemone in the fishing zones ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  fishing zones ( n  = 384 females, p  = .516). Because the ocean currents around the study site were unlikely to cause a lower settlement intensity of larvae in the MPA, the ocean circulation was not considered crucial to the observed abundance and recruitment patterns. Instead, stronger top-down control and/or a lower density of host anemones in the MPA were potential factors for such patterns. Our results highlight the importance of dissimilarity in a marine environment as a factor that affects connectivity.

  10. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  11. (Carlgren, 1938) nov. comb. (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - ... In-situ observations and photographs of an unusual and spectacular red and white striped, mobile anemone, which appears to feed on gorgonians ..... mental conditions at the times of collection, or detailing the composition of the benthic ...

  12. Marine organisms and their adaption - Adaptions solve the challenges of existence in the sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    great diversity of organisms. To survive, these organisms need to secure food, successfully reproduce and avoid predation. Simple animals, such as anemones or worms, absorb the gases through their skin. Mobile animals use gills, or even lungs to absorb...

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 50 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aphid resistance in florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) induced by sea anemone equistatin overexpression. Mahmood Valizadeh, Celine Deraison, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Yvan Rahbé, Maarten A Jongsma ...

  14. Compilation of 1986 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. TABS H-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    chronicles the data collection and analysis activities for a monitoring project during 1986. As in the past, each report has been reviewed by four or...sediments thoroughly and re- taining the suspended animals in a 60 tm mesh soil sieve. Animals were preserved in 80% ethyl alcohol . The sediments were...Gaultheria procuinbens Hepatica Labrador Tea Hepat ia americana Ledum groenland icum Anemone Bog Laurel Anemone sp Kahnmia polifolia Blue Cohosh Bog

  15. Phycopeltis kosteriana sp. n., an epiphyllous alga of the family Chroolepidaceae from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cribb, A.B.

    1967-01-01

    Phycopeltis kosteriana A. B. Cribb, sp. n. — Thallus pallidus viridis, usque ad 250 μ diam., margine inaequale; filamenta prostrata, inaequaliter radiata, plerumque contigua extra margine; thallus paucis parvis foraminibus; cellulae inaequales, plerumque inaequaliter 1, 2 vel 3-furcatae,

  16. Description d’un Gyrinide nouveau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régimbart, M.

    1887-01-01

    Oralis, sat elongatus, valde convexus, corpore subtus pedibusque pallide testaceis, supra subtilissime reticulatus, niger, anguste flavolimbatus, in capite et pronoto viridi-aenescens, elytris nigris vix metallicis, in regionibus punctatis brunneotomentosis, costa discoïdali sat lata, ante apicem

  17. Two new Malaysian Lichens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhart, P.

    1958-01-01

    Thallus epilithieus, crustaceus, uniformis, continuus, late expansus (usque ad 1 m latus), sat crassus, griseus, laevigatus, subnitidus, pseudocyphellis punctiformibus verruculiformibusque, albis, numerosis instructus, zona marginali laete viridi cinctus, K sordide aurantiacus, Ca et KCa immutatus;

  18. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol’s effects on the body . ^ Back to top Ayahuasca A hallucinogenic tea made in the Amazon from ... containing plant ( Psychotria viridis ) along with another vine ( Banisteriopsis caapi ) that contains an MAO inhibitor preventing the ...

  19. Ecology and culturing of edible bivalves in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Nair, S.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Harkantra, S.N.; Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Roy, J.M.

    Environmental characteristics, growth rate, total production and technically feasible methods for the mass cultivation of Meretrix casta, Paphia malabarica, Villorita cyprinoides, Donax incarnatus, Perna viridis, Modiolus metcalfei and Crassostrea...

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281754 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MLYNNEILPTLTVESSPRSMNILLYKLLSLRRIEYIAVDR...YP_007115817.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281805 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MYLILPDLYANMTYQIDERLNTSPCGFLSFADDGTIVMVN...YP_007118829.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281806 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MIEESKSIKEKFGVLDSVPVGACLLQDDFVVLFWNTCLEE...YP_007117793.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  3. Antifouling activities of marine sedentary invertebrates on some macrofoulers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilsanand, V.; Wagh, A.B.; Bapuji, M.

    that the transient presence of active extracts did not cause irreversible damage to P. viridis. The results indicate the possible potentialities of these extracts as natural non toxic antifouling agents....

