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Sample records for anemone anemonia viridis

  1. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

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    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  2. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

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    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  3. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

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    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. PMID:26478191

  4. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

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    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  5. Comportamiento agresivo intraespecífico e interespecífico de Anemonia viridis en el intermareal

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    Fàbregas Gumara, Txell

    2014-01-01

    [ES] No se ha podido observar en Anemonia viridis una distribución espacial similar a la descrita por Francis (1988) para otras especies de anémonas, posiblemente por la estrechez de zona intermareal en Canarias. Por otra parte, la agresividad parece estar directamente asociada con el tamaño del individuo, pero ésta se dio siempre entre individuos no clonales. Se demuestra que la coloración es un factor relacionado con su éxito agresivo.

  6. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

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    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that

  7. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the KD values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of [125I]-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace [125I]-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin

  8. First evidence of antimicrobial activity of neurotoxin 2 from Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria

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    MR Trapani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antibacterial activity of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria, Anthozoa tentacle and body acidic extracts. Biochemical purification consisted of first step on solid phase Sep-Pak C8 column followed by several HPLC runs on C18 column using different conditions. Anti-Micrococcus lysodeikticus activity has been detected in 40 % acetonitrile fractions. The resulting purified molecule from tentacles had a molecular mass determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of 4946,299 Da and has been completely sequenced. Its aa sequence revealed identity with the Neurotoxin 2 (ATX-II, a Na+ channel blocking toxins. Consequently, ATX-II appeared to display a dual role as toxin and as antibacterial.

  9. [Transcriptome analysis of Dunaliella viridis].

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    Zhu, Shuaiqi; Gong, Yifu; Hang, Yuqing; Liu, Hao; Wang, Heyu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes for Dunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) databases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81,593 transcripts were found, and 77,117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16,569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classification annotated 76,436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30,678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26,428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was annotated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foundation of metabolic pathway research for Dunaliella viridis. PMID:26266786

  10. Gene transfer system for Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

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    Lang, F S; Oesterhelt, D

    1989-01-01

    A gene transfer system for Rhodopseudomonas viridis was established which uses conjugation with Escherichia coli S17-I as the donor and mobilizable plasmids as vectors. Initially, plasmids of the incompatibility group P1 (pRK290 and pRK404) were used. The more effective shuttle vectors between E. coli and R. viridis, pKV1 and pKVS1, were derived from plasmid pBR322 and showed the highest conjugation frequency (10(-2] thus far demonstrated in purple bacteria. It was also demonstrated that Rhiz...

  11. Chemical constituents from rhizome of Anemone amurensis.

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    Lv, Chong-Ning; Li, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Jing; Qin, Ru-Lan; Lei, Tian-Li; Lu, Jin-Cai

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the rhizome of Anemone amurensis led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR data, and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested for cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (A549 and Hep-G2). Compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 38.53 and 66.17 μM, respectively, while compound 1 with IC50 > 100 μM. PMID:26978669

  12. Putative bioindicator of 137Cs in Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green lipid mussels (Perna viridis L.) are utilized as bioindicators and bioconcentrators not only for marine radionuclide contamination but also for heavy metal bioaccumulation. Depurated P. viridis were incubated in 137Cs-spiked aquarium for 4 days. Soluble protein fractions of soft tissue obtained were electrophoresed (SDS-PAGE) to determine the exposure effects of 137Cs on P. viridis. Results showed the presence of a 154-kDa protein in 137Cs-spiked samples which could be a potential bioindicator of 137Cs in P. viridis. Other differences involving two more proteins (∼94-kDa and∼61 KDa) are reported. (Author)

  13. Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis.

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    Callaway, J C; Brito, Glacus S; Neves, Edison S

    2005-06-01

    A total of 32 Banisteriopsis caapi samples and 36 samples of Psychotria viridis were carefully collected from different plants on the same day from 22 sites throughout Brazil for phytochemical analyses. A broad range in alkaloid distribution was observed in both sample sets. All B. caapi samples had detectable amounts of harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine (THH), while some samples of P. viridis had little or no detectable levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Leaves of P. viridis were also collected from one plant and analyzed for DMT throughout a 24-hour cycle. PMID:16149327

  14. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

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    Anthony J. SAVIOLA, David CHISZAR, Stephen P. MACKESSY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake. Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake takes different prey at different life stages, and neonates typically prey on ectotherms, while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms. We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed, and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age. To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred, we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate, 20 subadult, and 20 adult (average SVL = 280.9, 552, 789.5 mm, respectively wild-caught C. v. viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, and house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, two endotherms (deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse, Mus musculus, and water controls were used. Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey, S. undulatus, than to all other chemical cues; however, the response to this lizard’s chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes. Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S. undulatus and P. maniculatus than to all other treatments, and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P. maniculatus than to all other chemical cues. In addition, all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M. musculus and H. frenatus. This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C. v. viridis diet. Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition, we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid

  15. Searching for a toxic key to unlock the mystery of anemonefish and anemone symbiosis.

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    Anita M Nedosyko

    Full Text Available Twenty-six species of anemonefish of the genera Amphiprion and monospecific Premnas, use only 10 species of anemones as hosts in the wild (Families: Actiniidae, Stichodactylidae and Thalassianthidae. Of these 10 anemone species some are used by multiple species of anemonefish while others have only a single anemonefish symbiont. Past studies have explored the different patterns of usage between anemonefish species and anemone species; however the evolution of this relationship remains unknown and has been little studied over the past decade. Here we reopen the case, comparing the toxicity of crude venoms obtained from anemones that host anemonefish as a way to investigate why some anemone species are used as a host more than others. Specifically, for each anemone species we investigated acute toxicity using Artemia francisca (LC50, haemolytic toxicity using ovine erythrocytes (EC50 and neurotoxicity using shore crabs (Ozius truncatus. We found that haemolytic and neurotoxic activity varied among host anemone species. Generally anemone species that displayed greater haemolytic activity also displayed high neurotoxic activity and tend to be more toxic on average as indicated by acute lethality analysis. An overall venom toxicity ranking for each anemone species was compared with the number of anemonefish species that are known to associate with each anemone species in the wild. Interestingly, anemones with intermediate toxicity had the highest number of anemonefish associates, whereas anemones with either very low or very high toxicity had the fewest anemonefish associates. These data demonstrate that variation in toxicity among host anemone species may be important in the establishment and maintenance of anemonefish anemone symbiosis.

  16. Two new triterpenoid saponins from rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Lu, Jincai; Wang, Jing;

    2009-01-01

    Two new 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid-type triterpenoid saponins, raddeanoside Ra (1) and raddeanoside Rb (2), were isolated from the rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated to be 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-alpha...

  17. First observations of attempted nudibranch predation by sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Reijnen, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    On two separate occasions during fieldwork in Semporna (eastern Sabah, Malaysia), sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae were observed attempting to feed on the nudibranch species Nembrotha lineolata and Phyllidia ocellata. These are the first in situ observations of nudibranch predation by sea ane

  18. DNA extraction from sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) tissues for molecular analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto S.M.; Fernandes-Matioli F.M.C.; Schlenz E.

    2000-01-01

    A specific DNA extraction method for sea anemones is described in which extraction of total DNA from eight species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharian was achieved by changing the standard extraction protocols. DNA extraction from sea anemone tissue is made more difficult both by the tissue consistency and the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. The technique described here is an efficient way to avoid problems of DNA contamination and obtain large amounts of purified and in...

  19. Cadherin-23 May Be Dynamic in Hair Bundles of the Model Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ciao Tang; Watson, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with anti...

  20. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria Toxins: An Overview

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    Agostinho Antunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines, but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  1. The reproduction of the anemone Sagartia troglodytes (PRICE): no influence of tidal manipulation

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    Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The reproductive cycle and the glycogen content were monitored in the subtidal anemone Sagartia troglodytes (PRICE). Moreover, these parameters were followed for periods of 3 to 30 days over the course of 1 year in anemones previously submerged in stagnant water and thus subjected to a reduced food

  2. Parasitic anemone infects the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Møller, Lene Friis; Sundberg, Per;

    2010-01-01

    We report of the first finding of parasitic sea anemone larvae infecting the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Parasitic anemone larvae are common in the native habitat of Mnemiopsis, but have not previously been reported from any of the locations where Mnemiopsis...

  3. Anemonefish depletion reduces survival, growth, reproduction and fishery productivity of mutualistic anemone-anemonefish colonies

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    Frisch, Ashley J.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Munkres, Katherine P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Intimate knowledge of both partners in a mutualism is necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of each partner, and to manage human impacts that asymmetrically affect one of the partners. Although anemonefishes and their host anemones are iconic mutualists and widely sought by ornamental fisheries, the degree to which anemones depend on anemonefishes, and thus the colony-level effects of collecting anemonefishes, is not well understood. We tracked the size and abundance of anemone Entacmaea quadricolor and anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus colonies for 3 yr after none, some, or all of the resident anemonefish were experimentally removed. Total and partial removal of anemonefish had rapid and sustained negative effects on growth, reproduction and survival of anemones, as well as cascading effects on recruitment and productivity of anemonefish in the remaining colony. As predicted, total removal of anemonefish caused acute declines in size and abundance of anemones, although most anemone colonies (76 %) slowly resumed growth and reproduction after the arrival of anemonefish recruits, which subsequently grew and defended the hosts. Partial removal of anemonefish had similar but typically less severe effects on anemones. Remarkably, the colony-level effects on anemones and anemonefish were proportional to the size and number of anemonefish that were experimentally removed. In particular, anemone survival and anemonefish productivity were highest when one or more adult anemonefish remained in the colony, suggesting that adult fish not only enhanced the protection of anemones, but also increased the recruitment and/or survival of conspecifics. We conclude that the relationship between E. quadricolor and A. melanopus is not only obligate, but also demographically rigid and easily perturbed by anemonefish fisheries. Clearly, these two species must be managed together as a unit and with utmost precaution. To this end, we propose several tangible management actions

  4. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2013-08-08

    Background:Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.Methodology/Principal Findings:This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.Conclusions/Significance:Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host

  5. Taxonomic, spatial and temporal patterns of bleaching in anemones inhabited by anemonefishes.

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    Jean-Paul A Hobbs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments. Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%; however, this percentage was much higher (19-100% during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked

  6. DNA extraction from sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria tissues for molecular analyses

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    Pinto S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific DNA extraction method for sea anemones is described in which extraction of total DNA from eight species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharian was achieved by changing the standard extraction protocols. DNA extraction from sea anemone tissue is made more difficult both by the tissue consistency and the presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. The technique described here is an efficient way to avoid problems of DNA contamination and obtain large amounts of purified and integral DNA which can be used in different kinds of molecular analyses.

  7. Molecular cloning of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    activity. No cDNA coding for PAL could be identified, suggesting that sea anemone PAL is coded for by a gene that is different from the sea anemone PHM gene, a situation similar to the one found in insects. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a cnidarian PHM. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec-18...... conserved regions of PHM, we have now cloned a PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica showing 42% amino acid sequence identity with rat PHM. Among the conserved (identical) amino acid residues are five histidine and one methionine residue, which bind two Cu2+ atoms that are essential for PHM...

  8. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Tao Han; Ying Fang; Ming-Ming Li; Hong-Bing Yang; Fang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1), glycoside St-J (2), anhuienoside E (3), hedera sapon...

  9. Analgesic Compound from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is the First Polypeptide Inhibitor of Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1)*

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroslav A. Andreev; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Ekaterina A. Ivanova; Monastyrnaya, Margarita M.; Kozlovskaya, Emma P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Venomous animals from distinct phyla such as spiders, scorpions, snakes, cone snails, or sea anemones produce small toxic proteins interacting with a variety of cell targets. Their bites often cause pain. One of the ways of pain generation is the activation of TRPV1 channels. Screening of 30 different venoms from spiders and sea anemones for modulation of TRPV1 activity revealed inhibitors in tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa venom. Several separation steps result...

  10. Continuous drug release by sea anemone Nematostella vectensis stinging microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  11. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants. PMID:15270076

  12. The expansion behaviour of sea anemones may be coordinated by two inhibitory neuropeptides, Antho-KAamide and Antho-RIamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFarlane, I D; Hudman, D; Nothacker, H P;

    1993-01-01

    Antho-KAamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2) and Antho-RIamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Tyr-Arg-Ile-NH2) are novel neuropeptides isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. They both inhibited spontaneous contractions of isolated muscle preparations from a wide variety of anemone species...

  13. Masquerade, mimicry and crypsis of the polymorphic sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni and its aggregations in South Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.; Crowther, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllodiscus semoni is a morphologically variable sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific with morphotypes ranging from upright and branched to low-lying and rounded. The apparent camouflage strategies of this sea anemone allow it to resemble other species or objects in its environment, such as st

  14. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  15. Preliminary study on the bioaccumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis through the dissolved pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a common fear among shellfish consumers. Saxitoxins are the group of compounds that are responsible for PSP. These compounds are produced by Pyrodinium bahamense var compresssum (PbC) which accumulate in perna viridis as they feed on PbC. This study aims to determine the presence of an alternative pathway, called the dissolved pathway, through which saxitoxins accumulate in Perna viridis independent of PbC. Perna viridis were exposed to a certain concentration of saxitoxins for a period of 24 hours and saxitoxin levels were determined at certain times throughout the period. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Oshima method was used in the measurement of toxins levels. Results show that mussels accumulate saxitoxins even in the absence of PbC, which supported the hypothesis that an alternative dissolved pathway contributes to the accumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis. (author)

  16. Bioaccumulation of Chromium by Perna Viridis from Jakarta Bay Base on Radiotracer 51Cr Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of bioaccumulation chromium of Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay using 51Cr radiotracer have been done. The experiment was carried out by 3 steps such as: uptake, depuration and modelling. The result of experiment shown that Perna viridis can be used as bioindicator of chromium because its capability to accumulate Cr. Its concentration factor, uptake rate and depuration rate were 148.36 to 414.5, 14.836 to 65.754 μg per days and 9.04 to 15.48 % per days respectively. The value of BCF was under 500 so Perna viridis can not be used for environmental risk assesment. The result of modeling was find the Concentration Factor were 106 to 367 and the its decreasing from Perna viridis tissue can be 90 % after 14 days of depuration. (author)

  17. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    862 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis Abstract The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated....N. Verlecar* Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 *For correspondence - verlecar@nio.org 863Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Jena et al...

  18. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves in experimental diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy Girija; Kuruba Lakshman; Nagaraj Pruthvi; Pulla Udaya Chandrika

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by mouth per day for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight was monitored at specific intervals, and differen...

  19. Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis into a shallow-water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Orav, Helen; Sandberg-Kilpi, Eva

    2001-12-01

    Effects of the North American polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis on a simple shallow-water benthic community of the northern Baltic Sea were studied in a field experiment combining natural densities of dominating macrofaunal species. The presence of M. cf. viridis increased benthic production (chlorophyll a) and reduced the survival of the native polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Adult Macoma balthica caused a significant mortality on M. cf. viridis whereas adult Cerastoderma glaucum had no effect on M. cf. viridis. We suggest that the competitive interactions between M. cf. viridis and M. balthica are a possible key factor determining the distribution pattern of M. cf. viridis in the Baltic Sea.

  20. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Tal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  1. Antimicrobial properties of sea anemone Stichodactyla mertensii and Stichodactyla gigantea from Mandapam coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Thangaraj; S Bragadeeswaran; K Suganthi; N Sri Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol and aqueous extract of sea anemone Stichodactyla mertensii (S. mertensii) and Stichodactyla gigantea (S. gigantea).Methods:The sea anemone S. mertensii and S. gigantea were subjected to extraction by using methanol and distilled water. They were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Results: In antibacterial activity, S. gigantea exhibited significantly inhibitory activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the S. mertensii of butanolic extract. In antifungal activity, the S. mertensii extract showed good activity against Aspergillus niger (A. niger)compared with other strains. Whereas S. gigantea recorded maximum and minimum zone of inhibition against Botrytis cinerea, A. niger and Cladosporium cucumerinum respectively. Conclusions: The results support that the sea anemones S. mertensii and S. gigantea extracts for treatment of some bacterial and fungal diseases as an ethanomedicinal source.

  2. SALT EFFECTS ON SWARMERS OF DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas-Becking, L G

    1931-07-20

    1. Dunaliella viridis Teodoresco thrives equally well in solutions of NaCl 1 to 4 mol and pH 6 to 9. 2. The organism is sensitive to calcium and magnesium, especially in acid medium. 3. Calcium and magnesium are antagonistic. In a molar solution of NaCl the antagonistic relation Mg:Ca is 4 to 5. In a 4 molar solution of NaCl the proportion becomes many times as great (20:1). 4. Although the strains used in this investigation did not occur in sea water concentrates, the increase in the antagonistic ratio Mg:Ca in which they can live closely paralleled the changes in this ratio which take place when sea water evaporates. 5. The other organisms which occurred in the cultures each show a specific relation to Ca and Mg. 6. The size of the cells of Dunaliella does not decrease with increasing NaCl content. PMID:19872621

  3. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie;

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  4. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with {\\it Yohkoh} Soft X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Ayumi; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V

    2008-01-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied by using the data obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard {\\it Yohkoh} from 1991 November to 1993 March. The following characteristics are found; Many of active regions appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a ``sea-anemone''. Such active regions are called {\\it anemone ARs}. About one-forth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure. For almost all the anemone ARs, the order of magnetic polarities is consistent with the Hale-Nicholson's polarity law. These anemone ARs also showed more or less east-west asymmetry in X-ray intensity distribution, such that the following (eastern) part of the ARs is brighter than its preceding (western) part. This, as well as the anemone shape itself, is consistent with the magnetic polarity distribution around the anemone ARs. These observations also suggest that an active region appearing in coronal holes has simpler ...

  5. Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chang; Chiang, Tsay-I; Lo, Chun; Lai, Yi-Hua; Yue, Chia-Herng; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Lee, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS. PMID:26224029

  6. Characteristics of Gas Exchange in Three Domesticated Anemone Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of three Anemone species were collected from the suburban areas of Kunming and planted in a nursery for three and a half years at Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Leaf gas exchange measurement indicated that these species had similar one-peak diurnal trends of net photosynthetic rate (PN, although A. rivularis had lower transpiration rate (TR, stomatal conductance (gs and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, and higher stomatal limit in the afternoon. Species differences in response of PN to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR were observed, especially under strong light. A. rivularis had the highest PN and Ci under strong light which corresponded with its highest gs and TR. A. rivularis had the highest light saturation point (LSP (1000 mol m-2 s-1 and light compensation point (LCP (69 mol m-2 s-1, while A. hupehensis var. japonica had the lowest LSP (800 ?mol m-2 s-1 and a lower LCP (53 mol m-2 s-1. But the three species responded similarly to the change of CO2 concentration in the air from 0 to 350 ?mol (CO2 mol-1, and their observed CO2 compensation point showed little difference (47, 53 and 56 ?mol (CO2 mol-1. Moreover, A. rivularis had the highest apparent quantum yield (0.032, carboxylation efficiency (0.049, PN (11.68 ?mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 and TR (5.36 mmol (H2O m-2 s-1 based on the PN -PAR response. The results implied that A. rivularis is able to grow well under higher radiation, while A. hupehensis var. japonica is the best one to grow under partial shade.

  7. Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of the farmer's lung organism, Saccharomonospora viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amner, W; Edwards, C; McCarthy, A J

    1989-10-01

    A new medium, which we propose to call R8, was developed for the isolation and enumeration of the thermophilic actinomycete, Saccharomonospora viridis. This organism has been implicated in a range of hypersensitivity pneumonitides, including farmer's lung, but is generally isolated in small numbers from contaminated environments. Recovery of S. viridis from moldy hay and mushroom compost on R8 medium was compared with recovery on conventional media. S. viridis was isolated from both substrates but in highest numbers and most consistently on the R8 medium. The selectivity of this medium was best observed when the sedimentation chamber method was used for hay samples. Here S. viridis accounted for up to 80% of the total number of actinomycetes recovered on R8 and could not be recovered on rifampin selective medium under the same conditions. R8 was also found to be an efficient recovery medium for a range of thermophilic actinomycetes from mushroom compost and for another allergenic species, Faenia rectivirgula, from moldy hay. Contamination of isolation plates by thermophilic bacilli was reduced on R8 compared with the activity on half-strength tryptone soy agar, supplemented with 0.2% casein hydrolysate, and this, together with specific improvements in S. viridis growth, accounts for the selective effect. It is possible that the occurrence of S. viridis and its role as a causative agent of hypersensitivity pnuemonitis have been underestimated by the use of suboptimal recovery protocols. It is hoped that use of R8 in conjunction with dilution plate techniques will generate information on the ecology of S. viridis and contribute to health risk assessment studies. PMID:2604405

  8. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with {\\it Yohkoh} Soft X-ray Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V.

    2008-01-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied by using the data obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard {\\it Yohkoh} from 1991 November to 1993 March. The following characteristics are found; Many of active regions appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a ``sea-anemone''. Such active regions are called {\\it anemone ARs}. About one-forth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure....

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS ASSOCIATED WITH MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liping; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Peter, Hardi [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Feng, Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100871 Beijing (China); Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    Observations with the space-based solar observatory Hinode show that small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are found to be associated with a particular class of jets of plasma in the chromosphere called anemone jets. The goal of our study is to conduct a numerical experiment of such chromospheric anemone jets related to the moving magnetic features (MMFs). We construct a 2.5 dimensional numerical MHD model to describe the process of magnetic reconnection between the MMFs and the pre-existing ambient magnetic field, which is driven by the horizontal motion of the magnetic structure in the photosphere. We include thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field and optically thin radiative losses in the corona to account for a self-consistent description of the evaporation process during the heating of the plasma due to the reconnection process. The motion of the MMFs leads to the expected jet and our numerical results can reproduce many observed characteristics of chromospheric anemone jets, topologically and quantitatively. As a result of the tearing instability, plasmoids are generated in the reconnection process that are consistent with the observed bright moving blobs in the anemone jets. An increase in the thermal pressure at the base of the jet is also driven by the reconnection, which induces a train of slow-mode shocks propagating upward. These shocks are a secondary effect, and only modulate the outflow of the anemone jet. The jet itself is driven by the energy input due to the reconnection of the MMFs and the ambient magnetic field.

  10. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5–2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  11. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia using microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Ong; K. Yusoff; C. K. Yap; S. G. Tan

    2009-08-01

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, Parit Jawa, Pantai Lido and Kampung Pasir Puteh in Johore, and Kuala Pontian and Nenasi in Pahang state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven, with an average of 3.1. Heterozygote deficiencies were observed across all the 10 populations. Characterization of the populations revealed that local populations of P. viridis in peninsular Malaysia were genetically similar enough to be used as a biomonitoring agent for heavy metal contamination in the Straits of Malacca. Cluster analysis grouped the P. viridis populations according to their geographical distributions with the exception of Parit Jawa. The analysis also revealed that P. viridis from the northern parts of peninsular Malaysia were found to be the most distant populations among the populations of mussels investigated and P. viridis from the eastern part of peninsular Malaysia were closer to the central and southern populations than to the northern populations.

  12. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko; Bertelsen, Mads F.

    2010-01-01

    isolates to be a related undescribed anamorphic species within the family Clavicipitaceae that includes many insect pathogens. Chamaeleomyces granulomatis gen. et sp. nov. is given as the name for the newly described fungus, and P. viridis is transferred to the new genus as Chamaeleomyces viridis comb. nov...

  13. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    investigate its effect on the native benthic community with focus on the two common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. M. viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly and within 3 years it had spread to about 50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord...

  14. Gamma radiation effect on microalga platymonas viridis(Rouck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 500 Gy on the growth and ultrastructure of marine phytoplankton Platymonas viridis (Rouck) was studied. It was found that a dose of 100 Gy caused stimulating effect on the growth and it reached to 160% of the control by 45 days of culture. Stimulating effect was much more noticed after 25th day of irradiation. Radiation doses of 200 Gy and more caused sharp decrease in cell growth relative to the control. Content of dead cell in the culture increased corresponding to the dose of radiation. At a dose of 500 Gy the dead cell content became nearly 50 % by 30 day of irradiation. It is concluded that gamma irradiation caused inactivation of cell division as well as increased death rate of cells in the culture. When cells were exposed to 100 Gy, chloroplast was not damaged totally but differentiation in it's monolithic stratified structure was evident, autophagus vacuoles were larger in size having clear zones, mitosis showed uneven dispersion of cell chromosomes. On exposure to higher doses (300 and 500 Gy) extensive destruction of organelles were observed. Between the central part of the cell and envelope there were large cavities, chloroplasts were practically undetectable. More destructive process in cells exposed to 500 Gy was observed. Cytoplasmic structure lost it's contrast, plasmalema was practically destroyed, chloroplast structure was hardly discernible. Ruptures in the envelope, lysis of the cell substance, destructive signs in mitochondria were evident. 12 refs.,5 figs.,1 tab

  15. Identification of a novel type of processing sites in the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmutzler, C; Darmer, D; Diekhoff, D;

    1992-01-01

    Neuropeptides are synthesized as large precursor proteins that undergo posttranslational cleavages and modifications to produce bioactive peptides. Here, we have cloned two closely related precursor proteins for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (...

  16. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  19. IDENTIFICATION CHALLENGES IN EXAMINATION OF COMMERCIAL PLANT MATERIAL OF PSYCHOTRIA VIRIDIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna P; Łozak, Anna; Bachliński, Robert; Duszyński, Anna; Sakowska, Joanna; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2015-01-01

    Psychoria viridis (chacruna) is a hallucinogenic plant with psychoactive properties associated with the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). This species is primarily known as an ingredient of the beverage Ayahuasca, but dry leaves are also smoked by recreational users. The plant is controlled in Poland and France and its proper identification poses many challenges due to the fact that genus Psychotria is relatively large and there are other species that are easily confused with chacruna. The aim of the present work was to develop an effective authentication procedure for the dried and shredded leaves of P. viridis, to be used in comparison of chemical and botanical characteristics of its commercial products. Dried leaves of P. viridis originating from Brazil, Peru and Hawaii were purchased from Internet providers. For DMT identification, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been elaborated, validated and applied. In order to clarify the existing differences among samples, chemometric methods have been used. Botanical features and the gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms have been analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Our studies revealed significant variety among plant material marketed as P. viridis. Grouping of samples based on their micromorphology features and GC-MS results did not correspond well with the presence of DMT. Based on our results an indisputable identification of dried specimens as P. viridis is very problematic. It is necessary to postulate changes in legislation regarding regulation of P. viridis and replace it with DMT as controlled substance. PMID:26647632

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy on the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins called 'reaction centers' (RC) can be isolated from many photosynthetic bacteria. They have one non-heme iron in a quinone acceptor region. The RC of Rhodopseudomonas viridis contains an additional tightly bound tetra-heme cytochrome c subunit. The electronic configuration of both cytochrome and the non-heme iron has been studied in the crystallized protein by Moessbauer spectroscopy at different redox potentials, pH-values, and with an addition of o-phenanthroline. At high potentials (Eh=+500 mV) all heme irons are in the low spin Fe3+-state, and at low potential (Eh=150 mV) they are low spin Fe2+ with the same Moessbauer parameters for all hemes independent of pH. Redox titrations change the relative area of the reduced and oxidized states in agreement with other methods. The non-heme iron shows a high spin Fe2+ configuration independent of Eh and pH with parameters comparable to those of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence for another non-heme iron species in part of the molecules with a Fe2+ low spin configuration. Incubation with o-phenanthroline decreases the relative Fe2+ hs-area and increases the contribution of Fe2+ ls-area. Above 210 K the mean square displacement, 2>, of the RC-crystals increases more than linearly with temperature. This may be correlated with the increase of the electron transfer rate and indicates that intramolecular mobility influences the functional activity of a protein. (orig.)

  1. Antimicrobial activity of tissue and associated bacteria from benthic sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni against microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G Prakash; Babu, S; Ravikumar, S; Kathiresan, K; Prathap, S Arul; Chinnapparaj, S; Marian, M P; Alikhan, S Liakath

    2007-10-01

    Associated bacteria from Stichodactyla haddoni are found maximum in tentacle tissues than the body tissue. There are eight associated bacterial species viz., Alcaligenes sp, Corynebacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Sporosarcina sp, Renibacterium sp, Camobacterium sp1, Camobacterium sp2 and Salinococcus sp were recorded. The culture extracts from the associated bacterial species showed sensitivity against human bacterial and fungalpathogens. However, the hexane tissue extract of sea anemone showed maximum sensitivity (24 mm dia.) against the fish bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila than the other chosen pathogens. Comparatively the tissue extracts showed promising antimicrobial sensitivity than the cell free extracts of associated bacteria, and hence, the tissue samples from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni is recommended for further exploration of novel antimicrobial drugs than the associated bacteria. PMID:18405113

  2. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    OpenAIRE

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M.; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and...

  3. Characterizing the spatiotemporal expression of RNAs and proteins in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wolenski, Francis S.; Layden, Michael J; Martindale, Mark Q; Gilmore, Thomas D.; Finnerty, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reconstruct the early evolution of animal genes and proteins, there is an increasing focus on basal animal lineages such as sponges, cnidarians, ctenophores and placozoans. Among the basal animals, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria) has emerged as a leading laboratory model organism partly because it is well suited to experimental techniques for monitoring and manipulating gene expression. Here we describe protocols adapted for use in Nematostella...

  4. Two new triterpenoid saponins from the aerial parts of Anemone taipaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xia-Yin; Hua, Dong; Liu, Yang; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Phytochemical study on the aerial parts of Anemone taipaiensis for the first time led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2, together with four known saponins (3-6). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. Saponins 2-4 exhibited cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U251MG cell line with IC50 values ranging from 1.56 to 80.62 μM. PMID:26021881

  5. Distribution and impact of the alien anemone Sagartia ornata in the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B. Robinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagartia ornata is an alien anemone that occurs intertidally within the West Coast National Park (WCNP. Whilst baseline distributional data was gathered in 2001, the range and abundance of this alien has not been reassessed. The present study aimed to determine the current status and distribution of this anemone, to assess its diet so as to establish the role it may play as predator and to investigate its impact on sandy-shore communities. Sagartia ornata was found to be restricted to the WCNP, where it occurred in densities of up to 508 ± 218 individuals per m2 . Within the park the distribution of this anemone had changed. Populations were recorded in Nanozostera capensis seagrass beds for the first time and this alien was absent from two areas in which it had previously occurred. Diet analysis revealed indigenous polychaetes and amphipods as the dominant prey items consumed by S. ornata. This alien was found to significantly alter sandy-shore community structure, with differences caused primarily by increases in the abundance and biomass of the tanaid Anatanais gracilis and the polychaete Orbinia angrapequensis. Additionally, invaded areas supported significantly greater invertebrate diversity, density and biomass. It is concluded that whilst this anemone negatively affects native biota, its current dependence on restricted habitats precludes widespread impacts with the park.Conservation implications: With regard to conservation implications, this invasion should be routinely monitored outside the WCNP as in its native range S. ornata occurs on rocky shores and kelp holdfasts, suggesting a potential for spread along the west coast of South Africa.

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination...

  7. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo;

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns...

  8. Characterization of duplicated Dunaliella viridis SPT1 genes provides insights into early gene divergence after duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhenwei; Meng, Xiangzong; Sun, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2008-10-15

    The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene from unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis, DvSPT1, shares similarity with members of Pi transporter family. Sequencing analysis of D. viridis BAC clone containing the DvSPT1 gene revealed two inverted duplicated copies of this gene (DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 respectively). The duplication covered most of both genes except for their 3' downstream region. The duplicated genomic sequences exhibited 97.9% identity with a synonymous divergence of Ks=0.0126 in the coding region. This data indicated very recent gene duplication in D. viridis genome, providing an excellent opportunity to investigate sequence and expression divergence of duplicated genes at an early stage. Scattered point mutations and length polymorphism of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were predominant among the sequence divergence soon after gene duplication. Due to sequence divergence in the 5' regulatory regions and a swap of the entire 3' downstream regions (3'-UTR), DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 showed expression divergence in response to extra-cellular NaCl concentration changes. According to their expression patterns, the two diverged gene copies would provide better adaptation to a broader range of extra-cellular NaCl concentration. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis indicated that there might be a large phosphate transporter gene family in D. viridis. PMID:18662752

  9. Sex determination in Bonellia viridis (Echiura : Bonelliidae): population dynamics and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Schembri, P. J.; Boukal S., David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2005), s. 473-484. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB1007201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bonellia viridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2005

  10. Growth parameters in the cultured green mussel Perna viridis L. from the Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Growth parameters for both length and weight were estimated in the raft-grown population of Perna viridis. The asymptotic length (L approaches infinity) and weight (W ) were computed to be 85 mm and 34.37 g respectively. Theoretical length...

  11. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  12. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  13. Symbiodinium diversity in the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor on the east Australian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontasch, S.; Scott, A.; Hill, R.; Bridge, T.; Fisher, P. L.; Davy, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    The diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in Entacmaea quadricolor was analysed from five locations along ~2,100 km on the east coast of Australia using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) combined with bacterial cloning. DGGE revealed that E. quadricolor predominantly associated with six types of clade C (four of which are novel) and that most anemones harboured multiple types simultaneously. Anemones from southern locations associated with a mixed assemblage of C25 and a variant of C3. This assemblage also dominated the central location, but was absent at the northern location. At central and northern sites, two novel variants of C42(type2) and C1 were found. Anemones hosting C42(type2) also showed a low abundance of variants of C3 and C1, and E1 was found in one sample, as revealed by bacterial cloning. The occurrence of geographically distinct ITS2 types or a consortium of types might reflect a need to optimise physiological performance of the symbiosis at different latitudes.

  14. The 'Antenna Balloon Anemone' Found in the Seto Inland Sea: New Genus and Species of Sea Anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi (Cnidaria, Actinaria, Haloclavidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takato; Yanagi, Kensuke; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme. Furthermore, this species shows an interesting behavior: it can inflate its body like a balloon, lift above the seafloor, and drift with the sea current. The presence of a single, strong siphonoglyph, physa-like aboral end, and the lack of sphincter muscle classify this sea anemone within Haloclavidae. It resembles Peachia species, but cannot be classified in this genus as the new species has two pairs of mesenteries, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme, and irregular antenna tentacles. Therefore, we propose a new genus Antennapeachia to accommodate this species. PMID:27498806

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mentha (longifolia L. and viridis) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkaddem, Mounira; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2009-09-01

    The study was aimed to investigate essential oil chemical composition (gas chromatography/flame ionization detection [GC-FID] and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS] assays) and antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeast) activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and Mentha viridis. GC-MS analysis revealed that M. longifolia was constituted by pulegone (54.41%) as a major component followed by isomenthone (12.02%), 1,8-cineole (7.41%), borneol (6.85%), and piperitenone oxide (3.19%). M. viridis was rich in carvone (50.47%), 1,8-cineole (9.14%), and limonene (4.87%). The antioxidant activity by ABTS assay showed IC(50) values of 476.3 +/- 11.7 and 195.1 +/- 4.2 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively, the DPPH assays have resulted in a moderate IC(50) (>8000 mg/L and 3476.3 +/- 133 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively). Antimicrobial activity showed that Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria were more inhibited by the 2 essential oils tested. Escherichia coli was least susceptible. A strong activity was also observed on fungi and yeasts. Carvone, thymol, and piperitone oxide have not been detected in Tunisian M. longifolia. Camphor is reported for the 1st time for M. viridis. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities were correlated to chemical composition. PMID:19895481

  16. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  18. Marenzelleria viridis (Verril, 1873) (Polychaeta: Spionidae) : a new record from the Ems Estuary (The Netherlands / Federal Republic of Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Essink, K.; Kleef, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new record of the North American spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verril, 1873) is reported from the Ems Estuary. The species was first found in 1983. From 1983 to 1986 densities increased to a few thousands per m2 while densities of another polychaete, Nereis diversicolor decreased. Juveniles showed peak densities of c. 19000 m2 in muddy sediments. Adults preferred sandy sediments. In Europe M. viridis was recorded recently also in other estuaries: Tay and Forth (Scotland), Weser ...