  4. Improving the Recreational Fishery on Malmstrom Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    24 miles to the south and into Alberta, Canada. Stratigraphic units important to the framework of the region surrounding Malmstrom AFB range in... ranging from standing water (Pow Wow Pond) to intermittent streambeds that flow only after heavy downpour events (USAF 2008). In most cases, these were...viridis viridis), plains garter snake ( Thamnophis radix), and leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were recorded. Six western painted turtles (Chrysemys picta

  5. Assessinent of streptomycesgriseo viridis (mycostop as a biocontrol agent for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiin two cultivars of standard carnation under commercial conditions Evaluación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (MYCOSTOP en el control de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, en dos variedades de clavel estándar bajo condiciones comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Luis Miguel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in a commercial farm, located in Madrid, Cundinamarca. The purpose of the study was to established the rate and irequency of application of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop in the control of vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Two experiments were conducted to compare three rates of application (0,025;0,05 and 0,01 g/m2 and
    three intervals of application (1,2 and 4 weeks of
    Mycostop, in two standard carnation varieties. Disease
    progress data were analized by comparing their godness of fit to Gompertz and Monomolecular epidemiological models. By using the simpler linear regression model, the rate of inlection (k and the coefficient of determination (Al were calculated.
    Inlection rates were subjected to analysis of variance.
    The results showed no satislactory control of the disease. Rates and frecuencies of applícation of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop did not show appreciable differences. Epidemiologically, "k" values were highly homogeneous among the different Mycostop treatments. Streptomyces
    griseoviridisis highly dependent upon culture media
    pH, and it grows only at a pH 016,4 or higher, with an optimal growth at a pH 7,0. No relation was detected between growth of the biocontrol organism and levels of electrical conductivity.La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel localizado en el municipio de Madrid (Cundinamarca, con el objetivo de determinar la dosis y la frecuencia de aplicación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop en el control del
    marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporom lsp. dianthi. En el campo, se realizaron dos experimentos simultáneos, para probar diferentes dosis (0,025; 0,05 y 0,1 g/m2 y frecuencias (1, 2 y 4 semanas de aplicación de
    Streptomyces griseoviridis Mycostop en dos variedades de clavel estándar. El análisis estadístico consistió en utilizar algunos modelos epidemiológicos de predicción de la enfermedad, con el fin de observar su progreso en los dilerentes tratamientos. Posteriormente, mediante un análisis
    de regresión lineal simple, se calculó la tasa de infección (k y el coeficiente de determinación (R2, el cual indicó el modelo que más se ajustó a la realidad. Por medio de un análisis de varianza, se compararon las tasas de infección. Los resultados de los experimentos no fueron satislactorios en el
    control de la entermedady no se encontraron diferencias signilicativas entre las dosis y las frecuencias de aplicación de Streptomyces gríseovirídís (Mycostop utilizadas. Un
    comportamiento epidemiológico estadísticamente homogéneo se observó en las curvas de predicción de la enfermedad por bloque. Streptomyces griseoviridises muy dependiente de las condiciones de pH del medio de cultivo, pues, sólo se desarrolló a partir de un pH de 6,4 y con un óptimo
    crecimiento, a 7,0. No se observó una relación entre el desarrollo del organismo y la conductividad eléctrica.

  6. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. González Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977, from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circunscript sphincter pinnate type. The axis has a truncated cone shape while in P. clematis the shape is cylindrical on its origin and it is bifurcated at the end. Both species experiments were carried out using the isolated muscles. They were stimulated at increasing KCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 200 mM. The results were analysed in the form of dose-response curves expressed in tension in grams force vs concentration. Contractil force increases in a sigmoid form to increasing KCl concentrations. The correlation between morphology and function and the differences shown in both species would be related to their intertidal distribution.Se realizó la caracterización de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 y Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977 del ecosistema intermareal mediante estudio morfológico y funcional. La especie P. clematis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo palmado. Este músculo está constituido por un eje mesogloeal y varios subejes mesogloeales. Tanto el eje como los subejes dan soporte al endodermo cuyo borde es liso. La especie A. marplatensis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo pinnado. El eje tiene forma de cono truncado mientras que en P. clematis es cilíndrico en su origen bifurcándose en su parte final. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo usando el músculo aislado de ambas especies. Estos fueron estimulados a concentraciones crecientes de KCl en un rango de 20 a 200 mM. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante curvas dosis-respuesta expresados en tensión en gramos fuerza vs concentración. La fuerza contráctil se incrementó en forma sigmoidea. La correlación entre la morfología y función y las diferencias mostradas en ambas especies podrían estar relacionadas con su distribución en el intertidal.