  19. Thermal Constraints for Range Expansion of the Invasive Green Mussel, Perna viridis, in the Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    URIAN, ALYSON G.; Hatle, John D.; GILG, MATTHEW R.

    2010-01-01

    Cold temperatures are thought to be among the most important determining factors of geographic distribution for tropical and sub-tropical marine invertebrates. The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, has been introduced into coastal waters of Florida where its current distribution is hypothesized to be limited by low temperatures during winter. Lethal and sub-lethal effects (heat shock protein/Hsp70 expression) of cold water and air temperatures were analyzed in two size classes of P. viridis ...

  20. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  1. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo); ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve ten...

  2. Competição intra-específica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Intraspecific competition between Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. Viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    Ensaios de competição intra-específica foram conduzidos sobre Amaranthus viridis L. e A. hybridus L., a última espécie com dois biótipos distintos, tipo verde e tipo roxo. Os três ensaios, conduzidos separadamente, utilizaram cinco densidades de sementes por vaso. Em termos gerais, as sementes germinadas prontamente foram a razão do surgimento da próxima geração, visto que estabeleceram plântulas rapidamente e estas venceram em competição. A partir de certo número de sementes semeadas (20 por...

  3. Competição intra-específica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Intraspecific competition between Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. Viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de competição intra-específica foram conduzidos sobre Amaranthus viridis L. e A. hybridus L., a última espécie com dois biótipos distintos, tipo verde e tipo roxo. Os três ensaios, conduzidos separadamente, utilizaram cinco densidades de sementes por vaso. Em termos gerais, as sementes germinadas prontamente foram a razão do surgimento da próxima geração, visto que estabeleceram plântulas rapidamente e estas venceram em competição. A partir de certo número de sementes semeadas (20 por vaso, o número de plantas adultas obtidas revelou-se independente do número de sementes semeadas, o que indica que a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, ao invés do tamanho do banco de sementes no solo, é a razão da regulação do tamanho populacional; a mesma observação aplica-se à produção de matéria seca. Sob condições de competição, as espécies A. hybridus - tipo verde e A. viridis produziram maior quantidade de biomassa para reprodução (22% a 34% do que A. hybridus - tipo roxo (15% a 18%. As primeiras, portanto, revelaram-se mais estrategistas-r que a última.Intraspecific competition trials were carried out for Amaranthus viridis L. and A. hybridus L., the latter species with two distinct biotypes, a green and a purple type. Three independent trials were made, with five different seed densities per pot for each species or biotype. In general terms, seeds that germinated promptly were responsible for the formation of the next generation, these early seedlings being more competitive. The carrying capacity was reached with 20 seeds per pot, no increase in the number of adult plants observed by increasing the seed density. This shows that the environmental suporting capacity, not the size of the seed bank in the soil, regulates the population size. A similar conclusion holds true for dry matter yield. Under competition, the species A. hybridus - green biotype and A. viridis produced larger biomass for reproductive

  4. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 (Antho-KAamide), a novel neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced the neuropeptide L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. This neuropeptide (named Antho-KAamide) has the unusual N-terminal L-3-phenyllactyl blocking group which has recently also been discovered in 2 other neuropeptides from...... sea anemones. We propose that the L-3-phenyllactyl residue renders Antho-KAamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the neuropeptide after neuronal release. The existence of the L-3-phenyllactyl residue in 3 neuropeptides isolated so far suggests...... that this blocking group is more generally occurring....

  5. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a growing concern due to its deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, the combined effects of OA and other local stressors like metal pollution are largely unknown. In this study, we examined physiological effects in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to the global stressor carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the local stressor copper (Cu) over 7 days. Cu accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. At some time points, sea anemones exposed to 1000 ppm CO2 had higher tissue Cu concentrations than those exposed to 400 ppm CO2 at the same Cu exposure concentrations. In general, the activities of all anti-oxidant enzymes measured (catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx, glutathione reductase, GR) increased with exposure to increasing Cu concentrations. Significant differences in GR, CAT and to some degree GPx activity, were observed due to increasing CO2 exposure in control treatments. Sea anemones exposed to Cu in combination with higher CO2 generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentration of Cu and lower CO2. Activity of the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), involved in acid-base balance, was significantly decreased with increasing Cu exposure. At the two lowest Cu concentrations, the extent of CA inhibition was lessened with increasing CO2 concentration. These results provide insight into toxic mechanisms of both Cu and CO2 exposure to the sensitive cnidarian E. pallida and have implications for environmental exposure of multiple contaminants. PMID:26363274

  6. Increased cell proliferation and mucocyte density in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida recovering from bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fransolet

    Full Text Available Recovery of coral after bleaching episodes is a critical period for the health of the reef ecosystem. While events such as symbiont (genus Symbiodinium shifting/shuffling or tissue apoptosis have been demonstrated to occur following bleaching, little is known concerning tissue recovery or cell proliferation. Here, we studied the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida exposed to a transient elevation of water temperature combined with high illumination (33°C and 1900 µmol photons x m(-2 x s(-1 for 30 h. Following such treatment bleached anemones showed a significant reduction of their Symbiodinium density. Cell proliferation in the ectodermis and gastrodermis was determined by assessing the densities of cells labeled with a thymidine analogue (EdU. Cell proliferation significantly increased during the first day following stress in both tissue types. This increased cell proliferation returned to pre-stress values after one week. Although cell proliferation was higher in the ectodermis in absence of stress, it was relatively more pronounced in the gastrodermis of stressed anemones. In addition, the ratio of ectodermal mucocytes significantly increased three weeks after induced stress. These results suggest that thermal/photic stress coupled with the loss of the symbionts is able to enhance cell proliferation in both gastrodermis and ectodermis of cnidarians. While new cells formed in the gastrodermis are likely to host new Symbiodinium, the fate of new cells in the ectodermis was only partially revealed. Some new ectodermal cells may, in part, contribute to the increased number of mucocytes which could eventually help strengthen the heterotrophic state until restoration of the symbiosis.

  7. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl2 exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl2 accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl2), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl2 accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl2, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl2. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic organisms to NP in the environment

  8. Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Wang; Minchang Wang; Min Xu; Yi Wang; Haifeng Tang; Xiaoli Sun

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–5, together with five known saponins 6–10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these...

  9. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail: gkbielmyer@valdosta.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  10. Genomic organization and splicing variants of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Hauser, F; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    Cnidarians are primitive animals that use neuropeptides as their transmitters. All the numerous cnidarian neuropeptides isolated, so far, have a carboxy-terminal amide group that is essential for their actions. This strongly suggests that alpha-amidating enzymes are essential for the functioning......, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), which is coded for by a single gene. In a previous paper (F. Hauser et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 241, 509-512, 1997) we have cloned the first known cnidarian PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. In the present paper we have determined...

  11. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... the lysozyme from the whole body extracts of two edible and commercially important marine PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor 86 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. Vol. 32(1) 2009 Sumita Sharma, Tanu...

  12. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  13. Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of th...

  14. Sensitivity to thermal stimulation in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) after bilateral anesthetization of the facial pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiszar, D.; Dickman, D.; Colton, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six yearling prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) were exposed to thermal stimuli prior to and after bilateral anesthetization of their facial pits with 2% xylocaine solution. This treatment eliminates trigeminally mediated electrophysiological responses of the pits to thermal stimulation. Nevertheless, the rattlesnakes continued to exhibit behavioral responses to thermal cues after anesthetization of the pits. An auxiliary infrared-sensitive system, nociceptors, or the common temperature sense could be responsible for these findings.

  15. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A.; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 35 - 42 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Extract of Indian Green Mussel, Perna viridis (L.) Shows Inhibition of Blood... the researchers to envisage further investigation on the possible role of the active substances contained in these extracts on the formation of blood capillary and angiogenesis at large. PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation...

  16. Phagosome-lysosome fusion inhibited by algal symbionts of Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Certain species of Chlorella live within the digestive cells of the fresh water cnidarian Hydra viridis. When introduced into the hydra gut, these symbiotic algae are phagocytized by digestive cells but avoid host digestion and persist at relatively constant numbers within host cells. In contrast, heat-killed symbionts are rapidly degraded after phagocytosis. Live symbionts appear to persist because host lysosomes fail to fuse with phagosomes containing live symbionts. Neither acid phosphatas...

  17. Phytolith Analysis for Differentiating between Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern p...

  18. Marenzelleria viridis vs. Nereis diversicolor: Their Effects on the Nutreint Cycling in Danish Coastal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, Ernesto; Essinger, Alexandria; Lassen, Mette; Niclasen, Laura; Stenz, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the invasive species Marenzeleria viridis and the native species Nereis dirvesicolor in the sediment nutrient dynamics was studied over the period of one month and a half. The two species were studied in a laboratory experiment separately and in combination to observe the effects on sediment metabolism (O2 uptake), and nutrient release; nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3) and phosphorous (PO43-). A 2x2, with 4 replicates design was established with 4 treatments; (1) Control, (2) Marenzeller...

  19. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    James L Van Etten; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to H...

  20. The green leafhopper, Cicadella viridis (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae), jumps with near-constant acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Scarfogliero, Umberto; Mintchev, Stefano; Benelli, Giovanni; Dario, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Jumping insects develop accelerations that can greatly exceed gravitational acceleration. Although several species have been analysed using different tools, ranging from a purely physical to a morpho-physiological approach, instantaneous dynamic and kinematic data concerning the jumping motion are lacking. This is mainly due to the difficulty in observing in detail events that occur in a few milliseconds. In this study, the behaviour of the green leafhopper, Cicadella viridis, was investigated during the take-off phase of the jump, through high-speed video recordings (8000 frames s(-1)). We demonstrate that C. viridis is able to maintain fairly constant acceleration during overall leg elongation. The force exerted at the foot-ground interface is nearly constant and differs from the force expected from other typical motion models. A biomechanical model was used to highlight that this ability relies on the morphology of C. viridis hind legs, which act as a motion converter with a variable transmission ratio and use the time-dependent musculo-elastic force to generate a nearly constant thrust at the body-ground interface. This modulation mechanism minimizes the risk of breaking the substrate thanks to the absence of force peaks. The results of this study are of broad relevance in different research fields ranging from biomechanics to robotics. PMID:23487271

  1. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Soundarya; Sauer, Marie-Laure; Howard, Brian; Dvora, Mia; Dums, Jacob; Backman, Patrick; Sederoff, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0) into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:25992838

  2. Isolation and characterization of a sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene in Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyun; Gao, Xiaoshu; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Qingqi; Song, Rentao; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene, DvSPT1, was isolated from a cDNA library using a probe derived from a subtracted cDNA library of Dunaliella viridis. Sequencing analyses revealed a cDNA sequence of 2649 bp long and encoded an open-reading frame consisting of 672 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of DvSPT1 exhibited 31.2% identity to that of TcPHO from Tetraselmis chui. Hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction revealed 11 conserved transmembrane domains similar to those found in PHO89 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and PHO4 from Neurospora crassa. Northern blot analysis indicated that the DvSPT1 expression was induced upon NaCl hyperosmotic stress or phosphate depletion. Functional characterization in yeast Na+ export pump mutant G19 suggested that DvSPT1 encoded a Na+ transporter protein. The gene sequence of GDvSPT1 (7922 bp) was isolated from a genomic library of D. viridis. Southern blot analysis indicated that there exist at least two homologous genes in D. viridis. PMID:16359638

  3. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  4. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  5. Has Aeshna viridis EVERSMANN, 1836 (Odonata: Aeshnidae really disappeared from southern Poland (East-Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczyński Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 50-100 years ago the southern boundary of the distribution area of Aeshna viridis ran through southern Poland. However, no records of this species from this area have been reported since then. The species is therefore considered as having retreated northwards. The present research disclosed three new sites of A. viridis on the edge of or just beyond its historical distribution area: one in south-western Poland (Trestno: 51°04’N, 17º08’E and two in the south-east of the country (Krasiczyn: 49º46’N, 22º38’E, Bolestraszyce: 49º49’N, 22º51’E. All the sites were anthropogenic. This demonstrates the survival of a number of populations and the formation of new ones in water bodies formed de novo or to which Stratiotes aloides was introduced artificially. This suggests that the conservation of A. viridis is possible in this region.

  6. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlecar, X. N.; Jena, K. B.; Chainy, G. B. N.

    2008-03-01

    Investigations on seasonal variation in oxidative stress biomarkers were carried out on the natural population of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from Bambolim beach area of Goa. Oxidative stress indices such as lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were measured in gills and digestive gland of P. viridis during February, May, August and November. The present study reveals two important aspects regarding the antioxidant defence status of tissues of P. viridis. Firstly, antioxidant capacity of tissues of P. viridis exhibits seasonal variation. Secondly, various components of antioxidant capacity such as oxidative stress markers, levels of antioxidant enzymes and small antioxidant molecules vary differently in tissues with respect to different seasons. Although the oxidative stress status of gills and digestive gland of P. viridis expressed in terms of LPX and H 2O 2 was the lowest in February, its level was maximal in gills and digestive gland during May and November, respectively. While activities of SOD and GPX of tissues of P. viridis were found to be low in August, activities of CAT and GR were recorded to be low in February. GST activity in gills although remained high in February, in digestive gland elevated values were recorded in August and November. A seasonal variation in the levels of small antioxidant molecules was also noticed. Among non enzymatic antioxidants ASA content of tissues was maximal in May and August in comparison to February and November, but GSH remained high in November. It therefore appears that environmental factors may play a crucial role in regulating the oxidative stress capacity of tissues of P. viridis.

  7. Cu2+ site in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utschig, L M; Poluektov, O; Schlesselman, S L; Thurnauer, M C; Tiede, D M

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu(2+). This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn(2+) was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu(2+) sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu(2+) bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled (14)N nuclei in close proximity to Cu(2+). These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu(2+) RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu(2+) at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu(2+) binding site that is involved in modulating the Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q(B) binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in the Rb. sphaeroides RC crystal structure. Further elucidation of these Cu(2+) sites will provide

  8. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  9. Reef fishes can recognize bleached habitat during settlement: sea anemone bleaching alters anemonefish host selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-05-25

    Understanding how bleaching impacts the settlement of symbiotic habitat specialists and whether there is flexibility in settlement choices with regard to habitat quality is essential given our changing climate. We used five anemonefishes (Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion latezonatus, Amphiprion ocellaris, Amphiprion percula and Premnas biaculeatus) and three host sea anemones (Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis crispa and Heteractis magnifica) in paired-choice flume experiments to determine whether habitat naive juveniles have the olfactory capabilities to distinguish between unbleached and bleached hosts, and how this may affect settlement decisions. All anemonefishes were able to distinguish between bleached and unbleached hosts, and responded only to chemical cues from species-specific host anemones irrespective of health status, indicating a lack of flexibility in host use. While bleached hosts were selected as habitat, this occurred only when unbleached options were unavailable, with the exception of A. latezonatus, which showed strong preferences for H. crispa regardless of health. This study highlights the potential deleterious indirect impacts of declining habitat quality during larval settlement in habitat specialists, which could be important in the field, given that bleaching events are becoming increasingly common. PMID:27226472

  10. Patterns of Symbiodinium spp. associations within the family Aiptasiidae, a monophyletic lineage of symbiotic of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Thornhill, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    Although the symbiotic relationships between dinoflagellates and cnidarians are well recognized, few studies have examined these associations from an evolutionary perspective. This is especially true for symbiotic sea anemones, in which many reports consist of an approximate species identification of the host, followed by the identification of the dinoflagellate symbiont using molecular genetic markers. To further explore the evolutionary history of sea anemone-dinoflagellate associations, we documented the diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in a monophyletic clade of sea anemones, the family Aiptasiidae. We combined information from several molecular genetic markers, including nuclear ITS2 and plastid cp23S-rDNA, to evaluate the patterns of evolution and diversification of Symbiodinium in the light of an existing phylogenetic framework for the sea anemone host. At the host family level, we found no evidence for coevolution or reciprocal phylogenies between host and endosymbiont. However, within some individual host species, Symbiodinium spp. exhibited patterns of host specialization and cladogenesis. This pattern suggests that coevolution between host and symbiont occurred within species and genera lineages, but that this process was regularly disrupted and symbiotic partners were recombined during the longer-term evolutionary history of the Aiptasiidae. Furthermore, we observed independent cases of phylogeographical partitioning of Symbiodinium within a single host species, suggesting that ecological speciation along an environmental gradient contributed to the diversity of associations found in nature.

  11. Menthol-induced bleaching rapidly and effectively provides experimental aposymbiotic sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) for symbiosis investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jennifer L; Sproles, Ashley E; Oakley, Clinton A; Grossman, Arthur R; Weis, Virginia M; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Experimental manipulation of the symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is crucial to advancing the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in host-symbiont interactions, and overall coral reef ecology. The anemone Aiptasia sp. is a model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, and notably it can be rendered aposymbiotic (i.e. dinoflagellate-free) and re-infected with a range of Symbiodinium types. Various methods exist for generating aposymbiotic hosts; however, they can be hugely time consuming and not wholly effective. Here, we optimise a method using menthol for production of aposymbiotic Aiptasia. The menthol treatment produced aposymbiotic hosts within just 4 weeks (97-100% symbiont loss), and the condition was maintained long after treatment when anemones were held under a standard light:dark cycle. The ability of Aiptasia to form a stable symbiosis appeared to be unaffected by menthol exposure, as demonstrated by successful re-establishment of the symbiosis when anemones were experimentally re-infected. Furthermore, there was no significant impact on photosynthetic or respiratory performance of re-infected anemones. PMID:26596538

  12. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    with focus on the 2 common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. Marenzelleria viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly, and within 3 yr it had spread to ~50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord followed the ‘boom-bust’ pattern that is...

  13. Comparison of Skeletal Muscle Protein Bands among Five Populations of Bufo viridis in Turkey by SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    BÜLBÜL, Ufuk; KUTRUP, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein bands of Bufo viridis samples from 5 different populations in Turkey were investigated by SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis). The total number of skeletal muscle protein bands was 23 in Hatay, Kayseri, Rize, and Tekirdağ samples, and 25 in the Mersin sample. It can be ascertained from the present study that some populations of B. viridis in Turkey could be different according to skeletal muscle protein bands and SDS-PAGE results comp...

  14. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  15. Life history of Lineus viridis (Müller, 1774) (Heteronemertea, Nemertea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Döhren, Jörn; Beckers, Patrick; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Lineus viridis is a common nemertean species of North-Atlantic intertidal sand flats. Its mating behaviour is peculiar insofar as this species is reported to be polyandric. However, detailed information on this topic is lacking. In order to get more data on the reproduction, oogenesis and life history of this species, a population in the Wadden Sea on the Isle of Sylt (North Sea) was studied between 2005 and 2011. We conducted regular surveys, during which we sampled, measured and recorded the sex status of 25-100 individuals at each sampling event; at least three individuals were fixed for histological studies at each sampling date. In addition, animals were kept in the laboratory for 3 years to complement field data on sexual identity. Lineus viridis was found to reproduce annually in several successive year; the females are significantly larger than the males. Oogenesis starts in spring, shortly after the preceding reproductive period, and continues until the end of December. Spermiogenesis starts in late autumn and also ends late in December. During mating, several males are generally found crawling on a single female, which forms a cocoon that encloses both the female and the associated males. Fertilization is internal. While females discharge all of their eggs during a single mating event and lose more than 40% of their wet weight, males only empty a few of their gonads, and are thus able to fertilize more than one female. Our study clearly shows that Lineus viridis is a perennial, iteroparous species with a pronounced sexual size dimorphism. During this long-term study, no evidence for sequential hermaphroditism has been found. The observed polyandric mating system in this species raises further questions regarding mate and sperm competition that deserve additional research.

  16. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger Alexandra B; Eberhardt Mirjam; Link Andrea S; Namer Barbara; Kutsche Lisa K; Schuy E; Sittl Ruth; Hoffmann Tali; Alzheimer Christian; Huth Tobias; Carr Richard W; Lampert Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Her...

  17. Nitrogen fixation and ammonia switch-off in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, K S; Hales, B J; Socolofsky, M D

    1983-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas viridis ATCC 19567 grows by means of nitrogen fixation in yeast extract-N2 or nitrogen-free medium when sparged with 5% CO2 and 95% N2 in the light at 30 degrees C. Acetylene reduction assays for nitrogenase activity revealed an initially high level of activity during early-logarithmic growth phase, a lower plateau during mid- to late-logarithmic phase, and a dramatic reduction of activity at the beginning of the stationary phase. When viewed by electron microscopy, nitrogen-...

  18. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  19. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  20. A theoretical study of electronic excited states of photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The electronic singlet vertical excited states of photosynthetic reaction center (PSRC) in Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis were investigated by ZINDO and INDO/S methods. The effects of the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein on the electronic excitations were examined. The calculation results showed that the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein play an important role in reasonably assigning the experimental absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of PSRC in Rps. virids. By comparing the theoretically computed excited states with the experimental absorption and CD spectra, satisfactory assignments of the experimental spectroscopic peaks were achieved.

  1. Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–5, together with five known saponins 6–10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia, HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma, A549 (lung carcinoma and HeLa (cervical carcinoma. The monodesmosidic saponins 6–8 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25–22.38 μM range.

  2. Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Jie ZOU; Yue-Sheng DONG; Jun-Shan YANG

    2005-01-01

    The roots of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey. have been used in the treatment of epilepsia,neurasthenia, and arthritis in Chinese folk medicine for a long time. In order to find new and bioactive compounds, the chemical constituents of the roots of A. altaica were investigated and nine compounds were isolated from the EtOH extract of this plant. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the structures of these compounds were elucidated as 4-(9H-β-carbolin-1-yl)-4-oxo-butyric acid (1), carboxymethyl isoferulate (2), isoferulic acid (3), cirsiumaldehyde (4), 5-hydroxy-4-oxo-pentanoic acid (5), triacontane (6), palmic acid (7), β-sitosterol (8), and daucosterol (9). Among them, 1 and 2 were new compounds, and 3 and 4 were obtained from this genus for the first time.

  3. Variation in partner benefits in a shrimp-sea anemone symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, C Seabird; O'Donnell, James L

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions, where two species occur in close physical proximity for the majority of the participants' lifespans, may constrain the fitness of one or both of the participants. Host choice could result in lineage divergence in symbionts if fitness benefits vary across the interaction with hosts. Symbiotic interactions are common in the marine environment, particularly in the most diverse marine ecosystems: coral reefs. However, the variation in symbiotic interactions that may drive diversification is poorly understood in marine systems. We measured the fecundity of the symbiotic shrimp Periclimenes yucatanicus on two anemone hosts on coral reefs in Panama, and found that while fecundity varies among host species, this variation is explained largely by host size, not species. This suggests that shrimp on larger hosts may have higher fitness regardless of host species, which in turn could drive selection for host choice, a proposed driver of diversification in this group. PMID:26618082

  4. Force-dependent discharge of nematocysts in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Verrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Todaro

    2012-05-01

    Sea anemones discharge cnidae (‘stinging capsules’ including nematocysts to capture prey and to defend themselves. In the present study, we tested the relationship between the force of test probes striking feeding tentacles and discharge of microbasic p-mastigophore nematocysts into the test probes. In seawater alone, the response curve is bimodal with maximal discharge observed at 0.33 and 1.10 millinewtons (mN and with minimal discharge at 1.50 mN. Upon activating chemoreceptors for N-acetylated sugars, maximal discharge is observed across a broad range of smaller forces from 0.16 to 0.9 mN before decreasing to a minimum at 1.50 mN. Likewise, in the presence of nearby vibrations at key frequencies, maximal discharge is observed over a broad range of smaller forces before decreasing to a minimum at 1.50 mN. It appears that sensory input indicating proximity of potential prey expands the range of small forces of impact that stimulate maximal discharge (i.e. to less than 1.10 mN but not at larger forces of impact (i.e. at approximately 1.50 mN. Thus, contact by small prey would stimulate maximal discharge, and all the more so if such contact is accompanied by specific odorants or by vibrations at specific frequencies. Nevertheless, anemones would not maximally discharge nematocysts into large animals that blunder into contact with their tentacles.

  5. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  6. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  7. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  8. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae from eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crowther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 680-960 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911. The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-west Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia.

  9. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (Ji) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. Ji is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in Ji in unadapted toads at 10-4 and 5 x 10-4 M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K1/2) was 5 x 10-4 M for adapted animals. Ji was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that Ji is independent of sodium transport

  10. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  11. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  12. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries. PMID:22324400

  13. A novel antiproliferative and antifungal lectin from Amaranthus viridis Linn seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Dhuna, Vikram; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Agrewala, Javed N; Singh, Jatinder

    2006-01-01

    A lectin from the seeds of Amaranthus viridis Linn has been purified by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica. Amaranthus viridis lectin (AVL) has a native molecular mass of 67 kDa. It is a homodimer composed of two 36.6 kDa subunits. The lectin gave a single band in non-denaturing PAGE at pH 4.5 and pH 8.3 and a single peak on HPLC size exclusion and cation exchange columns. The purified lectin was specific for both T-antigen and N-acetyl-D-lactosamine, markers for various carcinomas, in addition to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, asialofetuin and fetuin. This lectin reacted strongly with red blood cells (RBCs) from human ABO blood groups and rat. It also reacted with rabbit, sheep, goat and guinea pig RBCs. The lectin is a glycoprotein having no metal ion requirement for its activity. Denaturing agents such as urea, thiourea and guanidine-HCl had no effect on its activity when treated for 15 minutes. AVL showed significant antiproliferative activity towards HB98 and P388D1 murine cancer cell lines. It also exerted antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cincerea and Fusarium oxysporum but not against Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma reesei, Alternaria solani and Fusarium graminearum. PMID:17100645

  14. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two important radionuclides 134Cs and 65Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65Zn even if specific activity of 65Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134Cs and 65Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wang, Fei; Meng, Xiangzong; Luo, Saifan; Li, Qiyun; Dong, Hongyun; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-04-01

    Dunaliella is a group of green algae with exceptional stress tolerance capability, and is considered as an important model organism for stress tolerance study. Here we cloned a TPS (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) gene from Dunaliella viridis and designated it as DvTPS (D. viridis trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase).The DvTPS cDNA contained an ORF of 2793 bp encoding 930 aa. DvTPS had both TPS and TPP domain and belonged to the Group II TPS/TPP fusion gene family. Southern blots showed it has a single copy in the genome. Genome sequence analysis revealed that it has 18 exons and 17 introns. DvTPS had a constitutive high expression level under various NaCl culture conditions, however, could be induced by salt shock. Promoter analysis indicated there were ten STREs (stress response element) in its promoter region, giving a possible explanation of its inducible expression pattern upon salt shock. Yeast functional complementation analysis showed that DvTPS had neither TPS nor TPP activity. However, DvTPS could improve the salt tolerance of yeast salt sensitive mutant G19. Our results indicated that despite DvTPS showed significant similarity with TPS/TPP, its real biological function is still remained to be revealed. PMID:20878239

  16. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  17. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, K B; Verlecar, X N; Chainy, G B N

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and two non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) were investigated in order to understand their variation with respect to pollution status of the sampling locations. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of both the tissues at Mormugao Harbour and Malim, suggesting that the animals at these two locations are at higher level of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract stress in the tissues. This study shows that changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione in tissues of P. viridis can be used as molecular biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs. PMID:18849055

  18. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  19. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. PMID:25681577

  20. Functional complementation of a nitrate reductase defective mutant of a green alga Dunaliella viridis by introducing the nitrate reductase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Gao, Xiaoshu; Li, Qiyun; Zhang, Qingqi; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-08-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes NAD (P) H dependent reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Transformation systems have been established in several species of green algae by nitrate reductase gene functional complementation. In this report, an endogenous NR cDNA (3.4 kb) and a genomic fragment (14.6 kb) containing the NR gene (DvNIA1) were isolated from the D. viridis cDNA and genomic libraries respectively. Southern blot and Northern blot analyses showed that this gene exists as a single copy in D. viridis and is induced by nitrate. To obtain a NR defective mutant as a recipient strain, D. viridis cells were treated with a chemical mutagen and then cultured on a chlorate-containing plate to enrich chlorate tolerant mutants. Southern analysis showed that one isolate, B14, had a deletion in the DvNIA1 gene region. Using electroporation conditions determined in this laboratory, plasmid pDVNR containing the intact DvNIA1 gene has been electroporated into the defective mutant B14. Strains retaining a nitrate assimilation phenotype were obtained from nitrate plates after spreading the electroporated cells. In some individual strains, transcription of the introduced gene was detected. NR activity in these strains was slightly higher than that in the defective B14 cell, but excretion of nitrite into culture media was almost as high as that of the wild-type cell. Possible episomal presence of the introduced DNA in D. viridis is discussed. PMID:16797881

  1. A sea anemone-like CuO/Co3O4 composite: an effective catalyst for electrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiumin; Guan, Guoqing; Du, Xiao; Cao, Ji; Hao, Xiaogang; Ma, Xuli; Jagadale, Ajay D; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-10-18

    A facile unipolar pulse electrodeposition combined with the thermal oxidation method was applied for fabrication of CuO/Co3O4 composites on carbon electrode for water electrolysis, and it was found that the sea anemone-like one with a 3D hierarchical structure formed at -0.8 V exhibited excellent performance for water electrolysis at a low overpotential with high stability. PMID:26311303

  2. Notes on the genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) and its host sea anemones in the Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, den, J.M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801, is represented in the Seychelles by two species, A. akallopisos Bleeker, 1853, and the endemic A. fuscocaudatus Allen, 1972. Throughout its distributional range Amphiprion akallopisos has exclusively been recorded to associate with the clownfish anemones Heteractis magnifica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) and Stichodactyla mertensii Brandt, 1835. During the Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme (NIOP) Seychelles Expedition 19921993 this was confirmed for the...

  3. Contrasting effects of the polychaetes Marenzelleria viridis and Nereis diversicolor on benthic metabolism and solute transport in sandy coastal sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Hansen, Tanja; Delfosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Quintana, Cintia O.

    2011-01-01

    sediment. Sulfate reduction after 1 mo, on the other hand, was more than twice as high in sediment inhabited by M. viridis alone than in any other treatment, even when combined with N. diversicolor. Denitrification estimated from benthic TCO2 release, porewater reaction stoichiometry and nutrient fluxes...... was largely unaffected by the presence of fauna. Accordingly, the partitioning of reaction pathways after 1 mo revealed that M. viridis stimulated sulfate reduction at the expense of aerobic respiration. Most of the oxygen uptake in M. viridis sediment was apparently due to enhanced oxidation...

  4. Characterization, purification and phylogenetic analysis of a cytolysin from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica of the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karthikayalu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that sea anemones comprise a rich source of cytolytic toxins. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of a cytolysin obtained from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica collected in the Andaman Islands of the Indian Ocean. The crude extract was screened for hemolytic activity by a blood agar plate method and a 6-mm zone of clearance was observed after incubation. The hemolytic property of the crude extract, tested by the microtiter plate method, revealed positive results at concentrations as low as 120 ng/mL. Furthermore, it was favored by alkaline pH and was stable up to 60°C. On the other hand, the hemolytic effect was abolished by the addition of human serum. Purification steps involved ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent desalting by dialysis, followed by anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies. The purified fractions displayed the presence of a 19-kDa cytolysin when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The conserved region of the cytolysin (with 303 bp was amplified by RT-PCR and was sequenced. The sequence showed maximum homology (97% with the already reported cytolysins from other sea anemone species.

  5. Reproductive biology of the sea anemone shrimp Periclimenes rathbunae (Caridea, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa-Solano, Juan Carlos; Elizondo-Coto, Marcelo; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Caridean shrimps are a highly diverse group and many species form symbiotic relationships with different marine invertebrates. Periclimenes rathbunae is a brightly colored shrimp that lives predominantly in association with sea anemones. Information about the reproductive ecology of the species is scarce. Therefore, we collected 70 ovigerous females inhabiting the sun sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in coral reefs from the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Females produced on average 289 ± 120 embryos. The volume of recently-produced embryos was on average 0.038 mm3, and embryo volume increased by 192% during the incubation period. The average embryo mortality during embryogenesis was 24%. The reproductive output was 0.24 ± 0.094, considerably higher than in many other pontoniine shrimps. Females carrying embryos close to hatching showed fully developed ovaries, suggesting consecutive spawning. We assume that the sheltered habitat, living on sea anemones, allows Periclimenes rathbunae to allocate more energy in embryo production than most other free-living caridean shrimps. This is the first record of Periclimenes rathbunae for Costa Rica. PMID:25561838

  6. Fine-scale population structure of two anemones (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea

    KAUST Repository

    Gatins, Remy

    2014-12-01

    Anemonefish are one of the main groups that have been used over the last decade to empirically measure larval dispersal and connectivity in coral reef populations. A few species of anemones are integral to the life history of these fish, as well as other obligate symbionts, yet the biology and population structure of these anemones remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure the genetic structure of these anemones within and between two reefs in order to assess their reproductive mode and dispersal potential. To do this, we sampled almost exhaustively two anemones species (Stichodactyla gigantea and Heteractis magnifica) at two small islands in Kimbe Bay (Papua New Guinea) separated by approximately 25 km. Both the host anemones and the anemonefish are heavily targeted for the aquarium trade, in addition to the populations being affected by bleaching pressures (Hill and Scott 2012; Hobbs et al. 2013; Saenz- Agudelo et al. 2011; Thomas et al. 2014), therefore understanding their biology is crucial for better management strategies. Panels of microsatellite markers were developed for each species using next generation sequencing tools. Clonality analyses confirm six pairs of identical genotypes for S. gigantea (n=350) and zero for H. magnifica (n=128), indicating presence/absence of asexual reproduction in this region. S. gigantea showed low structure between islands (FST= 0.003, p-value= 0.000), however, even if the majority of the individuals were unrelated (r~0), 81 families that shared 50% of their genetic material formed from two to four members were found. Out of these families, 45% were found with individuals only within Tuare Island, 11% only in Kimbe Island, and 44% were sharing individuals among islands. In comparison, H. magnifica showed no structure (FST= 0.002, p-value= 0.278), mean relatedness indicated the majority of individuals were unrelated, and 31 families were identified. Families again consisted from two to four members and

  7. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Towanda

    2012-05-01

    Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO2 on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO2 and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO2, pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO2, pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O2 g−1 h−1. Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2% than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6% but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%. The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO2. Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO2.

  8. Re-description of Phymactis papillosa (Lesson, 1830) and Phymanthea pluvia (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa), two common actiniid sea anemones from the south east Pacific with a discussion of related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2004-01-01

    Actiniid sea anemones possess few characteristics of taxonomic value, which makes columnar outgrowths one of the most important features for systematic work. There are two species of actiniid sea anemones known from Chile and southern Peru that exhibit a column densely covered with non-adhesive vesi

  9. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  10. Ein Fund von Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC.) Brid. ex Moug. & Nestl. im Thüringer Muschelkalk-Hügelland

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ein überraschender Fund von B. viridis gelang dem Autor am 14. Januar 2007 in der Umgebung von Jena. In Deutschland wird Buxbaumia viridis als "stark gefährdet" eingestuft; aktuelle Vorkommen beschränken sind auf Baden-Württemberg und Bayern. In Thüringen wurde die Art zuletzt 1975 südwestlich von Suhl nachgewiesen. Der Fundort bei Jena liegt im Muschelkalk-Hügelland im Naturraum der Ilm-Saale-Platte.

  11. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  12. EPR at 24 T of the primary donor radical cation from Blastochloris viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The g-matrix of photosynthetic pigments has been studied in the last decade due to the advent of high-field EPR techniques. It can be observed when the spectral splitting of the principal g-factor components is larger than the linewidth due to unresolved hyperfine splitting and if there is no g-strain obscuring it. For large organic molecules such as the primary electron donor in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) this usually requires fields above 11 T, or, for fields between 3 and 11 T, full deuteration and/or single crystal work. Here we present for the first time the fully resolved rhombic EPR spectrum of the primary donor of Blastochloris viridis (formerly called Rhodopseudomonas viridis), a purple photosynthetic bacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll b. As was the case for Rhodobacter sphaeroides, g-strain is negligible for this radical up to a field of 24 T. The temperature dependence of the g-anisotropy is presented and compared with that of the bacteriochlorophyll a-containing Rb. sphaeroides and plant photosystem I. A slight shift in the principal components of the g-matrix is observed at temperatures below 70 K, where it becomes more axial. The experimental work is complemented with theoretical calculations for g using the semi-empirical INDO/S method as implemented in the program ZINDO. The theoretical results generally agree well with the experiment. This indicates that a satisfactory description of the anisotropic g-tensor for radical cations of large planar molecules like the chlorophylls as well as their aggregates, e.g., reaction center primary donor special pairs, is possible with this relatively cheap semi-empirical approach

  13. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of Azya luteipes Mulsant fed on Coccus viridis (Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nais

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of nursery seedlings of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae. The main predators of this species are beetles of the family Coccinellidae, especially Azya luteipes Mulsant. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of A. luteipes feeding on C. viridis on coffee plants were examined under laboratory conditions. Tests were conducted in room temperature at 28 ± 2 ºC. A. luteipes oviposits on the underside of the scale's body, laying two to four eggs per insect. The eggs have a subelliptical form and a white-clear color, and the incubation period is 8.3 ± 1.2 days. The number of eggs laid per female per day varies between eight and ten. A. luteipes undergoes four larval instars with durations of 2.0 ± 0, 3.2 ± 0.5, 3.6 ± 0.5 and 4.6 ± 0 days for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars, respectively. The average durations of the prepupal and pupal stages were 2.0 ± 0 and 10.9 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The viability of the larvae during each instar was 91.9, 89.3, 90.2 and 96.4 %, respectively, and the viabilities of prepupae and pupae were 99.1 and 98.2 %. The average duration of the egg-adult cycle was 34.3 ± 2.6 days, and the sex ratio was 0.52 %. Females presented a gray-colored head, while males presented a yellow head.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a vacuolar H+₋pyrophosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-06-01

    The halotolerant alga Dunaliella adapts to exceptionally high salinity and possesses efficient mechanisms for regulating intracellular Na(+). In plants, sequestration of Na(+) into the vacuole is driven by the electrochemical H(+) gradient generated by H(+) pumps, and this Na(+) sequestration is one mechanism that confers salt tolerance to plants. To investigate the role of vacuolar H(+) pumps in the salt tolerance of Dunaliella, we isolated the cDNA of the vacuolar proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H(+)-PPase) from Dunaliella viridis. The DvVP cDNA is 2,984 bp in length, codes for a polypeptide of 762 amino acids and has 15 transmembrane domains. The DvVP protein is highly similar to V-H(+)-PPases from other green algae and higher plant species, in terms of its amino acid sequence and its transmembrane model. A phylogenetic analysis of V-H(+)-PPases revealed the close relationship of Dunaliella to green algal species of Charophyceae and land plants. The heterologous expression of DvVP in the yeast mutant G19 (Δena1-4) suppressed Na(+) hypersensitivity, and a GFP-fusion of DvVP localized to the vacuole membranes in yeast, indicating that DvVP encodes a functional V-H(+)-PPase. A northern blot analysis showed a decrease in the transcript abundance of DvVP at higher salinity in D. viridis cells, which is in contrast to the salt-induced upregulation of V-H(+)-PPase in some plants, suggesting that the expression of DvVP under salt stress may be regulated by different mechanisms in Dunaliella. This study not only enriched our knowledge about the biological functions of V-H(+)-PPases in different organisms but also improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in Dunaliella. PMID:21086174

  15. Photosynthetic performance of Setaria viridis to soil drought and rewatering alternations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Yong Luo; Xue Yong Zhao; RuiLian Zhou; YingXin Huang; XiaoAn Zuo

    2009-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte (a plant that grows in sand or sandy soil) to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for desertifieation control and restoration of degraded vegetation in semi-arid sandy land in northern China. Responses of the photo-synthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual (Setaria viridis) were measured through three cycles of soil drying and rewatering. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 95 percent, 91 percent, and 61 percent at end of three drought periods; the stomatal conductance (gs) decreased by 72 percent, 73 percent, and 53 percent; the transpiration rate (Tr) decreased by 70 percent, 69 percent, and 37 percent; and water-use efficiency (WUE) decreased by 83 percent, 69 percent,and 38 percent. At the same time, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv'/FM') decreased by 70 percent, 12 percent,and 10 percent, while the electron transport per cross-section (ET0'/CS'0) decreased by 80 percent, 45 percent, and 13 percent. The intercellular CO2 (Ci) increased by 1.77, 1.02, and 0.66 times, and the dissipation per cross-section (DI0'/CS0') increased by 98 percent, 28 percent, and 22 percent. These results indicated that S. viridis was subjected to photoinhibition and some nonstomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, the above photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values after three or four days of rewatering. The capability to recover from drought may contribute to the plant's use of water as efficiently as possible. Furthermore, during the subsequent drought spells, suppression of Pn, gs, Tr, Fv'/FM', and ET0'/CS0' decreased or slowed down following the drying and rewatering alternations, especially in the third drought spell.

  16. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa. PMID:26081482

  17. Iodine labelling of sea anemone toxin II, and binding to normal and denervated diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Sea anemone toxin II (ATX II) which keeps the activated sodium channels open, can be labelled at its histidine residues with 125I up to a specific radioactivity of 500 Ci/mmole. Upon intraventricular injection in mice, ATX II causes acute, short-lasting hyperexcitation and convulsions. Its LD50 in mice is between 25 and 50 ng of the native peptide, and between 50 and 100 ng of the radioactive material per animal. 2. The labelled peptide is bound to mouse diaphragm from where it can be displaced by ATX II and, even better, by scorpion neurotoxin but not by other basic peptides, e.g., histone or aprotinin. Binding is not significantly influenced by 50 mM potassium, by replacing sodium with choline, by veratridine or tetrodotoxin. In contrast to binding of α-bungarotoxin, binding of ATX II is not changed by denervation of the diaphragm. ATX II binds not only to the muscular but also to the tendinous moiety of the mouse diaphragm. 3. ATX II lowers the surface tension of water. Further experiments are needed to establish the usefulness of 125I-ATX for labelling sodium channels in excitable membranes. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Allyn; Sterling, Alphonse; Adams, Mitzi; Alexander, Caroline; Moore, Ronald; Woolley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120 arcseconds across), beginning at approximately 19:00 Universal Time on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 angstroms, 304 angstroms, and 94 angstroms, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  19. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn F.; Alexander, Caroline E.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Woolley, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120'' across), beginning at approximately 19:00 UT on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 Å, 304 Å, and 94 Å, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  20. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  1. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  2. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T García; D Martinez; A Palmero; C Soto; M Tejuca; F Pazos; R Menéndez; C Alvarez; A Garateix

    2009-12-01

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms. In guinea-pig erythrocytes ( = 3), St II possessed higher haemolytic activity in comparison with St I and this activity was lost at an alkaline pH. In molluscan central neurons ( = 30), they irreversibly decreased the amplitude of the cholinergic response; St I (EC50 0.6 molL–1) was more potent than St II (EC50 > 6.6 molL–1) and they both increased the duration of the action potential; these effects were absent at an alkaline pH. In guinea-pig isolated atrium ( = 25), both increased the amplitude of the contraction force, but St II was more potent than St I (EC50 0.03 molL–1 and 0.3 molL–1, respectively) and this effect persisted at an alkaline pH. In summary, both cytolysins have neuroactive and cardioactive properties. The main mechanism in molluscan neurons seems to be associated with the cytolytic activity of these molecules, whereas in guinea-pig atrium, the existence of an additional pharmacological mechanism might be contributing to the observed effect.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of the Triterpenoid Saponins Biosynthetic Pathway in Anemone flaccida by Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chuansong; Li, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zeying; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Luo, Biaobiao; Zhang, Qiyun; Hu, Yanru; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as ‘Di Wu’ in China, is a perennial herb with limited distribution. The rhizome of A. flaccida has long been used to treat arthritis as a tradition in China. Studies disclosed that the plant contains a rich source of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known about triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in A. flaccida. Results: In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from A. flaccida. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97%) showed significant similarity (E-value HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and iTRAQ technique was shown to be a powerful method for the discovery of candidate genes, which encoded enzymes that were responsible for the biosynthesis of novel secondary metabolites in a non-model plant. The transcriptome data of our study provides a very important resource for the understanding of the triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis of A. flaccida. PMID:27504115

  4. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Simakov, Oleg; Esherick, Lisl Y; Liew, Yi Jin; Lehnert, Erik M; Michell, Craig T; Li, Yong; Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Guse, Annika; Oates, Matt E; Gough, Julian; Weis, Virginia M; Aranda, Manuel; Pringle, John R; Voolstra, Christian R

    2015-09-22

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal-algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal-algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome. PMID:26324906

  5. The genome of Aiptasia, a sea anemone model for coral symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2015-08-31

    The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis. These features include genomic rearrangements and taxonomically restricted genes that may be functionally related to the symbiosis, aspects of host dependence on alga-derived nutrients, a novel and expanded cnidarian-specific family of putative pattern-recognition receptors that might be involved in the animal–algal interactions, and extensive lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer. Extensive integration of genes of prokaryotic origin, including genes for antimicrobial peptides, presumably reflects an intimate association of the animal–algal pair also with its prokaryotic microbiome.

  6. Antifouling and Fungicidal Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Sea Anemone-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Ai; Shao, Chang-Lun; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Blum, Mathias; Gan, Li-She; Wang, Kai-Ling; Chen, Min; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-03-25

    Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, cochliomycins D-F, 1-3, and eight known analogues, 4-11, were isolated from the sea anemone-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. Compounds 1-4 are diastereomers differing from each other by the absolute configurations of the 4',5'-diol chiral centers. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established by the CD exciton chirality method and TDDFT ECD calculations. In antifouling assays, 1, 3-6, and 6a exhibited potent antifouling activities against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite at nontoxic concentrations, with EC50 values ranging from 1.82 to 22.5 μg/mL. Noticeably, fungicide whole-plant assays indicated that 6 showed excellent activity on the Plasmopara viticola preventative test at 6 ppm and concentration-dependent activity on the Phytophthora infestans preventative application at 200, 60, and 20 ppm. Preliminary structure-activity relationships are also discussed. PMID:24635109

  7. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis, is first reported in this study. The genome harbors a large single copy (LSC) region of 81 016 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 12 456  bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 22 315 bp. GC content is 38.92%. The proportion of coding sequence is 57.97%, comprising of 111 (19 duplicated in IR regions) unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, four are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. viridis was clustered with its cultivated species S. italica in the tribe Paniceae of the family Poaceae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable genetic resources to assist future studies on C4 photosynthesis in grasses. PMID:26305916

  8. Expression of the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10 is upregulated by salt stress in Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobin; Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-08-15

    Green algae of the genus Dunaliella can adapt to hypersaline environments and are considered model organisms for salinity tolerance. In an EST analysis in Dunaliella viridis under salt stress, we isolated a salt-inducible cDNA coding for the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10, designated DvRPN10. The DvRPN10 cDNA is 1472 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. The DvRPN10 protein shares a high similarity to orthologs from other species. The function of DvRPN10 was confirmed by complementation of the yeast Deltarpn10 mutant. Q-PCR analysis of D. viridis cells grown in different salinities revealed that the transcript level of DvRPN10 increased in proportion to the external salinity within a range of 0.5-3 M NaCl, but decreased significantly at extremely high salinities (4-5 M NaCl). When a salinity shock of 1-3 M NaCl was applied to D. viridis cells, DvRPN10 mRNA levels remained steady during the first 36 h, and then gradually elevated to the level observed at 3 M NaCl. The gene structure of DvRPN10 was revealed by sequencing of a BAC clone containing this gene. Possible transcription factor binding sites related to stress tolerance were found in the promoter region of DvRPN10. The expression of DvRPN10 in response to the external salinity suggests that RPN10-mediated protein degradation plays a role in the salinity tolerance of D. viridis. PMID:20430475

  9. Urban secondary sewage: an alternative medium for the culture of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa; Maria Luise Koening; Sílvio José de Macedo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40%) of urban secondary sewage on the growth of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae) was examined to verify the possibility of its use as an alternative culture medium for these species. Stocks and 700mL duplicate batch cultures were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. 30% and 40% additions were the most efficient for the growth of both species. Statistical analysis of the adjusted growt...

  10. Cell division in the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis depends on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Cossío, Belén R; Rivard, Christopher J; Berl, Tomás; Capasso, Juan M

    2007-01-01

    In mammalian cells, MAPKs are involved in both stress response (JNK and p38 pathways) and cell proliferation and differentiation [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] through protein kinase cascades. Exposure of Dunaliella viridis cell cultures to PD98059, a very specific inhibitor of the ERK signalling pathway, resulted in a total arrest of cell proliferation and a complete dephosphorylation of ERK. As shown by flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells, PD98059 stopped mitosis at the G(2) phase after the S phase has been completed. Multiple physiological parameters such as cell motility and reducing power generation (NADPH) clearly indicate that the treated cells are wholly viable. Exposure of D. viridis to environmental stresses that impair cell division, such as hyperosmotic shock, nitrogen starvation, or sublethal UV irradiation, caused a marked decrease in the phospho-ERK levels as detected by western blot. Two 400 bp polynucleotides from D. viridis with high homologies to published sequences of ERK1 and ERK2 were cloned, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank. Northern blot analysis revealed two mRNA bands of approximately 1.9 kb, consistent with the expected size of ERK proteins ( approximately 40 kDa). Sequence analysis showed that they contained several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) conserved domains, including II, III, VIb, VII, and the double phosphorylation motif. Interestingly, in D. viridis, this motif was T*DY* instead of the canonic T*EY*. Based on this finding, ERK plant sequences can be divided into two groups, one termed the T*DY* branch and the other termed the T*EY* branch. The molecular and functional data presented here suggest that ERK is a very ancient signalling pathway and that it was already present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:17220513

  11. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release from Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan W. Davis; Carvalho, Benjamin J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Singh, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. Here, we describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis, that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Usi...

  12. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    chemicals were analar grade. Experimental animals and maintenance: Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), with umbo of length 8-10 em were collected from Bambolim beach Goa, India. Animals were transported to the laboratory in the polythene bags, filled... and then aqueous phase was drained out. This preparation was used as 100 % stock solution. Experimental designs: The acclimatized animals were divided into three groups: Group I: Control mussels, untreated, Group II: Mussels treated with 0.5 % WAFO, Group III...

  13. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark A.; Marlis R Douglas; Collyer, Michael L.; Michael E Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respective...

  14. Changes of Cellular Superficial Configuration of Symbiotic Algae During Cultivation from Two Anemones Found in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  15. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  16. Tenacibaculum aiptasiae sp. nov., isolated from a sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2008-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated a4T, isolated from a sea anemone (Aiptasia pulchella) in Taiwan, was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain a4T was aerobic, Gram-negative, pale-yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped. It grew optimally at 30-35 degrees C, in the presence of 3-4 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The closest neighbours were Tenacibaculum lutimaris TF-26T (97.6 % similarity) and Tenacibaculum aestuarii SMK-4T (97.7 % similarity). The novel isolate could be distinguished from all Tenacibaculum species by several phenotypic characteristics. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 omega 7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, 19.6 %), iso-C15 : 0 (12.9 %), iso-C16 : 0 3-OH (10.2 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (9.9 %) and iso-C15 : 1 (9.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.0 mol%. Hence, genotypic and phenotypic data demonstrate that strain a4(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum aiptasiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is a4T (=BCRC 17655T =LMG 24004T). PMID:18398166

  17. Identification of hemolytic and neuroactive fractions in the venom of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lagos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of biologically active substances. In crayfish muscle fibers, Bunodosoma cangicum whole venom selectively blocks the I K(Ca currents. In the present study, we report for the first time powerful hemolytic and neuroactive effects present in two different fractions obtained by gel-filtration chromatography from whole venom of B. cangicum. A cytolytic fraction (Bcg-2 with components of molecular mass ranging from 8 to 18 kDa elicited hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes with an EC50 = 14 µg/ml and a maximum dose of 22 µg/ml. The effects of the neuroactive fraction, Bcg-3 (2 to 5 kDa, were studied on isolated crab nerves. This fraction prolonged the compound action potentials by increasing their duration and rise time in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was evident after the washout of the preparation, suggesting the existence of a reversible substance that was initially masking the effects of an irreversible one. In order to elucidate the target of Bcg-3 action, the fraction was applied to a tetraethylammonium-pretreated preparation. An additional increase in action potential duration was observed, suggesting a blockade of a different population of K+ channels or of tetraethylammonium-insensitive channels. Also, tetrodotoxin could not block the action potentials in a Bcg-3-pretreated preparation, suggesting a possible interaction of Bcg-3 with Na+ channels. The present data suggest that B. cangicum venom contains at least two bioactive fractions whose activity on cell membranes seems to differ from the I K(Ca blockade described previously.

  18. A Cu{sup 2+} site common to photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utschig, L. M.; Poluektov, O.; Schlesselman, S. L.; Thurnauer, M. C.; Tiede, D. M.; Chemistry

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q{sub A}{sup -}Q{sub B} {yields} Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -} electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}. This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn{sup 2+} was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu{sup 2+} sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu{sup 2+} bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled {sup 14}N nuclei in close proximity to Cu{sup 2+}. These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu{sup 2+} RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu{sup 2+} at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu{sup 2+} binding site that is involved in modulating the Q{sub A}{sup -}Q{sub B} {yields} Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -} electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q{sub B} binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in

  19. Staining protocol for the histological study of sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria with recommendations for anesthesia and fixation of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the characteristics used in sea anemone taxonomy can only be examined through histological sections. Since there is no standardized procedure for this purpose, various anesthesia and fixation techniques applied to specimens of the intertidal species Anthopleura hermaphroditica and Bunodactis hermafroditica are discussed. Additionally, further modifications are proposed to the Masson's trichrome method according to the results obtained on these species. The combined effect of the short application of menthol crystals, together with small doses of MgCl2 were the most satisfactory anesthetics for maintaining the specimens expanded. The best preparations were obtained from samples fixed for several months in 8% seawater formalin; however, in order to achieve a good differentiation of the tissue, mordanting the samples with Bouin's fixative was necessary. Besides being a fast method, the modified Masson's trichrome gives very good contrasts between the epithelia and the mesoglea, and allows controlling the timing of differentiation during staining. The present paper includes suggestions and precautions and thus offers practical help for the histological study of sea anemones.

  20. Characterization of a novel EF-hand homologue, CnidEF, in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Laura L; Phillips, Wendy S; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-04-01

    The superfamily of EF-hand proteins is comprised of a large and diverse group of proteins that contain one or more characteristic EF-hand calcium-binding domains. This study describes and characterizes a novel EF-hand cDNA, CnidEF, from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). CnidEF was found to contain two EF-hand motifs near the C-terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence and two regions near the N-terminus that could represent degenerate EF-hand motifs. CnidEF homologues were also identified from two other sea anemone species. A combination of bioinformatic and molecular phylogenetic analyses was used to compare CnidEF to EF-hand proteins in other organisms. The closest homologues identified from these analyses were a luciferin binding protein (LBP) involved in the bioluminescence of the anthozoan Renilla reniformis, and a sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) involved in fluorescence of the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor. Predicted structure and folding analysis revealed a close association with bioluminescent aequorin (AEQ) proteins from the hydrozoan cnidarian Aequorea aequorea. Neighbor-joining analyses grouped CnidEF within the SARC lineage along with AEQ and other cnidarian bioluminescent proteins rather than in the lineage containing calmodulin (CAM) and troponin-C (TNC). PMID:17280859

  1. The surface metal site in Blc. viridis photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers: Cu2+ as a probe of structure, location, and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion binding to a surface site on photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) modulates light-induced electron and proton transfer events in the RC. Whereas many studies have elucidated aspects of metal ion modulation events in Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs, much less is understood about the surface site in Blastochloris viridis (Blc. viridis) RCs. Interestingly, electron paramagnetic resonance studies revealed two spectroscopically distinct Cu2+ surface site environments in Blc. viridis RCs. Herein, Cu2+ has been used to spectroscopically probe the structure of these Cu2+ site(s) in response to freezing conditions, temperature, and charge separation. One Cu2+ environment in Blc. viridis RCs, termed CuA, exhibits temperature-dependent conformational flexibility. Different conformation states of the CuA2+ site are trapped when the RC is frozen in the dark either by fast-freeze or slow-freeze procedure. The second Cu2+ environment, termed CuB, is structurally invariant to different freezing conditions and shows resolved hyperfine coupling to three nitrogen atoms. Cu2+ is most likely binding at the same location on the RC, but in different coordination environments which may reflect two distinct conformational states of the isolated Blc. viridis RC protein.

  2. Retinal afferents and efferents of an infrared sensitive snake, Crotalus viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinal afferents and efferents were examined in Crotalus viridis. Retinofugal fibers were traced by injecting horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or tritiated leucine into the eye, or by removing the eye and staining degenerating axons with silver methods. Terminations were seen contralaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (extensive), the pretectal nuclei, including the nucleus posterodorsalis (a very heavy input), the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, nucleus geniculatus pretectalis, and nucleus pretectalis, the superficial layers of the optic tectum, including the stratum zonale, the stratum opticum, the stratum griseum et fibrosum centrale and the upper portion of stratum griseum centrale, and the basal optic nucleus. Ipsilateral input reaches the intermediate portion of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, a small portion of the pretectal nucleus and nucleus posterodorsalis, and the basal optic nucleus (very minimally). Retinopedal fibers were traced with the HRP method. The cell bodies lie in the ventral thalamus within the nucleus of the ventral supraoptic decussation. These neurons project primarily to the contralateral retina, but some more rostrally located neurons project to the ipsilateral retina

  3. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the soft tissues of the green mussels, Perna viridis (L.) Bivalve: Mytilacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untreated agro-industrial and domestic waste continuously being damped along the shores of its surrounding provinces and cities pollute the Manila Bay coastal waters. Presumably, its oyster and mussel culture farms are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Yet, this alarming signs remain barely investigated. Pollution enhanced, the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals threaten the flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem. Trace concentrations of toxic elements in the marine food chain can trigger deleterious biochemical, physiological and ecological impact. Known to be bio-accumulated by aquatic organisms, the mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the edible tissues of Perna viridis were determined. Water and sediments sampled from the mussel culture farms were also analyzed. Results revealed that despite the apparent pollution, except for Cu and Zn, which registered slightly higher values, Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were much lower than the maximum permissible limits. Even water and sediments samples tested showed that mean concentrations of these elements were still below sublethal limits. (auth.). 79 refs.; 8 figs.; 13 tabs.; 16 plates

  4. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  5. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential......-activated Cl- conductance carries Cl- ions by way of passive transport. With NaCl Ringer bathing the outer surface of the skin the spontaneous potential was about -30 mV. At this potential the Cl- conductance of the skin was about half of its maximum value. The time course of Cl- current activation following a...

  6. SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PERNA VIRIDIS FROM GUAYACAN, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemus, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Biomonitoring is a tool to assess the presence of environmental pollutants, particularly heavy metals, due to their persistence and toxicity to the biotic component. The concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni were determined in males and females of Perna viridis (μg·g-1dry weight, with the purpose of evaluating the environmental quality in Guayacán, state Sucre, Venezuela, during the months of November (2006, May and August (2007, and February (2008. November and August are both in the rainy season, with May and February part of the dry season. The metals in the samples were determined using AAS (Atomic Absortion Spectophotometric and the precision of the method was verified using the reference standard NIST Oyster Tissue 1566ª. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni showed significant differences in the months studied except for Ni in males that did not exhibit variation. The highest values in Zn and Ni occurred in the rainy season, while Cu and Cr were highest during the month of February, and Cd and Pb during the month of May, both months in the dry season. The females presented levels of Cu, Cd and Ni significantly higher than the males. The metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni presented values below the limits pointed out by FAO (Food and Agricultura Organization of the United Nations, FDA (Food and Drugs Administration and BZL (Federal Brazilian Legislation.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans. PMID:19839271

  8. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  9. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Sreekumar P; Kutty, Binoj C; Chatterji, Anil; Subrayan, Parameswaran P; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the radioprotective ability of a hydrolysate prepared using an enzyme-acid hydrolysis method from the green mussel Perna viridis in terms of its ability to prevent radiation-induced damage in plasmid DNA, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and DNA damage in mice lymphocytes. The mussel hydrolysate (MH) present during irradiation showed significant protection from gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA as evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Viability studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that preincubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from gamma-radiation-mediated killing. Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes significantly decreased the DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Measurement of intracellular ROS by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that the presence of MH effectively reduced the ROS generated in lymphocytes by both chemical method and gamma-irradiation. Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals. It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH was attributable to reduction of reactive free radical species generated by gamma-radiation. PMID:18197824

  10. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  11. Sequencing and Analysis of a Genomic Fragment Provide an Insight into the Dunaliella viridis Genomic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming SUN; Yuan-Ping TANG; Xiang-Zong MENG; Wen-Wen ZHANG; Shan LI; Zhi-Rui DENG; Zheng-Kai XU; Ren-Tao SONG

    2006-01-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)n type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features.

  12. Sequencing and analysis of a genomic fragment provide an insight into the Dunaliella viridis genomic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Yuan-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Zong; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Shan; Deng, Zhi-Rui; Xu, Zheng-Kai; Song, Ren-Tao

    2006-11-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)(n) type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features. PMID:17091199

  13. Effect of cadmium on cellular viability in two species of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Letty Beatriz C; Carruyo, Ingrid M; Montiel, Xiomara M; Morales, Carolina B; de Soto, Patricia Moreno

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of several concentrations of cadmium (0, 5, 10, and 20 microg/l) on cellular viability in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis, by measuring growth at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and pigment production at 10 days. Algae were obtained from the Nonvascular Plant Laboratory collection, in the Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela. Growth was measured by cellular counting, while pigment content was evaluated using conventional spectrophotometric techniques. Growth of both species decreased in the exposed cultures comparing with the control, but its behavior was similar, because in both control and exposed cultures, its was observed an adaptive phase in the first hours, as well as a growth phase after 72 h. Cadmium concentrations above 10 microg/l produced an adverse effect on pigment production, depending on the concentration and/or exhibition time. However, even though cadmium inhibited growth and pigment production, levels of both parameters indicated cellular viability, demonstrating the adaptability of the algae cultures when they were exposed to the metal. PMID:19172231

  14. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  15. Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae Variabilidad térmica intrapoblacional y respuesta fisiológica en el pez intermareal Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M PULGAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning approximately 1,200 km. Southern fishes acclimatized to 25 °C showed higher metabolic rates than those from other localities and thermal treatments. On the other hand, southern fishes in natural conditions showed higher condition factor than northern fishes. This evidence is sufficient to indicate that slight latitudinal differences in tidepool seawater temperature associated to differential food availability induced an energetic constraint in this species. Moreover, southern population of S. viridis may suffer important effects on energetic allocation if seawater temperature increases slightly, with repercussions on its geographic distribution in southern Pacific OceanDeterminar las condiciones del ambiente que generan variabilidad fisiológica, representa un conocimiento básico para comprender el sentido de la respuesta de los animales a los cambios en su habitat. El pez costero Scartichthys viridis habita las pozas bajas del intermareal a lo largo de la costa chilena. Debido a que el agua de mar se renueva en cada ciclo de marea en las pozas bajas, esta zona está caracterizada por una baja variación térmica y abundante alimento entre localidades. Nosotros evaluamos si las condiciones térmicas y la

  16. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  17. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Arnold (Institute for Advanced Study)

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  18. The cloning and characterization of two ammonium transporters in the salt-resistant green alga, Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-10-01

    Ammonium (NH(4) (+)) transport is a key process in nitrogen metabolism. To elucidate the role of ammonium transporters in the nitrogen consumption of the salt-resistant green alga, Dunaliella viridis, two ammonium transporter genes, DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2, were isolated from cDNA libraries of D. viridis. DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 share only 40% amino acid identity, indicating that they have highly divergent coding sequences. Functional complementation in a yeast mutant defective in ammonium uptake indicated that both DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 were functional ammonium transporters. Quantitative RT-PCR showed similar expression patterns, but different transcript abundance levels, for DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 under different nitrogen conditions. Both were induced at low nitrogen and inhibited at high nitrogen concentrations, especially when NH(4) (+) was the nitrogen source. At the transcriptional level, DvAMT1;1 was diurnally regulated, while DvAMT1;2 was not. In addition, under NaCl concentrations that ranged from 0.5 to 3 M, DvAMT1;1 was down-regulated at the higher salt conditions; conversely, DvAMT1;2 maintained a relatively low, but stable, transcript abundance. The observed differences in transcriptional regulation of DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 are indicative of their diverse physiological functions in D. viridis. PMID:21153924

  19. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatree Ritthong; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis). Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms...

  20. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing tissue

  1. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, E

    2000-02-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing

  2. Calculated coupling of electron and proton transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, C R; Michel, H; Honig, B; Gunner, M R

    1996-06-01

    Based on new Rhodopseudomonas (Rp.) viridis reaction center (RC) coordinates with a reliable structure of the secondary acceptor quinone (QB) site, a continuum dielectric model and finite difference technique have been used to identify clusters of electrostatically interacting ionizable residues. Twenty-three residues within a distance of 25 A from QB (QB cluster) have been shown to be strongly electrostatically coupled to QB, either directly or indirectly. An analogous cluster of 24 residues is found to interact with QA (QA cluster). Both clusters extend to the cytoplasmic surface in at least two directions. However, the QB cluster differs from the QA cluster in that it has a surplus of acidic residues, more strong electrostatic interactions, is less solvated, and experiences a strong positive electrostatic field arising from the polypeptide backbone. Consequently, upon reduction of QA or QB, it is the QB cluster, and not the QA cluster, which is responsible for substoichiometric proton uptake at neutral pH. The bulk of the changes in the QB cluster are calculated to be due to the protonation of a tightly coupled cluster of the three Glu residues (L212, H177, and M234) within the QB cluster. If the lifetime of the doubly reduced state QB2- is long enough, Asp M43 and Ser L223 are predicted to also become protonated. The calculated complex titration behavior of the strongly interacting residues of the QB cluster and the resulting electrostatic response to electron transfer may be a common feature in proton-transferring membrane protein complexes. PMID:8744288

  3. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  4. Optimizing deacetylation process for chitosan production from green mussel (perna viridis) shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danarto, Y. C.; Distantina, Sperisa

    2016-02-01

    The green mussel (perna viridis) shell waste could be utilized for chitosan production because it contained chitin. Chitin can be derived into chitosan through the deacetylation process. Chitosan is a polysaccharides polymer that is readily soluble in dilute acid solution and easily modified into other useful compounds. This research aimed to study the chitosan production from green mussel shells. This experiment had the following stages, deproteinization process aimed to eliminate the protein content using 1N NaOH solution, demineralization process aimed to remove minerals in green mussel shells as CaCO3 using 1 N HCl solution and decolorization process aimed to eliminate the color pigments and other impurities using ethanol solvent. All process above resulted chitin. Furthermore, chemical modification of chitin into chitosan by deacetylation process. This stage was very important because it greatly affected the chitosan properties. This research studied two different treatment for deacetylation process. The first treatment was the deacetylation process using concentrated NaOH solution (50% w), at high temperatures (90 - 100 °C) for 2 hours extraction, whilw the second treatment was deacetylation process using a low concentration of NaOH solution (15% w), at room temperature for 24 hours. The results showed that deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorizaton was capable of removing protein, mineral, and pigment. This experiment yield chitin 41.6 %wt. Chitosan yield from second treatment was 39.5%w and it was better than first treatment. Chitosan from first treatment had 79.8% degree of deacetylation and 16.5 kDa molecular weight. It was better than first treatment.