  7. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Blain

    Full Text Available Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4, brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada throughout an entire growth season (February to October. We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1 D. viridis. Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental

  8. Canopy-Forming Seaweeds in Urchin-Dominated Systems in Eastern Canada: Structuring Forces or Simple Prey for Keystone Grazers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed “Desmarestia bed”. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg−1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability

  9. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Finn A; Pavia, Henrik; Toth, Gunilla B

    2014-01-01

    Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile) in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness), on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium) were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content) and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume) algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of seaweed diets

  10. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness, on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of

  11. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Analysis of polyphenolic antioxidants from the fruits of three pouteria species by selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Yang, Hui; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2004-09-22

    Pouteria campechiana, Pouteria sapota, and Pouteria viridis are tropical plants in the Sapotaceae family that bear edible fruits. The fresh fruits of these three Pouteria species were each extracted, and activity-guided fractionations were performed to identify the antioxidant constituents. Seven polyphenolic antioxidants, gallic acid (1), (+)-gallocatechin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-epicatechin (4), dihydromyricetin (5), (+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (6), and myricitrin (7), were isolated and identified. Extracts of the three Pouteria fruits were analyzed by a selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify their polyphenolic antioxidants. The highest level of the seven measured polyphenols was found in P. sapota, the second highest in P. viridis, and the lowest in P. campechiana. The levels of the seven polyphenols corresponded with the results of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, by which P. sapota had the highest antioxidant activity, P. viridis the second highest, and P. campechiana the lowest.

  13. Spatial distribution-patterns on the Northern Dobrogean mainland ( of the species belonging to ”green lizards” group of the Lacerta genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Zsolt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of field investigations carried out in 1994 – 2008 period, the author established the general distributional patterns in the northern part of the Dobrogean mainland of three lizard species. The Sand Lizards (Lacerta agilis populates habitats with linear shape, the species being present along river valleys and some roads. The Balkan Green Lizards (L. trilineata and the Green Lizards (L. viridis were recorded mostly nearby or inside the forests (or plantations. In case of L. trilineata and L. viridis there is quite obvious the spatial segregation: in areas where the two species were present, the Balkan Green Lizard (L. trilineata occurs mostly at lower altitudes, meanwhile the Green Lizard (L. viridis was more frequently present at higher altitudes.

  14. Crustaceans associated with Cnidaria, Bivalvia, Echinoidea and Pisces at São Tomé and Príncipe islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic crustaceans were searched for at sea anemones (Actiniaria, encrusting anemones (Zoantharia, horny coral (Gorgonaria, black coral (Antipatharia, bivalves (Bivalvia, and sea urchins (Echinoidea at São Tomé and Príncipe Islands (Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic. Sixteen species of crustaceans were found in association with these invertebrate hosts; eleven of them were new records for the area and two species, belonging to the genera Hippolyte and Heteromysis, were new for science. The thalassinid Axiopsis serratifrons was occasionally associated with an undescribed species of gobiid fish.