  5. Cloning and characterization of two novel chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Meng, Xiangzong; Fan, Qianlan; Sun, Xiaoliang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2009-09-01

    Dunaliella, a unicellular green alga, has the unusual ability to survive dramatic osmotic stress by accumulating high concentrations of intracellular glycerol as a compatible solute. The chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) has been considered to be the key enzyme that produces glycerol for osmoregulation in Dunaliella. In this study, we cloned the two most prominent GPDH cDNAs (DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2) from Dunaliella viridis, which encode two polypeptides of 695 and 701 amino acids, respectively. Unlike higher plant GPDHs, both proteins contained extra phosphoserine phosphatase (SerB) domains at their N-termini in addition to C-terminal GPDH domains. Such bi-domain GPDHs represent a novel type of GPDH and are found exclusively in the chlorophyte lineage. Transient expression of EGFP fusion proteins in tobacco leaf cells demonstrated that both DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 are localized in the chloroplast. Overexpression of DvGPDH1 or DvGPDH2 could complement a yeast GPDH mutant (gpd1Delta), but not a yeast SerB mutant (ser2Delta). In vitro assays with purified DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 also showed apparent GPDH activity for both, but no SerB activity was detected. Surprisingly, unlike chloroplastic GPDHs from plants, DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 could utilize both NADH and NADPH as coenzymes and exhibited significantly higher GPDH activities when NADH was used as the coenzyme. Q-PCR analysis revealed that both genes exhibited transient transcriptional induction of gene expression upon hypersalinity shock, followed by a negative feedback of gene expression. These results shed light on the regulation of glycerol synthesis during salt stress in Dunaliella. PMID:19551475

  6. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction

  7. The rise of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model system to investigate development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, Michael J; Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous systems in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model system. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408-428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563

  8. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Taufiq, E-mail: mtur2@cam.ac.uk; Smith, Ewan St. John

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction.

  9. Pharmacological and biomedical properties of sea anemones Paracondactylis indicus, Paracondactylis sinensis, Heteractis magnificaand Stichodactyla haddonifrom East coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bragadeeswaran Subramanian; Thangaraj Sangappellai; Rajiv Chandra Rajak; Balaji Diraviam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the biomedical and pharmacological activity ofParacondactylis indicus (P. indicus),Paracondactylis sinensis(P. sinensis),Heteractis magnifica (H. magnifica) and Stichodactyla haddoni (S. haddoni).Methods: The live sea anemones were kept inside the glass bowl along with some amount of distilled water in an ice container for15 min. During stress condition, nematocysts released from the tentacles were collected and centrifuged at5 000 rpm for 15 min. The supernatant were collected in separate cleaned beakers for lyophilisation.Results:The protein content of crude extracts was15.2, 28.7, 18.2 and35.4μg/mL. In hemolytic assay, the P. indicus was sensitive (16.842 HT/mg) on chicken blood butP. sinensis was less sensitive (1.114 HT/mg) on chicken and goat blood. WhereasH. magnificaandS. haddoni showed hemolysis (0.879, 0.903 HT/mg and 56.263, 0.451 HT/mg) in chicken and goat blood. In antimicrobial assay, the methanol extract ofP. indicus showed maximum inhibition zone of9.7mm againstS. typhii andP. sinensisshowed9.8 mm againstK. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts. Whereas theH. magnifica andS. haddoni showed maximum of10 mm againstS. typhii, K. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts.Conclusions: The high toxic sea anemones may also contain some biologically active agents which has haemolytic, analgesic and anti-infilamatory activity.

  10. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. helped to define the origin of green pythons (Morelia viridis) confiscated in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Pantchev, Nikola; Herrmann, Daland C; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Öfner, Sabine; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. represent apicomplexan parasites. They usually have a heteroxenous life cycle. Around 200 species have been described, affecting a wide range of animals worldwide, including reptiles. In recent years, large numbers of reptiles have been imported into Europe as pets and, as a consequence, animal welfare and species protection issues emerged. A sample of pooled feces from four confiscated green pythons (Morelia viridis) containing Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts was investigated. These snakes were imported for the pet trade and declared as being captive-bred. Full length 18S rRNA genes were amplified, cloned into plasmids and sequenced. Two different Sarcocystis spp. sequences were identified and registered as Sarcocystis sp. from M. viridis in GenBank. Both showed a 95-97% sequence identity with the 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis singaporensis. Phylogenetic analysis positioned these sequences together with other Sarcocystis spp. from snakes and rodents as definitive and intermediate hosts (IH), respectively. Sequence data and also the results of clinical and parasitological examinations suggest that the snakes were definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. that circulate in wild IH. Thus, it seems unlikely that the infected snakes had been legally bred. Our research shows that information on the infection of snakes with Sarcocystis spp. may be used to assess compliance with regulations on the trade with wildlife species. PMID:24476633

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies on the reaction center–light-harvesting 1 core complex from Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction center–light-harvesting 1 core complex from R. viridis was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 8.0 Å resolution. The reaction center–light-harvesting 1 (RC–LH1) core complex is the photosynthetic apparatus in the membrane of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis. The RC is surrounded by an LH1 complex that is constituted of oligomers of three types of apoproteins (α, β and γ chains) with associated bacteriochlorophyll bs and carotenoid. It has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A promising crystal diffracted to beyond 8.0 Å resolution. It belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 141.4, b = 136.9, c = 185.3 Å, α = 104.6, β = 94.0, γ = 110.7°. A Patterson function calculated using data between 15.0 and 8.0 Å resolution suggested that the LH1 complex is distributed with quasi-16-fold rotational symmetry around the RC

  12. Udbredelsen af den invasive børsteorm, Marenzelleria viridis, langs danske kyster – tegn på økologiske konsekvenser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Christoffersen, Kenn

    andre søskendearter, da sidstnævnte fortrækker enten lavere salinitet eller lavere temperatur end typisk for de danske kyster. Der blev observerede nogle svage negative sammenhæng mellem Marenzelleria viridis og de naturligt forekommende arter, såsom Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor, Corophium spp. og...

  13. Leaf oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures Reflect Drought Resistance and Water Use Efficiency in the C4 Grass, Setaria viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, P.; Cousins, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Low water availability is a major constraint in crop production, especially as agriculture is pushed to marginal lands. Therefore, improving drought resistance such as increasing water use efficiency (WUE) through plant breeding is needed to expand the range of soil water availability adequate for food production. With the goal of finding the genomic basis for WUE in C4 grasses, Setaria viridis makes an ideal model species because of its small size, short lifespan, and sequenced genome. Also it is part of the panicoid grass clade, which is one of the most important clades for food and biofuel production. In plant breeding programs, large numbers of genotypes must be quickly screened for drought resistance traits, but there is no well-defined method of screening for WUE in C4 grasses. However, bulk leaf oxygen (Δ18OBL) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic signatures have shown potential as recorders of transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs), and combined with biomass production potentially serve as a measure of WUE. Values of Δ18OBL record differences in transpiration rate because leaf water becomes more enriched as transpiration rate decreases, and leaf tissue records the isotopic composition of leaf water in which it is synthesized. Additionally, in C4 plants δ13C values decrease as gs decreases but the change in δ13C in response to gs may not be adequate to tease apart differences in WUE. In this study, we grew S. viridis plants under well-watered and water-limited conditions to determine if Δ18OBL and δ13C could be used as proxies for E and gs, and be used to screen S. viridis for differences in WUE in breeding programs. The Δ18OBL and δ13C were significantly different between well-watered and water-limited plants and correlated with each other and with E, gs, and instantaneous water use efficiency (Anet/gs). Therefore, Δ18OBL and δ13C can be useful proxies to screen genotypes for drought resistance by recording differences in E, gs, and WUE

  14. Influence of ph on uptake and bioaccumulation of radiocesium (/sup 137/Cs) in the green mussels perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer experiment was conducted to assess the influence of pH on uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in soft parts of green mussels (Perna viridis) collected from Karachi Coast, under controlled laboratory condition. Green mussels of size 5-7 cm were subjected to radiocesium activity of 24 KBq L/sup -1/ under three pH levels i.e., 7.5, 8 and 8.5. The uptake of /sup 137/Cs was monitored for a period of seven days. The results showed that uptake and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs in mussels was dependent on pH levels. Higher bioaccumulation factors and uptake rates were found at pH 8. (author)

  15. Studies on zinc(II)-biosorption capability of a filamentous green algal species (mougeotia viridis) isolated from electroplating wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption capacity of zinc(II) by a filamentous green alga Mougeotia viridis, isolated from the wastewater discharged by electroplating industry was tested under laboratory conditions as a function of contact time, pH, and initial metal ion and biomass concentrations. Optimum pH value for zinc(II) biosorption was determined as 5.0. At 10 mg 1.1 zinc(II), the biosorption equilibrium with I g I-I algal biomass was reached in 10 min showing a relative efficiency of 59.24% metal removal. When the bio sorbent biomass was increased to 2 g I-I, the metal removal capacity was enhanced to 81.4%. At optimum conditions, zinc(II) uptake increased with the increase in initial metal ion concentration from 5-300 mg I-I. Langmuir isotherm model was found to be suitable for describing the biosorption of zinc(II) by Mougeotia viridis. The q/sub max/ obtained experimentally and theoretically calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at the regression coefficient value of 0.9975, respectively, were 27.7 mg and 26.71 mg zinc(II) g-I algal biomass, at the initial metal concentration of 200 mg/sup i//sup -I/; In five repeated biosorption-desorption cycles, the zinc(II) desorption from the metal-loaded algal biomass remained around 99%. The observations reported in the present study indicate that the alga can be used as an efficient bio sorbent for the removal of zinc(II) from aqueous solution. (author)

  16. Lophotrochozoan neuroanatomy: An analysis of the brain and nervous system of Lineus viridis(Nemertea using different staining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loesel Rudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The now thriving field of neurophylogeny that links the morphology of the nervous system to early evolutionary events relies heavily on detailed descriptions of the neuronal architecture of taxa under scrutiny. While recent accounts on the nervous system of a number of animal clades such as arthropods, annelids, and molluscs are abundant, in depth studies of the neuroanatomy of nemerteans are still wanting. In this study, we used different staining techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal the architecture of the nervous system of Lineus viridis with high anatomical resolution. Results In L. viridis, the peripheral nervous system comprises four distinct but interconnected nerve plexus. The central nervous system consists of a pair of medullary cords and a brain. The brain surrounds the proboscis and is subdivided into four voluminous lobes and a ring of commissural tracts. The brain is well developed and contains thousands of neurons. It does not reveal compartmentalized neuropils found in other animal groups with elaborate cerebral ganglia. Conclusions The detailed analysis of the nemertean nervous system presented in this study does not support any hypothesis on the phylogenetic position of Nemertea within Lophotrochozoa. Neuroanatomical characters that are described here are either common in other lophotrochozoan taxa or are seemingly restricted to nemerteans. Since detailed descriptions of the nervous system of adults in other nemertean species have not been available so far, this study may serve as a basis for future studies that might add data to the unsettled question of the nemertean ground pattern and the position of this taxon within the phylogenetic tree.

  17. Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): Effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova. viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 μmol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 μmol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration.

  18. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  19. Two variants of the major serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; González, Lidice; Mansur, Manuel; Machado, Yoan; Redecke, Lars; Hahn, Ulrich; Betzel, Christian; Chávez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    The major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-1) is a non-specific inhibitor that binds trypsin and other trypsin-like enzymes, as well as chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of ShPI-1 to produce two variants (rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S) that were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. After a single purification step, 65 mg and 15 mg of protein per liter of culture supernatant were obtained for rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S, respectively. Functional studies demonstrated a 100-fold decreased trypsin inhibitory activity as result of the K13L substitution at the reactive (P1) site. This protein variant has a novel tight-binding inhibitor activity of pancreatic elastase and increased activity toward neutrophil elastase in comparison to rShPI-1A. In contrast, the substitution Y15S at P2' site did not affect the Ki value against trypsin, but did reduce activity 10-fold against chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase. Our results provide two new ShPI-1 variants with modified inhibitory activities, one of them with increased biomedical potential. This study also offers new insight into the functional impact of the P1 and P2' sites on ShPI-1 specificity. PMID:26993255

  20. Comparative analysis and culturing of the microbial community of Aiptasia pallida, A Sea Anemone Model for Coral Biology

    KAUST Repository

    Binsarhan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Recent works has highlighted the contribution of microbes to animal function. In this regard, the microbial community associated with corals has become a growing field of research in order to understand how microbes contribute to the host organisms’ response to environmental changes. It has been shown that microbes associated with corals have important functions in the coral holobiont such as immunity and nutrient assimilation. However, corals are notoriously difficult to work with. To this end, the sea anemone Aiptasia is becoming a model organism for coral symbiosis. Given the importance of host-­microbiome interactions, the topic of this thesis is to assess microbial structure of Aiptasia, culture prominent bacterial members, and compare bacterial community structure to corals. Different molecular methods have been applied using 16S rRNA bacterial gene fragments to characterize the microbial composition of Aiptasia. 16S rRNA gene sequence derived from cultured bacteria was compared to 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from native Red Sea Aiptasia. Inter-­individual as well as methodological differences were found to account for variance in microbiome composition. However, all approaches showed a highly abundant microbial taxon belonging to the genus Alteromonas in all samples. The Alteromonas species was successfully isolated for further research targeting microbiome selection mechanisms in Aiptasia. Future investigations by using different molecular tools will help to define the functions and relationship between the Aiptasia and its complex microbiome.

  1. Studies on the comparison of pollen morphology and viability of four naturally distributed and commercial varieties of anemone coronaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study presents a comparison of the pollen morphology and viability of naturally distributed four varieties of Anemone coronaria L. These are A. coronaria var. coccinea (Jord.) Burn, A. coronaria var. rosea (Hanry) Batt, A. coronaria var. cyanea, A. coronaria var. alba Goaty and Pens) and its commercial cultivars. The four varieties were collected from areas near the road side along the Kirkagac-Soma highway in the State of Manisa. The commercial cultivars were obtained from the commercial flower growers in the Urla region of zmir. Pollen viability levels decreased in all commercial cultivars of A. coronaria. The highest reduction in pollen viability was recorded in A. coronaria pink cultivars of de Caen group. The general pollen type is prolate spheroidal in all pure forms, but there are some pollen morphological features which were not observed in the natural ones, although encountered in all commercial cultivars. On the other hand, various non-viable pollen types like wrinkled pollens, with abnormally shaped pollens or pollinia were found in the commercial cultivars. It was concluded that pesticides used to produce more flowers with rapid growth are the major cause for his reduction. Another reason could be the use of tetraploid F1 hybrids of A. coronaria cultivars of de Caen group as commercial samples. (author)

  2. Mapping of Quantitative Trait Locus (QTLs) that Contribute to Germination and Early Seedling Drought Tolerance in the Interspecific Cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines deriv...

  3. Molecular identification of Dunaliella viridis Teod. strain MSV-1 utilizing rDNA ITS sequences and its growth responses to salinity and copper toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis, molecular studies provide additional information for establishing phylogenetic relationships among different species and strains of the genus Dunaliella. In the present study, based on neighbor- joining analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence, a novel strain of the green algae Dunaliella viridis was identified from Maharlu salt lake in Shiraz, Iran. The phylogenetic tree shows that the new strain is part of a clade containing several strains of D. viridis. The new strain was designated Dunaliella viridis MSV-1 and submitted to the GenBank under the accession number HQ864830. The optimum salinity for MSV-1 growth is between 1.0 to 1.5 M NaCl and does not turn red up to 4.5 M NaCl, confirming identity of the isolated strain. With respect to growth response to copper toxicity, increase in Cu2+ concentration from 1 to 30 µM, caused progressive increase in cell number ml-1 of culture over time, whereas reduction in cell number occurred at 100 and 200 µM Cu+2. Nano copper (colloidal copper with 40 nm dimensions showed less toxicity compared to the ionic form. Cell number ml-1 of culture did not change up to 200 µM nano copper but decreased at 500 µM. In conclusion, the analysis of the ITS sequence is a reliable basis for establishing evolutionary relationships among species and strains of the genus Dunaliella and due to rapid growth at 1.5 M NaCl and high cell density, D. viridis MSV-1 is a good candidate for biofuel production from microalgae.

  4. Molecular identification of Dunaliella viridis Teod. strain MSV-1 utilizing rDNA ITS sequences and its growth responses to salinity and copper toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Moradshahi; Hajar Zamani; Mansour Kharati-KoupaeI

    2012-01-01

    In addition to biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis, molecular studies provide additional information for establishing phylogenetic relationships among different species and strains of the genus Dunaliella. In the present study, based on neighbor- joining analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence, a novel strain of the green algae Dunaliella viridis was identified from Maharlu salt lake in Shiraz, Iran. The phylogenetic tree shows that the new strain is part of a clade contai...

  5. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescen...

  6. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding. PMID:25033201

  7. Nme gene family evolutionary history reveals pre-metazoan origins and high conservation between humans and the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Desvignes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme functions. However, the evolutionary history of the family remains poorly understood outside the vertebrate lineage. The aim of the study was thus to elucidate the evolutionary history of the Nme gene family in Metazoans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a total of 21 eukaryote species including 14 metazoans, the evolutionary history of Nme genes was reconstructed in the metazoan lineage. We demonstrated that the complexity of the Nme gene family, initially thought to be restricted to chordates, was also shared by the metazoan ancestor. We also provide evidence suggesting that the complexity of the family is mainly a eukaryotic innovation, with the exception of Nme8 that is likely to be a choanoflagellate/metazoan innovation. Highly conserved gene structure, genomic linkage, and protein domains were identified among metazoans, some features being also conserved in eukaryotes. When considering the entire Nme family, the starlet sea anemone is the studied metazoan species exhibiting the most conserved gene and protein sequence features with humans. In addition, we were able to show that most of the proteins known to interact with human NME proteins were also found in starlet sea anemone. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our observations further support the association of Nme genes with key cellular functions that have been conserved throughout metazoan evolution. Future investigations of evolutionarily conserved Nme gene functions using the starlet sea anemone could shed new light on a wide variety of

  8. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptides are an important group of hormones mediating or modulating neuronal communication. Neuropeptides are especially abundant in evolutionarily "old" nervous systems, such as those of cnidarians, the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Cnidarians often have a life cycle including...... a polyp, a medusa, and a planula larva stage. Recently, a neuropeptide, isolated from sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a hydropolyp [Leitz, T., Morand, K. & Mann, M. (1994) Dev. Biol. 163, 440-446]. Here, we have cloned...

  9. Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Aika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphostasis of traits in different species is necessary for reconstructing the evolutionary history of complex characters. Studies that place these species into a molecular phylogenetic context test hypotheses about the transitional stages that link divergent character states. For instance, the transition from a phagotrophic mode of nutrition to a phototrophic lifestyle has occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition. Phototrophic euglenids form a clade that is nested within lineages of phagotrophic euglenids and that originated through a secondary endosymbiosis with green algae. Although it is clear that phototrophic euglenids evolved from phagotrophic ancestors, the morphological disparity between species representing these different nutritional modes remains substantial. Results We cultivated a novel marine euglenid, Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. ("green grasper", and a green alga, Tetraselmis sp., from the same environment. Cells of R. viridis were comprehensively characterized with light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences. Ultrastructural and behavioral observations demonstrated that this isolate habitually consumes a specific strain of Tetraselmis prey cells and possesses a functional chloroplast that is homologous with other phototrophic euglenids. A novel feeding apparatus consisting of a reduced rod of microtubules facilitated this first and only example of mixotrophy among euglenids. R. viridis also possessed a robust photoreception apparatus, two flagella of unequal length, euglenoid movement, and a pellicle consisting of 16 strips and one (square-shaped whorl of posterior strip reduction. The molecular phylogenetic data demonstrated that R. viridis branches as the nearest sister lineage to phototrophic euglenids

  10. Pre-bilaterian origins of the Hox cluster and the Hox code: evidence from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Ryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hox genes were critical to many morphological innovations of bilaterian animals. However, early Hox evolution remains obscure. Phylogenetic, developmental, and genomic analyses on the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis challenge recent claims that the Hox code is a bilaterian invention and that no "true" Hox genes exist in the phylum Cnidaria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analyses of 18 Hox-related genes from Nematostella identify putative Hox1, Hox2, and Hox9+ genes. Statistical comparisons among competing hypotheses bolster these findings, including an explicit consideration of the gene losses implied by alternate topologies. In situ hybridization studies of 20 Hox-related genes reveal that multiple Hox genes are expressed in distinct regions along the primary body axis, supporting the existence of a pre-bilaterian Hox code. Additionally, several Hox genes are expressed in nested domains along the secondary body axis, suggesting a role in "dorsoventral" patterning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A cluster of anterior and posterior Hox genes, as well as ParaHox cluster of genes evolved prior to the cnidarian-bilaterian split. There is evidence to suggest that these clusters were formed from a series of tandem gene duplication events and played a role in patterning both the primary and secondary body axes in a bilaterally symmetrical common ancestor. Cnidarians and bilaterians shared a common ancestor some 570 to 700 million years ago, and as such, are derived from a common body plan. Our work reveals several conserved genetic components that are found in both of these diverse lineages. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that a set of developmental rules established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians is still at work today.

  11. Spatial gene expression quantification: a tool for analysis of in situ hybridizations in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botman Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial gene expression quantification is required for modeling gene regulation in developing organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is the model system most widely applied for spatial gene expression analysis due to its unique embryonic properties: the shape does not change significantly during its early cleavage cycles and most genes are differentially expressed along a straight axis. This system of development is quite exceptional in the animal kingdom. In the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis the embryo changes its shape during early development; there are cell divisions and cell movement, like in most other metazoans. Nematostella is an attractive case study for spatial gene expression since its transparent body wall makes it accessible to various imaging techniques. Findings Our new quantification method produces standardized gene expression profiles from raw or annotated Nematostella in situ hybridizations by measuring the expression intensity along its cell layer. The procedure is based on digital morphologies derived from high-resolution fluorescence pictures. Additionally, complete descriptions of nonsymmetric expression patterns have been constructed by transforming the gene expression images into a three-dimensional representation. Conclusions We created a standard format for gene expression data, which enables quantitative analysis of in situ hybridizations from embryos with various shapes in different developmental stages. The obtained expression profiles are suitable as input for optimization of gene regulatory network models, and for correlation analysis of genes from dissimilar Nematostella morphologies. This approach is potentially applicable to many other metazoan model organisms and may also be suitable for processing data from three-dimensional imaging techniques.

  12. Developing the anemone Aiptasia as a tractable model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis: the transcriptome of aposymbiotic A. pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Erik M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reefs are hotspots of oceanic biodiversity, forming the foundation of ecosystems that are important both ecologically and for their direct practical impacts on humans. Corals are declining globally due to a number of stressors, including rising sea-surface temperatures and pollution; such stresses can lead to a breakdown of the essential symbiotic relationship between the coral host and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, a process known as coral bleaching. Although the environmental stresses causing this breakdown are largely known, the cellular mechanisms of symbiosis establishment, maintenance, and breakdown are still largely obscure. Investigating the symbiosis using an experimentally tractable model organism, such as the small sea anemone Aiptasia, should improve our understanding of exactly how the environmental stressors affect coral survival and growth. Results We assembled the transcriptome of a clonal population of adult, aposymbiotic (dinoflagellate-free Aiptasia pallida from ~208 million reads, yielding 58,018 contigs. We demonstrated that many of these contigs represent full-length or near-full-length transcripts that encode proteins similar to those from a diverse array of pathways in other organisms, including various metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and neuropeptide precursors. The contigs were annotated by sequence similarity, assigned GO terms, and scanned for conserved protein domains. We analyzed the frequency and types of single-nucleotide variants and estimated the size of the Aiptasia genome to be ~421 Mb. The contigs and annotations are available through NCBI (Transcription Shotgun Assembly database, accession numbers JV077153-JV134524 and at http://pringlelab.stanford.edu/projects.html. Conclusions The availability of an extensive transcriptome assembly for A. pallida will facilitate analyses of gene-expression changes, identification of proteins of interest, and other studies in this

  13. Urban secondary sewage: an alternative medium for the culture of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40% of urban secondary sewage on the growth of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae was examined to verify the possibility of its use as an alternative culture medium for these species. Stocks and 700mL duplicate batch cultures were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. 30% and 40% additions were the most efficient for the growth of both species. Statistical analysis of the adjusted growth (cell.mL-1 and biomass (µg chlorophyll-a.mL-1 curves performed using the Chi-square test (pFoi estudado o efeito das diferentes concentrações de esgoto urbano secundário (10%, 20%, 30% e 40% sobre o crescimento de Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae e Dunaliellla viridis (Chlorophyceae para verificar a possibilidade do seu uso como meio de cultura altenativo para estas espécies. Culturas stocks duplicatas de 700mL foram mantidas sob condições de laboratório controladas. As adições de 30% e 40% foram as mais eficientes para o crescimento de ambas as espécies. Análises estatísticas para o ajuste do crescimento (cel.mL-1 e curvas de biomassa (µg clorofila-a.mL-1 em relação ao tempo de cultura desenvolvidas usando Chi-square test (p<0.05, demonstraram diferenças significativas entre o meio nutritivo f/2 e a adição de 40% usada para estas duas espécies. Os resultados sugerem que algumas das concentrações testadas, rendem densidades celulares e taxas de crescimento satisfatórias quando comparados com outros meios de cultura (macroalga, estratos de esterco bovino e de galinha sendo um meio altenativo que pode ser usado para sistemas de aquicultura semi intensivos devido aos baixos custos e fácil aquisição.

  14. Evolution of an ancient venom: recognition of a novel family of cnidarian toxins and the common evolutionary origin of sodium and potassium neurotoxins in sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Sunagar, Kartik; Federman Gross, Aya; Scheib, Holger; Alewood, Paul F; Moran, Yehu; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    Despite Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) being the oldest venomous animal lineage, structure-function relationships, phyletic distributions, and the molecular evolutionary regimes of toxins encoded by these intriguing animals are poorly understood. Hence, we have comprehensively elucidated the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary histories of pharmacologically characterized cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs). We show that despite long evolutionary histories, most cnidarian toxins remain conserved under the strong influence of negative selection-a finding that is in striking contrast to the rapid evolution of toxin families in evolutionarily younger lineages, such as cone snails and advanced snakes. In contrast to the previous suggestions that implicated SCRiPs in the biomineralization process in corals, we demonstrate that they are potent neurotoxins that are likely involved in the envenoming function, and thus represent the first family of neurotoxins from corals. We also demonstrate the common evolutionary origin of type III KTxs and NaTxs in sea anemones. We show that type III KTxs have evolved from NaTxs under the regime of positive selection, and likely represent a unique evolutionary innovation of the Actinioidea lineage. We report a correlation between the accumulation of episodically adaptive sites and the emergence of novel pharmacological activities in this rapidly evolving neurotoxic clade. PMID:25757852

  15. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...

  16. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis coliumen

  17. A Comparative Study of Condition Indices and Heavy Metals in Perna viridis Populations at Sebatu and Muar, Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared some allometric parameters (shell length, shell width, shell height, total dry weight of soft tissues, condition index and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the different soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Sebatu and Muar estuary. It was found that the total dry weight of soft tissues and condition index of mussels collected from Sebatu were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in Muar. The significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of Cu in most soft tissues and some of Cd indicated a higher bioavailability of Cu and Cd at Muar than Sebatu. In addition, the significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in surface sediments collected from Muar supported the observable anthropogenic impacts at Muar than Sebatu and hence, higher metal contamination at Muar than Sebatu. The higher condition index value in mussels recorded in Sebatu than in Muar was believed to be a result of higher metal contamination at Muar estuary. (author)

  18. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  19. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  20. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal concentrations were within levels allowed worldwide (FAO, BFL, FDA). • The highest concentration of heavy metals was found during the drought period. • Significant relationships amid size and metal concentration only found in drought. - Abstract: Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd > Pb, and for drought: Cu > Mn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes

  1. The characterization of two peroxiredoxin genes in Dunaliella viridis provides insights into antioxidative response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huijuan; Meng, Xiangzong; Gao, Qiang; Qu, Wufei; Xu, Tengjiao; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a group of antioxidant enzymes, are an important component of the oxidative defense system and have been demonstrated to function as peroxidases, sensors of H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling and/or chaperones. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from a halotolerant alga, Dunaliella viridis, and was used in a functional complementation screen for antioxidative genes in an oxidative sensitive yeast mutant. Two Prx genes, DvPrx1 and DvPrx2, were obtained from this screen. These two genes were classified as type II Prx and 2-Cys Prx based on amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis. When over-expressed in yeast cells, both Prx genes were able to confer better oxidative tolerance and decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subcellular localization experiments in tobacco cells revealed that both DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 were localized in the cytosol. The transcription of DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 can be induced by hypersalinity shock, but is not obviously affected by treatment with high levels of oxidant. Our results shed light on the function and regulation of Prx genes from Dunaliella and their potential roles in salt tolerance. PMID:21431909

  2. Phosphorylation of MAP kinase-like proteins mediate the response of the halotolerant alga Dunaliella viridis to hypertonic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Berl, Tomas; Rivard, Christopher J; Edelstein, Charles L; Capasso, Juan M

    2004-02-01

    The microalga Dunaliella viridis has the ability to adapt to a variety of environmental stresses including osmotic and thermal shocks, UV irradiation and nitrogen starvation. Lacking a rigid cell wall, Dunaliella provides an excellent model to study stress signaling in eukaryotic unicellular organisms. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, UV irradiation or high temperature, a 57-kDa protein is recognized by antibodies specific to mammalian p38, to its yeast homologue Hog1, and to the phospho-p38 MAP kinase motif. This 57-kDa protein appears to be both up-regulated and phosphorylated. Three other proteins (50, 45, 43 kDa) were transiently phosphorylated under stress conditions as detected with an antibody specific to the mammalian phospho c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) motif. Treatment with specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) activities markedly impaired the adaptation of Dunaliella to osmotic stress. From an evolutionary standpoint, these data strongly suggest that MAP kinase signaling pathways, other than ERK, were already operating in the common ancestor of plant and animal kingdoms, probably as early as 1400 million years ago. PMID:14741745

  3. Chlorination-induced genotoxicity in the mussel Perna viridis: assessment by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2016-08-01

    Mussels are important fouling organisms in the cooling water systems of coastal power plants. Continuous low-dose chlorination (CLDC) is being practiced as an effective method to control mussel biofouling in power plant cooling water systems. CLDC effectively controls mussel fouling by discouraging larval settlement rather than by killing the larvae or adults. Mussels are an integral part of the natural benthic community in the receiving water body where the coolant water is discharged. Hence, from a toxicological point of view, they can serve as both target and non-target organisms. Previous researchers have indicated that chlorine residual, rather than elevated temperature, can be the major stress factor in the effluents released from coastal power plants. However, very little data are available on the sub-lethal effects of low level chlorination on representative benthic fauna. In this study, we used native and transplanted mussels (Perna viridis) to study lethal and sub-lethal effects of chlorination in the cooling water circuit of an operating power plant. Experiments involving comet assay suggested that CLDC can cause DNA damage in treated mussels. However, activation of DNA repair appeared to get initiated after the accrued damage reached a threshold. The results indicate that, at chlorine residual levels observed at the discharge point, exposure to chlorinated effluents is unlikely to cause significant genetic damage to mussels in the recipient water body. PMID:27155389

  4. The role of complement in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ePoole

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1 characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone A. pallida, (2 investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3 examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies. The results demonstrate that A. pallida has multiple Factor B genes (Ap_Bf-1, Ap_Bf-2a, and Ap_Bf-2b and one MASP gene (Ap_MASP. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the evolutionary history of complement genes is complex, and there have been many gene duplications or gene loss events, even within members of the same phylum. Gene expression analyses revealed a potential role for complement in both onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge. Specifically, Ap_Bf-1 and Ap_MASP are significantly upregulated in the light at the onset of symbiosis and in response to challenge with the pathogen Serratia marcescens suggesting that they play a role in the initial recognition of both beneficial and harmful microbes. Ap_Bf-2b in contrast was generally downregulated during the onset and maintenance of symbiosis and in response to challenge with S. marcescens. Therefore the exact role of Ap_Bf-2b in response to microbes remains unclear, but the results suggests that the presence of microbes leads to repressed expression. Together these results indicate functional divergence between Ap

  5. A comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon uptake by mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in Hong Kong coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels had higher levels of contaminants than semi-permeable membrane devices. - The ability of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from five sites in Hong Kong's coastal waters was compared. Mussels consistently had higher levels of contaminants, but their utility was limited at one highly polluted site due to mortality. Mussels and SPMDs ranked sites differently in terms of individual contaminant levels. Although SPMDs overcome many of the disadvantages of using living organisms to measure contaminants in marine waters, they cannot be used as 'mimics' due to different PAH and PHC accumulation patterns

  6. Udbredelsen af den invasive børsteorm Marenzelleria viridis i Roskilde Fjord - en undersøgelse af det bentiske samfund

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Siden starten af 1990'erne har invasionen af polychaeten Marenzelleria viridis været kendt i de danske kystnære områder og estuarier. Arten har formået at sprede sig hurtigt og i 2008 viste undersøgelser at arten var udbredt til store dele af Roskilde Fjord. I forbindelse med de nye undersøgelser blev der i sommeren 2013, på baggrund af 14 udvalgte stationer fordelt rundt omkring fjorden (indre, ydre), indsamlet sediment- og faunaprøver til nærmere studering af fjordens bentiske makrofauna og...

  7. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 exposure in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 μg l-1; 3 μg l-1) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 μg l-1; 5 μg l-1). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 μg l-1 B[a]P+0.5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254; 3 μg l-1 B[a]P+5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254). All concentrations were nominal. A suite of enzymes [glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mussel gill and hepatopancreas were monitored over 18 days. CAT and GSH in gill tissue were positively correlated with concentration of Aroclor 1254. Activity of hepatic GST and SOD was significantly related to body burden of Aroclor 1254. LPO, GR and GPx in gill and hepatopancreas and hepatic GST were positively correlated with B[a]P concentration. The results indicate the importance of using biomarkers specific to the type of contaminant(s) that are likely to be present. Controlled laboratory experiments, such as this study, are useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. - Benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 separately and in combination caused specific induction in a number of antioxidant parameters in the gill and hepatopancreas of green-lipped mussels

  8. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 210Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209Po as an internal tracer. The 210Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  9. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. PMID:25900884

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among the Caribbean members of the Cliona viridis complex (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Dairo; Zea, Sven; Sánchez, Juan A

    2012-08-01

    Species complexes - groups of closely related species in which intraspecific and interspecific variability overlap - have generated considerable interest and study. Frequently, members of a species complex do not have complete reproductive isolation; therefore, the complex may go through extensive gene flow. In the Caribbean Sea, some encrusting and excavating sponges of the genus Cliona (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae) are grouped within the great "Cliona viridis" complex because of their morphological similarities. This study examined the evolutionary relationships of the Caribbean members of this complex (C. caribbaea, C. tenuis, C. aprica and C. varians) and related taxa based on nuclear (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (3' end of ND6) DNA sequences. The intragenomic ITS variation and its secondary structures were evaluated using a mixed approach of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing and secondary structure prediction. Considerable intragenomic variation was found in all the species, with apparently functional ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures. Despite the subtle but clear morphological differentiation in these excavating sponges, the intragenomic copies of C. caribbaea, C. tenuis and C. aprica had a polyphyletic placement in the ITS1 and ITS2 genealogies and very low divergence. Therefore, it is clear that these species constitute a species complex (herein called Ct-complex). Genetic distances within the Ct-complex revealed that an important part of the interspecific variation overlapped with intraspecific variation, suggesting either incomplete lineage sorting or extensive gene flow. In contrast, C. varians and an unidentified "Pione" species emerged as monophyletic clades, being the closest sister groups to the Ct-complex. Additionally, our results support that C. laticavicola and C. delitrix conform a monophyletic group, but absence of reciprocal monophyly in these species suggests they may be life stages or ecophenotypes of

  11. 绿色杜氏藻转录组分析%Transcriptome analysis ofDunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅旗; 龚一富; 杭雨晴; 刘浩; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes forDunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO ) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) data-bases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81 593 transcripts were found, and 77 117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16 569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classifica-tion annotated 76 436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30 678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was an-notated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foun-dation of metabolic pathway research forDunaliella viridis.%为了深入了解绿色杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis)基因信息及功能、耐盐相关通路(甘油脂代谢)及关键酶,本文首次通过Illumina HiSeqTM 2000高通量测序技术对绿色杜氏藻转录组进行测序,利用Trinity软件将数据组装形成转录本,对所有转录本进行COG(Clusters of Orthologous Groups)、GO(Gene Ontology)和KEGG(Kyoto En-cyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)分类和功能注释、Pathway注

  12. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch

  13. A Study on the Potential of the Periostracum of Perna viridis as a Bio monitoring Material for Pb in Tropical Coastal Waters Based on Correlation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periostracum is the outermost layer overlying the inner prismatic and nacreous layers of the shells of bivalves. In the present study, the distributions of Cd and Pb in the soft tissues (ST) and periostracum of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis sampled from 15 sampling sites in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The concentrations of Cd (0.21-10.87 mg/ g dry weight) and Pb (1.16-40.20 mg/ g dry weight) in the periostracum were generally higher than those in the ST (Cd: 0.10-5.55 mg/ g dry weight; Pb: 2.53-18.62 mg/ g dry weight). Based on correlation analysis from nine geographical populations, the higher correlation coefficients (R values) between the periostracum-geochemical fractions of the sediments than between the ST-geochemical fractions of the sediments indicated that the periostracum could be a potential bio monitoring material for Pb. Hence, the present results supported the use of the periostracum of P. viridis as a potential bio monitoring material for Pb but not for Cd. However, more studies are warranted to verify its usefulness for the bio monitoring of heavy metal pollution in tropical coastal waters. (author)

  14. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) and PAHs in Perna viridis collected from seaport and non-seaport waters in the Straits of Johore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Shahbazi, A; Zakaria, M P

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ranges of pollutants found in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Kg. Masai and Kg. Sg. Melayu, both located in the Straits of Johore, were 0.85-1.58 μg/g dry weight (dw) for Cd, 5.52-12.2 μg/g dw for Cu, 5.66-8.93 μg/g dw for Ni and 63.4-72.3 μg/g dw for Zn, and 36.4-244 ng/g dry weight for ∑PAHs. Significantly (p water of a seaport site at Kg. Masai than a non-seaport site at Kg. Sg. Melayu population. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (2.94-3.42) and fluoranthene/pyrene (0.43-0.45) in mussels from both sites indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using the soft tissues of P. viridis as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23052577

  15. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  16. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  17. Influence of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply on the carbon assimilation performance and cell composition of the unicellular alga Dunaliella viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, F.J.L.; Jimenez, C.; Figueroa, F.L.; Xavier Niell, F. [Univ. de Malaga, Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Malaga (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    The carbon assimilation efficiency and the internal composition of the chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis have been studied under conditions of current (0.035%) and enriched (1%) levels of CO{sub 2}, with and without N limitation (supplied as nitrate). Results show that both photosynthesis and growth rates are enhanced by high CO{sub 2}, but the strategy of acclimation also involves the light harvesting machinery and the nutritional metabolism in an N supply dependent manner. D. viridis carried out a qualitative rather than a quantitative acclimation of the light harvesting system leading to increased PSII quantum yields. Total internal C decreased as a consequence of either active growth or organic carbon release to the external medium. The latter process allowed photosynthetic electron transport to proceed at higher rates than under normal CO{sub 2} conditions, and maintained the internal C:N balance in a narrow range (under N sufficiency). N limitation generally prevented the effects of high CO{sub 2}, with some exceptions such as the photosynthetic O-2 evolution rate. (au)

  18. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, Juan J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E.; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species. PMID:27322321

  19. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  20. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  1. Double trouble for grasshopper molecular systematics: intra-individual heterogeneity of both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences in Hesperotettix viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesperotettix viridis grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae:Melanoplinae) exhibit intra-individual variation in both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences. These findings violate core assumptions underlying DNA sequence data obtained via pol...

  2. Modification of trace metal accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis by exposure to Ag, Cu, and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis affected by previous exposure to Cu, Ag, or Zn, the dietary metal assimilation efficiency (AE) and the uptake rate from the dissolved phase were quantified. The mussel's filtration rate, metallothionein (MT) concentration, and metal tissue burden as well as the metal subcellular partitioning were also determined to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the influences caused by one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of the other metals. The green mussels were pre-exposed to Cu, Ag, or Zn for different periods (1-5 weeks) and the bioaccumulation of Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn were concurrently determined. Pre-exposure to the three metals did not result in any significant increase in MT concentration in the green mussels. Ag concentration in the insoluble fraction increased with increasing Ag exposure period and Ag ambient concentration. Our data indicated that Cd assimilation were not influenced by the mussel's pre-exposure to the three metals (Cu, Ag, and Zn), but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn exposure. Although Hg assimilation from food was not affected by the metal pre-exposure, its influx rate from solution was generally inhibited by the exposure to Cu, Ag, and Zn. Ag bioaccumulation was affected the most obviously, in which its AE increased with increasing Ag tissue concentration, and its dissolved uptake decreased with increasing tissue concentrations of Ag and Cu. As an essential metal, Zn bioaccumulation remained relatively stable following the metal pre-exposure, suggesting the regulatory ability of Zn uptake in the mussels. Zn AE was not affected by metal pre-exposure, but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn pre-exposure. All these results indicated that the influences of one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals were metal-specific due to the differential binding and toxicity of metals to the mussels. Such factors should

  3. A physiological study of integument secretions in the marine polychaete Eulalia viridis and their potential biotechnological value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in marine bioproducts, especially in those with life improving potential to humans. Marine invertebrates, in particular, possess particular interest due to their high diversity, abundance and ecological importance. However, the physiology of such a wide and diverse group of organisms is far from understood. Marine annelids, in particular (Class Polychaeta, are of especial interest, in large part owing to their ecological representativity and easy handling. Still only few studies have been focusing on physiological traits of the polychaeta that may relate to the production of bioproducts of potential biotechnological applications. The secretion of substances by polychaetes is acknowledged to relate primarily with locomotion and feeding, but also thought to have an important role in egg protection, prevention against infection and even as defence mechanisms against possible predators. As such, the present work aims at identifying, isolating and analysing the nature of integumentary secretions of E. viridis, a common intertidal worm of rocky shores. Histological analyses revealed a more complex microanatomy of the skin than it could be anticipated. Several cell types were identified in the integument, each bearing different functions such as structural support, pigmentation and sensorial, to which is added secretion as one of the most important roles. Due to the great complexity of the integument, the identification of the chemical nature of all types of secretions is particularly challenging. However, more detailed histochemical analyses and electron microscopy enabled the identification of different secretory cells and their chemical nature and role. The analyses was complemented by protein isolation from mucous and homogenates trough SDS-PAGE. Extracts revealed, for instance, that peptidic substances produced by the skin are potentially biocidal, as assessed through the Microtox Assay. Overall, the results enhance the

  4. BIOMONITORING OF AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM,COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC IN THE COASTAL WETLAND WATER BY USING GILLS OF THE GREEN- LIPPED MUSSEL PERNA VIRIDIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Ahmad Ismail; Abdul Rahim Ismail; Soon Guan Tan

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in the gills and remaining soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from 12 geographical sites ( 10 from the west and 2 from the east coastal waters) of Peninsular Malaysia. All samples showed that the levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were generally higher in the gill than those in the remaining soft tissues. These results could be due to the fact that gills are the first organ of metal accumulation and larger surface area with mucus sheets in the organ. Since the mussel gill is a better accumulator of Cd, Pb and Zn of ambient seawater than remaining soft tissue, it is a potential indicator of ambient levels of dissolved metals in the ambient seawater. However, further validations based on laboratory conditions are needed.

  5. The rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) as a communicative resource for ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P; Rundus, Aaron S

    2002-06-01

    Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use incidental acoustic cues in rattling sounds to assess the danger posed by the rattling snake, and (b) burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) defend themselves against mammalian predators by mimicking the sound of rattling. The remarkable similarity between the burrowing owl's defensive hiss and the rattlesnake's rattling reflects both exaptation and adaptation. Such exploitation of the rattling sound has favored alternations in both the structure and the deployment of rattling by rattlesnakes. PMID:12083617

  6. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  7. Generation and analysis of transcriptomic resources for a model system on the rise: the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate endosymbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunagawa Shinichi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment, maintenance, and breakdown of the symbiotic partnership are, however, not well understood. Efforts to dissect these questions have been slow, as corals are notoriously difficult to work with. In order to expedite this field of research, we generated and analyzed a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont (Symbiodinium sp., a system that is gaining popularity as a model to study cellular, molecular, and genomic questions related to cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses. Results A set of 4,925 unique sequences (UniSeqs comprising 1,427 clusters of 2 or more ESTs (contigs and 3,498 unclustered ESTs (singletons was generated by analyzing 10,285 high-quality ESTs from a mixed host/symbiont cDNA library. Using a BLAST-based approach to predict which unique sequences derived from the host versus symbiont genomes, we found that the contribution of the symbiont genome to the transcriptome was surprisingly small (1.6–6.4%. This may reflect low levels of gene expression in the symbionts, low coverage of alveolate genes in the sequence databases, a small number of symbiont cells relative to the total cellular content of the anemones, or failure to adequately lyse symbiont cells. Furthermore, we were able to identify groups of genes that are known or likely to play a role in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses, including oxidative stress pathways that emerged as a prominent biological feature of this transcriptome. All ESTs and UniSeqs along with annotation results and other tools have been made accessible through the implementation of a publicly accessible database named AiptasiaBase. Conclusion We have established the first large-scale transcriptomic resource for

  8. Tolerancia a la anoxia y defensas antioxidantes en el mejillón verde Perna viridis (Linneus, 1758 bajo exposición aguda al cadmio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Zapata-Vívenes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la sobrevivencia a la anoxia del mejillón verde Perna viridis después de siete días de exposición a 50 μg L-1 de cadmio (Cd, seguido de un período de recuperación en el mar durante 21 días. En la glándula digestiva de los organismos experimentales se determinó los niveles de Cd acumulados, y marcadores de estrés oxidativo tales como: metalotioneínas (MT, glutatión reducido (GSH, peroxidación lipídica (TBARS y las actividades de las enzimas catalasa (CAT, glutatión reductasa (GR y glutatión-S-transferasa (GST. Los organismos expuestos a Cd mostraron una menor tolerancia al tratamiento anóxico, sin embargo una vez recuperados en el mar presentaron valores de sobrevivencia relativamente mayores en comparación a sus controles. Los organismos expuestos a Cd revelaron un incremento en la concentración de MT y la actividad de CAT, correlacionado al ingreso corporal de Cd. Los organismos transplantados al mar mostraron una disminución del metal acumulado, manteniendo niveles de MT incrementados. Los mejillones tratados y controles no exhibieron diferencias significativas en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo determinados (TBARS, GSH, GR y GST. El Cd acumulado posiblemente afectó algunas estrategias bioquímicas relacionadas con la tolerancia a la anoxia de P. viridis. Sin embargo, los altos niveles de MT en organismos pre-expuestos y posteriormente recuperados, podría condicionar la protección contra la toxicidad del Cd e indirectamente una mayor tolerancia a la anoxia.

  9. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( Pshells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  10. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS2 from Dunaliella viridis and biochemical identification of DvGS2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-02-25

    The salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella has remarkable capability to survive in some extreme environments such as nitrogen starvation, which makes Dunaliella be a proper model for mining novel genes on nitrogen uptake or assimilation. In this study, a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS2 with amino acid identity of 72% to other homologous GS proteins, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic comparison with other GSs revealed that DvGS2 occupied an independent phylogenetic position. Expressional analysis in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation confirmed that DvGS2 increased its mRNA level in 12h. Subcellular localization study and functional analysis in a GS-deficient Escherichia coli mutant proved that DvGS2 was a chloroplastic and functional GS enzyme. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS2 in higher plants, the transgenic studies of DvGS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana were carried out. Results showed that the transgenic lines expressed the DvGS2 gene and demonstrated obviously enhanced root length (29%), fresh weight (40%-48% at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (21%), leaf size (39%) and silique number (44%) in contrast with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content (35%-43%), total GS activity (39%-45%) and soluble protein concentration (23%-24%) than the wild type. These results indicated that the overexpression of DvGS2 in A. thaliana resulted in higher biomass and the improvement of the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24334123

  11. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  12. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  13. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan D. Rash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3.

  14. Triterpenoid saponin flaccidoside II from Anemone flaccida triggers apoptosis of NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors via the MAPK-HO-1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han LT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lin-tao Han,1 Yin Fang,1 Yan Cao,2 Feng-hua Wu,1 E Liu,2 Guo-yan Mo,2 Fang Huang1 1China Key Laboratory of TCM Resource and Prescription, Ministry of Education, 2Department of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are highly aggressive soft tissue neoplasms that are extremely rare and are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. MPNSTs are typically fatal, and there is no effective treatment so far. In our previous study, we showed that flaccidoside II, one of the triterpenoid saponins isolated from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, has antitumor potential by inducing apoptosis. In the present study, we found that flaccidoside II inhibits proliferation and facilitates apoptosis in MPNST cell lines ST88-14 and S462. Furthermore, this study provides a mechanism by which the downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways is involved in the apoptotic role of flaccidoside II. This study suggested the potential of flaccidoside II as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for MPNSTs. Keywords: flaccidoside II, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, apoptosis, MAPK, HO-1

  15. Characterization of the Cadherin-Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell-Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W; Lowe, Christopher J; Weis, William I; Nelson, William James

    2016-08-01

    The cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell-cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin-catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  16. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  17. Characterization of the Cadherin–Catenin Complex of the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis and Implications for the Evolution of Metazoan Cell–Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Donald Nathaniel; Miller, Phillip W.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Weis, William I.; Nelson, William James

    2016-01-01

    The cadherin–catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell–cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin–catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin. Using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering, we showed that α-catenin and β-catenin formed a heterodimer that bound N. vectensis Cadherin-1 and -2. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin bound F-actin with equivalent affinity as either a monomer or an α/β-catenin heterodimer, and its affinity for F-actin was, in part, regulated by a novel insert between the N- and C-terminal domains. Nematostella vectensis α-catenin inhibited Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin filaments, a regulatory property previously thought to be unique to mammalian αE-catenin. Thus, despite significant differences in sequence, the key interactions of the CCC are conserved between bilaterians and cnidarians, indicating that the core function of the CCC as a link between cell adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton is ancestral in the eumetazoans. PMID:27189570

  18. Primary structure of the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (less than Glu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Schmutzler, C; Diekhoff, D; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptides containing the carboxylterminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 are found throughout the animal kingdom and are important substances mediating neuronal communication. Here, we have cloned the cDNA coding for the precursor protein of the sea anemone neuropeptide (Antho-RFamide) less than Glu......-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. This precursor is 334 amino acids in length and contains 19 copies of unprocessed Antho-RFamide (Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-Gly), which are tandemly arranged in the C-terminal part of the protein. Paired basic residues (Lys-Arg) or single basic residues (Arg) occur at the C-terminal side of each Antho...... glutamic acid residues. Such processing is, to our knowledge, hitherto unknown for peptidergic neurons. The Antho-RFamide precursor also contains two copies of the putative Antho-RFamide-related peptide Phe-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 and one copy of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Arg-Tyr-NH2. In addition, the precursor protein...

  19. Floral Morphogenesis of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var.flore-minore Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) with Special Emphasis on Androecium Developmental Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li CHANG; Yi REN; An-Min LU

    2005-01-01

    The floral morphogenesis and androecium developmental sequence of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. flore-minore Maxim. were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM)and by means of histological methods in order to expand our knowledge of the morphogenesis and development of the floral organs of the Ranunculaceae. The initiation of the floral elements is a centripetal spiral and the direction of the spiral is clockwise or anti-clockwise. However, the development of the androecium is highly unusual: in a longitudinal series of four stamens, the second stamen develops first from the inner to outer, then the third one, the fourth one and the first one in turn. The microsporogenesis and anther maturation follows the same developmental sequence. The tepals are different from the bracts and the stamens in both shape and size in the early developmental stage, but there is no difference between the stamens and carpels in the early developmental stage. Therefore, we established a spatio-temporal process of the floral morphogenesis of4. rivularis var.flore-minore and offer another meaning of the floral diversity patterns attributed to the level of the genus.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel C20-elongase gene from the marine microalgae, Pavlova viridis, and its use for the reconstitution of two pathways of long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tonglei; Yu, Aiqun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Meng; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-08-01

    The marine microalga, Pavlova viridis, contains long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3). A full-length cDNA sequence, pvelo5, was isolated from P. viridis. From sequence alignment, the gene was homologous to fatty acyl elongases from other organisms. Heterologous expression of pvelo5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that it encoded a specific C20-elongase within the n-3 and n-6 pathways. Elongation activity was confined exclusively to EPA and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). GC analysis indicated that pvelo5 could co-express with other genes for biosynthesis to reconstitute the Δ8 and Δ6 pathways. Real-time PCR results and fatty acid analysis demonstrated that long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids production by the Δ8 pathway might be more effective than that by the Δ6 pathway. PMID:23546943

  1. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26722013

  2. 狗尾草果实中总鞣质的提取和含量测定%EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL TANNIN FROM SETARIA VIRIDIS( L. ) BEAUV.RIPE FRUITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱武; 罗素琴; 刘乐乐; 吴宁远; 王来兵; 于姝燕; 张国萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To extract total tannin from Setaria viridis (L. ) Beaux, ripe fruits and deter mination the content of total tannin. Methods: It was adopted the optimum ultrasonic extraction tech nique to extract the total tannin from Setaira viridis (L. ) Beauv. Ripe fruits. Compleximetry was applied to determine the content of total tannin. Results: The content of total tannin was 0.4650%. Conclu sion :Ultrasonic extraction technique is simple and rapid,Content determination of complexometric titra tion method is safe and reliable. The method was available for extraction and content determination of total tannin from Setaria viridis (L. ) Beauv. Ripe fruits.%目的:从狗尾草果实中提取总鞣质并测定其含量.方法:采用超声波法提取狗尾革果实的总鞣质,用络合滴定法测定其总鞣质的含量.结果:狗尾草果实总鞣质的含量为0.4650%.结论:采用超声法提取操作程序简便、迅速,络合滴定法含量测定方法安全可靠,准确度和精密度较高,可用于狗尾草果实中总鞣质的提取及含量测定.

  3. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  4. Evidence for participation of GCS1 in fertilization of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: Implication of a common mechanism of sperm–egg fusion in plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GCS1 is a sperm transmembrane protein that is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. • The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals. • NvGCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and GCS1 protein exists in sperm of a sea anemone. • Anti-GCS1 antibodies inhibited the fertilization, showing the participation in fertilization. - Abstract: It has been reported that GCS1 (Generative Cell Specific 1) is a transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed in sperm cells and is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals, implying the occurrence of a common or ancestral mechanism of GCS1-mediated gamete fusion. In order to elucidate the common mechanism, we investigated the role of GCS1 in animal fertilization using a sea anemone (Cnidaria), Nematostella vectensis. Although the existence of the GCS1 gene in N. vectensis has been reported, the expression of GCS1 in sperm and the role of GCS1 in fertilization are not known. In this study, we showed that the GCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and that GCS1 protein exists in sperm by in situ hybridization and proteomic analysis, respectively. Then we made four peptide antibodies against the N-terminal extracellular region of NvGCS1. These antibodies specifically reacted to NvGCS1 among sperm proteins on the basis of Western analysis and potently inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that sperm GCS1 plays a pivotal role in fertilization, most probably in sperm–egg fusion, in a starlet sea anemone, suggesting a common gamete-fusion mechanism shared by eukaryotic organisms

  5. Characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of melanin in Ascochyta anemones%白头翁叶斑病菌黑色素的理化性质及其生物合成途径初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 吕国忠; 周如军; 杨红; 傅俊范

    2014-01-01

    对白头翁叶斑病菌胞壁结合黑色素和胞外黑色素进行了理化性质和红外光谱扫描测定,结果表明两者具有相似的理化性质,均易溶于KOH、H2 O2和NaClO,不溶于水、乙醇和丙酮。红外光谱分析表明,白头翁叶斑病菌YS-24菌株的胞壁结合黑色素与胞外黑色素为同一种类型的黑色素。DHN黑色素的特异性抑制剂—三环唑,对白头翁叶斑病菌黑色素的产生有明显的抑制作用;以白头翁叶斑病菌基因组DNA为模板,通过PCR扩增,得到了聚酮体合成酶基因的同源片段AaPKS,初步推断白头翁叶斑病菌黑色素合成属于DHN途径。%The characteristics of melanin,extracted from cell wall and fermented filtrate of Ascochyta anemones, were determined by diagnostic test and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that they have similar physical and chemical properties,and they are soluble in KOH,H2 O2 and NaClO,but not in water,ethanol and acetone. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that the wall-bound melanin and extracellular melanin belonged to the same type. Tricyclazole,a specific inhibitor of DHN melanin synthesis,could inhibit the fungal melanin’s biosynthesis of A.anemones. The homologous fragment of polyketide synthase gene (AaPKS)was amplified by PCR using A.anemones genomic DNA as a template. The results suggested that the melanin in A.anemones might be synthe-sized from DHN pathway.

  6. CgNa, a type I toxin from the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea shows structural similarities to both type I and II toxins, as well as distinctive structural and functional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda, Emilio; Pérez-Castells, Javier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Garateix, Anoland; Salazar, Hector; López, Omar; Aneiros, Abel; Ständker, Ludger; Béress, Lászlo; Forssmann, Wolf Georg; Soto, Enrique; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract CgNa is a toxin from the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea that is comprised of 47-residues. The structure of CgNa, solved by 1}H NMR spectroscopy, is somewhat atypical, displaying significant homologies to both type I and II anemonae toxins, as well as a considerable number of exceptions to what are considered as canonical structural elements of this group of toxins, and that are thought to be essential for their activity. Furthermore, unique residues in CgNa define a cha...

  7. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  8. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M; Edelstein, Charles L; Rivard, Christopher J; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescent cells demonstrated classical and unambiguous apoptotic-like characteristics such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, intact organelles, and blebbing of the cell membrane. Acute heat shock caused general swelling and altered plasma membrane, but the presence of chromatin clusters and DNA strand breaks suggested a necrotic-like event. UV irradiated cells presented changes typical for necrosis, together with apoptotic characteristics resembling an intermediate cell-death phenotype termed aponecrosis-like. Cells subjected to hyperosmotic shock revealed chromatin spotting without DNA fragmentation, and extensive cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, comparable to a paraptotic-like cell death phenotype. Nitrogen-starved cells showed pyknosis, blebbing, and cytoplasmic consumption, indicating a similarity to autophagic/vacuolar-like cell death. The caspase-like activity DEVDase was measured by using the fluorescent substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC and antibodies against the human caspase-3 active enzyme cross-reacted with bands, the intensity of which paralleled the activity. All the environmental stresses tested produced a substantial increase in both DEVDase activity and protein levels. The irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK completely inhibited the enzymatic activity whereas serine and aspartyl proteases inhibitors did not. These results show that cell death in D. viridis does not conform to a single pattern and that environmental stimuli may produce different types of

  9. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM AN ANEMONE ACTIVE REGION: RECONNECTION AND DEFLECTION OF THE 2005 AUGUST 22 ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a three-dimensional thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic model, the space weather modeling framework. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of an Hα filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find that the effect of the Lorentz force is a deflection of the CME by about 30 R-1sun toward the east during the first 30 minutes of the propagation. We also produce coronagraphic and EUV images of the CME, which we compare with real images, identifying a dimming region associated with the reconnection process. We discuss the implication of our results for the arrival at Earth of CMEs originating from the limb and for models to explain the presence of open field lines in magnetic clouds.

  10. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Adam G.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  11. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Marsh

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis. Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to

  12. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H2O2 treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H2O2 treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  13. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology & PMID:19788032

  14. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. PMID:25240268

  15. Theoretical studies on the influence of molecular interactions on the mechanism of electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction center of Rps. viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hong(徐红); ZHANG; Rubo(张汝波); QU; Zhengwang(屈正旺); ZHANG; Xingkang(张兴康); ZHANG; Qiyuan(张启元)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the QM/MM optimized X-ray crystal structure of the photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) of purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis, quantum chemistry density functional method (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G) has been performed to study the interactions between the pigment molecules and either the surrounded amino acid residues or water molecules that are either axially coordinated or hydrogen bonded with the pigment molecules, leading to an explanation of the mechanism of the primary electron-transfer (ET) reactions in the PRC. Results show that the axial coordination of amino acid residues greatly raises the ELUMO of pigment molecules and it is important for the possibility of ET to take place. Different hydrogen bonds between amino acid residues, water molecules and pigment molecules decrease the ELUMO of the pigment molecules to different extents. It is crucial for the ET taking place from excited P along L branch and sustains that the ET is a one-step reaction without through accessory bacteriochlorophyll (ABChl b). It is insufficient to treat the whole protein surrounding as a homogeneous dielectric medium.

  16. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  17. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

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    C. Amutha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1 is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2 is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the least contaminated Vellar estuary Parangipettai (Station-3 was considered as the reference site. The 2 year (2005-2007 observation was recorded seasonally; the antioxidant activity varied seasonally and organally (digestive gland, gill and mantle in the marine green mussel Perna viridis. The common antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase (CAT, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Glutathione Reductase (GR activity were evaluated. The CAT and SOD are responded well with seasons (i.e., monsoon, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and summer seasons. During monsoon period, both CAT and SOD activity are very low in all the Stations, in both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period their activity were moderate and higher enzyme activity was noted during summer season. On contrary, the GR activity was noted as very low during summer and very high during pre or post monsoon and the activity was moderate during monsoon period. In addition the GR activity respond to temperature also but the other antioxidants CAT and SOD yielded no detectable activity. Among the organs liver showed higher CAT and SOD activity when compared to gill and mantle but the GR exhibited the increased activity in gill but not in liver.

  18. Uptake and depuration of PAHs and chlorinated pesticides by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-batch seawater experiments were conducted to follow the uptake and release of selected PAHs (anthracene, fluorathene, pyrene and B[a]P) and organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT) in semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis). Mathematical models were applied to describe the uptake and elimination curves of the contaminants for SPMDs, and kinetic parameters, such as uptake rate constants, and equilibrium triolein/water partitioning coefficients were calculated. SPMD data showed a good fit to estimate rate constant and partition coefficient equations, but only those contaminants which partitioned mainly in the dissolved phase (α-HCH and dieldrin) were well explained for mussels. Poor conformity of the other contaminants indicated mussels uptake by routes other than diffusion, such as ingestion of algae. An apparent equilibrium state was only noted for α-HCH in mussels. Aldrin was not detected in mussels in the first few days of exposure, indicating potential metabolism of this compound. B[a]P was not detected in the triolein of SPMDs, which suggests that the membrane may act as a reservoir. Loss of spiked B[a]P from the triolein was evident in a depuration experiment, which may indicate transfer to the membrane. Rate constants for mussels were higher than those for SPMDs, but the reverse was true for partition coefficients. Overall, mussels and SPMDs had similar uptake rates for all compounds in this study, excluding p,p'-DDT and dieldrin. Contaminant elimination took place more rapidly in mussels, implying that SPMDs are better candidates for detecting episodic discharge of organic contaminants

  19. Influences of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon on the uptake of Ag, Cd, and Cr by the marine mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-flow ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques were used to study the influences of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colloidal organic carbon (COC) on the bioavailability of Ag, Cd, and Cr to the green mussel Perna viridis. We examined the uptake of these metals by the mussels at different concentrations of DOC and COC from different origins (estuarine, coastal, and diatom decomposed). Using the DOC originating from the decomposed diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana), we demonstrated that Cd and Cr uptake, quantified by the concentration factor (DCF), increased linearly with increasing DOC concentration. There was, however, no consistent influence of natural DOC concentration on the metal uptake when the DOC was obtained from different sources of seawater (coastal and estuarine). The influences of COC on metal bioavailability were metal-specific and dependent on the geochemical properties of colloids and colloid-metal complexation. Cd uptake rate was not influenced by the COC concentrations. Uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr was enhanced by 3.4x, whereas the uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Ag was decreased by 8.2x compared with the uptake of low molecular weight Cr and Ag (<1 kDa). The uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr and Ag was generally lower than the uptake of metals bound with the same type of colloids for 2 days. Further aging of the colloid-metal binding reduced metal bioavailability to the mussels. In the presence of different sizes of colloidal particles where there was no major binding of colloids with the metals, metal uptake by the mussels was not influenced by different COC concentrations. Overall, our study suggests that although metal dissociation from colloids may be an important step for the uptake of colloidal metals, other mechanisms such as pinocytosis and co-transport may also be involved in the uptake of these metals, especially in aquatic environments with high DOC and COC concentrations. - Organic carbon

  20. Mussel-based monitoring of trace metal and organic contaminants along the east coast of China using Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green lipped mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected from seven locations along the east coast of China in September and October 2001. The mussel tissues were analyzed for metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg), and trace organic contaminants including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; based on 24 individual PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Maximum concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg in the mussel tissues were 0.14, 26.76, 5.31, 15.72, 4.78, 2.93, 7.40, 231.0, 54.17, 1002 and 317.3 μg/g dry weight respectively. Levels of DDTs, PAHs, PCBs and PHCs in the mussel samples were 14-640, 456-3495, 1-13 ng/g and 621-2863 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Results of this study indicated that contaminant levels were, in general, higher or at least comparable to those reported in other local or regional studies. Mussel samples collected in Chongming Dao in Shanghai and Jiao Zhou Wan in Qingdao had significantly higher levels of metal and trace organic contaminants among the seven sampling stations. Examination of the contaminant profiles suggests that PHCs originated from petrogenic sources, while both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources were important for PAHs. The generally high levels of metals and organochlorine compounds are probably the result of increasingly intense industrial activities along the east coast of China. An assessment of potential risks to human health due to consumption of the mussels was undertaken for the metals, PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes, and the results indicated that all metals, except Ni, could pose a health risk to heavy seafood consumers, while Hg appears to be of concern even for low level consumers. - Mussel-based monitoring revealed trace metal and organic contaminants which pose potential human health risks

  1. Photosynthetic acclimation to photon irradiance and its relation to chlorophyll fluorescence and carbon assimilation in the halotolerant green alga Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, F J; Jiménez, C; Chavarría, J; Xavier Niell, F

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the long-term acclimation of the halotolerant microalga Dunaliella viridis to different photon irradiance, ranging from darkness to 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1). In order to assess the effects of long-term photoinhibition, changes in oxygen production rate, pigment composition, xanthophyll cycle and in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence using the saturating pulse method were measured. Growth rate was maximal at intermediate irradiance (250 and 700 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The increase in growth irradiance from 700 to 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1) did not lead to further significant changes in pigment composition or EPS, indicating saturation in the pigment response to high light. Changes in Photosystem II optimum quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) evidenced photoinhibition at 700 and especially at 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1). The relation between photosynthetic electron flow rate and photosyntetic O(2) evolution was linear for cultures in darkness shifting to curvilinear as growth irradiance increased, suggesting the interference of the energy dissipation processes in oxygen evolution. Carbon assimilation efficiencies were studied in relation to changes in growth rate, internal carbon and nitrogen composition, and organic carbon released to the external medium. All illuminated cultures showed a high capability to maintain a C:N ratio between 6 and 7. The percentage of organic carbon released to the external medium increased to its maximum under high irradiance (1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). These results suggest that the release of organic carbon could act as a secondary dissipation process when the xanthophyll cycle is saturated. PMID:16228345

  2. 国产毛茛科银莲花族十七种植物的细胞学研究%Cytology of ten species in Anemone,one in Anemoclema and six in Clematis (Trib. Anemoneae, Ranunculaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亲二

    2002-01-01

    研究了国产毛茛科银莲花族Trib. Anemoneae 17种植物的染色体数目和核型.10种银莲花属Anemone L.植物中,1种(西南银莲花A. davidii)为x=8的四倍体(2n=4x=32),5种 (匍枝银莲花A. stolonifera、草玉梅A. rivularis、卵叶银莲花A. begoniifolia、水棉花 A. hupehensis f. alba、大火草A. tomentosa)为x=8的二倍体 (2n=2x=16), 4种 (鹅掌草A. flaccida、湿地银莲花A. rupestris、蓝匙叶银莲花A. trullifolia var. colestina、拟条叶银莲花A. trullifolia var. holophylla、展毛银莲花A. demissa) 为x=7 的二倍体 (2n=2x=14).罂粟莲花 Anemoclema glaucifolium为x=8 的二倍体.6种铁线莲属Clematis L. 植物 (滇川铁线莲C. kockiana、长花铁线莲 C. rehderiana、毛茛铁线莲 C. ranunculoides、扬子铁线莲C. puberula var. ganpiniana、短尾铁线莲 C. brevicaudata、金毛铁线莲 A. chrysocoma)均为 x=8的二倍体.银莲花属中x=7的种类的核型彼此十分相似,均由6对大型具中部着丝点的染色体和1对具端部着丝点的染色体组成;x=8的二倍体种类的核型与罂粟莲花属和铁线莲属植物的核型十分相似,均由5对大型具中部着丝点和3对具端部或近端部着丝点的染色体组成.%The somatic chromosome number and detailed chromosome morphology have been studied in ten species of Anemone, one species of Anemoclema, and six species of Clematis, all from China, namely Anemone davidii Franch. (2n=4x=32), A. stolonifera Maxim. (2n=2x=16), A. flaccida Fr. Schmidt (2n=2x=14), A. rivularis Buch.-Ham. (2n=2x=16), A. begoniifolia Lévl. et Vant. (2n=2x=16), A. hupehensis Lem. f. alba W. T. Wang (2n=2x =16), A. tomentosa (Maxim.) Péi (2n=2x=16), A. rupestris Hook. f. et Thoms. (2n=2x=14), A. trullifolia var. colestina (Franch.) Finet et Gagnep. (2n=2x=14), A. trullifolia var. holophylla Diels (2n=2x=14), A. demissa Hook. f. et Thoms. (2n=2x=14), Anemoclema glaucifolium (Franch.) W. T. Wang (2n=2x=16), Clematis kockiana Schneid. (2n=2x=16

  3. Seasonal variation in antioxidative responses and acetylcholinesterase activity in Perna viridis in eastern oceanic and western estuarine waters of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. S.; Wong, H. L.; Garrigues, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    A year-round study was conducted to assess the seasonal variations and potential influence of the riverine discharge from the Pearl River on biomarker responses in Hong Kong waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), a Phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the neural transmitter enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the green mussel, Perna viridis, were monitored from three coastal sites, Port Shelter, Tung Chung and Tai O, stretching from the east to the west of Hong Kong. Despite of the seasonal variations, the total protein profiles suggested that mussels from the three sites had a growth cycle that was in phase with each other. This implied that intrinsic variation between sites due to a different phase of growth was minimal. Seasonal variations of the biomarker responses in the mussels were found to be significant (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05) with a summer minimum and winter maximum. On top of seasonal variations, the western site, Tai O, was further subjected to the reduced salinity effect of the Pearl River discharge in the summer wet season. This was demonstrated by the significant July minimum in all the biomarker responses at Tai O in relation to the extreme low salinity of 8‰. Mussels from the western site also revealed a higher oxidative stress than those from the eastern side throughout the year (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05), which could be caused by chemical pollutants from the Pearl River discharge. ANOVAs of the year-round dataset suggested that size was a minor factor in affecting the biomarker responses. Gill tissues of the mussels were more advantageous for biomarker studies or monitoring because their protein levels were less sensitive to seasonal variations and they yielded a higher protein normalized biomarker response than the whole body tissues. This increases their

  4. Accumulation and Clearance of PAHs and CYP1A Levels in Farmed Green Mussels (Perna viridis L. from a Coastal Industrial Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Cholumpai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green mussels (Perna viridis L. that inhabit along coastal areas with established petro-chemical industries are likely to be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. In year 2011, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulated (i.e. total of 16 PAH congeners in three different sizes of farmed mussels in the Maptaphut industrial estate which is an industrial park in the Gulf of Thailand. The levels of mean total PAHs (0.4303 ± 0.3067 µg/g dry weight in large sized (consumable size mussels were 16 and 8 times higher than medium and small sized mussels. Levels of total carcinogenic PAHs (0.0311± 0.0310 µg/g dry weight in consumable size mussels were 15 and 11 times higher compared to medium and small sized mussels. Two carcinogenic PAHs (i.e. chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene were detected in all sized mussels. The ratio of high molecular weight versus low molecular weight PAHs in all sized mussels indicated the presence of pyrogenic PAHs contamination over petrogenic PAHs in this coastal area. Further studies were carried out in year 2012 involved depuration in consumable sized mussels and effects on the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A biomarker were analyzed over a 30 day depuration period. The half-life was five days for total PAH burden (0.4765 ± 0.0615 µg/g dry weight, which included four non-carcinogenic PAHs. After 10, 15 and 30 days depuration in clean water, the mean total PAHs levels decreased gradually but yet significantly (0.2501 ± 0.0186, 0.1350 ± 0.0122 and 0.1554 ± 0.0353 µg/g dry weight, respectively compared to the PAH levels at day 0. Levels of CYP1A declined accordingly and at 30 days depuration CYP1A protein levels were significantly reduced by almost 3-fold compared the PAH levels in mussels from the Maptaphut industrial estate. The results show that farmed green mussels reared for human consumptions are exposed to PAHs including carcinogenic PAHs and that clearance of these PAHs is evident at 30 days depuration. This study

  5. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  6. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  7. Sphodromantis viridis (Forskal, 1775: New for Portugal and new records of the rare and small mantids Apteromantis aptera (Fuente, 1894 and Perlamantis allibertii Guérin-Méneville, 1843 in the country (Mantodea: Mantidae and Amorphoscelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marabuto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several new records are presented on some of the least known mantis species in the Iberian Peninsula. From data collected in Portugal, their analysis has proven to represent an important advancement in the knowledge of this group of insects for the country and the Western Mediterranean area. Twenty new citations provide a better understanding on the distribution of the crepuscular species Perlamantis allibertii, the IUCN red listed Apteromantis aptera and the first Portuguese records of Sphodromantis viridis, extending their western limits of occurrence in Europe. The data thus gathered emphasizes the need to invest in biodiversity assessment for increased knowledge on species distribution and phenology but also for monitoring over time, essential to better ascertaining ecosystem services, the effects of climate change and habitat conservation.