  15. [Spatial distribution pattern and allometric growth of three common species on moving sand dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mei-yu; Li, Xue-hua; Oh, Choong-hyeon; Park, Hong-chul; Miao, Chun-ping; Han, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Research on fine scale pattern and characteristics of allometric growth could contribute to better understanding plants' adaptation in moving sandy dunes. The abundance, height and biomass of 3 species Agriophilum aquarrosum, Corispermum candelabrum and Setaria viridis in twenty-eight 1 m x 1 m quadrats of Horqin Sandy Land were identified, mapped and described. The nearest neighbor method and O-ring O(r) function analysis were applied to analyze the spatial patterns. The results showed that the individual spatial pattern was mainly aggregated in 1 m x 1 m quadrat at community level but mainly random at population level. At 0-50 cm individual distance scale, both intraspecific and interspecific relationship were facilitation and aggregated distribution occurred at some scales and varied with increasing plant abundance in 1 m x 1 m quadrat. In 0-40 cm, the aggregated distribution of S. viridis and A. aquarrosum increased obviously; in 10-20 cm, both intraspecific and interspecific aggregation increased; in 10-30 cm, the occurrence possibility of positive correlations between S. viridis and A. aquarrosum, S. viridis and C. candelabrum all increased; in 40-50 cm, the possibility of positive correlations between A. squarrosum and S. viridis, A. squarrosum and C. candelabrum all increased. Research on the three species components indicated that the growth rate of above-ground was faster than that of underground. S. viridis had the highest ratio of under-ground biomass to above-ground biomass but its nutritional organs' biomass ratio was medium. C. candelabrum allocated more biomass to propagative organs and stem, but A. squarrosum allocated more biomass to nutritional organs. Based on the spatial distribution and allometric characteristics, the three common species in moving sand dunes preferred r strategy in their life history.

  16. ATX-II-induced pulmonary vein arrhythmogenesis related to atrial fibrillation and long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yen-Yu; Cheng, Chen-Chuan; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2012-08-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is associated with a high incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pulmonary veins (PVs) play a critical role in AF genesis. Type 3 LQTS increases late sodium current (I(Na,L) ), which may increase PV arrhythmogenesis and AF. Therefore, this study examines PV arrhythmogenesis in anemonia sulcata toxin II (ATX-II)-induced type 3 LQTS and evaluates whether the I(Na,L) inhibitor ranolazine can suppress PV arrhythmogenesis. Conventional microelectrodes were used to record the action potentials (AP) and contractility in isolated rabbit PV specimens before and after ATX-II administration with or without ranolazine. Anemonia sulcata toxin II (100 nM) increased the PV spontaneous rates from 2·0 ± 0·1 to 2·9 ± 0·2 Hz (n = 7), induced PV burst firing (100%) with the genesis of early afterdepolarization (EAD) (86%) and prolonged the AP duration. Ranolazine (0·1, 1 and 10 μM) dose dependently reduced the PV spontaneous rates from 2·5 ± 0·2 to 2·3 ± 0·2 Hz, 1·9 ± 0·2 and 1·5 ± 0·3 Hz (P ATX-II (100 nM) further increased the AP duration. However, ATX-II neither increased the PV spontaneous rates (1·6 ± 0·1 vs. 1·7 ± 0·2 Hz, n = 7) nor induced PV burst firing or EAD. Moreover, ranolazine (10 μM) reduced ATX-II-induced PV acceleration and EAD. The I(Na,L) enhancer ATX-II can increase PV arrhythmogenesis, which can be attenuated or blocked by ranolazine. This suggests that AF may be related to type 3 LQTS through increased I(Na,L) . © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  17. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms.

  18. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  19. To Build an Ecosystem: An Introductory Lab for Environmental Science & Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Daniel; Finnerty, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis-driven laboratory is described that introduces students to the complexities of ecosystem function. Students work with live algae, brine shrimp, and sea anemones to test hypotheses regarding the trophic interactions among species, the exchange of nutrients and gases, and the optimal ratio of producers to consumers and predators in…

  20. Heliacus (Gastropoda: Architectonicidae) symbiotic with Zoanthiniaria (Coelenterata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R

    1967-04-14

    Eight species of Heliacus are obligate symbionts with Zoanthus and Palythoa, colonial zoanthid sea anemones. The gastropods live among Zoanthus polyps and under the edges of Palythoa incrustations, on which they feed and to which they and their egg masses are attached with sturdy but elastic mucous threads.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 25 of 1853 ... (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) a mobile sea anemone attacking octocorals, Abstract PDF. Karin Riemann-Zürneck, Charles L. Griffiths. Vol 35, No 2 (2000), Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic copepod infecting gills of spinner sharks, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839), ...

  2. African Zoology - Vol 34, No 4 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korsaranthus natalensis (Carlgren, 1938) nov. comb. (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) a mobile sea anemone attacking octocorals · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Karin Riemann-Zürneck, Charles L. Griffiths, 190-196 ...