  8. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS1 from Dunaliella viridis and investigation of the impact on expression of DvGS1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Wang, Peipei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-01-01

    A novel glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS1 showing highest amino acid sequence identity of 78 % with the other homologous GS proteins from green algae, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DvGS1 occupied an independent phylogenetic position which was different with the GSs from higher plants, animals and microbes. Functional complement in E. coli mutant confirmed that the DvGS1 encoded functional GS enzyme. Real-time PCR analysis of DvGS1 in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation revealed that the mRNA level of DvGS1 was positively up-regulated in 12 h. The DvGS1 levels at the points of 12 and 24 h were separately twofold and fourfold of the level before nitrogen starvation. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS1 in higher plants, the transgenic study of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out. Phenotype identification demonstrated that all three transgenic lines of T3 generation showed obviously enhanced root length (26 %), fresh weight (22-46 % at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (26 %), leaf size (29 %) and silique number (30 %) compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Biochemical analysis confirmed that all three transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content, soluble protein concentration, total amino acid content and the leaf GS activity than the wild type plants. The free NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) concentration in fresh leaves of three transgenic lines were reduced by 17-26 % and 14-15 % separately (at two concentrations of nitrate supplies) compared with those of the wild types. All the results indicated that over-expression of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis significantly results in the improvement of growth phenotype and the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24307252

  9. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  10. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  11. Functional Expression in Escherichia coli of the Disulfide-Rich Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2, a Potent Blocker of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn F. King

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated sodium channels present in the central and peripheral nervous system of chordates. ASIC3 is highly expressed in sensory neurons and plays an important role in inflammatory and ischemic pain. Thus, specific inhibitors of ASIC3 have the potential to be developed as novel analgesics. APETx2, isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, is the most potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels. However, the mechanism of action of APETx2 and the molecular basis for its interaction with ASIC3 is not known. In order to assist in characterizing the ASIC3-APETx2 interaction, we developed an efficient and cost-effective Escherichia coli periplasmic expression system for the production of APETx2. NMR studies on uniformly 13C/15N-labelled APETx2 produced in E. coli showed that the recombinant peptide adopts the native conformation. Recombinant APETx2 is equipotent with synthetic APETx2 at inhibiting ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using this system we mutated Phe15 to Ala, which caused a profound loss of APETx2’s activity on ASIC3. These findings suggest that this expression system can be used to produce mutant versions of APETx2 in order to facilitate structure-activity relationship studies.

  12. 香格里拉高山植物园银莲花属访花者初步研究%Preliminary Investigation on Visitors of Anemone in Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓辛; 黄至欢; 王向平; 张潮

    2012-01-01

    Visitors of three species of Anemone were compared in Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden in this article, and the visitors of A. demissa with different floral colors were observed and compared. The results indicated that A, ruptstris and A. rivutaris have more visitor types than A. demissa. The visiting frequency of different visitors to A. demissa with different flower colors is not significantly different, and floral color and visitor types have no significant effect on visiting frequency. Further study should focus on flower color change in A. demissa, so as to provide conditions for exploiting wild flower resources.%对香格里拉高山植物园3种银莲花属植物的访花者进行比较,并对不同颜色展毛银莲花的访问者进行观察和比较.结果表明,湿地银莲花与草玉梅的访花者种类较多,而展毛银莲花的则相对较少.访问者不同对花色展毛银莲花的访问次数没有明显差异,颜色不同和访问者不同对访问频次没有明显影响.应对展毛银莲花的花色变化进行深入研究,为开发利用野生花卉资源创造条件.

  13. Actiniarian Sea anemone fauna of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biofouling_Power_Plants_1990_218.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sea anemone [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nia_equina_S.png Actinia_equina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=NS ...

  15. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Yossi Tal; Ari Ayalon; Agnesa Sharaev; Zoya Kazir; Vera Brekhman; Tamar Lotan

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the fi...

  16. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, D; Demoulin, P; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Green, L M; Steed, K; Carlyle, J

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EIS instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359 arcsec x 485 arcsec. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the AR age, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP b...

  17. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  18. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  19. Radioprotective effect by biomass from marine micro alga platymonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of algal biomass feeding to male white rats prior to irradiation was found at 1.32. The results revealed that feeding algal biomass extended the average longevity of rats from 16.5 to 23.2 and from 28.1 to more than 37.8 days when irradiated at 9.0 Gy and 6.5 Gy respectively. There were sharp differences in leukocytes and thrombocytes content of peripheral blood of rats irradiated after taking algal biomass and without taking that. All these signify a reasonable influence of algal biomass on immunological response against radiation. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tables (author)

  20. МАТЕРИАЛЫ К ГЕЛЬМИНТОФАУНЕ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ ЖАБЫ B UFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768 (AMPHIBIA: ANURA) В САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Чихляев, И.

    2014-01-01

    Представлены данные о гельминтофауне зеленой жабы Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 на территории Самарской области. Всего обнаружено 14 видов гельминтов из 5 классов: Monogenea (1), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (6), Nematoda (5) и Acanthocephala (1). Типичными паразитами с высокой степенью инвазии являются геонематоды Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) и Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788). Моногенеи, цестоды, трематоды и скребни относятся к числу редких паразитов ...

  1. ВЛИЯНИЕ ЭТАНОЛА НА СОСТАВ И ВЫХОД БИОМАССЫ DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEODOR. ПРИ КВАЗИНЕПРЕРЫВНОМ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Божков, А.; Мензянова, Н.; Сысенко, Е.

    2014-01-01

    Исследовали влияние этанола (конечная концентрация 0,3 и 0,5%) на выход биомассы, ее состав (содержание нуклеиновых кислот, протеинов, липидов, хлорофиллов a и b, -каротина и экзо полисахаридов) и морфологию клеток Dunaliella viridis в режиме квазинепрерывного культивирования. Обнаружено, что добавление в среду культивирования этанола до конечной концентрации 0,3% увеличивало выход биомассы в 2 раза по сравнению с квазинепрерывным культивированием без этанола и в 2,5 раза по сравнению с нако...

  2. Environ: E00407 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00407 Anemone altaica rhizome ... Rhizoma anemone Crude drug Anemone altaica, Anemone [TAX:22868] R ... anunculaceae (buttercup family) Anemone altaica rhizome ... (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: oth ... culaceae (buttercup family) E00407 Anemone altaica rhizome ...

  3. Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2, derived from the Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Sara E; Jia, Ying; Soto, Julio G.; Parral, Jessica; Cantu, Esteban; Brannon, Jeremy; Lardner, Kristina; Ramos, Carla J.; Seoane, Agustin I.; Sánchez, Elda E

    2012-01-01

    Snake venom disintegrins inhibit platelet aggregation and have anti-cancer activities. In this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2 (GenBank ID: JQ071899), from the Prairie rattlesnake. r-Viridistatin 2 was tested for anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities against six different cancer cell lines (human urinary bladder carcinoma (T24), human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28), human colorecta...

  4. Distribution, habitat use and ecology of deepwater Anemones (Actiniaria) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Archie W.; Daly, Marymegan

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of deepwater Actiniaria is poorly known. Rarely are these organisms identified to family, as this requires both well-preserved specimens and taxonomic expertise. Ecological information is similarly lacking. From the results of a comprehensive surveying program in the deep Gulf of Mexico, we report the occurrence of nine species of Actiniaria. For the most abundant four of these, we plot distributions and discuss habitat use, morphological variation, and feeding strategies. Actiniaria in the Gulf appear to have broad, basin-wide distributions with little depth preference. Faunal biomass is highest in the NE Gulf within submarine canyons or at the base of slope escarpments. Attachment mode is mostly opportunistic on various types of hard substrata, including trash. Sediment-dwelling forms are very abundant at an organically rich site within a large submarine canyon.

  5. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Thums, Michele; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Furby, Kathryn A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of a...

  6. HISTOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE SEA ANEMONE A. PALLIDA TO BLEACHING INDUCING STRESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Fransolet, David

    2014-01-01

    Tropical Coral reefs are among the richest and most important ecosystem on Earth. This success would not be possible without the symbiosis established between corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium that provide them with photosynthesis-derived carbon. Unfortunately, with the climatic upheaval that we witness today, the long-term survival of coral reefs could be in jeopardy. Massive loss of symbiotic algae, a phenomenon known as coral bleaching, becomes indeed more and more fre...

  7. NMR analysis of sequence of toxin II from the sea anemone Radianthus paumotensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxin II from Radianthus paumotensis (Rp/sub II/) has been investigated by high-resolution NMR and chemical sequencing methods. Resonance assignments have been obtained for this protein by the sequential approach. NMR assignments could not be made consistent with the previously reported primary sequence for this protein, and chemical methods have been used to determine a sequence with which the NMR data are consistent. Analysis of the 2D NOE spectra shows that the protein secondary structure is comprised of two sequences of β-sheet, probably joined into a distorted continuous sheet, connected by turns and extended loops, without any regular α-helical segments. The residues previously implicated in activity in this class of proteins, D8 and R13, occur in a loop region

  8. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Ashley J Frisch; Ford, Benjamin M.; Michele Thums; Pablo Saenz-Agudelo; Kathryn A Furby; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of...

  9. New records on sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Rodríguez, E.; Gili, J.-M.; Segonzac, M.

    2003-01-01

    During several cruises carried out by the Ifremer (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer) with the submersile “Nautile” at different hydrothermal sites and cold seeps, an important collection of anthozoans - mainly actiniarians - was sampled. Additional material was collected

  10. ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПОЧКИ У АМФИБИЙ В ЛИЧИНОЧНЫЙ ПЕРИОД РАЗВИТИЯ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЖАБЫ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ (BUFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768)

    OpenAIRE

    СВЕТАШЕВА Д.Р.; ГРУШКО М.П.

    2014-01-01

    Описываются морфофизиологические особенности формирующегося мезонефроса у личинки зеленой жабы (Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768). Определено, что изученный орган, наряду с функцией выделения, выполняет функцию кроветворения на протяжении личиночного периода развития. В почке образуются элементы крови всех линий. Основную долю формирующихся элементов крови на протяжении всего личиночного периода развития составляли клетки эритропоэтического ряда, далее, по мере убывания – гранулоцитопоэтические и ...

  11. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    such as thermal power plants, steel industries, and cement plants, may also contribute to a significant extent to mercury pollution [8]. Under normal physiological condition, animals maintain a balance between generation and neutralization of reactive... of these parameters could serve as stress indicators in animals exposed to environmental contaminants. Since bivalves inhabit the intertidal region, they could be exposed to extreme temperature fluctuations with a change in body temperature...

  12. ETUDE THEORIQUE ET EXPERIMENTALE DU SECHAGE SOLAIRE DES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE (MENTHA VIRIDIS).

    OpenAIRE

    BOUMEDIENE, TOUATI

    2014-01-01

    LES PLANTES MÉDICINALES ET AROMATIQUES ET EN PARTICULIER LES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE ONT BEAUCOUP D'IMPORTANCE POUR LA PHARMACOPÉE, LA PARFUMERIE ,LA CONFISERIE ET LA LIQUORISTE RIE . CE TRAVAIL ENTRE DANS LE CADRE DE LA VALORISATION DE CETTE PLANTE PRODUITE EN GRANDE QUANTITÉ DANS LE SUD ET LE SUD-OUEST ALGÉRIEN .IL S'AGIT RÉÉTUDIER LE SÉCHAGE DE CETTE PLANTE ET DE DÉVELOPPER L'UTILISATION DE L’ÉNERGIE POUR SE'CHER LA MENTHE VIRIDES.

  13. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    seawater. Under laboratory condition, mussels were kept in fiber- glass tank capacity of 120 L. The animals were divided in two groups. Group I animals were exposed to sea water only and served as control for the Group II animals which were exposed to sub... and H 2 O 2 1980 X.N. Verlecar et al./Chemosphere Similarly PC showed elevated values throughout the experimental period in mercury treated groups (Fig. 2B, 3.3. Antioxidant enzymes Determination of antioxidant status of mussels exposed to metals...

  14. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    of qua to respectively. that and innate immune mecha- memory following the first have is constituted perform ly, natural invertebrates, serine proteases and their inhibitors are also in- volved in parallel physiological processes, for example, the blood...- sin and are novel anticoagulants isolated from the marine animals. 5 In vertebrates, serine protease inhibitors have been studied extensively and they are known to be involved in phagocytosis, coagulation, complement activation, fibrinolysis, blood...

  15. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    : Prabha Devi. Fax: 91-(0)832-223340, 229102; e-mail: kprabha@csnio.ven.nic.in J Mar Biotechnol (1998) 6:229–232 Journal of Marine Biotechnology © Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1998 physically (Fig. 1a,b). After each test, the animal was placed in running... Haliclona sp. (1) (SP) b (Dendy) Karwar (14° 468N; 74° 068E) + Haliclona sp. (2) (SP) c Okha (22° 478N; 22° 508E) +++ Tedania anhelans (SP) (Lieberkuhn) Okha + Tedania sp. (SP) Okha + Coelenterata Sinularia granosa (SC) Tixier-Duriuault, 1970 c Kavratti (13...

  16. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  17. Biomarkers of petroleum contamination in the digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Desai, S.R.; Das, P.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    at 6000 × g for 15 min at 4 °C and the supernatant was used for determination. For the carbonyl quantifi cation, the reaction with DNPH was performed as described by Mecocci et al. (29). Th e PC content was calculated from the absorbance measurement... at 366 nm with the use of a molar absorption coeffi cient of 22,000 mol cm–1 and expressed as nmol mg protein–1. Alkaline unwinding assay Th e alkaline DNA unwinding assay was performed according to the method of Shugart with slight Biomarkers...

  18. Preparation of Nanoparticles by Electroagulation From Soluble Exopolysaccharide Produced by Claviceps viridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flieger, Miroslav; Kantorová, Michaela; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sobotka, Miroslav; Cvak, Jan; Votruba, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2004), s. 234-236. ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/1283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : electroagulation * exopolysaccharides * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2004

  19. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Soundarya Srirangan; Marie-Laure Sauer; Brian Howard; Mia Dvora; Jacob Dums; Patrick Backman; Heike Sederoff

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the ligh...

  20. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    studies have received a little consideration than they actually deserve. Karyotypic details have been documented in several animal groups including a few Bivalvia species (Cornet and Soulard 1990; Wada and Komaru 1993; Insua et al. 1998; Martı´nez- Lage et... and methods Green mussels were collected from the Central West Coast of India. Live animals were brought to the laboratory and acclimatized for ten days in tanks containing aerated sea- water at 25C176C and fed upon phytoplankton Chaetocerous sp. Animals were...

  1. Eight-Membered Cyclic 1,2,3-Trithiocane Derivatives from Perophora viridis, an Atlantic Tunicate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Dembitsky, V. M.

    - (2002), s. 2400-2404. ISSN 1434-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : natural * products * sulfur heterocycles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2002

  2. Extending the shelf-life of refrigerated green mussel (Perna viridis under modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the keeping quality of green mussel stored at 4C was investigated.Inhibition of the bacterial growth increased proportionally to the CO2 concentration in the packaging, and maximuminhibition was achieved with 100% CO2. Mussel stored under CO2-enriched atmosphere had lower total volatile base, trimethylamineand TCA-soluble peptide contents than those stored in air (P<0.05. However, the increase in exudate loss wasobserved for samples packaged in high-CO2 atmosphere, suggesting the denaturation of muscle proteins by carbonic acidformed. The odor and flavor acceptability of CO2-enriched packaged samples, particularly with 80 and 100% CO2, wasaccepted throughout the storage of 12 days, compared with six days for those stored in air. Therefore, MAP with 80% CO2,10% O2 and 10% N2 was chosen as the optimum condition for extending the shelf-life of green mussel. Packaging withinclusion of O2 should be considered to avoid the outbreak of strictly anaerobic toxin producing bacteria.

  3. Tumours of reptiles 4. Multiple osteomas in the lizard Laceria viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1958-01-01

    Whereas in fishes several osteomas (Bell, 1793; Gervais, 1875; Bland-Sutton, 1885 ; Plehn, 1906 ; Schroeders, 1908 ; Fiebiger, 1909 ; Williamson, 1913 ; Beatti, 1916 ; Kazama, 1924 ; Sagawa, 1925; Williams, 1929; Takahashi, 1929; Thomas, 1932, 1933; Lucké and Schlumberger, not published, see the pub

  4. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;

    2011-01-01

    presented muscular pumping in time averaged rates of 0.15 ml min−1. Oxygen needle electrodes positioned above the burrow openings revealed that muscular undulation of the worm body pumps anoxic water out of the burrow. On the other hand, microscope observations of the animal showed that ventilation of...... about 0.16 ml min−1. Since the cilia pumping into the burrow occurs in periods of 24±12 min and at 50–70% of the measured time, considerable amounts of water from deeper sediments may percolate upwards to the sediment surface. This water is rich in reduced compounds and nutrients and may have important...

  5. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract...

  6. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts...

  7. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D; Dickerson, James H

    2014-06-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. PMID:24760418

  8. Selective and oriented immobilization of (phospho lipases from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Ellis, 1768 by interfacial adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto del Monte-Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las lipasas inmovilizadas por adsorción interfacial a soportes hidrofóbicos constituyen sistemas enzimáticos con potencialidades comprobadas para diversas aplicaciones como la bioconversión. Por otro lado, las enzimas de invertebrados marinos muestran especificidades de sustrato poco usuales, que las convierten en blancos atractivos para el desarrollo de biocatalizadores inmovilizados. En este trabajo se describe la inmovilización por adsorción interfacial al soporte Octyl-Sepharose CL 4B de dos (fosfolipasas: las Sticholysinas I y II, y una actividad esterasa de alto peso molecular, a partir del extracto total de la anémona del mar Caribe Stichodactyla helianthus. La inmovilización fue selectiva para las lipasas, que mostraron actividad esterolítica frente a p-nitrofenilacetato, B-naftilcaprilato y tributirina. Esta actividad esterolítica de las Sticholysinas frente a sustratos no fosfolípidos no había sido informada con anterioridad. La actividad enzimática específica máxima aparente frente a p-nitrofenilacetato fue menor en los derivados inmovilizados que en las muestras solubles. La inmovilización resultó además orientada, ya que aumentó la afinidad aparente por el sustrato, lo que indica una mayor accesibilidad a los centros activos. El 68 % de las (fosfolipasas inmovilizadas conservaron la actividad hidrolítica frente a la tributirina. Estas enzimas requieren el ion Ca2+ para hidrolizar p-nitrofenilacetato y se inhibieron a concentraciones de p-nitrofenilacetato mayores que 1,185 mmol/L. Concentraciones de Ca2+ iguales a 40 mmol/L eliminaron la inhibición por exceso de sustrato en el extracto inmovilizado. Estas características cinéticas sugieren un posible uso de los biocatalizadores obtenidos en bioconversión enzimática.

  9. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  10. Construction and Characterization of a Dunaliella viridis Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library%盐藻(Dunaliella viridis)细菌人工染色体文库的构建和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥宗; 杨晓武; 管祯玮; 张男; 许政暟; 宋任涛

    2007-01-01

    盐藻具有极强的耐盐能力,是研究植物耐盐机制的模式系统.为了对其耐盐机制进行深入的研究,以pCC1BAC为载体,构建了盐藻的细菌人工染色体(BAC)文库.该文库共有9 216个转化子,插入片段平均长度为55kb,以单克隆形式保藏在96块96孔板中,并建立了四维PCR基因筛选体系,可以通过4轮PCR快速筛选获得阳性单克隆.根据本实验室分离到的两个盐藻基因的cDNA序列(DvSPT2和DvTPSP)设计引物,通过PCR从该文库中各筛到4个阳性BAC克隆,说明该文库能有效用于分离盐藻基因的基因组序列,据此推测该文库约覆盖4倍盐藻基因组序列.

  11. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , 351-358. Paglia, D.E, Valentine, W.N., 1967. Studies on quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 70, 158- 169. Paoletti, F., Mocali, A., Aldinucci, D., 1990...., 1991.Chemistry and biochemistry of 4- hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11, 81-128. Filho, D. W., Tribess, T., Gaspari, C., Claudio, F.D., Torres, M.A., Magalhaes, A.R.M., 2001. Seasonal...

  12. Absorption of Cu/sup + +/ by long-term cultures of Dunaliella salina, D. tertiolecta, and D. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustigman, B.; Korky, J.; Zabady, A.; McCormick, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    By means of atomic absorption analysis, the authors measured the effect of salinity on the absorption of copper. They used long term cultures of Dunaliella in order to determine if alterations in plasmalemma permeability occur as a result of adaptation to different osmotic conditions. Since copper appears to affect the mechanisms involved in osmotic resistance with Dunaliella, they hoped to elucidate some of the characteristics of permeability.

  13. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    of bivalves are the shell length and height (Franz, 1993; Zainudin & Tsuchiya, 2007). However, these data may not always reflect the mass of an organism. Factors such as reproduction, population density and habitat are found to influence the tissue growth...., 2002). Abiotic factors include geographical location (Beukema & Meehan, 1985), depth (Claxton et al., 1998), shore level (Franz, 1993), tides (Dame, 1972), currents, (Furman et al., 1999), turbulence (Bailey & Green, 1988), waves (Akester...

  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 146853 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SMNWGYLHYGVVVWLDVPVDQLYDRLRSDTARPLLQEGEIKSKLQSLLNERERLYTQADVRVCAGVGERAEAMATRAIEEIQKVIKPETGPDLN ... ...se Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MDGLRGVNIYLVGMMGAGKTTVGRILAKKLKYRFFDTDELIVRVTNQSIAEIFDREGEEAFRELETKVLGELSAYKNSVVATGGGIVTR

  15. Tree litter and forest understorey vegetation: a conceptual framework to understand the effects of tree litter on a perennial geophyte, Anemone nemorosa

    OpenAIRE

    Baltzinger, M; Archaux, F.; Dumas, Y.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Litter is a key factor in structuring plant populations, through positive or negative interactions. The litter layer forms a mechanical barrier that is often strongly selective against individuals lacking hypocotyle plasticity. Litter composition also interacts with plant growth by providing beneficial nutrients or, inversely, by allowing harmful allelopathic leaching. As conspicuous litter fall accumulation is often observed under deciduous forests, interactions betwe...

  16. For she that hath, to her shall be given…Implications of flowering in Anemone nemorosa L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Peter Milan; Philipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    the following spring. We hypothesised that the decision to invest in flower buds depends on the amount of resources stored in the recently formed annual segment. We also hypothesised a trade-off between flowering and segment growth and, finally, as a consequence, we expected individual rhizomes to...... alternate between the flowering and the non-flowering state. We found that segments producing flower buds were significantly longer than non-flowering segments, indicating that resource level influences the function of the preformed buds. Contrary to our expectations, we found flowering rhizomes produced...... longer annual segments than non-flowering rhizomes. We suggest the larger leaf area of flowering rhizomes and occasional abortion of flowers or seeds as possible mechanisms behind this pattern. Our study shows that even though the decision to produce a flower bud is taken in another time-frame than that...

  17. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G. S.; Asokan, D.P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarker: sister chromatid exchange (SCE); chromosomal aberration; micronucleus (MN); hemic neoplasia (HN), mutagenic activity; comet cells. Exposure/effect represented: exposure to trace metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn) / DNA damage. Analytical technique: Toxic and essential elements in tissues were determined using AAS; metaphase chromosomes were viewed using light microscope (Olympus BX50) with image analysis facility; hemolymph was stained using the Schiff Feulgen-picromethyl blu...

  18. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Zancolli; Timothy G. Baker; Axel Barlow; Rebecca K. Bradley; Calvete, Juan J.; Kimberley C. Carter; Kaylah de Jager; John Benjamin Owens; Jenny Forrester Price; Libia Sanz; Amy Scholes-Higham; Liam Shier; Liam Wood; Catharine E. Wüster; Wolfgang Wüster

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hy...

  19. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BRG100, a Strain with Bioherbicidal Properties against Setaria viridis (Green Foxtail) and Other Pests of Agricultural Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Town, Jennifer; Links, Matthew G.; Boyetchko, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. BRG100 inhibits the growth of certain agricultural pests and is a potentially useful biopesticide for weeds and plant diseases. We have sequenced the 6.25-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into 4 scaffolds. Genome sequence comparisons revealed that this strain may represent a novel species of Pseudomonas.

  20. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanon, A.; Beguiristain, T.; Sylla, S.; Berthelin, J.; Duponnois, R.

    2009-07-01

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  1. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  2. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  3. Effects of the invasive polychaete, Marenzelleria viridis, on the fate of sediment associated pollutants – a microcosm study with 14C-labelled pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Hedman, Jenny Elisabet

    The deep burrowing, invasive spionid polychaete, Marenzelleria spp. (3 sibling species), is rapidly expanding its range in the Baltic Sea ecosystem, increasing the depth of the bioturbated zone dramatically relative to the native benthic community. One concern is the effect of this invasion...

  4. Effect of NH4Cl on Growth of Micro Algae Dunaliella viridis%氯化铵对绿色杜氏藻增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春旺; 张青田

    2005-01-01

    报道了氯化铵对绿色杜氏藻增殖的影响情况.绿色杜氏藻的一次性培养试验结果显示,氯化铵的浓度对绿色杜氏藻的增殖具有显著的影响.最适宜绿色杜氏藻增殖的浓度是0.20~1.00mmol/L,浓度值过高和过低均不利于绿色杜氏藻增殖,浓度过高时增殖缓慢,并且稳定期短,易崩溃.在最适宜浓度水平时,绿色杜氏藻进入指数生长期较快,增殖速率值较大;在1.00mmol/L浓度时,绿色杜氏藻在稳定期获得最大的微藻密度值.

  5. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  6. Zwei neue Apogonien von den Philippinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1897-01-01

    Fulva, parce viridi-metallico micans, supra glabra, subtusatro-viridis, squamulis setiformibus albis sat parce tecta; clypeo antice truncato, creberrime et quam fronte fortius punctato; prothorace aliquid remote punctato, angulis anticis acutis; scutello subtiliter punctato, interdum laevi; elytris

  7. Biofouling community pattern on various metallic surfaces in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, Southwestern Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . 100 cm-2. The major fouling organisms such as, barnacle, green mussel and ascidian constituted ∼ 70-80% of the total fouling. In the present study, sequence of fouling succession was as follows, barnacle - hydroid - sea anemone - ascidian and finally green mussel (Perna viridis Linn. 1758). The paper also discusses species diversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness) in detail. (author)

  8. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Amutha, C.; P Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species) that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1) is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2) is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the ...

  9. 一种狗尾草病原真菌的鉴定及菌株致病性研究%Identification and pathogenicity of fungus on Setaria viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杏利; 邓晖; 牛永春

    2010-01-01

    经形态学鉴定和rDNA ITS序列分析,16株分离自北京、河北、河南发病狗尾草的菌株、2株分别分离自河南发病虎尾草、牛筋草的菌株和1株分离自青海发病野燕麦的菌株被鉴定为狗尾草平脐蠕孢Bipolaris setariae.接种试验表明,来自狗尾草的菌株比来自其他寄主植物的菌株对狗尾草致病性强,分离自野燕麦的菌株对狗尾草无致病性,分离自不同地区不同样品狗尾草的菌株其致病性有显著差异.菌株NYl对狗尾草有很强致病性,接种后5d植株叶片即全部呈枯死状,接种后7d整个植株枯萎死亡.菌株NYl对马唐和虎尾草也有很强致病性,但对于大多数供试栽培植物致病性很弱或无致病性.因此,B.setariae NYl菌株具有进一步开发成为狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草等杂草的生物除草剂的潜力.

  10. Analysis of the Dunaliella viridis Transcriptome and Related Pathways following Glucose Induction%葡萄糖诱导绿色杜氏藻转录组及相关通路差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅旗; 龚一富; 刘浩; 章丽; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    绿色杜氏藻是研究耐盐机理的模式绿藻.葡萄糖不仅是营养物质,而且还是信号物质.目前,对绿色杜氏藻转录组、糖处理后差异表达基因和β-胡萝卜素生物合成途径关键基因表达还不清楚.本研究通过Illumina HiSeqTM 2000高通量测序,获得葡萄糖处理和未处理绿色杜氏藻转录组信息.利用P value值和差异倍数对样本进行差异表达分析,共111条转录本存在差异表达,3条为上调转录本,108条为下调转录本.利用RT-qPCR检验差异表达分析的准确性.结果表明,转录本表达结果与转录组分析结果一致.GO功能富集结果表明,71条下调转录本与代谢相关,占所有下调转录本的65.74%.KEGG富集分析结果表明,21条KEGG通路含89条下调转录本,14条通路与代谢相关.代谢中通路最多的为能量代谢(6条),含63条下调转录本.能量代谢中与光合作用相关的下调转录本最多,为29条.通过分析找到2条与β-胡萝卜素生物合成相关通路(MVA/MEP途径及β-胡萝卜.素合成途径),并发现通路的关键基因hmgs、dxs、dxr、psy、pds、chyb,对其进行差异表达分析,均不存在差异表达.研究表明,葡萄糖抑制了绿色杜氏藻光合作用,代谢受阻,但未影响β-胡萝卜.紊生物合成相关通路及关键基因.

  11. Effects of different nutritional conditions on the growth of extreme halotolerant Dunaliella viridis%不同营养条件对极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可文; 宋涛; 程小莲

    2014-01-01

    探讨了不同浓度碳源、氮源(N/P)、无机磷源、脲及卤虫干粉(或发酵液)卤水培养基对极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长的影响,以期为更好地开发杜氏藻资源提供全面、系统的资料.结果表明:通过物理方式直接通入CO2补充极端嗜盐杜氏藻培养基,能有效的保障极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长所需的碳源;采用尿素作为藻培养基氮源效果较好,无机磷浓度应维持较低水平;卤虫发酵液较卤虫干粉能有效延长藻细胞高密度生长期,极端嗜盐杜氏藻适宜培育浓度范围:尿素浓度为30.00 mg·L-1-90.00 mg·L-1,N/P维持在25左右,NaH2PO4浓度为2.71 mg.L-1-12.00 mg·L-1,3.50 mg·L-1最优;卤虫发酵液浓度应在250.00 mg·L-1以上.

  12. Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression Study of DHDDS of Dunaliella viridis%绿色杜氏藻DHDDS基因生物信息学分析及表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘益芳; 龚一富; 俞凯; 朱帅旗; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    绿色杜氏藻是一种能产生重要次生代谢产物类胡萝卜素的单细胞绿藻,脱氢多萜醇焦磷酸合成酶(dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase,DHDDS)是其在类胡萝卜素合成途径中的相关酶.旨在研究DHDDS基因表达与类胡萝卜素含量之间的关系.提取绿色杜氏藻总RNA,通过转录组测序获得DHDDS基因全长,对该基因进行生物信息学分析;并用不同浓度甲基茉莉酸(MeJA)处理绿色杜氏藻,采用实时定量PCR研究该基因转录差异.结果显示,绿色杜氏藻DHDDS基因全长2211 bp,含有一个1 740bp长的开放阅读框(ORF),编码579个氨基酸序列.DHDDS蛋白餍理论等电点为7.63,相对分子质量为62 472.7 Da.预测结果表明,DHDDS蛋白不含信号肽,也不存在跨膜区域,该蛋白定位于细胞质基质.氨基酸序列比对结果显示,绿色杜氏藻DHDDS蛋白与小球藻的同源性最高(59%).实时定量PCR结果表明,经100μmol/L MeJA处理的绿色杜氏藻DHDDS表达水平最高,具有极显著差异;在该浓度下,类胡萝卜素含量均高于其他浓度组.且DHDDS基因的表达与类胡萝卜素含量呈一定的相关性.绿色杜氏藻DHDDS是一种定位于细胞质基质中的酶,其与绿色杜氏藻类胡萝卜素合成途径有关.在一定浓度范围的MeJA诱导下,低浓度的MeJA对其表迭起促进作用,高浓度MeJA对其表达有抑制作用,且其表达与类胡萝卜素含量呈一定的相关性.

  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 104350 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LRACPDFSEFHPNANIEIAARLKPDLLPNLTPYLDNIPDYFKNLNSSQPDNPLLSTSSWLVLQVNQETTGYRTFWDYLPSDAITIDRIEPEK...PPLPSEESEDVQDSDRAETIQEKKQQLDFSPSLPQPDIETTYLSLDVETPEDIEGEQTLENYPDKDEQLQDTQTLSQPERQNSWPPSPLER...LQTIANFFTAENWPFVTVQDEQILQMAVEGQNEKLTCYAQVIEEQSLFIFYSICPIEAPESKRKALAEFLTLVNYDLIIGNFQLNLTSGQIRYKTSLDVSDSTLSTTQIKNLVYTNITMMDSHLPE...ELKPYFGTLKQIYRYWDISSQLKPLLERIENIGSDRLKRSSQTTKDTLRASQRLPPCIQARLLQLAAEKLASQLEVDILIELGEVQELLAKTKRILNTEFL ... ...wn function DUF1790 Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MNTHKETYQLDNSLTLLSPSSSGVTVRAIALTLTQQHNTLIEVILTFEITPIIYQRADNEGLFNLLPE

  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 262983 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KLLQKGQIDYIQFAYGGTFLEANTTLKQVFEYLDDFRYLLFKILPNGLEHIPNFLPQYENYEYSSFLAVNERFKSTLLEEAPMAIDLQRLCSQYSLTWRGI...ELPQAEFYLDFYLLSQCDIVAISNSSFSFAACMLNERGQLFMRPDLSAKKLIAFDPWNSEPILRDEEVGSTKTDKANSDLNRLIPPEIKNDEFYAAIHEIAREADIRTVLEIGSSSGQGSTEAFVTGLREN...GWQFVKPDRLQSQTLANNKQSPTIVIDAVFFQRYKTGIARVWCSLLEEWAEDGFAKHIIVVDRDGTAPEIPGIWYRKAPPYDYDNTAADREILQQICNEEGADLFIST...THPDKSKMTLLVDSSNISDEDANLALSSIAMNLLMAEDLDVSEGPEISLIGELSEIQWKALIPRLHARIVWENENREAIAQAKAEDIPTWKLEDFMQESHQ ... ... FkbM family Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MNIDGMPTNNIGNQGNVNNEITIIERFIAPGQVVFDIGANIGSWTKEVLNRCPNVQVHV

  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 309351 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ein Osc7112_6822 Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MPLTDPIGEPLIEVESLIPGLAPTFAPQLPGIPTHKTLLYQTPGSSENSEQPNLIETA...EVSDKIDSDKTAPIPSTSETKNSDKQLPLAEASTLIDSDKKSPTVDAIPTEKPSSNSQEPLTTQPPTAPLIPPASNPVLPDTNINPEVNSTDSTNPVQTA...KPPQSEFSRAETDAFITNKASDIHSISSATISELRTNSNPRDAANSEIDPLIGKFDSDSGDSLTNPNPITSPVITTSTTSEKASPKTQLPATPETSSKPEDIKTPLSSEATLKSESEPNKTSPATA...SQALTDKQNDSEKVDPLKTEPAAIPKTAASENVAVTTATAVQTPEKSPNNTDSVSELKQPVQTESIVNQSADAESIKTDQTATASISQPPAETESVIAPLASQSPAKTDSLVSNVGEQSPKETHSNVSTASEELPTKTSRLLPQKSILVRWFWTSLSLK ... ...SNIIPDRSTTSSEKSETIAVTNLTETIAASPNIPSTDKTSTDKQSPVAKADDKIDSDKQSQNSTIVEKTNSGEPSRTA

  16. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0762 ref|YP_001798514.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Sminthurus viri...dis] gb|ABS82050.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Sminthurus viridis] YP_001798514.1 0.001 29% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 ref|YP_448658.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Desmarestia viri...dis] gb|AAS79044.1| cytochrome oxidase subunit III [Desmarestia viridis] YP_448658.1 3e-26 49% ...

  19. Marine organisms and their adaption - Adaptions solve the challenges of existence in the sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    great diversity of organisms. To survive, these organisms need to secure food, successfully reproduce and avoid predation. Simple animals, such as anemones or worms, absorb the gases through their skin. Mobile animals use gills, or even lungs to absorb...

  20. Etologie sasankové krevety \\kur{Ancylomenes longicarpus} v Rudém moři

    OpenAIRE

    KARÁSKOVÁ, Martina

    2011-01-01

    In this Master thesis the behaviour of anemone shrimp Ancylomenes longicarpus was studied in situ in the Red Sea. The diurnal activity, signalling behaviour and also cleaning behaviour was observed and analyzed.

  1. Plant-derived visual signals may protect beetle herbivores from bird predators

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar; Miriam Kishinevsky; Avi Shmida; Yoram Gerchman; Nicka Chinkov; Avi Koplovich; Gadi Katzir

    2013-01-01

    Insect herbivores often use chemical signals obtained from their food plants to deter enemies and/or attract sexual partners. Do plant-based visual signals act similarly, i.e., repel consumers' enemies and appeal to potential mates? We explored this question using the pollen-feeding beetle Pygopleurus israelitus (Glaphyridae), a specialized pollinator of Anemone coronaria's chemically defended red-morph flowers. We presented dead beetles, which had fed either on anemones or on cat-food, to yo...

  2. Spearmint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Garden Mint, Green Mint, Hierbabuena, Huile Essentielle de Menthe Verte, Lamb Mint, Mackerel Mint, Menta Verde, Mentha cordifolia, Mentha crispa, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Menthe Verte, Menthe Crépue, Menthe Douce, Menthe à Épis, ...

  3. An evidence-based systematic review of spearmint by the natural standard research collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; M Grimes Serrano, Jill; Guilford, Jacquelyn; Isaac, Richard; Seamon, Erica; Varghese, Minney

    2010-06-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of spearmint (Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis) including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. PMID:22435615

  4. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. González Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977, from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circunscript sphincter pinnate type. The axis has a truncated cone shape while in P. clematis the shape is cylindrical on its origin and it is bifurcated at the end. Both species experiments were carried out using the isolated muscles. They were stimulated at increasing KCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 200 mM. The results were analysed in the form of dose-response curves expressed in tension in grams force vs concentration. Contractil force increases in a sigmoid form to increasing KCl concentrations. The correlation between morphology and function and the differences shown in both species would be related to their intertidal distribution.Se realizó la caracterización de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849 y Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977 del ecosistema intermareal mediante estudio morfológico y funcional. La especie P. clematis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo palmado. Este músculo está constituido por un eje mesogloeal y varios subejes mesogloeales. Tanto el eje como los subejes dan soporte al endodermo cuyo borde es liso. La especie A. marplatensis tiene un esfínter circunscripto de tipo pinnado. El eje tiene forma de cono truncado mientras que en P. clematis es cilíndrico en su origen bifurcándose en su parte final. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo usando el músculo aislado de ambas especies. Estos fueron estimulados a concentraciones crecientes de KCl en un rango de 20 a 200 mM. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante curvas dosis-respuesta expresados en tensión en gramos fuerza vs concentración. La fuerza contráctil se incrementó en forma sigmoidea. La correlación entre la morfología y función y las diferencias mostradas en ambas especies podrían estar relacionadas con su distribución en el intertidal.

  5. Morphological and functional study of the marginal sphincter of the sea anemones Phymactis clematis and Aulactinia marplatensis from intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina Estudio morfológico y funcional del esfínter marginal de las anémonas de mar Phymactis clematis y Aulactinia marplatensis del intermareal de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira A. González Oliveira; Darlo Luis Patronelli; Mauricio O. Zamponi

    2009-01-01

    It was made the characterization of marginal sphincter to the species Phymactis clematis (Drayton in Dana, 1849) and Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977), from intertidal ecosystem through their morphogical and functional study. The species P. clematis has a circumscript sphincter of palmate type. This muscle is constituted by a mesogloeal axis and several mesogloeal subaxes. Axis as well as subaxes give a support to the endoderm which border is smooth. Aulactinia marplatensis has a circun...

  6. The rapid separation and identification of saponins from Chinese herb Anemone raddeana REGEL by RP-HPLC-MS-MS%高效液相色谱-质谱-质谱法快速鉴定中药竹节香附的皂苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺意; 李紫; 王世敏; 陈勇

    2000-01-01

    应用反相高效液相色谱-电喷雾-质谱-质谱(RP-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS)方法对竹节香附皂苷提取物的化学成分进行分析.通过一步分析可以同时 分离并鉴定出竹节香附中的竹节香附皂苷R2、R3、R6、R7、R8和R9等6种有效 成分.同时也发现一些本药材中原来没有报道的成分.本研究结果为竹节香附及其相关药品有效成分分析和鉴定提供一种快速鉴定方法.

  7. Investigation into feed utilisation by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (14C and 51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with 14C and 51Cr. The 51Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris. (author)

  8. Antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of Senecio species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Emilio; Castro, Felipe; Fernández, Francisco; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, César A N

    2012-05-01

    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip., S. viridis var. viridis Phill. and S. spegazzinii Cabrera are native species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina. The total phenolics, flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids contents, as well as radical scavenging, antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts (infusion and decoction) of all three species were determined. S. nutans was the most active. The extracts did not show antibacterial activity. Alkaloids were not detected in any of the aqueous extracts of the three studied species. PMID:22799087

  9. Study on Biological Characteristic of the Halotolerant Dunaliella Viridis Living in the Mud Flat of Bohai Sea Gulf of China%中国渤海湾滩涂极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生物学特性研究(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱玲; 张福; 马若欣; 姜润林

    2005-01-01

    文章对中国渤海湾滩涂极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻的生物学特征作了综合论述,内容包括极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻的繁殖特性、生长特性、耐盐特性、以及对卤水生境因子(包括化学因子,物理因子,生物因子)适应性的研究.

  10. The Ratio of Na+/Mg2+, Cl-/SO2-4 in Brine Effect the Growth of Halotolerant Dunaliella viridis%卤水Na+/Mg2+,Cl-/SO2-4比值对极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福; 刘同慧

    2010-01-01

    极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻是世界上迄今发现的最耐盐的真核光合生物,藻体内含有植物蛋白、脂肪酸、多糖、叶绿素、甘油等多种营养成分和生物活性物质,具有开发天然保健品或生物药品的应用前景、文章依据人工海水理论和方法,研究了水体Na+/Mg2+、Cl-/SO2-4比值对极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生长的影响,从而探讨适合该藻类生长的化学环境.

  11. Effects of salinity on growth rate, chlorophyll content and cell cycle of Dunaliella viridis%盐度对绿色杜氏藻生长速率、叶绿素含量及细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 苏绣榕; 李太武; 杨凤香

    2003-01-01

    在不同盐度梯度下,进行了盐度对绿色杜氏藻Dunaliella viridis的生长、叶绿素含量和细胞周期影响的试验.结果表明:1)绿色杜氏藻在盐度为10时,生长速率和单位水体叶绿素含量最低,分别为0.121个/d和908.27μg/L;在盐度为60时,生长速率和单位水体叶绿素含量最高,分别为0.381个/d和1 192.41μg/L.2)不同盐度下单位细胞叶绿素含量呈现高-低-高的变化趋势,盐度60时,单位细胞叶绿素含量最低,叶绿素a为2.32×10-6μg/个,叶绿素总量为3.31×10-6μg/个.3)盐度为60时,绿色杜氏藻的细胞周期S期最短,为36.9%,G2期为0.8%;盐度80时,绿色杜氏藻的G2期最短,为0.3%,S期为43.6%,即绿色杜氏藻在盐度为60~80时,S期、G2期最短,细胞进入分裂期所用时间最短.本试验结果表明,培养绿色杜氏藻以盐度60~80的水体最为适宜.

  12. 转盐生杜氏藻β-胡萝卜素羟化酶基因(chyb)烟草的获得及耐盐性鉴定%Acquisition and Salt-tolerance Evaluation of Transgenic Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with β-carotene Hydroxylase Gene (chyb) from Dunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰; 龚一富; 刘林; 周静; 孙娇璐; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    β-胡萝卜素羟化酶(β-carotene hydroxylase,chyb)作为盐生杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis胡萝卜素合成代谢途径中的关键酶,催化β-胡萝卜素经两步反应合成玉米黄素.盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物抗逆性方面有重要研究价值.本研究利用前期克隆得到的盐生杜氏藻chyb基因(GenBank登录号:JN118489),构建了植物表达载体pC AMB IA3 301-chyb.通过根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404介导的叶盘法将其转入烟草(Nicotiana tabacum),获得16株草铵膦抗性再生植株,经PCR及RT-PCR扩增分析表明,chyb基因已转入其中13株烟草植株中,并可以进行正常转录.通过测定转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量、叶片相对电导率和脯氨酸含量对转基因烟草的耐盐性进行了检测,结果表明,与对照组相比,转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量均极显著提高(P<0.01),其中转基因烟草平均株高为37.82cm,是对照组烟草平均株高的1.37倍.在100 mmol/L NaC1胁迫处理下,转基因烟草的成活率为84.45%,是对照组烟草的1.58倍;在200 mmol/L NaC1胁迫下对照组烟草萎蔫死亡,而转基因烟草仍可生长存活.经检测转基因烟草叶片的相对电导率升高但变化幅度较小,脯氨酸含量较对照组极显著增加(P<0.01).研究结果说明转基因烟草的耐盐性得到了提高,为进一步探讨盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物耐盐性方面的功能提供基础资料.

  13. Genetic analysis of the marine mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) based on mitochondrial COI sequence and its phylogenetic relationship with other congeneric species%基于COI序列的翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis线粒体遗传特性分析及其近缘种间的系统关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位正鹏; 孔晓瑜; 吴相云; 喻子牛

    2009-01-01

    应用通用引物COIL 1490和COtH 2198对翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis的性腺和体细胞线粒体DNA进行PCR扩增,获得661bp长度的COI基因片段,经过比对性腺与体细胞的COI片段,发现雄性性腺与体细胞COI基因均为一个单倍型,即体内只有一种线粒体DNA类型,没有发现双单性遗传现象,雌、雄性腺的COI基因片段变异率很低(0.31%).应用 PAUP构建NJ树、MP树以及贝叶斯法构建了贝叶斯树,对股贻吡属3种间的系统关系进行了分析,结果表明,翡翠股贻贝P.viridis、p.canaliculus和P.perna之间的分化与分歧年代的估算是相吻合的.

  14. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. PMID:27030417

  15. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness, on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of

  16. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    . In reality, a coral is a simple animal like the sea anemone we find on rocky beaches. Unlike the anemone, the coral animal is generally small and constructs a skeleton around its body for protection. A coral animal is also called a polyp. 2.... Are polyp and coral the same? No. The term coral is usually denotes the skeleton though at times the polyp is also called coral animal. 3. What does a polyp look like? Each polyp is a hollow cylinder of tissues with tentacles and a central mouth opening...

  17. Crustaceans associated with Cnidaria, Bivalvia, Echinoidea and Pisces at São Tomé and Príncipe islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic crustaceans were searched for at sea anemones (Actiniaria, encrusting anemones (Zoantharia, horny coral (Gorgonaria, black coral (Antipatharia, bivalves (Bivalvia, and sea urchins (Echinoidea at São Tomé and Príncipe Islands (Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic. Sixteen species of crustaceans were found in association with these invertebrate hosts; eleven of them were new records for the area and two species, belonging to the genera Hippolyte and Heteromysis, were new for science. The thalassinid Axiopsis serratifrons was occasionally associated with an undescribed species of gobiid fish.

  18. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe AMINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticillata. The maximum germination of foxtails (S. verticillata, S. viridis was obtained when seeds were treated with pH 7 buffer solution. Increasing of osmotic and salt stress decreased seed germination of foxtails. Setaria verticillata seed germination was more tolerant than those of S. glauca and S. viridis to high water stress condition. Setaria glauca and S. verticillata seed germination were more tolerant to high salinity stress than S. viridis. Seedling emergence decreased with increasing the burial depth and no germination observed at 8 cm soil depth.

  19. Pain management in mice using methanol extracts of three plants belongs to family Amaranthaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Kumar BS; Lakshman K; Jayaveera KN; Vel Murgan C; Arun Kumar PA; Vinod Kumar R; Meghda Hegade; Sridhar SM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis(A. viridis), Amaranthus caudatus (A. caudatus) and Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus). Methods:In this study, the analgesic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were investigated by acetic acid-induced writhings test, hot plate test and tail immersion test for mice. Results:It was found that all the three plants showed significant pain management effect(P<0.01) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, but showed a less significant effect at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the entire tests used for evaluation of analgesic activities (P<0.05). Conclusions:Methanol extracts of A. viridis, A. caudatus and A. spinosus show potent analgesic activities, and this study provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  20. Ecological implications of changes in polychaetes population in a shallow Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu

    increased sulfate reduction rates in the sediment and created more reduced conditions than N. diversicolor. This was probably caused by the different ventilation and irrigation mechanisms of the 2 species (MS6). M. viridis deep burrow ventilation irrigates the sediment along the wall of the blind...... presented in this thesis evaluates the effect of population change in size and distribution of 3 polychaete species in a shallow Danish estuary - Odense Fjord: the 2 ecologically important Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the non-native species Marenzelleria viridis. We focus on the effect of...... the dynamic of the polychaete population on sediment biogeochemistry and the seagrass Zostera marina. In MS1, the results obtained from different survey indicate that M. viridis was first recorded in 2002 in this estuary and is now present in about 50% of the estuary. The loss of seagrass habitat in...

  1. Mycoflora in the rhizosphere of some wild plants around karachi university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with data regarding rhizosphere mycoflora of wild plants including Amaranthus viridis L., Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz and Tridax procumbens L. which were collected from different location around Karachi University campus. Result recorded for the properties of rhizosphere showed texture of soil as sandy loam soil, moisture content ranged between 15-31% and basic pH of C. barbata while acidic in case of A. viridis and T. procumbens. 21 fungal species belonging to 16 genera were isolated from rhizospheric soil of wild plants by direct plate method while 28 species belonging to 20 genera were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wild plants by serial dilution method. The result showed that greatest number of fungi were isolated by serial dilution method. Maximum number of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere soil of C. barbata whereas lowest number of fungi were recorded from rhizosphere soil of A. viridis. (author)

  2. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified 194LRMEKLNI201 as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES

  3. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe AMINI; Faezeh ZAEFARIAN; Rezvani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis) was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticill...

  4. Gamma ray induced seedling injury and chlorophyll mutants in two varieties of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry, well filled seeds of rice cultivars Basmati and Phalguna were irradiated with 20, 30, 40, and 50 kR gamma ray doses with a view to study their radio sensitivity in inducing seedling injury and chlorophyll mutants. In general, the percentage of germination, survival, seedling height and leaf number decreased in the irradiated population. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutants induced include albino, viridis, xantha and other categories like striata, zebra and maculata. Viridis was more predominant in Basmati whereas xantha was more in phalguna. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Investigation into feed utilization by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (/sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with /sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris.

  6. BIOMETRIC AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES OF Perna v iridis AND Pe rna i ndica ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmy KV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth indices of the Mussels, Perna viridis and Perna indica collected from the south west coast of India were examined using statistical methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA sepa rated 2 morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult, indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed leptokurtic population. The allometry was not static, but simple and ontogenetic since their population was continuously varying. The present study shows that factor analysis is better than principal component analysis for delineating the morphometric characteristics of living organisms

  7. Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Leviev, I; Carstensen, Kathrine

    1996-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system and it was probably within this phylum or in a related ancestor group that nervous systems first evolved. The primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. From a single sea anemone species, Anthopleura elegantissi...

  8. Multi-scale modeling of gene regulation of morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Kaandorp; D. Botman; C. Tamulonis; R Dries

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a spatio-temporal gene regulatory network for early gastrulation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. We measure gene expression during early gastrulation using a gene expression quantification tool. We measure gene expression during early gastrulation when the emb

  9. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  10. To Build an Ecosystem: An Introductory Lab for Environmental Science & Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Daniel; Finnerty, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis-driven laboratory is described that introduces students to the complexities of ecosystem function. Students work with live algae, brine shrimp, and sea anemones to test hypotheses regarding the trophic interactions among species, the exchange of nutrients and gases, and the optimal ratio of producers to consumers and predators in…

  11. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at least...

  12. The proteomic profile of Stichodactyla duerdeni secretion reveals the presence of a novel O-linked glycopeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz;

    2013-01-01

    , a new peptide of 3431Da, named U-SHTX-Sdd1, was purified and completely sequenced by automated Edman's degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. An analysis of U-SHTX-Sdd1 revealed a modified O-HexNAc-Threonine at position 1, which, at the best of our knowledge, constitutes the first sea anemone toxin...

  13. Development of sensitive and specific molecular tools for the efficient detection and discrimination of potentially invasive mussel species of the genus Perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Joana Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine mussels of the genus Perna include three species: P. canaliculus, P. viridis and P. perna. While P. canaliculus appears to be greatlyrestricted to its endemic range of New Zealand, P. perna and P.viridis introductions have been recorded outside their native ranges in severalregions of the globe. Such introductions have often resulted in significant negative ecological, economic and social impacts. Perna perna and P.viridis are exotic to Australia and are listed under the Australian Government National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions as high priority species. Rapid detection of marine pests such as Perna species remains fundamental to their effective containment and control. The present study reports on the development and validation of both conventional and real-time PCR assays suited to the rapid identification and discrimination of juvenile and adult specimens of P. viridis, P. canaliculus and P. perna. The development of a sensitive high-throughput real-time PCR assay offers further potential for the efficient detection of the presence of single Perna specimens in mixed populations of native mussel species, and for early detection of larval stages in ballast water and plankton samples. This assay offers considerable advantages over traditional identification methods and represents an important step in developing capacity for efficient identification and management of Perna species incursions in Australian waters.

  14. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Marcelo Claro de Souza; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the mo...

  15. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  16. The presence of species of Pseudochironomus Malloch 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in watercourses of Chaco Serrano Ecoregion (Argentina, South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Analía C; Rodriguez Garay, Gretel N

    2015-01-01

    Male imagos of Pseudochironomus viridis (Kieffer) are redescribed, the immature stages are described and figured for the first time. During this study, larva and pupal exuviae associated to P. richardsoni (Malloch) were recorded for the first time for South America. The specimens were collected from a stream and a river in the Pampasic Hills System in the Chaco Serrano ecoregion of Argentina. PMID:26249080

  17. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  18. The status of Vespertilio borbonicus E. Geoffroy, 1803 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result, Sc

  19. Preliminary studies on the holding of live mussels after harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, W.G.; Orano, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Green mussel (Perna viridis) were harvested to study the applicability of chilling to keep the mussels alive for a longer period of time and to review existing methods of packaging and transport. Data obtained from preliminary studies indicated the effectiveness of keeping mussels alive as long as 4 days with minimal mortality rates.

  20. 78 FR 19510 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .... 1998. Dudleya abramsii subsp. parva... Conejo dudleya.... Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 62 FR..., delta green ground...... Elaphrus viridis.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 45 FR 52807; 08/08... 95825. Butterfly, bay checkerspot...... Euphydryas editha Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 49...

  1. 77 FR 29588 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and Spinach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... fresh celery, arugula, and spinach from Colombia. Based on the findings of three pest risk analyses... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one... established that Coccus viridis no longer meets our definition of a quarantine pest and added it to our...

  2. The Effect of the Ecology of Toads on the Distribution of Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    VASHETKO, Emilia V.; SIDDIKOV, Bakhodir H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the helminth fauna of the green toad, Bufo viridis, in Uzbekistan. Twently helminth species were identified. The highest diversity of helminths was recorded in toads in the newly-built districts of Tashkent (1966-76). The helminth fauna of the toads inhabiting foothills was less common.

  3. Deactivation of excitation energy in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, J.; Hara, M.; Goc, J.; Planner, A.; Wróbel, D.

    1997-08-01

    Absorption, photoacoustic and time-resolved in μs time range delayed luminescence spectra have been measured in order to follow the interaction among chromophores when Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis reaction centres are closely packed in a form of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. Two types of Langmuir-Blodgett samples have been prepared and investigated: multilayers consist of one type of reaction centre ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides or Rhodopseudomonas viridis) and multilayers composed of mixed reaction centres ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides mixed with Rhodopseudomonas viridis). Using the Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers composed of two types of bacteria reaction centres mixture, we were able to extend the spectral region of the light/solar energy absorbed by the system. It was shown that each form of pigment participates in thermal dissipation but to a different degree. A special pair (bacteriochlorophyll dimer) does not contribute to delayed luminescence. Delayed luminescence in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides differs very significantly from each other. Bacteriopheophytin as well as dihydromesochlorophyll contribute to delayed luminescence but the degree of their participation in this radiative process depends strongly on the type of reaction centre. Delayed luminescence and thermal processes have been indicated as important processes of deactivation of the photoexcited chromophores in reaction centres.

  4. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Barty, Anton; Williams, Garth J.; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Milathianaki, Despina; DePonte, Daniel P.; Shoeman, Robert L.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Katona, Gergely; Westenhoff, Sebastian; White, Thomas A.; Aquila, Andrew; Bari, Sadia; Berntsen, Peter; Bogan, Mike; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Doak, R. Bruce; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Henning, Robert; Hunter, Mark S.; Kirian, Richard A.; Kosheleva, Irina; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sjohamn, Jennie; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Boutet, Sebastien; Groenhof, Gerrit; Chapman, Henry N.; Neutze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast glob...

  5. [Peculiarities of growth of the monocellular green algae culture after the influence of electromagnetic field in deuterated water-containing media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, K T; Aslanian, R R

    2013-01-01

    Exposing the inoculum of monocellular green algae Dunalialla tertiolecta and Tetraselmis viridis to 50 Hz electromagnetic field for several hours resulted in a reduced growth rate in both cultures. It was ascertained that heavy water inhibited growth of algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The light water activated growth of the culture in the exponential phase only. PMID:23650857

  6. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  7. [Computational genome analysis of three marine algoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, O A; Boĭko, A L; Shcherbatenko, I S

    2013-01-01

    Computational analysis of genomic sequences of three new marine algoviruses: Tetraselmis viridis virus (TvV-S20 and TvV-SI1 strains) and Dunaliella viridis virus (DvV-SI2 strain) was conducted. Both considerable similarity and essential distinctions between studied strains and the most studied marine algoviruses of Phycodnaviridae family were revealed. Our data show that the tested strains are new viruses with the following features: only they were isolated from marine eukaryotic microalgae T. viridis and D. viridis, coding sequences (CDSs) of their genomes are localized mainly on one of the DNA strands and form several clusters with short intergenic spaces; there are considerable variations in genome structure within viruses and their strains; viral genomic DNA has a high GC-content (55.5 - 67.4%); their genes contain no well-known optimal contexts of translation start codones, and the contexts of terminal codons read-through; the vast majority of viral genes and proteins do not have any matches in gene banks. PMID:24479317

  8. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 278017 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007118815.1 1117:4883 1150:2370 1158:379 482564:175 179408:175 Tetratricopeptide TPR_2 repeat-contai...ning protein Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MGKAKRRKQTPNYRKPTSQDDLGDKKGAIADYNRAIELQPDDALAYYNRGNVRYNLGDKKGAI...ADFNKAIELQPDLAEAYGNRGLFRSELGDKKGAIADLNKAIELQPDLALAYVNRGAVRSKLGDKKGAIADYNKAIELQPDYAQAYYNRGLVRSELGDKKGAI...ADYNKAIELKPDLALAYYNRGLVRSELGDKKGAIADYNKAIELQPDYAQAYGNRGTVRSELGDKKGAI...ADLNKVIELKPDLAQAYYNRGLFRSELGDKKGAIADFNKAIELQPDDAQAYYKRGNVRYILGDKKGAITDFNKAIELQPDDAFAYYNRGNVRYILGDKKGAIADYNKAI

  9. Cyperaceae surinamenses novae vel criticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittien, H.

    1933-01-01

    Cyperus ruderalis Uitt. nov. spec. Annuus, viridis, culmis caespitosis, complanatis, raro trigonis, striatis, apicem versus modice setulosis, 6—10 cm longis, 1—1,5 mm latis, basi 0—2-foliatis. Foliis culmo multo brevioribus vel subaequilongis, 1,5—2,5 mm latis. Umbella simplex vel interdum mediocrit

  10. First Record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) Infecting Springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Eilenberg, J; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, which...

  11. The Kunitz-Type Protein ShPI-1 Inhibits Serine Proteases and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Peigneur, Steve; Pons, Tirso; Alvarez, Carlos; González, Lidice; Chávez, María A; Tytgat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz-type protein ShPI-1 (UniProt: P31713) is the major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. This molecule is used in biotechnology and has biomedical potential related to its anti-parasitic effect. A pseudo wild-type variant, rShPI-1A, with additional residues at the N- and C-terminal, has a similar three-dimensional structure and comparable trypsin inhibition strength. Further insights into the structure-function relationship of rShPI-1A are required in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this sea anemone peptide. Using enzyme kinetics, we now investigated its activity against other serine proteases. Considering previous reports of bifunctional Kunitz-type proteins from anemones, we also studied the effect of rShPI-1A on voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. rShPI-1A binds Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6 channels with IC50 values in the nM range. Hence, ShPI-1 is the first member of the sea anemone type 2 potassium channel toxins family with tight-binding potency against several proteases and different Kv1 channels. In depth sequence analysis and structural comparison of ShPI-1 with similar protease inhibitors and Kv channel toxins showed apparent non-sequence conservation for known key residues. However, we detected two subtle patterns of coordinated amino acid substitutions flanking the conserved cysteine residues at the N- and C-terminal ends. PMID:27089366

  12. Isolation and distribution of iridescent Cellulophaga and further iridescent marine bacteria in the Charente Maritime coast, French Atlantic coast

    OpenAIRE

    Kientz, Betty; Agogué, Hélène; Lavergne, Céline; Marié, Pauline; Rosenfeld, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An intense colored marine bacterium, identified as Cellulophaga lytica, has been previously isolated from a sea anemone surface on the Charente Maritime rocky shore (Atlantic Coast, France). Iridescence of the colonies under direct light was recently described and proved physically. Iridescence intensities were found to strongly differ among C. lytica strains from culture collections. Importantly, the occurrence and distribution of iridescent bacteria in the marine environment were still unkn...

  13. Enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway encoded in the genome of a basal metazoan, Nematostella vectensis, have microbial origins

    OpenAIRE

    Starcevic, Antonio; Akthar, Shamima; Dunlap, Walter C.; Shick, J. Malcolm; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Long, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The shikimic acid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many aromatic compounds by a broad range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and some protozoans. Animals are considered to lack this pathway, as evinced by their dietary requirement for shikimate-derived aromatic amino acids. We challenge the universality of this traditional view in this report of genes encoding enzymes for the shikimate pathway in an animal, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Molecula...

  14. Strategies toward structural and functional 'optimization' of animal peptide toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti N; Ziadi H; Mouhat S; De Waard M; Sabatier J-M

    2012-01-01

    Background: venoms of a variety of animal species (i.e. scorpions, snakes, spiders, sea anemones, marine cone snails, worms, and insects) are rich sources of bioactive compounds that possess obvious pharmacological, therapeutic and/or biotechnological values. A majority of these compounds are peptides that mainly target enzymes, membrane receptors or ion channels. Aim: In recent years, much efforts of researchers have been focused on characterizing and ‘improving’ the pharmacological profile ...

  15. Evolutionary conservation of the mature oocyte proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Lotan

    2014-06-01

    Significance: The current study provides the first proteomic profile of an oocyte of a cnidarian organism the starlet sea anemone N. vectensis and gives new insights on the ancient origin of an oocyte proteome template. The comparative analysis with a chordate oocyte suggests that the oocyte proteome predates the divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. In addition, the data generated in the study will serve as a valuable resource for further developmental and evolutional studies.

  16. Comparative lipid profiling of the cnidarian Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Garrett

    Full Text Available Corals and other cnidarians house photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts within membrane-bound compartments inside gastrodermal cells. Nutritional interchanges between the partners produce carbohydrates and lipids for metabolism, growth, energy stores, and cellular structures. Although lipids play a central role in the both the energetics and the structural/morphological features of the symbiosis, previous research has primarily focused on the fatty acid and neutral lipid composition of the host and symbiont. In this study we conducted a mass spectrometry-based survey of the lipidomic changes associated with symbiosis in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, an important model system for coral symbiosis. Lipid extracts from A. pallida in and out of symbiosis with its symbiont Symbiodinium were prepared and analyzed using negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Through this analysis we have identified, by exact mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS, several classes of glycerophospholipids in A. pallida. Several molecular species of di-acyl phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as well as 1-alkyl, 2-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidycholine were identified. The 1-alkyl, 2-acyl PEs are acid sensitive suggestive that they are plasmalogen PEs possessing a double bond at the 1-position of the alkyl linked chain. In addition, we identified several molecular species of phosphonosphingolipids called ceramide aminoethylphosphonates in anemone lipid extracts by the release of a characteristic negative product ion at m/z 124.014 during MS/MS analysis. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG, an anionic lipid often found in photosynthetic organisms, was identified as a prominent component of Symbiodinium lipid extracts. A comparison of anemone lipid profiles revealed a subset of lipids that show dramatic differences in abundance when anemones are in the symbiotic state as

  17. Symbiosis induces widespread changes in the proteome of the model cnidarian Aiptasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clinton A; Ameismeier, Michael F; Peng, Lifeng; Weis, Virginia M; Grossman, Arthur R; Davy, Simon K

    2016-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are metabolically founded on the mutualism between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. The glass anemone Aiptasia sp. has become a tractable model for this symbiosis, and recent advances in genetic information have enabled the use of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in this model. We utilized label-free liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the effects of symbiosis on the proteomes of symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aiptasia. We identified and obtained relative quantification of more than 3,300 proteins in 1,578 protein clusters, with 81 protein clusters showing significantly different expression between symbiotic states. Symbiotic anemones showed significantly higher expression of proteins involved in lipid storage and transport, nitrogen transport and cycling, intracellular trafficking, endocytosis and inorganic carbon transport. These changes reflect shifts in host metabolism and nutrient reserves due to increased nutritional exchange with the symbionts, as well as mechanisms for supplying inorganic nutrients to the algae. Aposymbiotic anemones exhibited increased expression of multiple systems responsible for mediating reactive oxygen stress, suggesting that the host derives direct or indirect protection from oxidative stress while in symbiosis. Aposymbiotic anemones also increased their expression of an array of proteases and chitinases, indicating a metabolic shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. These results provide a comprehensive Aiptasia proteome with more direct relative quantification of protein abundance than transcriptomic methods. The extension of "omics" techniques to this model system will allow more powerful studies of coral physiology, ecosystem function, and the effects of biotic and abiotic stress on the coral-dinoflagellate mutualism. PMID:26716757

  18. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Simon K; Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review ...