  3. Three methods for isolating viable anthozoan endoderm cells with their intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. D.; Muscatine, L.

    1992-09-01

    Three maceration methods are described for the isolation of single endoderm cells from marine cnidarians. Two are enzymatic treatments suitable for fleshy anthozoans such as sea anemones and zoanthids. The third employs calcium free sea water and is suitable for stony corals. The viability and morphology of the endoderm cells is described using fluorogenic dyes and scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia:

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electrostatic interactions as well as lipid composition. J. Biosci. 36 781–791] DOI 10.1007/s12038-011-9156-4. 1. Introduction. The pore-forming proteins sticholysin I and sticholysin. II (St I/II) produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Lanio et al. 2001) are highly hemolytic toxins with 93% sequence identity.

  6. In memoriam Jacobus Cornelis (Koos) den Hartog (1942-2000), marine naturalist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Jacobus Cornelis den Hartog was born on 17 April 1942 in Broek op Langedijk. He read biology at Leiden University from 1963 to 1970. He worked at the Caribbean Marine Biological Station on Curaçao from 1971 to 1973, where he studied Caribbean sea anemones. From 1973 he worked in the National Museum

  7. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-07

    Dec 7, 2009 ... experimental (Cuba: Ciencia y Técnica); Chapter 2, pp 97–99. Tejuca M, Serra S M, Ferreras M, Lanio M E and Menestrina G. 1996 Mechanism of membrane permeabilization by sticholysin, a cytolysin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus; Biochemistry 35 14947–14957. MS received 10 ...

  8. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein/kg mice i.p (Eno et al. 1998). [n the same study, it was! found that the extract produced spontaneous contractions of the guineapig ileum, and that it blocked the contractile effect of histamine. The blocking actions of the extract of another sea anemone, Tealia felina on histamine ~ induced contractions of the guinea pig ...

  9. Study of UO2 radioinduced densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, J.P.; Bruet, M.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of radioinduced densification were performed on UO 2 DCN (intergranular fine porosity) and UO 2 DCI (interaggregate coarse porosity) in the Anemone device. The densification kinetics was followed by measuring the shrinkage of the oxide column on neutron radiographic plates. UO 2 DCI was found stable in regard to densification. At power near 450Wcm -1 , densification is hitten by restructuring phenomena [fr

  10. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. T García D Martinez A Palmero C Soto M Tejuca F Pazos R Menéndez C Alvarez A Garateix. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 891-898 ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acuña, Fabian H. Vol 39, No 2 (2004) - Articles Species richness, endemicity and distribution patterns of South African sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria & Corallimorpharia) Abstract. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  12. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The term venom is used for a variety of toxins that are injected by certain animals into a victim through a specialized apparatus. Though venom is most commonly employed as a means of defense and predation, it is also used as a means of asserting dominance over conspecifics. Venomous animals include sea anemones ...

  13. The occurrence of Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, 1848) (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.; Dekker, R.; Faasse, M.A.; Hartog, den J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of the sea anemone Sagartia elegans var. miniata, var. nivea and var. venusta in considerable numbers at three localities in the Netherlands is reported upon. Previous records of the species in Dutch coastal waters are reviewed. Most of these are considered as doubtful. Characters to

  14. Onubactis rocioi gen. et spec. nov., a new species of Actiniidae (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the southern Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Hartog, den J.C.; García-Gómez, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A new genus and species of sea anemone, Onubactis rocioi gen. et spec. nov. (Actiniidae) is described from the Atlantic coast of the southern Iberian Peninsula. The main features of Onubactis rocioi are: a smooth to corrugate scapus, a delicate scapulus provided with a ruff of non-adherent papillate

  15. Actiniaria from Ria de Arosa, Galicia, northwestern Spain, in the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ates, R.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Twentysix species of sea anemones (Actiniaria) collected in Galicia, northwestern Spain are present in the collection of the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis. They are listed and discussed. The cnidom of seventeen species is surveyed. Diadumene cincta is not a recent immigrant in

  16. A case of associated occurrence of the crab Lauridromia inter-media (Laurie, 1906) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Dromiidae) and the actinian Nemanthus annamensis Carlgren, 1943 (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Nemanthidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Hartog, den J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Members of the crab family Dromiidae tend to cover their carapace mostly with sponges or colonial tunicates. More rarely are used other objects or organisms such as solitary Tunicata, Zoantharia (= encrusting anemones), valves of Bivalvia, etc.; a review of these is presented. A new association of a

  17. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at lea...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08145-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 50 1e-04 AF021822_1( AF021822 |pid:none) Scaptodrosophila lebanonensis supe... ...emonia viridis copper/zinc super... 49 6e-04 AF021824_1( AF021824 |pid:none) Hirtodrosophila pictiventris su

  19. Effect of manures on biomass production and pharmacobiochemical properties of some greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, S Naseer; Sivakumar, A; Subramanian, M S

    2003-10-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco - phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  20. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  1. Variability of Venom-Neutralizing Properties of Serum from Snakes of the Colubrid Genus Lampropeltis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    chick in the terciopelo Bothrops asper venom by blood se- zootoxicologic studies on venoms. Copeia 1959: rum of the colubnd snake Cletie dIeia. Toxicon 20...effect of Bothrops jararaca and faded rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis concolor) venom: Waglerophis merremii snake plasma on the coagu- lethal toxicity and

  2. Review of the West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyné (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) with description of five new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Ivie, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The West Indian genus Monotalla Bechyné is reviewed, redescribed and illustrated. Five new species are added: Monotalla dominica sp. n. (Dominica); Monotalla lecticofolia sp. n. (St. Lucia); Monotalla maierae sp. n. (St. Lucia); Monotalla obrienorum sp. n. (Grenada); and Monotalla viridis sp. n. (St. Lucia). A key to Monotalla species is provided. PMID:26052242

  3. On a new species of Lanistes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, M.M.

    1891-01-01

    Testa sinistrorsa, anguste umbilicata, conico-globosa, aut flavido- aut viridi-olivacea, semper fasciis spiralibus purpureis angustis in anfr. ultimo picta; spira scalaris, magis minusve conica; apex obtusus. Anfr. 5½, superne vel acute angulati vel carinati, supra plani, carina interdum linea

  4. Host species and habitat affect nodulation by specific Frankia genotypes in two species of Alnus in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Damon Anderson; Roger W. Ruess; David D. Myrold; D. Lee. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the genetic structure (nifD-K spacer RFLP haplotypes) of Frankia assemblages symbiotic with two species of Alnus (A. tenuifolia and A. viridis) in four successional habitats in interior Alaska. We used one habitat in which both hosts occurred to...

  5. Egg numbers and fecundity traits in nine species of Mantella poison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The body size and number of eggs in dissected females were analysed in nine species of the Malagasy frog genus Mantella basing upon preserved specimens. These species were distinguished in terms of habitat and grouped as 'grassland species' (included M. betsileo, M. expectata, M. viridis), and 'rainforest species' ...

  6. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was higher during the northeast monsoon season than the southeast monsoon season. Ascidiians and Sabellidae were significantly more abundant on collectors during the southeast monsoon season. A few bivalve species of commercial value including: P. penguin, Perna viridis and. Anadara antiquata also settled on ...

  7. Volume 9 No. 9 December 2009 POTENTIAL IMPACT ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... Western Tree- hyrax. Long-tailed/Tree. Pangolin. Dendrohyrax Dorsalis. Manis tricuspis. T. E. C. S. 11. 2. REPTILIA. Reptila. Nile croccodilus. Monitor lizard. Water moccasin. Rock python. Green mamba. Black cobra. Hingeback. Croccodilus niloticus. Veranus niloticus. Python sebae. Dendrospis viridis.