  19. Saponin 1 Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-κB-Mediated Survival Signaling in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Chi; Li, Bo; Wang, Yuangang; Gao, Zhenhui; Luo, Peng; Yin, Anan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Cheng, Guang; Fei, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhi...

  20. Environ: E00378 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available monin [CPD:C16913] Pulsatilla chinensis, Pulsatilla dahurica, Pulsatilla koreana [TAX:387930], Pulsatilla [T...931], Artemisia [TAX:4219], Gerbera piloselloides [TAX:496626], Saussurea radiata, Saussurea...e (buttercup family) Anemone, Asteraceae (daisy family) Inula cappa, Artemisia, Gerbera piloselloides, Saussurea...4], Potentilla chinensis [TAX:210858], Potentilla discolor [TAX:648872], Polycarpaea cor...ymbosa, Polycarpaea [TAX:431020] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Pulsatilla root Homonym: Ranunculacea

  1. The Kunitz-Type Protein ShPI-1 Inhibits Serine Proteases and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Peigneur, Steve; Pons, Tirso; Alvarez, Carlos; González, Lidice; Chávez, María A.; Tytgat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz-type protein ShPI-1 (UniProt: P31713) is the major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. This molecule is used in biotechnology and has biomedical potential related to its anti-parasitic effect. A pseudo wild-type variant, rShPI-1A, with additional residues at the N- and C-terminal, has a similar three-dimensional structure and comparable trypsin inhibition strength. Further insights into the structure-function relationship of rShPI-1A are required in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this sea anemone peptide. Using enzyme kinetics, we now investigated its activity against other serine proteases. Considering previous reports of bifunctional Kunitz-type proteins from anemones, we also studied the effect of rShPI-1A on voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. rShPI-1A binds Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6 channels with IC50 values in the nM range. Hence, ShPI-1 is the first member of the sea anemone type 2 potassium channel toxins family with tight-binding potency against several proteases and different Kv1 channels. In depth sequence analysis and structural comparison of ShPI-1 with similar protease inhibitors and Kv channel toxins showed apparent non-sequence conservation for known key residues. However, we detected two subtle patterns of coordinated amino acid substitutions flanking the conserved cysteine residues at the N- and C-terminal ends. PMID:27089366

  2. Mechanisms of equinatoxin II-induced transport through the membrane of a giant phospholipid vesicle.

    OpenAIRE

    Mally, M; Majhenc, J; Svetina, S; Zeks, B.

    2002-01-01

    Protein equinatoxin II from sea anemone Actinia equina L. was used to form pores in phospholipid membranes. We studied the effect of these pores on the net transmembrane transport of sucrose and glucose by observing single giant (cell-size) vesicles under the phase contrast microscope. Sugar composition in the vesicle was determined by measuring the width of the halo, which appears around the vesicle in the phase contrast image. The transport of sugars was induced when a vesicle, filled with ...

  3. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  4. The multigene families of actinoporins (part II): Strategies for heterologous production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, A; Hervis, Y P; Socas, L B P; Canet, L; Faheem, M; Barbosa, J A R G; Lanio, M E; Pazos, I F

    2016-08-01

    The sea anemone venom contains pore-forming proteins (PFP) named actinoporins, due to their purification from organisms belonging to Actiniaria order and its ability to form pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Actinoporins are generally basic, monomeric and single-domain small proteins (∼20 kDa) that are classified as α-type PFP since the pore formation in membranes occur through α-helical elements. Different actinoporin isoforms have been isolated from most of the anemones species, as was analyzed in the first part of this review. Several actinoporin full-length genes have been identified from genomic-DNA libraries or messenger RNA. Since the actinoporins lack carbohydrates and disulfide bridges, their expression in bacterial systems is suitable. The actinoporins heterologous expression in Escherichia coli simplifies their production, replaces the natural source reducing the ecological damage in anemone populations, and allows the production of site-specific mutants for the study of the structure-function relationship. In this second part of the review, the strategies for heterologous production of actinoporins in Escherichia coli are analyzed, as well as the different approaches used for their purification. The activity of the recombinant proteins with respect to the wild-type is also reviewed. PMID:27080349

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in mussels collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were determined in whole soft tissues (WST) and shells of groups of different size of marine mussel Perna viridis L. and estuarine mussel Modiolus striatulus H. and water samples which were collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of radionuclides vary with mussel size. A positive correlation existed for 238U and 40K and a negative one for 232Th between the radionuclide concentration and mussel size; 232Th concentrations in WST and shells of the mussels showed an inverse relationship with those of 238U and 40K, while 238U showed positive correlation with 40K. The concentration factors (CF) for 226Ra, 232Th and 238U in both P. viridis and M. striatulus were higher than those for 40K. The contents of 137Cs in both mussels were below the detection limit

  6. Vibrational spectra of free and intracellular DNA in the weak electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovbeshko, Galina I.

    1998-09-01

    Vibrational bands of DNA molecules from birds' erythrocytes, as well as Dunaliella viridis alga cells and Escherichia coli bacteria clinical strains in the weak microwave field were investigated with IR spectroscopy. Drastic changes were detected in the intensities and fine structure of C equals O and PL2 bands for polarized spectra of irradiated samples of DNA molecules as compared with the reference samples in the 1700-1000 cm-1 region. No essential changes were detected in the IR spectra in the region of PO2 bands of DNA for the Escherichia coli, irradiated by the weak electromagnetic field, but essential redistribution of intensities and change in halfwidths of the PO2 symmetrical bonds were detected for Dunaliella viridis alga cells.

  7. 利用ITS序列对两个盐藻株的分子鉴定%Identification of Two Dunaliella sp. Based on Nuclear ITS rDNA Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 许政暟; 宋任涛

    2006-01-01

    对实验室长期保存的两个盐藻株(Dunaliella salina)核糖体rDNA的ITS(internal transcribed space)序列(ITS1+5.8SrDNA+ITS2)用PCR技术扩增并克隆,经序列测定后,与从GenBank中获得的相关序列一起构建系统发育树.结果显示:其中一个(Dunaliella salina SHU 01)与Dunaliella viridis CONC 002的距离最近,另一个(Dunaliella salina SHU02)与Dunaliella salina UTEX 1644的距离最近.因此分别命名为Dunaliella viridis SHU与Dunaliella salina SHU.

  8. Trace metals in water, sediment and bivalves of a tropical estuary, west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez Al-Usmani, S M; Jagtap, T G; Patil, D N

    2015-10-15

    Trace metal pollution was studied in water, sediment and three selected bivalves in Mandovi and Chapora estuaries of Goa. The trace metal in water and sediment of Mandovi was higher than in Chapora. The concentration in the tissues was in the range of 1205.2-2506.7 ppm for Paphia malabarica, 1906.2-2802.6 ppm for Perna viridis and 778.7-1607.5 ppm for Saccostrea cucullata in Mandovi estuary. Tha values for Chapora were 199.4-625.8 ppm for P. malabarica, 812.6-1220.2 for P. viridis and 392.5-418.6 ppm for S. cucullata. The anthropogenic input of metal in Mandovi estuary appears to be mainly responsible for the high accumulation of trace metals. These bivalves have potential to serve as indicator for metal contamination in seafood of Goa. PMID:26228069

  9. Robust biological nitrogen fixation in a model grass-bacterial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankievicz, Vânia C S; do Amaral, Fernanda P; Santos, Karina F D N; Agtuca, Beverly; Xu, Youwen; Schueller, Michael J; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Stacey, Gary; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria can promote plant growth; however, it is controversial whether biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) from associative interaction contributes to growth promotion. The roots of Setaria viridis, a model C4 grass, were effectively colonized by bacterial inoculants resulting in a significant enhancement of growth. Nitrogen-13 tracer studies provided direct evidence for tracer uptake by the host plant and incorporation into protein. Indeed, plants showed robust growth under nitrogen-limiting conditions when inoculated with an ammonium-excreting strain of Azospirillum brasilense. (11)C-labeling experiments showed that patterns in central carbon metabolism and resource allocation exhibited by nitrogen-starved plants were largely reversed by bacterial inoculation, such that they resembled plants grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. Adoption of S. viridis as a model should promote research into the mechanisms of associative nitrogen fixation with the ultimate goal of greater adoption of BNF for sustainable crop production. PMID:25645593

  10. Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Bichurina, M.A.; Sovetova, M.; Boikov, Y.A.

    ( Crassostrea gryphoides ) and clam (Meretrix casta , M. meretrix , Paphia malabarica , Villorita cypr i noides ) . Recent investigations conducted jointly by Russian and Indian scientists showed that Indian green mussels ( P. viridis... prophyla c tic effect has been observed in mice when a dose of mussel extract was given 5 h before inoculation of v i rus 3 and the mice showed 100% survival. Marine bivalves are filter - feeding animals, and while feeding they accumulate...

  11. New symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaetae), with taxonomic and biological remarks on Pionosyllis magnifica and Syllis cf armillaris

    OpenAIRE

    E. López; Britayev, Temir A.; Martin, Daniel; San Martín, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Several new symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) are reported. The number of known host sponge species infested by Haplosyllis spongicola is updated to 36, with seven hosts being reported for the first time (i.e. Aplysina corrugata, Aplysina sp., Cliona sp., Cliona viridis, Phorbas tenacior, one sponge from Iran, one sponge from Cambodia). Two infestation patterns (a few worms per host cm3 in temperate waters and 10s or 100s in tropical waters) are identified. The ...

  12. INTESTINAL COCCIDIA (EUCOCCIDIA, SPOROZOA, APICOMPLEXA) OF SOME AMPHIBIA IN AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAMEDOVA SIMUZER ORUJ KYZY

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium (Coccidia, Apicomplexa) oocysts were detected by carbol-fucsin staining in feces of amphibia captured in different regions of Azerbaijan. Oocysts were released by 20 specimens of 39 examined Bufo viridis (prevalence 51.2%), 3 of 3 examined Bufo verrucosissimus (100%), 9 of 28 examined Rana ridibunda (32.1%). Invasion intensiveness varied from 12 to 30 oocysts per 1000 fields of vision. Cryptosporidium oocysts found in various amphibian species differed from each other by size ...

  13. Nutraceutical Assessment of Four Amaranthus Species from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo Ibrahim; Hilou Adama; Sombie Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby; Compaore Moussa; Millogo Jeanne; Nacoulma Odile Germaine

    2011-01-01

    The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenol...

  14. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro; Maurício Yonamine; Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares; Maria Gabriela Menezes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show ...

  15. Light-triggered action potentials in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Trębacz

    2014-01-01

    Special attention is paid in this paper to the criteria of the light-triggered action potential, namely the all-or-none law, propagation, the occurrence of refractory periods. Such action potentials have been recorded in Acetabularia mediterranea, Asplenium trichomanes, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Eremosphaera viridis and Concephalum conicum. In Acetabularia, action potentials are generated after sudden cessation of light stimuli of sufficient intensity. The depolarization phase of the action pot...

  16. The Signaling Function of an Extra-floral Display: What Selects for Signal Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar; Adi Sadeh; Avi Shmida

    2007-01-01

    The vertical inflorescences of the Mediterranean annual Salvia viridis carry many small, colorful flowers, and are frequently terminated by a conspicuous tuft of colorful leaves ("flags") that attracts insect pollinators. Insects may use the flags as indicators of the food reward in the inflorescences, as long-distance cues for locating and choosing flowering patches, or both. Clipping of flags from patches of inflorescences in the field significantly reduced the number of pollinators that ar...

  17. Bottom-up effects of soil quality on a coffee arthropod interaction web

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Dominguez, GM; Witter, JD; Spongberg, AL; Philpott, SM

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient availability and soil quality influence herbivores through changes in plant traits and can have cascading effects on herbivore interactions. In complex systems, with many positive and negative interactions, the consequences of these bottom-up effects are still not well established. We carried out a set of studies to determine the impact of soil quality (organic compost amendments) on a hemipteran herbivore (Coccus viridis), two ant mutualists, predators, pathogens, parasitoids of C. ...

  18. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  19. Photoprotection in sequestered plastids of sea slugs and respective algal sources

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo; Newcomer, Rebecca; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Serôdio, João; Pelletreau, Karen N.; Rumpho, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Some sea slugs are capable of retaining functional sequestered chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) for variable periods of time. The mechanisms supporting the maintenance of these organelles in animal hosts are still largely unknown. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the occurrence of a xanthophyll cycle were investigated in the sea slugs Elysia viridis and E. chlorotica using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and pigment analysis. The photoprotective capacity of kleptoplasts was compared to ...

  20. Sobre varias gramíneas alóctonas presentes en la provincia de Valladolid (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Bello, Jesús Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan datos de interés florístico referentes a ocho especies de plantas vasculares alóctonas incluidas en la familia Gramineae Juss. Los taxones citados son: Bromus catharticus Vahl, Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Janch, Eragrostis virescens C. Presl, Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. y Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Para cada uno de ellos se aporta infor...

  1. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković, Radovan I.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tobutt, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompat...

  2. PRIMJENA KEMIJSKIH MJERA U SUZBIJANJU KOROVA U ULJNOJ BUNDEVI (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Besek, Zdenko; Renata BALIČEVIĆ; IVEZIĆ, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Ravlić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenog tijekom dvije godine (2002. i 2003.) na dva lokaliteta (Vranjevo i Poljanice) bio je utvrditi učinak herbicida na suzbijanje korova u usjevu uljne bundeve (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) te usporediti njihovu učinkovitost u odnosu na mehanike mjere suzbijanja korova. Dominantne korovne vrste bile su: Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis i Echinochloa crus-galli. Sve istraživane herbicidne varijante, osim kombinacije prometrin + fluazifop-p butil, u 2002. godi...

  3. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, LC; Arnlund, D.; White, TA; Katona, G.; DePonte, DP; Weierstall, U.; Doak, RB; Shoeman, RL; Lomb, L; Malmerberg, E.; Davidsson, J; Nass, K.; Liang, MN; Andreasson, J.; Dell'Aquila, A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.

  4. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Besek; Renata Baličević; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Marija Ravlić

    2012-01-01

    A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003) was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera) at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice) to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in ...

  5. Competition of Amaranthus species with dry bean plants Competição de espécies de Amaranthus com plantas de feijoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho; Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2008-01-01

    Weeds compete with field crops mainly for water, light and nutrients, and this competition is among other factors, a function of the occurrence of weed density, and the intrinsic competitive ability of each vegetal species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive ability of five weed species of the Amaranthus L. genus (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis) with dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - 'Carioca Precoce' cultivar), using th...

  6. The adaptive significance of ontogenetic colour change in a tropical python

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David; Heinsohn, Robert; Endler, John A

    2006-01-01

    Ontogenetic colour change is typically associated with changes in size, vulnerability or habitat, but assessment of its functional significance requires quantification of the colour signals from the receivers' perspective. The tropical python, Morelia viridis, is an ideal species to establish the functional significance of ontogenetic colour change. Neonates hatch either yellow or red and both the morphs change to green with age. Here, we show that colour change from red or yellow to green pr...

  7. El uso de la Ayahuasca en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo, Edwin; Frausin Bustamante, Gina; Correa, Marco; Trujillo, William

    2010-01-01

    The yagé is a hallucinogenic plant (Banisteriopsis caapi) widely distributed in Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Bolivia, of which gets ready a drink (Ayahuasca) consumed from immemorial times inside an indigenous ritual context. Their preparation it is usually made with the bark of B. caapi, but in occasions additive are used, as the oco-yaje leaves or chagropanga (Diplopterys cabrerana: Malpighiaceae) and chacruna (Psychotria viridis: Rubiaceae), with the purpose of changing t...

  8. El género polypogon (poaceae: pooideae) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se dan a conocer dos novedades para la flora de Colombia: Polypogon monspeliensisy Polypogon viridis. Se presenta una sinopsis del género para Colombia, la queincluye la distribución geográfica, las preferencias ecológicas, los nombres vulgares,los números cromosómicos y las afinidades morfológicas para las cuatro especiespresentes en el territorio colombiano, así como una clave para reconocerlas.

  9. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments

    OpenAIRE

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in...

  10. Physiological characterization of Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Francisca; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda; Robledo, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    Physiological responses of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis, isolated from solar saltworks on the Yucatan Peninsula, were studied. Optimal growth temperature for D. salina was 22 degrees C (3.06 x 10(6) cells mL(-1)) and 26 degrees C for D. viridis (4.04 x 10(6)cells mL(-1)). Total carotenoid content in D. salina increased with temperature to a maximum of 35.14 pg cell(-1) at 38 degrees C. Dunaliella salina alpha-carotene and beta-carotene content was 0.083+/-0.003 and 0.598+/-0.020 mg 100g dry wt(-1) respectively, whereas lower values were found in D. viridis cultured under same experimental conditions (0.018+/-0.002 and 0.136+/-0.012 mg 100g dry wt(-1) respectively). The highest specific growth rate in D. salina was obtained at 10% NaCl (0.28 d(-1)), while its cell volume increased from 524 to 2066.93 microm(3) when cultured from 10% to 35% NaCl. Maximum photosynthetic rates were attained when increasing from optimal growing temperature to 30 degrees C for D. viridis (108 n mol O(2)microg chl alpha h(-1)) and D. salina (139 n mol O(2)microg chl alpha h(-1)). Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations indicated physiological adjustments in both species, with higher acclimation in D. salina. Evaluation of physiological attributes of these species will be used for to carry out mass cultivation. PMID:16949279

  11. PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF SOME STRAINS OF DUNALIELLA

    OpenAIRE

    Duc Tran; Trung Vo; Sixto Portilla; Clifford Louime; Nguyen Doan; Truc Mai; Dat Tran; Trang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Dunaliella strains were isolated from a key site for salt production in Vietnam (Vinh Hao, Binh Thuan province). The strains were identified based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) markers. The phylogenetic tree revealed these strains belong to the clades of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis. Results of this study confirm the ubiquitous nature of Dunaliella and suggest that strains of Dunaliella salina might be acquired locally worldwide for the production of beta-carotene. The iden...

  12. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) cultivada em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa; Max W. P. Santana; Marcus A.B. Pires

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added da...

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    OpenAIRE

    Madiha Bichra; Cherkaoui El-Modafar; Abdelilah El-Abbassi; Hafida Bouamama; Fatiha Benkhalti

    2013-01-01

    The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC). The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest...

  14. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Mercurio; Fabrizio Li Vigni

    2007-01-01

    The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one...

  15. Biomarkers and toxicological evaluation of Lavandula spp. essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Silvia; Candeias, M. Fátima; Piçarra, Andreia; Lopes, Orlando; Lima, Mónica; Pereira, Marizia; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Martins, M. Rosário

    2015-01-01

    Lavenders belong to the family Labiatae and are one of the most popular aromatic plants widely used in food industry, perfumery and pharmaceutical preparations. Their oils are traditionally believed to be antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, antidepressive, disinfectant, and effective for burns and insect bites [1]. Previous studies have shown that the essentials oils of Lavandula stoechas subsp. luisieri Rozeira (L. luisieri) and Lavandula viridis L’Hér have a broad-spectrum ant...

  16. Bio-accumulation kinetics of radioruthenium in marine bivalves. Laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of marine bivalves (wild Saccostrea cucullata, aquacultured Perna viridis and aquacultured Pinctada martens), collected from Daya Bay, the South China Sea, were used to investigate the bio-accumulation of radioruthenium in the glass aquarium with natural seawater (pH 8.20, 35 per mille salinity, filtered by 0.45 μm) at ambient temperature under laboratory feeding conditions. The experimental results show that the stead-state of biology concentration factor (BCF, ml/g) of radioruthenium was approached around 6 days for most species of bivalves. The values of BCF in shells are the highest in organs all the three bivalves. The orders of BCF values (ml x g-1) are as: Perna viridis (33.2) < Saccostrea cucullata (47.0) < Pinctada martensi (208.4) for shells and Saccostrea cucullata (1.5) < Pinctada martensi (2.2) ∼ Perma viridis (2.4) for soft tissues, respectively, after exposed for 14 days. The rate constants of uptake and elimination of radioruthenium on marine bivalves were also discussed by first-order kinetics model. The Pinctada martensi may be applicable to be an indictor for monitoring radioruthenium among the three bivalves. (author)

  17. Absence of alkaloids in Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M B; Elisabetsky, E

    1996-10-01

    Psychotria viridis and P. carthagenensis are often discussed in relation to the hallucinogenic beverage Ayahuasca, used for religious, medicinal and social purposes. The significance of including Psychotria species in this beverage has been understood on the basis of substantial amounts of tryptamine alkaloids detected on leaves of both P. viridis and P. carthagenensis. Nevertheless, there is a long lasting debate over the identification of which Psychotria species are actually traditionally employed. We here report that a P. carthagenensis leaf ethanol extract was found to be devoid of alkaloids. The extract significantly decreased mice body temperature (350 and 500 mg/kg). Toxicity assessment revealed that the extract induced sedation and slight ptoses (75% of animals treated with 1000 mg/kg). Lethality was not observed within 48 h. The data indicate that P. carthagenensis does have bioactive compound(s), possibly active at the central nervous system, but unlikely to be tryptamine alkaloids as in the case of P. viridis. Therefore, if P. carthagenensis is indeed used by ayahuasqueros, its chemical and pharmacological significance have yet to be elucidated. PMID:8941866

  18. Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

  19. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:21809617

  20. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90Sr and 144Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  1. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HE Maoxian

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH,a process known as “ocean acidification”.The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata,the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis,and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China.We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance,respiration,and excretion rates in these three species.The animals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control),7.7,or 7.4.The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P.fucata and at pH 8.1 for C.nobilis and P.viridis.The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P.fucata and P.viridis.In contrast,the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C.nobilis.The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species.The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake,oxygen consumption,and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves.Different species respond differently to seawater acidification.Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechanisms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  2. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose; Yee, Muh-Ching; Goudinho Viana, Willian; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Feldman, Max; Priest, Henry D; Trontin, Charlotte; Lee, Tak; Jiang, Hui; Baxter, Ivan; Mockler, Todd C; Hochholdinger, Frank; Brutnell, Thomas P; Dinneny, José R

    2016-08-01

    Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity. PMID:27422554

  3. Interaction of nemertines and their prey on tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Martin; Reise, Karsten

    Two common nemertines of the European Wadden Sea, Lineus viridis and Amphiporus lactifloreus, occur preferentially in clusters of mussels, spread over sedimentary flats in the upper intertidal near the island of Sylt. The heteronemertine L. viridis preys mainly on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. The hoplonemertine A. lactifloreus feeds almost exclusively on the amphipod Gammarus locusta. Abundance of both predators and their respective prey in the field showed inverse relationships. Experimentally increased numbers of L. viridis in clusters of mussels caused a gradual decrease of nereid abundance in the sediment underneath over a period of 1 month, suggesting that losses of individuals were caused by prey capture. Experimentally increased numbers of A. lactifloreus were followed by an escape response of gammarids from clusters of mussels within 2 d. In aquaria, both prey species exhibited prolonged swimming activity when their respective predators lurked at the bottom. We conclude that escape behaviour in N. diversicolor may be only effective during its migrant phases, while G. locusta is permanently on the alert to avoid encounters with its predator. This refuging behaviour in response to endobenthic predators has strong implications on prey distribution, while the actual consumption of prey may be relatively modest. Enclosure experiments in the field and in aquaria lead to overestimates of prey capture when refuging behaviour is not accounted for.

  4. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  5. The Alkaloid Ageladine A, Originally Isolated from Marine Sponges, Used for pH-Sensitive Imaging of Transparent Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Bickmeyer

    2012-01-01

    The brominated pyrrole-imidazole Ageladine A was used for live imaging of the jellyfish (jellies) Nausithoe werneri, the sea anemone Metridium senile and the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. The fluorescence properties of Ageladine A allow for estimation of pH values in tissue and organs in living animals. The results showed that Nausithoe werneri had the most acidic areas in the tentacles and close to the mouth (pH 4–6.5), Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (p...

  6. Neurones and neuropeptides in coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff; McFarlane, I D

    1989-01-01

    The first nervous system probably evolved in coelenterates. Many neurons in coelenterates have morphological characteristics of both sensory and motor neurones, and appear to be multifunctional. Using immunocytochemistry with antisera to the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), RFamide-like peptides......) was isolated, which also belongs to the less than Glu...Arg-X-NH2 family. Using specific antisera it was shown that all four peptides were located in neurones. Application of low doses of Antho-RFamide, or Antho-RWamide I or II induced contractions of endodermal muscles of sea anemones. This indicates...

  7. DOĞU AKDENİZ BÖLGESİNDE YETİŞEN BAZI OTSU VE ODUNSU MAKİ BİTKİLERİNİN TOPRAK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Kızıldağ, Nacide; Özer, Gülistan; Cenkseven, Şahin; Kutlay, Ahu; KOÇAK, Burak; Aka Sağlıker, Hüsniye; Darıcı, Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Akdeniz Bölgesi’ne özgü üç farklı otsu (Anemone coronaria, Asphodelus aestivus, Cyclamen sp.), çalı (Calycotome villosa, Cistus creticus, Osyris alba) ve odunlu bitki yaprağının (Cupressus sempervirens, Olea europaea ve Pinus brutia) C, N ve P içerikleri (%) ile topraklarının bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ve bu toprakların 30 günlük karbon mineralizasyonu belirlenerek aynı ekosistem içindeki farkl...

  8. Caryological notes in some portuguese Ranunculaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Margarida

    1990-01-01

    Chromosome numbers of fourteen portuguese laxa of Ranunculaceae are reported: Helleborus foetidus 20 = 32; Nigella damascena 2n = 12; N. gallica 2n = 12; Delphinium Pentagynum 2n = 16; D. Halteratum subsp. verdunense 2n = 16; Anemone palmeta 2n = 32; Clematis campaniflora 2n = 16; Ranunculus muricatus 2n =...

  9. The transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora digitifera to a competent Symbiodinium strain: the symbiosome as an arrested early phagosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A R; Cumbo, V; Harii, S; Shinzato, C; Chan, C X; Ragan, M A; Bourne, D G; Willis, B L; Ball, E E; Satoh, N; Miller, D J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the ecological significance of the relationship between reef-building corals and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its establishment. Indeed, microarray-based analyses point to the conclusion that host gene expression is largely or completely unresponsive during the establishment of symbiosis with a competent strain of Symbiodinium. In this study, the use of Illumina RNA-Seq technology allowed detection of a transient period of differential expression involving a small number of genes (1073 transcripts; corals and symbiotic sea anemones with their endosymbionts. PMID:27094992

  10. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics. This...... is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  11. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  12. Impaired gonadal and somatic development corroborate vulnerability differences to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol among deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Schneider, Rudolf J; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a global decline. One poorly investigated reason could be the pollution of aquatic habitats by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). We tested the susceptibility to the synthetically stabilized estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in three deeply diverged anuran species, differing in sex determination systems, types of gonadogenesis and larval ecologies. To understand whether data from the amphibian model Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) are analogous and applicable to only distantly related non-model amphibians, tadpoles of X. laevis, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae) were simultaneously exposed to 50, 500 and 5000ng/L EE2 from hatching until completion of metamorphosis, using a flow-through-system under identical experimental conditions. Comparing molecularly established genetic with histologically assessed phenotypic sex in all species, we have recently shown that EE2 provoked numerous genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversals and mixed sex individuals, confirming overall its expected feminizing effect. In the present study, we focus on the influence of EE2 on gonadal and somatic development. Anatomy and histology revealed several species-specific effects. In both non-model species, H. arborea and B. viridis, high numbers of anatomically impaired gonads were observed. In H. arborea, exposed to 5000ng/L EE2, numerous underdeveloped gonads were detected. Whereas EE2 did not alter snout-to-vent length and body weight of X. laevis metamorphs, H. arborea showed a treatment-dependent decrease, while B. viridis exhibited an increase in body weight and snout-to-vent length. Apart from a concentration-dependent occurrence of yellowish skin color in several H. arborea, no organ-specific effects were detected. Since EE2 ubiquitously occurs in many aquatic ecosystems and affects sexual and somatic development, among EDCs, it may indeed contribute to amphibian decline. The inter-species variation in developmental EE2-effects

  13. Comparison of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots and Rhizosphere of Invasive Cenchrus incertus and Native Plant in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan XIANG; Baodong CHEN; Huan LI; Ruojuan LI; Xin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Plant invasions could significantly alter arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities, but the effect may vary with plant species and local environments. Identifying changes in the AM fungal community due to plant invasion could improve our understanding of the invasion processes. Here, we examined the AM fungal community composition both in roots and rhizo-sphere soils of the invasive plant Cenchrus incertus and the dominant native plant Setaria viridis in a typical steppe in Inner Mongolia by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP). The results showed that AM fungal abundance in the rhizosphere soils of C. incertus was significantly lower than that of S. viridis. The AM fungal community com-position in the rhizosphere soils of the two plant species also largely differed. In general, AM fungal community structures in roots corresponded very wel to that in rhizosphere soils for both plant species. The dominant AM fungal type both in invasive and native plants was T-RFLP 524bp, which represents Glomus sp. (Virtual taxa 109 and 287). Three specific T-RF types (280, 190 and 141bp) were significantly more abundant in C. incertus, representing three clusters in Glomus which also named as VT (virtual taxa) 287, 64 and 214, Rhizophagus intraradices (VT 113) and Diversispora sp. (VT 60). While the specific T-RF types, 189 and 279bp, for S. viridis, only existed in Glomus cluster 1 (VT 156), were significantly less abundant in C. incertus. These results indicated that AM fungi might play an important role in the invasion process of C. incertus, which stil remains to be fur-ther investigated.

  14. The application of laser microdissection to in planta gene expression profiling of the maize anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weihua; Coughlan, Sean; Crane, Edmund; Beatty, Mary; Duvick, Jon

    2006-11-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a potential means for deep sampling of a fungal plant-pathogen transcriptome during the infection process using whole-genome DNA microarrays. The use of a fluorescent protein-expressing fungus can greatly facilitate the identification of fungal structures for LM sampling. However, fixation methods that preserve both tissue histology and protein fluorescence, and that also yield RNA of suitable quality for microarray applications, have not been reported. We developed a microwave-accelerated acetone fixation, paraffin-embedding method that fulfills these requirements and used it to prepare mature maize stalk tissues infected with an Anemonia majano cyan fluorescent protein-expressing isolate of the anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We successfully used LM to isolate individual maize cells associated with C. graminicola hyphae at an early stage of infection. The LM-derived RNA, after two-round linear amplification, was of sufficient quality and quantity for global expression profiling using a fungal microarray. Comparing replicated LM samples representing an early stage of stalk cell infection with samples from in vitro-germinated conidia, we identified 437 and 370 C. graminicola genes showing significant up- or downregulation, respectively. We confirmed the differential expression of several representative transcripts by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and documented extensive overlap of this dataset with a PCR-subtraction library enriched for C. graminicola transcripts in planta. Our results demonstrate that LM is feasible for in planta pathogen expression profiling and can reveal clues about fungal genes involved in pathogenesis. The method in this report may be advantageous for visualizing a variety of cellular features that depend on a high degree of histochemical preservation and RNA integrity prior to LM. PMID:17073306

  15. Interconversion of Anthozoa GFP-like fluorescent and non-fluorescent proteins by mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudrik Nikolay N

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the family of green fluorescent protein (GFP homologs, one can mark two main groups, specifically, fluorescent proteins (FPs and non-fluorescent or chromoproteins (CPs. Structural background of differences between FPs and CPs are poorly understood to date. Results Here, we applied site-directed and random mutagenesis in order to to transform CP into FP and vice versa. A purple chromoprotein asCP (asFP595 from Anemonia sulcata and a red fluorescent protein DsRed from Discosoma sp. were selected as representatives of CPs and FPs, respectively. For asCP, some substitutions at positions 148 and 165 (numbering in accordance to GFP were found to dramatically increase quantum yield of red fluorescence. For DsRed, substitutions at positions 148, 165, 167, and 203 significantly decreased fluorescence intensity, so that the spectral characteristics of these mutants became more close to those of CPs. Finally, a practically non-fluorescent mutant DsRed-NF was generated. This mutant carried four amino acid substitutions, specifically, S148C, I165N, K167M, and S203A. DsRed-NF possessed a high extinction coefficient and an extremely low quantum yield ( Conclusions We located a novel point in asCP sequence (position 165 mutations at which can result in red fluorescence appearance. Probably, this finding could be applied onto other CPs to generate red and far-red fluorescent mutants. A possibility to transform an FP into CP was demonstrated. Key role of residues adjacent to chromophore's phenolic ring in fluorescent/non-fluorescent states determination was revealed.

  16. Induced mutagenesis in finger-millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) with gamma-rays and ethyl methane sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of CO-1 variety were treated with gamma-rays and EMS, each in 5 doses, 10 to 50 kR and 0.5 to 2.5% respectively. The chlorophyll mutation rate was characterized by linearity at low to medium doses and saturation as well as erratic behavior at high doses. As per mutation rate, estimated on the basis of M2 plants, EMS induced as high frequency. The spectrum consisted of albina, chlorina zantha, albo-viridis, tigrina (3 types) and striata (2 types), with tigrina being predominant. The treatments varied in their spectrum, with 2.0% yielding the widest spectrum of mutants. (author)

  17. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  18. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the most studied species and A. spinosus being the species with the greatest allelopathic potential. Due to the large quantities of allelochemicals produced by Amaranthus spp. these plants stand out as future suppliers of chemical molecules for bioherbicides and semisynthetic herbicides.

  19. Description of a nomen nudum species of Liriomyza Mik and the first record of Liriomyza blechi Spencer from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Almeida, Flávio Roberto De Albuquerque; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The nomen nudum Liriomyza flagellae is formerly described in this paper as Liriomyza valladaresae sp. nov., based on male and female specimens collected in the Brazilian Amazon and reared from leaves of Alternanthera tenella and Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae). Information on the puparium and the biology of this new species are provided. The species Liriomyza blechi, previously recorded from the U.S.A., Guadeloupe and Dominican Republic, is newly recorded from Brazil, reared from leaves of Blechum pyramidatum (Acanthaceae) and Spigelia anthelmia (Loganiaceae). PMID:27394352

  20. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14CO2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14CO2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)