  8. Ribosomal DNA in diploid and polyploid Setaria (Poaceae) species: number and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Cenzi, Gisele; Pereira, Daniele Lais; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Setaria Beauvois, 1812 is a genus of economically important forage species, including Setaria italica (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812 and Setaria viridis (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812, closely related species and considered as model systems for studies of C4 plants. However, complications and uncertainties related to taxonomy of other species of the genus are frequent due to the existence of numerous synonyms for the same species or multiple species with the same name, and overlapping of morphological characteristics. Cytogenetic studies in Setaria can be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies as well as for applications in breeding. Thus, this study is aimed at locating 45S and 5S rDNA sites through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in Setaria italica, Setaria viridis and Setaria sphacelata (Schumacher, 1827) Stapf, Hubbard, Moss, 1929 cultivars (cvs.) Narok and Nandi. Setaria italica and Setaria viridis have 18 chromosomes with karyotype formulas 6m + 3sm and 9m, respectively. The location of 45S and 5S rDNA for these species was in different chromosome pairs among the evaluated species. Setaria viridis presented a more symmetrical karyotype, strengthening the ancestral relationship with Setaria italica. Setaria sphacelata cvs. Narok and Nandi have 36 chromosomes, and karyotype formulas 11m+7sm and 16m+2sm, respectively. The 45S rDNA signals for both cultivars were also observed in distinct chromosome pairs; however chromosomes bearing 5S rDNA are conserved. Karyotypic variations found among the studied species are evidence of chromosomal rearrangements.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 7, No 17 (2008), Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions, Abstract PDF. AY Tijani, SE Okhale, FE Oga, SZ Tags, OA Salawu, BA Chindo. Vol 13, No 27 (2014), Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts against biofilm bacteria and green mussel Perna viridis from ...

  10. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  11. On a new species of toad from southern Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1972-01-01

    A new species of toad, related with Bufo calamita Laurenti and B. viridis Laurenti, is described from the southern part of Morocco. Combining the data of the available specimens with literature records it was established that the new species probably ranges from the Sous valley southwards to Cape

  12. The placenta and foetal membranes of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-06-05

    Jun 5, 1988 ... Scotophilus viridis (Vespertilionidae) in Kruger National. Park, South Africa. J. Mammal. 66(3): 461-468. FENTON, M.B. & RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1986. A comparison of the roosting and foraging behaviour of three species of African insectivorous bats. (Rhinolophidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae). Can.

  13. Effects of sand burial on the survival and physiology of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corispermum macrocarpum, Setaria viridis and Agriophyllum squarrosum are dominant psammophytes with strong environmental adaptability in Horqin Sandy Land, a typical agro-pastoral ecotone with frequent and intense sand activity in Northern China. We studied the survival rates, activity of antioxidant enzyme ...

  14. Palynomorphs and floral bloom as taxonomic characters in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh flowers of five species of Amaranthus were studied and documented in detail using light microscope to examine their morphology and pollen characteristics in relation to taxonomy. These species include Amaranthus spinosus, A. viridis, A. hybridus, A. australis and A. tricolor. The species showed close relationship in ...

  15. Phytoplankton Community Responses in A Perturbed Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euglena viridis was the only member of the class Euglenophyceae recorded in the river and it occurred only sporadically in station 1. The low fauna diversity experienced in station 2 throughout the period of sampling showed strong evidence of impact arising from the abattoir waste discharge and heavy human activities at ...

  16. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  17. Sidi Saâd reservoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... with environmental factors in a semi arid area: Sidi. Saâd reservoir .... between changes in environmental parameters, biological factors and ..... Dinophyceae. Copepoda. Anabaena sp. Gonyaulax sp. Acanthocyclops robustus Acanthocyclops viridis. Chroococcus sp. Gonyaulax spinifera. Gloeothece sp.

  18. William Burroughs: Sailor of the Soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    In 1953, William Seward Burroughs made several important and largely unrecognized discoveries relating to the composition and clinical pharmacological effects of the hallucinogenic plant potion known as yagé or ayahuasca. Illustrations of Burroughs' voucher sample of Psychotria viridis and his letter to the father of modern ethnobotany, Richard Evans Schultes, are published here for the very first time.

  19. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweeds, Sargassum wightii, Ulva lactuca; sponge Desmopsongiae sp., and cashew nut oil extracts were tested in vitro against ten marine fouling bacteria isolated from test panels and the green mussel Perna viridis. The biofilm bacteria growth was inhibited by methanol extracts of the seaweeds S. wightii, U. lactuca, ...

  20. potential antagonistic fungal species from ethiopia for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Ten commercial products of these three species were developed for controlling diseases on different crops (Frevel et al., 1998). T. harzianum and T. viridi were reported as biocontrol agent for chocolate spot of grape, apple and strawberry caused by B. cinerea. (Sutton et al., 1997; Hjeljord et al., 2001). Other fungi prevalent ...